A 3-D numerical simulation of the characteristics of open channel flows with submerged rigid vegetation

A 3-D numerical simulation of the characteristics of open channel flows with submerged rigid vegetation

수중 강성 식생이 있는 개방 수로 흐름의 특성에 대한 3차원 수치 시뮬레이션

Journal of Hydrodynamics (2021)Cite this article

Abstract

이 논문은 FLOW-3D를 적용하여 다양한 흐름 배출 및 식생 시나리오가 유속(종방향, 횡방향 및 수직 속도 포함)에 미치는 영향을 조사합니다.

실험적 측정을 통한 검증 후 식생직경, 식생높이, 유출량에 대한 민감도 분석을 수행하였습니다. 종방향 속도의 경우 흐름 구조에 대한 가장 큰 영향은 배출보다는 식생 직경에서 비롯됩니다.

그러나 식생 높이는 수직 분포의 변곡점을 결정합니다. 식생 지역, 즉 상류와 하류의 두 위치에서 횡단 속도를 비교하면 수심을 따라 대칭 패턴이 식별됩니다. 식생 지역의 횡단 및 수직 유체 순환 패턴을 포함하여 흐름 또는 식생 시나리오에 관계없이 수직 속도에서도 동일한 패턴이 관찰됩니다.

또한 식생 직경이 클수록 이러한 패턴이 더 분명해집니다. 상부 순환은 식생 캐노피 근처에서 발생합니다. 식생 지역의 가로 세로 방향 순환에 관한 이러한 발견은 수중 식생을 통한 3차원 흐름 구조를 밝혀줍니다.

This paper applies the Flow-3D to investigate the impacts of different flow discharge and vegetation scenarios on the flow velocity (including the longitudinal, transverse and vertical velocities). After the verification by using experimental measurements, a sensitivity analysis is conducted for the vegetation diameter, the vegetation height and the flow discharge. For the longitudinal velocity, the greatest impact on the flow structure originates from the vegetation diameter, rather than the discharge. The vegetation height, however, determines the inflection point of the vertical distribution. Comparing the transverse velocities at two positions in the vegetated area, i.e., the upstream and the downstream, a symmetric pattern is identified along the water depth. The same pattern is also observed for the vertical velocity regardless of the flow or vegetation scenario, including both transverse and vertical fluid circulation patterns in the vegetated area. Moreover, the larger the vegetation diameter is, the more evident these patterns become. The upper circulation occurs near the vegetation canopy. These findings regarding the circulations along the transverse and vertical directions in the vegetated region shed light on the 3-D flow structure through the submerged vegetation.

Key words

  • Submerged rigid vegetation
  • longitudinal velocity
  • transverse velocity
  • vertical velocity

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Fig. 5 Comparison of experimental SEM image and CtFD simulated melt pool with beam diameters of(a)700 μm,(b)1000 μm, and(c)1300 μm and an absorption rate of 0.3. Electron beam power and scan speed are 900 W and 100 mm s-1, respectively

추가 생산용 전자빔 조사에 의한 316L 스테인리스 용융 · 응고 거동

Melting and Solidification Behavior of 316L Steel Induced by Electron-Beam Irradiation for Additive Manufacturing

付加製造用電子ビーム照射による 316L ステンレス鋼の溶融・凝固挙動

奥 川 将 行*・宮 田 雄一朗*・王     雷*・能 勢 和 史*
小 泉 雄一郎*・中 野 貴 由*
Masayuki OKUGAWA, Yuichiro MIYATA, Lei WANG, Kazufumi NOSE,
Yuichiro KOIZUMI and Takayoshi NAKANO

Abstract

적층 제조(AM) 기술은 복잡한 형상의 3D 부품을 쉽게 만들고 미세 구조 제어를 통해 재료 특성을 크게 제어할 수 있기 때문에 많은 관심을 받았습니다. PBF(Powderbed fusion) 방식의 AM 공정에서는 금속 분말을 레이저나 전자빔으로 녹이고 응고시키는 과정을 반복하여 3D 부품을 제작합니다.

일반적으로 응고 미세구조는 Hunt[Mater. 과학. 영어 65, 75(1984)]. 그러나 CET 이론이 일반 316L 스테인리스강에서도 높은 G와 R로 인해 PBF형 AM 공정에 적용될 수 있을지는 불확실하다.

본 연구에서는 미세구조와 응고 조건 간의 관계를 밝히기 위해 전자빔 조사에 의해 유도된 316L 강의 응고 미세구조를 분석하고 CtFD(Computational Thermal-Fluid Dynamics) 방법을 사용하여 고체/액체 계면에서의 응고 조건을 평가했습니다.

CET 이론과 반대로 높은 G 조건에서 등축 결정립이 종종 형성되는 것으로 밝혀졌다. CtFD 시뮬레이션은 약 400 mm s-1의 속도까지 유체 흐름이 있음을 보여 주며 수상 돌기의 파편 및 이동의 영향으로 등축 결정립이 형성됨을 시사했습니다.

Additive manufacturing(AM)technologies have attracted much attention because it enables us to build 3D parts with complicated geometry easily and control material properties significantly via the control of microstructures. In the powderbed fusion(PBF)type AM process, 3D parts are fabricated by repeating a process of melting and solidifying metal powders by laser or electron beams. In general, the solidification microstructures can be predicted from solidification conditions defined by the combination of temperature gradient G and solidification rate R on the basis of columnar-equiaxed transition(CET)theory proposed by Hunt [Mater. Sci. Eng. 65, 75(1984)]. However, it is unclear whether the CET theory can be applied to the PBF type AM process because of the high G and R, even for general 316L stainless steel. In this study, to reveal relationships between microstructures and solidification conditions, we have analyzed solidification microstructures of 316L steel induced by electronbeam irradiation and evaluated solidification conditions at the solid/liquid interface using a computational thermal-fluid dynamics (CtFD)method. It was found that equiaxed grains were often formed under high G conditions contrary to the CET theory. CtFD simulation revealed that there is a fluid flow up to a velocity of about 400 mm s-1, and suggested that equiaxed grains are formed owing to the effect of fragmentations and migrations of dendrites.

Keywords

Additive Manufacturing, 316L Stainless Steel, Powder Bed Fusion, Electron Beam Melting, Computational Thermal
Fluid Dynamics Simulation

Fig. 1 Width, height, and height differences calculated from laser microscope analysis of melt tracks formed by scanning electron beam. Fig. 2(a)Scanning electron microscope(SEM)image and(b) corresponding electron back-scattering diffraction(EBSD) IPF-map taken from the electron-beam irradiated region in P900-V100 sample. Fig. 3 Average grain size and their aspect ratio calculated from EBSD IPF-map taken from the electron-beam irradiated region.
Fig. 1 Width, height, and height differences calculated from laser microscope analysis of melt tracks formed by scanning electron beam. Fig. 2(a)Scanning electron microscope(SEM)image and(b) corresponding electron back-scattering diffraction(EBSD) IPF-map taken from the electron-beam irradiated region in P900-V100 sample. Fig. 3 Average grain size and their aspect ratio calculated from EBSD IPF-map taken from the electron-beam irradiated region.
Fig. 4 Comparison of experimental SEM image and computational thermal fluid dynamics(CtFD)simulated melt pool with a beam diameter of 700 μm and absorption rates of(a)0.3,(b)0.5, and (c)0.7. Electron beam power and scan speed are 900 W and 100 mm s-1, respectively.
Fig. 4 Comparison of experimental SEM image and computational thermal fluid dynamics(CtFD)simulated melt pool with a beam diameter of 700 μm and absorption rates of(a)0.3,(b)0.5, and (c)0.7. Electron beam power and scan speed are 900 W and 100 mm s-1, respectively.
Fig. 5 Comparison of experimental SEM image and CtFD simulated melt pool with beam diameters of(a)700 μm,(b)1000 μm, and(c)1300 μm and an absorption rate of 0.3. Electron beam power and scan speed are 900 W and 100 mm s-1, respectively
Fig. 5 Comparison of experimental SEM image and CtFD simulated melt pool with beam diameters of(a)700 μm,(b)1000 μm, and(c)1300 μm and an absorption rate of 0.3. Electron beam power and scan speed are 900 W and 100 mm s-1, respectively
Fig. 6 Depth of melt tracks calculated from experimental SEM image and CtFD simulation results.
Fig. 6 Depth of melt tracks calculated from experimental SEM image and CtFD simulation results.
Fig. 7 G-R plots of 316L steel colored by(a)aspect ratio of crystalline grains and(b)fluid velocity.
Fig. 7 G-R plots of 316L steel colored by(a)aspect ratio of crystalline grains and(b)fluid velocity.
Fig. 8 Comparison of solidification microstructure(EBSD IPF-map)of melt region formed by scanning electron beam and corresponding snap shot of CtFD simulation colored by fluid velocity
Fig. 8 Comparison of solidification microstructure(EBSD IPF-map)of melt region formed by scanning electron beam and corresponding snap shot of CtFD simulation colored by fluid velocity

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Numerical study of the dam-break waves and Favre waves down sloped wet rigid-bed at laboratory scale

Numerical study of the dam-break waves and Favre waves down sloped wet rigid-bed at laboratory scale

WenjunLiua  BoWangb  YakunGuoc

a State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, College of Water Resource and Hydropower, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China
State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, College Of Water Resource and Hydropower, Chengdu, 610065, China
faculty of Engineering & Informatics, University of Bradford, BD7 1DP, UK

Abstract

The bed slope and the tailwater depth are two important ones among the factors that affect the propagation of the dam-break flood and Favre waves. Most previous studies have only focused on the macroscopic characteristics of the dam-break flows or Favre waves under the condition of horizontal bed, rather than the internal movement characteristics in sloped channel. The present study applies two numerical models, namely, large eddy simulation (LES) and shallow water equations (SWEs) models embedded in the CFD software package FLOW-3D to analyze the internal movement characteristics of the dam-break flows and Favre waves, such as water level, the velocity distribution, the fluid particles acceleration and the bed shear stress, under the different bed slopes and water depth ratios. The results under the conditions considered in this study show that there is a flow state transition in the flow evolution for the steep bed slope even in water depth ratio α = 0.1 (α is the ratio of the tailwater depth to the reservoir water depth). The flow state transition shows that the wavefront changes from a breaking state to undular. Such flow transition is not observed for the horizontal slope and mild bed slope. The existence of the Favre waves leads to a significant increase of the vertical velocity and the vertical acceleration. In this situation, the SWEs model has poor prediction. Analysis reveals that the variation of the maximum bed shear stress is affected by both the bed slope and tailwater depth. Under the same bed slope (e.g., S0 = 0.02), the maximum bed shear stress position develops downstream of the dam when α = 0.1, while it develops towards the end of the reservoir when α = 0.7. For the same water depth ratio (e.g., α = 0.7), the maximum bed shear stress position always locates within the reservoir at S0 = 0.02, while it appears in the downstream of the dam for S0 = 0 and 0.003 after the flow evolves for a while. The comparison between the numerical simulation and experimental measurements shows that the LES model can predict the internal movement characteristics with satisfactory accuracy. This study improves the understanding of the effect of both the bed slope and the tailwater depth on the internal movement characteristics of the dam-break flows and Favre waves, which also provides a valuable reference for determining the flood embankment height and designing the channel bed anti-scouring facility.

댐붕괴 홍수와 파브르 파도의 전파에 영향을 미치는 요인 중 하상경사와 후미수심은 두 가지 중요한 요소이다. 대부분의 선행 연구들은 경사 수로에서의 내부 이동 특성보다는 수평층 조건에서 댐파괴류나 Favre파동의 거시적 특성에만 초점을 맞추었다.

본 연구에서는 CFD 소프트웨어 패키지 FLOW-3D에 내장된 LES(Large Eddy Simulation) 및 SWE(Shallow Water Equation) 모델의 두 가지 수치 모델을 적용하여 댐-파괴 흐름 및 Favre 파도의 내부 이동 특성을 분석합니다.

수위, 속도 분포, 유체 입자 가속도 및 층 전단 응력, 다양한 층 경사 및 수심 비율로. 본 연구에서 고려한 조건하의 결과는 수심비 α = 0.1(α는 저수지 수심에 대한 tailwater 깊이의 비율)에서도 급경사면에 대한 유동상태 전이가 있음을 보여준다. 유동 상태 전이는 파면이 파단 상태에서 비정형으로 변하는 것을 보여줍니다.

수평 경사와 완만한 바닥 경사에서는 이러한 흐름 전이가 관찰되지 않습니다. Favre 파의 존재는 수직 속도와 수직 가속도의 상당한 증가로 이어집니다. 이 상황에서 SWE 모델은 예측이 좋지 않습니다.

분석에 따르면 최대 바닥 전단 응력의 변화는 바닥 경사와 꼬리 수심 모두에 영향을 받습니다. 동일한 바닥 경사(예: S0 = 0.02)에서 최대 바닥 전단 응력 위치는 α = 0.1일 때 댐의 하류에서 발생하고 α = 0.7일 때 저수지의 끝쪽으로 발생합니다.

동일한 수심비(예: α = 0.7)에 대해 최대 바닥 전단 응력 위치는 항상 S0 = 0.02에서 저수지 내에 위치하는 반면, S0 = 0 및 0.003에 대해 흐름이 진화한 후 댐 하류에 나타납니다. 수치적 시뮬레이션과 실험적 측정을 비교한 결과 LES 모델이 내부 움직임 특성을 만족스러운 정확도로 예측할 수 있음을 알 수 있습니다.

본 연구는 댐 파절류 및 Favre파의 내부 이동 특성에 대한 하상 경사 및 후미 수심의 영향에 대한 이해를 향상 시키며, 이는 또한 제방 높이를 결정하고 수로 저반위 설계를 위한 귀중한 참고자료를 제공한다.

Keywords

Figure Numerical study of the dam-break waves and Favre waves down sloped wet rigid-bed at laboratory scale
Figure Numerical study of the dam-break waves and Favre waves down sloped wet rigid-bed at laboratory scale

Dam-break flow, Bed slope, Wet bed, Velocity profile, Bed shear stress, Large eddy simulation
댐파괴유동, 하상경사, 습상, 유속분포, 하상전단응력, 대와류 시뮬레이션

Dam-Break Flows: Comparison between Flow-3D, MIKE 3 FM, and Analytical Solutions with Experimental Data

Dam-Break Flows: Comparison between Flow-3D, MIKE 3 FM, and Analytical Solutions with Experimental Data

by Hui Hu,Jianfeng Zhang andTao Li *
State Key Laboratory Base of Eco-Hydraulic Engineering in Arid Area, School of Water Resources and Hydropower, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048, China
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci.20188(12), 2456; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122456Received: 14 October 2018 /
Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 2 December 2018

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a flow model with different numbers of spatial dimensions in a hydraulic features solution, with parameters such a free surface profile, water depth variations, and averaged velocity evolution in a dam-break under dry and wet bed conditions with different tailwater depths. Two similar three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic models (Flow-3D and MIKE 3 FM) were studied in a dam-break simulation by performing a comparison with published experimental data and the one-dimensional (1D) analytical solution. The results indicate that the Flow-3D model better captures the free surface profile of wavefronts for dry and wet beds than other methods. The MIKE 3 FM model also replicated the free surface profiles well, but it underestimated them during the initial stage under wet-bed conditions. However, it provided a better approach to the measurements over time. Measured and simulated water depth variations and velocity variations demonstrate that both of the 3D models predict the dam-break flow with a reasonable estimation and a root mean square error (RMSE) lower than 0.04, while the MIKE 3 FM had a small memory footprint and the computational time of this model was 24 times faster than that of the Flow-3D. Therefore, the MIKE 3 FM model is recommended for computations involving real-life dam-break problems in large domains, leaving the Flow-3D model for fine calculations in which knowledge of the 3D flow structure is required. The 1D analytical solution was only effective for the dam-break wave propagations along the initially dry bed, and its applicability was fairly limited. 

Keywords: dam breakFlow-3DMIKE 3 FM1D Ritter’s analytical solution

이 연구의 목적은 자유 표면 프로파일, 수심 변화 및 건식 및 댐 파괴에서 평균 속도 변화와 같은 매개 변수를 사용하여 유압 기능 솔루션에서 서로 다른 수의 공간 치수를 가진 유동 모델의 적용 가능성을 평가하는 것이었습니다.

테일 워터 깊이가 다른 습식베드 조건. 2 개의 유사한 3 차원 (3D) 유체 역학 모델 (Flow-3D 및 MIKE 3 FM)이 게시된 실험 데이터와 1 차원 (1D) 분석 솔루션과의 비교를 수행하여 댐 브레이크 시뮬레이션에서 연구되었습니다.

결과는 FLOW-3D 모델이 다른 방법보다 건식 및 습식 베드에 대한 파면의 자유 표면 프로파일을 더 잘 포착함을 나타냅니다. MIKE 3 FM 모델도 자유 표면 프로파일을 잘 복제했지만, 습식 조건에서 초기 단계에서 과소 평가했습니다. 그러나 시간이 지남에 따라 측정에 더 나은 접근 방식을 제공했습니다.

측정 및 시뮬레이션 된 수심 변화와 속도 변화는 두 3D 모델 모두 합리적인 추정치와 0.04보다 낮은 RMSE (root mean square error)로 댐 브레이크 흐름을 예측하는 반면 MIKE 3 FM은 메모리 공간이 적고 이 모델의 계산 시간은 Flow-3D보다 24 배 더 빠릅니다.

따라서 MIKE 3 FM 모델은 대규모 도메인의 실제 댐 브레이크 문제와 관련된 계산에 권장되며 3D 흐름 구조에 대한 지식이 필요한 미세 계산을 위해 Flow-3D 모델을 남겨 둡니다. 1D 분석 솔루션은 초기 건조 층을 따라 전파되는 댐 파괴에만 효과적이었으며 그 적용 가능성은 상당히 제한적이었습니다.

1. Introduction

저수지에 저장된 물의 통제되지 않은 방류[1]로 인해 댐 붕괴와 그로 인해 하류에서 발생할 수 있는 잠재적 홍수로 인해 큰 자연 위험이 발생한다. 이러한 영향을 최대한 완화하기 위해서는 홍수[2]로 인한 위험을 관리하고 감소시키기 위해 홍수의 시간적 및 공간적 진화를 모두 포착하여 댐 붕괴 파동의 움직임을 예측하고 댐 붕괴 파동의 전파 과정 효과를 다운스트림[3]으로 예측하는 것이 중요하다. 

그러나 이러한 수량을 예측하는 것은 어려운 일이며, 댐 붕괴 홍수의 움직임을 정확하게 시뮬레이션하고 유동장에 대한 유용한 정보를 제공하기 위한 적절한 모델을 선택하는 것은 그러므로 필수적인 단계[4]이다.

적절한 수학적 및 수치적 모델의 선택은 댐 붕괴 홍수 분석에서 매우 중요한 것으로 나타났다.분석적 해결책에서 행해진 댐 붕괴 흐름에 대한 연구는 100여 년 전에 시작되었다. 

리터[5]는 먼저 건조한 침대 위에 1D de 생베넌트 방정식의 초기 분석 솔루션을 도출했고, 드레슬러[6,7]와 휘담[8]은 마찰저항의 영향을 받은 파동학을 연구했으며, 스토커[9]는 젖은 침대를 위한 1D 댐 붕괴 문제에 리터의 솔루션을 확장했다. 

마샬과 멩데즈[10]는 고두노프가 가스 역학의 오일러 방정식을 위해 개발한 방법론[11]을 적용하여 젖은 침대 조건에서 리만 문제를 해결하기 위한 일반적인 절차를 고안했다. Toro [12]는 습식 및 건식 침대 조건을 모두 해결하기 위해 완전한 1D 정밀 리만 용해제를 실시했다. 

Chanson [13]은 특성 방법을 사용하여 갑작스러운 댐 붕괴로 인한 홍수에 대한 간단한 분석 솔루션을 연구했다. 그러나 이러한 분석 솔루션은 특히 댐 붕괴 초기 단계에서 젖은 침대의 정확한 결과를 도출하지 못했다[14,15].과거 연구의 발전은 이른바 댐 붕괴 홍수 문제 해결을 위한 여러 수치 모델[16]을 제공했으며, 헥-라스, DAMBRK, MIK 11 등과 같은 1차원 모델을 댐 붕괴 홍수를 모델링하는 데 사용하였다.

[17 2차원(2D) 깊이 평균 방정식도 댐 붕괴 흐름 문제를 시뮬레이션하는 데 널리 사용되어 왔으며[18,19,20,21,22] 그 결과 얕은 물 방정식(SWE)이 유체 흐름을 나타내는 데 적합하다는 것을 알 수 있다. 그러나, 경우에 따라 2D 수치해결기가 제공하는 해결책이 특히 근거리 분야에서 실험과 일관되지 않을 수 있다[23,24]. 더욱이, 1차원 및 2차원 모델은 3차원 현상에 대한 일부 세부사항을 포착하는 데 한계가 있다.

[25]. RANS(Reynolds-averageed Navier-Stok크스 방정식)에 기초한 여러 3차원(3D) 모델이 얕은 물 모델의 일부 단점을 극복하기 위해 적용되었으며, 댐 붕괴 초기 단계에서의 복잡한 흐름의 실제 동작을 이해하기 위해 사용되었다 [26,27,28]장애물이나 바닥 실에 대한 파장의 충격으로 인한 튜디 댐 붕괴 흐름 [19,29] 및 근거리 영역의 난류 댐 붕괴 흐름 거동 [4] 최근 상용화된 수치 모델 중 잘 알려진 유체 방식(VOF) 기반 CFD 모델링 소프트웨어 FLOW-3D는 컴퓨터 기술의 진보에 따른 계산력 증가로 인해 불안정한 자유 표면 흐름을 분석하는 데 널리 사용되고 있다. 

이 소프트웨어는 유한 차이 근사치를 사용하여 RANS 방정식에 대한 수치 해결책을 계산하며, 자유 표면을 추적하기 위해 VOF를 사용한다 [30,31]; 댐 붕괴 흐름을 모델링하는 데 성공적으로 사용되었다 [32,33].그러나, 2D 얕은 물 모델을 사용하여 포착할 수 없는 공간과 시간에 걸친 댐 붕괴 흐름의 특정한 유압적 특성이 있다. 

실생활 현장 척도 시뮬레이션을 위한 완전한 3D Navier-Stokes 방정식의 적용은 더 높은 계산 비용[34]을 가지고 있으며, 원하는 결과는 얕은 물 모델[35]보다 더 정확한 결과를 산출하지 못할 수 있다. 따라서, 본 논문은 3D 모델의 기능과 그 계산 효율을 평가하기 위해 댐 붕괴 흐름 시뮬레이션을 위한 단순화된 3D 모델-MIKE 3 FM을 시도한다. 

MIK 3 모델은 자연 용수 분지의 여러 유체 역학 시뮬레이션 조사에 적용되었다. 보치 외 연구진이 사용해 왔다. [36], 니콜라오스 및 게오르기오스 [37], 고얄과 라토드[38] 등 현장 연구에서 유체역학 시뮬레이션을 위한 것이다. 이러한 저자들의 상당한 연구에도 불구하고, MIK 3 FM을 이용한 댐 붕괴의 모델링에 관한 연구는 거의 없었다. 

또한 댐 붕괴 홍수 전파 문제를 해결하기 위한 3D 얕은 물과 완전한 3D RANS 모델의 성능을 비교한 연구도 아직 보고되지 않았다. 이 공백을 메우기 위해 현재 연구의 주요 목표는 댐 붕괴 흐름을 시뮬레이션하기 위한 단순화된 3D SWE, 상세 RANS 모델 및 분석 솔루션을 평가하여 댐 붕괴 문제에 대한 정확도와 적용 가능성을 평가하는 것이다.실제 댐 붕괴 문제를 해결하기 위해 유체역학 시뮬레이션을 시도하기 전에 수치 모델을 검증할 필요가 있다. 

일련의 실험 벤치마크를 사용하여 수치 모델을 확인하는 것은 용인된 관행이다. 현장 데이터 확보가 어려워 최근 몇 년 동안 제한된 측정 데이터를 취득했다. 

본 논문은 Ozmen-Cagatay와 Kocaman[30] 및 Khankandi 외 연구진이 제안한 두 가지 테스트 사례에 의해 제안된 검증에서 인용한 것이다. [39] 오즈멘-카가테이와 코카만[30]이 수행한 첫 번째 실험에서, 다른 미숫물 수위에 걸쳐 초기 단계 동안 댐 붕괴 홍수파가 발생했으며, 자유 지표면 프로파일의 측정치를 제공했다. Ozmen-Cagatay와 Kocaman[30]은 초기 단계에서 Flow-3D 소프트웨어가 포함된 2D SWE와 3D RANS의 숫자 솔루션에 의해 계산된 자유 표면 프로필만 비교했다. 

Khankandi 등이 고안한 두 번째 실험 동안. [39], 이 실험의 측정은 홍수 전파를 시뮬레이션하고 측정된 데이터를 제공하는 것을 목적으로 하는 수치 모델을 검증하기 위해 사용되었으며, 말기 동안의 자유 표면 프로필, 수위의 시간 진화 및 속도 변화를 포함한다. Khankandi 등의 연구. [39] 주로 실험 조사에 초점을 맞추었으며, 초기 단계에서는 리터의 솔루션과의 수위만을 언급하고 있다.

경계 조건(상류 및 하류 모두 무한 채널 길이를 갖는 1D 분석 솔루션에서는 실험 결과를 리터와 비교하는 것이 타당하지 않기 때문이다(건조 be)d) 또는 스토커(웨트 베드) 솔루션은 벽의 반사가 깊이 프로파일에 영향을 미쳤을 때, 그리고 참조 [39]의 실험에 대한 수치 시뮬레이션과의 추가 비교가 불량할 때. 이 논문은 이러한 문제를 직접 겨냥하여 전체 댐 붕괴 과정에서의 자유 표면 프로필, 수심 변화 및 속도 변화에 대한 완전한 비교 연구를 제시한다. 

여기서 댐 붕괴파의 수치 시뮬레이션은 초기에 건조하고 습한 직사각형 채널을 가진 유한 저장소의 순간 댐 붕괴에 대해 두 개의 3D 모델을 사용하여 개발된다.본 논문은 다음과 같이 정리되어 있다. 두 모델에 대한 통치 방정식은 숫자 체계를 설명하기 전에 먼저 도입된다. 

일반적인 단순화된 시험 사례는 3D 수치 모델과 1D 분석 솔루션을 사용하여 시뮬레이션했다. 모델 결과와 이들이 실험실 실험과 비교하는 방법이 논의되고, 서로 다른 수심비에서 시간에 따른 유압 요소의 변동에 대한 시뮬레이션 결과가 결론을 도출하기 전에 제시된다.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Data

첫째, 수평 건조 및 습식 침상에 대한 초기 댐 붕괴 단계 동안의 자유 표면 프로필 측정은 Ozmen-Cagatay와 Kocaman에 의해 수행되었다[30]. 이 시험 동안, 매끄럽고 직사각형의 수평 채널은 그림 1에서 표시한 대로 너비 0.30m, 높이 0.30m, 길이 8.9m이었다. 

채널은 채널 입구에서 4.65m 떨어진 수직 플레이트(담) 즉, 저장소의 길이 L0=4.65mL0에 의해 분리되었다., 및 다운스트림 채널 L1=4.25 mL1. m저수지는 댐의 좌측에 위치하고 처음에는 침수된 것으로 간주되었다; 저수지의 초기 상류 수심 h0 0.25m로 일정했다.

오른쪽의 초기 수심 h1h1 건식침대의 경우 0m, 습식침대의 경우 0.025m, 0.1m이므로 수심비 α=h1/h0α으로 세 가지 상황이 있었다. 0, 0.1, 0.4의 습식침대 조건은 플룸 끝에 낮은 보를 사용함으로써 만들어졌다. 물 표면 프로필은 3개의 고속 디지털 카메라(50프레임/s)를 사용하여 초기에 관찰되었으며, 계측 측정의 정확도는 참고문헌 [30]에서 입증되었다. In the following section, the corresponding numerical results refer to positions x = −1 m (P1), −0.5 m (P2), −0.2 m (P3), +0.2 m (P4), +0.5 m (P5), +1 m (P6), +2 m (P7), and +2.85 m (P8), where the origin of the coordinate system x = 0 is at the dam site. 3수심비 ααα 0, 0.1, 0.4의 경우 x,yx의 경우 좌표는 h0.으로 정규화된다.

<중략> ……

Figure 1. Schematic view of the experimental conditions by Ozmen-Cagatay and Kocaman [30]: (a) α = 0; (b) α = 0.1; and (c) α = 0.4.
Figure 1. Schematic view of the experimental conditions by Ozmen-Cagatay and Kocaman [30]: (a) α = 0; (b) α = 0.1; and (c) α = 0.4.

Figure 2. Schematic view of the experimental conditions by Khankandi et al. [39]: (a) α = 0 and (b) α = 0.2.
Figure 2. Schematic view of the experimental conditions by Khankandi et al. [39]: (a) α = 0 and (b) α = 0.2.
Figure 3. Typical profiles of the dam-break flow regimes for Stoker’s analytical solution [9]: Wet-bed downstream
Figure 3. Typical profiles of the dam-break flow regimes for Stoker’s analytical solution [9]: Wet-bed downstream
Figure 4. Sensitivity analysis of the numerical simulation using Flow-3D for the different mesh sizes of the experiments in Reference [30].
Figure 4. Sensitivity analysis of the numerical simulation using Flow-3D for the different mesh sizes of the experiments in Reference [30].
Figure 5. Sensitivity analysis of the numerical simulation using MIKE 3 FM for the different mesh sizes of the experiments in Reference [30].
Figure 5. Sensitivity analysis of the numerical simulation using MIKE 3 FM for the different mesh sizes of the experiments in Reference [30].
Figure 6. Comparison between observed and simulated free surface profiles at dimensionless times T = t(g/h0)1/2 and for dry-bed (α=0). The experimental data are from Reference [30].
Figure 6. Comparison between observed and simulated free surface profiles at dimensionless times T = t(g/h0)1/2 and for dry-bed (α=0). The experimental data are from Reference [30].
Figure 7. Comparison between observed and simulated free surface profiles at dimensionless times T = t(g/h0)1/2 and for a wet-bed (α = 0.1). The experimental data are from Reference [30].
Figure 7. Comparison between observed and simulated free surface profiles at dimensionless times T = t(g/h0)1/2 and for a wet-bed (α = 0.1). The experimental data are from Reference [30].
Figure 8. Comparison between observed and simulated free surface profiles at dimensionless times T = t(g/h0)1/2 and for the wet-bed (α = 0.4). The experimental data are from Reference [30].
Figure 8. Comparison between observed and simulated free surface profiles at dimensionless times T = t(g/h0)1/2 and for the wet-bed (α = 0.4). The experimental data are from Reference [30].
Figure 9. Experimental and numerical comparison of free surface profiles h/h0(x/h0) during late stages at various dimensionless times T after the failure in the dry-bed by Khankandi et al. [39].
Figure 9. Experimental and numerical comparison of free surface profiles h/h0(x/h0) during late stages at various dimensionless times T after the failure in the dry-bed by Khankandi et al. [39].

Table 2. RMSE values for the free surface profiles observed by Khankandi et al. [39].

Table 2. RMSE values for the free surface profiles observed by Khankandi et al. [39].
Table 2. RMSE values for the free surface profiles observed by Khankandi et al. [39].
Figure 10. Measured and computed water level hydrograph at various positions for dry-bed by Khankandi et al. [39]: (a) G1 (−0.5 m); (b) G2 (−0.1 m); (c) G3 (0.1 m); (d) G4 (0.8 m); (e) G6 (1.2 m); (f) G8 (5.5 m).
Figure 10. Measured and computed water level hydrograph at various positions for dry-bed by Khankandi et al. [39]: (a) G1 (−0.5 m); (b) G2 (−0.1 m); (c) G3 (0.1 m); (d) G4 (0.8 m); (e) G6 (1.2 m); (f) G8 (5.5 m).
Figure 11. Measured and computed water level hydrographs at various positions for the wet-bed by Khankandi et al. [39]: (a) G1 (−0.5 m); (b) G2 (−0.1 m); (c) G4 (0.8 m); and (d) G5 (1.0 m).
Figure 11. Measured and computed water level hydrographs at various positions for the wet-bed by Khankandi et al. [39]: (a) G1 (−0.5 m); (b) G2 (−0.1 m); (c) G4 (0.8 m); and (d) G5 (1.0 m).

Table 3. RMSE values for the water depth variations observed by Khankandi et al. [39] at the late stage.

Table 3. RMSE values for the water depth variations observed by Khankandi et al. [39] at the late stage.
Table 3. RMSE values for the water depth variations observed by Khankandi et al. [39] at the late stage.
Figure 13. Comparison of simulated velocity profiles at various locations upstream and downstream of the dam at t = 0.8 s, 2 s, and 5 s for water depth ratios α = 0.1 by Ozmen-Cagatay and Kocaman [30]: (a) P1(−1 m); (b) P3 (+0.2 m); (c) P5 (+1 m); and (d) P6 (+2 m).
Figure 13. Comparison of simulated velocity profiles at various locations upstream and downstream of the dam at t = 0.8 s, 2 s, and 5 s for water depth ratios α = 0.1 by Ozmen-Cagatay and Kocaman [30]: (a) P1(−1 m); (b) P3 (+0.2 m); (c) P5 (+1 m); and (d) P6 (+2 m).
Table 5. The required computational time for the two models to address dam break flows in all cases
Table 5. The required computational time for the two models to address dam break flows in all cases

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Figure 6. Maximum inundation field in simulations with (a) no barrier on the seawall (red line), (b) a 1 m barrier across the entire sea wall, and (c) a 1.7 m barrier partially installed on the seawall.

Storm surge inundation simulations comparing three-dimensional with two-dimensional models based on Typhoon Maemi over Masan Bay of South Korea

Jae-Seol Shim†, Jinah Kim†, Dong-Chul Kim‡, Kiyoung Heo†, Kideok Do†, Sun-Jung Park ‡
† Coastal Disaster Research Center,
Korea Institute of Ocean Science &
Technology, 426-744, Ansan, Gyeonggi,
Korea
jsshim@kiost.ac
jakim@kiost.ac
kyheo21@kiost.ac
kddo@kiost.ac
‡ Technology R&D Institute
Hyein E&C Co., Ltd., Seoul 157-861,
Korea
skkkdc@chol.com
Nayana_sj@nate.com

ABSTRACT

Shim, J., Kim, J., Kim, D., Heo, K., Do, K., Park, S., 2013. Storm surge inundation simulations comparing threedimensional with two-dimensional models based on Typhoon Maemi over Masan Bay of South Korea. In:
Conley, D.C., Masselink, G., Russell, P.E. and O’Hare, T.J. (eds.), Proceedings 12th International Coastal Symposium
(Plymouth, England), Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 65, pp. 392-397, ISSN 0749-0208.
Severe storm surge inundation was caused by the typhoon Maemi in Masan Bay, South Korea in September 2003. To
investigate the differences in the storm surge inundation simulated by three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional
models, we used the ADvanced CIRCulation model (ADCIRC) and 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model
(FLOW3D). The simulation results were compared to the flood plain map of Masan Bay following the typhoon Maemi.
To improve the accuracy of FLOW3D, we used a high-resolution digital surface model with a few tens of centimeterresolution, produced by aerial LIDAR survey. Comparison of the results between ADCRIC and FLOW3D simulations shows that the inclusion of detailed information on buildings and topography has an impact, delaying seawater propagation and resulting in a reduced inundation depth and flooding area. Furthermore, we simulated the effect of the installation of a storm surge barrier on the storm surge inundation. The barrier acted to decrease the water volume of the inundation and delayed the arrival time of the storm surge, implying that the storm surge barrier provides more time for residents’ evacuation.

Keywords: Typhoon Maemi, digital surface elevation model, Reynolds-Averaged NavierStokes equations.

2003 년 9 월 대한민국 마산만 태풍 매미에 의해 심한 폭풍 해일 침수가 발생했습니다. 3 차원 (3D) 및 2 차원 모델로 시뮬레이션 한 폭풍 해일 침수의 차이를 조사하기 위해 ADvanced CIRCulation 모델 ( ADCIRC) 및 3D 전산 유체 역학 (CFD) 모델 (FLOW3D).

시뮬레이션 결과는 태풍 매미 이후 마산만 범람원 지도와 비교되었다. FLOW-3D의 정확도를 높이기 위해 우리는 항공 LIDAR 측량으로 생성된 수십 센티미터 해상도의 고해상도 디지털 표면 모델을 사용했습니다.

ADCRIC과 FLOW3D 시뮬레이션의 결과를 비교하면 건물과 지형에 대한 자세한 정보를 포함하면 해수 전파가 지연되고 침수 깊이와 침수 면적이 감소하는 것으로 나타났습니다.

또한, 폭풍 해일 침수에 대한 폭풍 해일 장벽 설치의 효과를 시뮬레이션했습니다. 이 장벽은 침수 물량을 줄이고 폭풍 해일 도착 시간을 지연시키는 역할을 하여 폭풍 해일 장벽이 주민들의 대피에 더 많은 시간을 제공한다는 것을 의미합니다.

INTRODUCTION

2003 년 9 월 12 일 태풍 매미로 인한 강한 폭풍 해일이 남해안을 강타했습니다. 마산 만 일대는 심한 폭풍우 침수로 인해 최악의 피해를 입었고 광범위한 홍수를 겪었습니다. 따라서 마산 만에 예방 체계를 구축하기 위해 폭풍 해일에 의한 침수에 대한 수치 예측을 시도하는 선행 연구가 수행되었다 (Park et al. 2011).

그러나 일반적인 2 차원 (2D) 또는 3 차원 (3D) 수압 가정을 사용할 때 지형의 해상도는 복잡한 해안 구조를 표현하기에 충분하지 않습니다. 따라서 우리는 마산 만의 고해상도 지형도를 통해 전산 유체 역학 (CFD)의 침수 시뮬레이션을 제시한다.

태풍 매미는 2003 년 9 월 12 일 12시 (UTC)에 한반도에 상륙하여 남동부 해안을 따라 추적했습니다 (그림 1). 2003 년 9 월 13 일 6시 (UTC)에 동 일본해로 이동하여 온대 저기압이되었습니다.

풍속과 기압면에서 한국을 강타한 가장 강력한 태풍 중 하나입니다. 특히 마산 만에 접해있는 마산시는 폭풍 해일 홍수로 최악의 피해를 입어 32 명이 사망하고 심각한 해안 피해를 입었다. 태풍이 지나가는 동안 중앙 기압은 950hPa, 진행 속도는 45kmh-1로 마산항의 조 위계를 통해 최대 약 2.3m의 서지 높이를 기록했다.

마산 만에 접한 주거 및 상업 지역은 홍수가 심했고 지하 시설은 폭풍 해일로 침수로 어려움을 겪었습니다 (Yasuda et al. 2005). 이 논문에서는 3D CFD 모델 (FLOW 3D)과 2D ADvanced CIRCulation 모델 (ADCIRC)을 사용하여 기록 된 마산 만에서 가장 큰 폭풍 해일 중 하나에 의해 생성 된 해안 침수를 시뮬레이션했습니다.

건물의 높이와 공간 정보를 포함하는 디지털 표면 모델 (DSM)은 LiDAR (Airborne Light Detection and Ranging)에 의해 만들어졌으며, 폭풍 해일 침수 모델, 즉 3D CFD 모델 (FLOW 3D)의 입력 데이터로 사용되었습니다. ). 또한 ADCIRC의 시뮬레이션 결과는 FLOW3D의 경계 조건으로 사용됩니다.

본 연구의 목적은 극심한 침수 높이와 해안 육지로의 범람을 포함하여 마산 만에서 태풍 매미로 인한 폭풍 해일 침수를 재현하는 것이다.

<중략>………………

Figure 1. The best track and the central pressures of the typhoon Maemi from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). Open circles indicate the locations of the typhoon in 3 h intervals. Filled circles represent locations of the cited stations; A, B, C and D indicate Jeju, Yeosu, Tongyoung, and Masan, respectively.
Figure 1. The best track and the central pressures of the typhoon Maemi from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). Open circles indicate the locations of the typhoon in 3 h intervals. Filled circles represent locations of the cited stations; A, B, C and D indicate Jeju, Yeosu, Tongyoung, and Masan, respectively.
Figure 2. Model domain with FEM mesh for Typhoon Maemi.
Figure 2. Model domain with FEM mesh for Typhoon Maemi.
Figure 3. Validation of surge height for the four major tidal stations on the south coast of the Korea.
Figure 3. Validation of surge height for the four major tidal stations on the south coast of the Korea.
Figure 4. Inundation depth results from (a) ADCIRC, (b) FLOW3D, and (c) inundation field surveying hazard map following typhoon Maemi.
Figure 4. Inundation depth results from (a) ADCIRC, (b) FLOW3D, and (c) inundation field surveying hazard map following typhoon Maemi.
Figure 5. Inundation depth results computed by Flow3D at each time period following arrival of storm surge wave at harbor mouth.
Figure 5. Inundation depth results computed by Flow3D at each time period following arrival of storm surge wave at harbor mouth.
Figure 6. Maximum inundation field in simulations with (a) no barrier on the seawall (red line), (b) a 1 m barrier across the entire sea wall, and (c) a 1.7 m barrier partially installed on the seawall.
Figure 6. Maximum inundation field in simulations with (a) no barrier on the seawall (red line), (b) a 1 m barrier across the entire sea wall, and (c) a 1.7 m barrier partially installed on the seawall.

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Fig. 4 Current lines in the horizontal level in: a 0.70 and b 14 cm from the streambed in tandem pies

3D numerical simulation of flow field around twin piles

트윈 말뚝 주위의 유동장 3D 수치 시뮬레이션

Amini, A; Parto, AA
Amini, A (reprint author), AREEO, Kurdistan Agr & Nat Resources Res & Educ Ctr, Sanandaj, Iran.
, 2017; 65 (6): 1243

Abstract

이 연구에서는, 파일 그룹 주위의 흐름 패턴과 국소적 스크루 메커니즘을 식별하기 위해, 플로우 필드를 FLOW-3D 소프트웨어를 사용해 시뮬레이션했다. 편평한 침대 채널에 나란히 배열되어 있는 한 쌍의 말뚝이 조사되었다. Navier-Stokes 방정식을 확립하기 위해 RNGk-epsilon 난류 모델을 사용하였고 실험 데이터를 사용하여 결과를 검증하였다. FLOW-3D 기능의 경우, 소프트웨어가 파일 그룹 간의 예상 상호작용을 적절히 시뮬레이션할 수 있는 것으로 확인되었다. 플로우 필드 시뮬레이션 결과는 레이놀즈 숫자와 말뚝 간격이 vortices 형성에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 변수라는 것을 보여주었다. 탠덤 더미 주변의 흐름과 웨이크 바이크 주변의 하향 흐름은 측면 배치와 단일 더미에 비해 더 강렬하고 복잡했다.

In this study to identify the flow pattern and local scour mechanism around pile groups, the flow field was simulated using FLOW-3D software. A pair of pile on a flat-bed channel with side by side and tandem arrangements was investigated. To establish Navier–Stokes equations, the RNGk-e turbulence model was used and the results were verified using experimental data. In case of FLOW-3D capability, it was found that the software was able to properly simulate the expected interaction between the pile groups. The results of flow field simulation showed that Reynolds number and the pile spacing are the most influential variables in forming vortices. The flow around tandem pile and the downward flow around wake vortices were more intense and complicate in comparison with side by side arrangements and single pile.

Keywords : Bridge, Sediment, Flow pattern, Pile group, Local scour

Fig. 1 General view of the channel and measured points a side by side b tandem arrangement
Fig. 1 General view of the channel and measured points a side by side b tandem arrangement
Fig. 2 Meshing around the two side by side piles: a plan and b side view
Fig. 2 Meshing around the two side by side piles: a plan and b side view
Fig. 3 Meshing around the two tandem piles: a plan and b side view
Fig. 3 Meshing around the two tandem piles: a plan and b side view
Fig. 4 Current lines in the horizontal level in: a 0.70 and b 14 cm from the streambed in tandem pies
Fig. 4 Current lines in the horizontal level in: a 0.70 and b 14 cm from the streambed in tandem pies
Fig. 5 Current lines in the horizontal level in: a 0.70 cm, and b 14 cm from the streambed in side by side piles
Fig. 5 Current lines in the horizontal level in: a 0.70 cm, and b 14 cm from the streambed in side by side piles
Fig. 6 Comparing iso-velocity line in longitudinal direction (u): a observed in 0.7 cm; b observed in 14 cm; c simulated in 0.7 cm and d simulated in 14 cm
Fig. 6 Comparing iso-velocity line in longitudinal direction (u): a observed in 0.7 cm; b observed in 14 cm; c simulated in 0.7 cm and d simulated in 14 cm
Fig. 7 Comparing iso-velocity line in latitudinal direction (v): a observed in 0.7 cm; b observed in 14 cm; c simulated in 0.7 cm and d simulated in 14 cm
Fig. 7 Comparing iso-velocity line in latitudinal direction (v): a observed in 0.7 cm; b observed in 14 cm; c simulated in 0.7 cm and d simulated in 14 cm
Fig. 8 3D velocity profiles in x–z plane in the center of the pile (Y = 0): a x = - 1.65D; b x = - 6.59D; c x = 0.69D; d x = 1.32D; e x = 3.69D and f x = 7.60D
Fig. 8 3D velocity profiles in x–z plane in the center of the pile (Y = 0): a x = – 1.65D; b x = – 6.59D; c x = 0.69D; d x = 1.32D; e x = 3.69D and f x = 7.60D
Fig. 9 Comparison of simulated and observed velocity in x–y plane in center of piles
Fig. 9 Comparison of simulated and observed velocity in x–y plane in center of piles

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Figure 7. Formation of incident and reflected waves.

Investigate Impact Force of Dam-Break Flow against Structures by Both 2D and 3D Numerical Simulations

2D 및 3D 수치 시뮬레이션에 의한 댐 붕괴유동의 구조물 충격력 조사

1 Faculty of Water Resources Engineering, Thuyloi University, 175 Tay Son, Dong Da, Ha Noi 116705, Vietnam
2 Hydraulic Construction Institute, 3/95 Chua Boc, Dong Da, Ha Noi 116705, Vietnam
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Costanza Aricò
Water 2021, 13(3), 344;

Abstract

본 논문의 목적은 일부 2D 및 3D 수치 모델이 침수 지역에 고립된 건물 또는 건물 배열이 있는 곳에서 홍수 파동을 시뮬레이션하는 능력을 조사하는 것이었습니다.

먼저, 제안된 2D 수치 모델은 구조화된 메시에서 2D 얕은 물 방정식(2D-SWEs)을 해결하기 위한 유한 볼륨 방법(FVM)을 기반으로 했습니다.

FDS (flux-difference splitting)은 정확한 질량 균형을 얻기 위해 사용되었고 Roe 체계는 Riemann 문제를 근사하기 위해 호출되었습니다.

둘째, 상업적으로 이용 가능한 3D CFD 소프트웨어 패키지가 선택되었으며, 여기에는 두 가지 난류 모델이 포함된 Flow 3D 모델이 포함되어 있습니다.

RNG(Renormalized Group) 및 LES(Large-eddy Simulation)를 사용하는 레이놀즈 평균 Navier-Stokes(RAN)입니다. 댐 붕괴 흐름으로 인한 장애물에 대한 충격력의 수치 결과는 3D 솔루션이 2D 솔루션보다 훨씬 낫다는 것을 보여주었습니다.

건물 배열에 작용하는 충격력의 3D 수치 힘 결과를 보유하고 있는 실험 데이터와 비교함으로써, 속도 유도력이 동적 힘에 미치는 영향은 Froude 숫자의 함수와 사고 파동의 수심 함수에 의해 정량화 되었습니다. 또한, 우리는 힘의 강도의 피크 값의 3D 계산 결과에 대한 초기 물 단계와 댐 붕괴 폭의 영향을 조사했습니다.

The aim of this paper was to investigate the ability of some 2D and 3D numerical models to simulate flood waves in the presence of an isolated building or building array in an inundated area. Firstly, the proposed 2D numerical model was based on the finite-volume method (FVM) to solve 2D shallow-water equations (2D-SWEs) on structured mesh. The flux-difference splitting method (FDS) was utilized to obtain an exact mass balance while the Roe scheme was invoked to approximate Riemann problems. Secondly, the 3D commercially available CFD software package was selected, which contained a Flow 3D model with two turbulent models: Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANs) with a renormalized group (RNG) and a large-eddy simulation (LES). The numerical results of an impact force on an obstruction due to a dam-break flow showed that a 3D solution was much better than a 2D one. By comparing the 3D numerical force results of an impact force acting on building arrays with the existence experimental data, the influence of velocity-induced force on a dynamic force was quantified by a function of the Froude number and the water depth of the incident wave. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of the initial water stage and dam-break width on the 3D-computed results of the peak value of force intensity.

Keywords: dam-break wave2D numerical modelFlow 3D modelstructuresimpact force

Introduction

홍수 위험 분석에 따른 도시 계획은 최근에 큰 연구 과제였습니다.

건물 또는 건물 그룹에 대한 홍수 파동의 영향에 대한 연구는 하류 지역에 대한 조기 경고 또는 안전 의식 향상에 중요한 역할을 했습니다. 기본적으로 댐 파괴 흐름에 대한 연구는 실험 측정이나 수치 시뮬레이션을 통해 추정 할 수 있습니다 [1,2,3,4,5,6].

컴퓨터 처리 능력의 증가로 인해 불연속 흐름에 대한 수치 연구가 비용 효율적이되었습니다. 지난 10 년 동안 얕은 물 솔버는 정확성과 계산 능력면에서 크게 향상되었습니다. 침수 가능 지역의 수심 및 속도 프로파일과 같은 유체 역학적 매개 변수에 많은주의를 기울였습니다 [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8].

Migot et al. [9]는 도시 홍수의 실험적 모델링에 관한 많은 기사를 검토했습니다. 그 논문에 언급 된 45 개의 작품 중 단 4 개의 프로젝트 만이 장애물에 가해지는 일정한 또는 비정상적인 흐름의 힘 또는 압력을 측정했습니다.

또한 물리적 및 2D 수치 모델에서 건물 또는 건물 그룹에 돌발 홍수가 미치는 영향에 대한 연구는 거의 없었습니다. 얕은 물 모델은 [10,11]에서 고립된 장애물에 대한 충격의 힘을 예측하는데 사용되었습니다.

한편 Shige-eda [12]는 액체와 건물 배열 간의 상호 작용을 결정하기 위해 물리적 모델과 2D 수치 체계를 선택했습니다. Aureli와 Shige-eda는 수직 속도와 가속도를 무시하기 때문에 댐 파괴 흐름의 힘을 추정하기 위한 2D 얕은 물 방정식 (SWE)의 단점을 보여주었습니다 [10,12].

Migot [9]은 또한 장애물 주변의 시뮬레이션된 홍수 흐름에 대한 2D SWE에 대한 여러 출판물이 있었지만 이 주제에 대한 3D 수치 모델에 대한 연구는 거의 없다고 지적했습니다. 최근 전산 유체 역학 (CFD) 3D 시뮬레이션은 유체 흐름과 관련된 문제를 해결하기위한 광범위한 도구가되었습니다.

댐 파괴 파의 특성은 [13,14,15,16]에 의해 주목되었고 Issakhov [17]는 다양한 종류의 장애물이 압력 분포에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위해 CFD 방법을 사용했습니다. 그들은 분포가 댐 표면에서 3 배 더 낮다는 것을 밝혔다.

Aureli [10]는 댐 파괴 파가 구조물에 미치는 영향의 정적 힘을 평가하기 위해 실험 테스트와 2D 및 3D 수치 모델을 사용했습니다. Mokarani [18]는 댐 브레이크 흐름 영향의 VOF 시뮬레이션에서 피크 압력 안정성 조건을 연구했습니다.

앞서 언급한 작품에서 구조물이나 구조물 군에 작용하는 힘은 압력에 의한 정 수력 또는 정력이었다. 한편, 급류에서 속도로 인한 힘은 압력 력보다 크거나 같았습니다 [19]. Armanini [20]는 정상 흐름에 대해이 항을 추정하기 위한 분석적 표현 만을 제시했습니다. 우리가 아는 한, 건물 그룹에 작용하는 비정상 흐름의 동적 힘을 생성하기 위해 2D 및 3D 수학적 모델을 모두 사용하는 작업은 없습니다.

따라서 본 연구에서는 제안된 2D 수치 모델과 3D 수학적 모델 모두에 의해 고립 된 장애물 또는 장애물 그룹에 대한 급격한 비정상 흐름의 테스트 사례를 재현했습니다. 수심 및 유속 수문 그래프와 같은 몇 가지 수력 학적 특성이 추정되었으며 측정 된 데이터와 매우 잘 일치했습니다.

특히 댐 브레이크 흐름이 서로 다른 건물에 가하는 동적인 힘도 시뮬레이션했습니다. 속도 유도 힘이 동적 힘에 미치는 영향 수준을 나타내는 매개 변수는 Froude 수와 입사 파동의 수심의 함수인 것으로 밝혀졌습니다. 또한 붕괴된 댐 사이트 폭 (b)과 초기 수위 (h0)는 충격력의 최대 값에 영향을 미치는 변수로 고려되었습니다.

Figure 1. (a) Configuration of experiment test (dimension in meters); (b) Gauges on the vertical front face of building.
Figure 1. (a) Configuration of experiment test (dimension in meters); (b) Gauges on the vertical front face of building.
Figure 2. (a) Distributed pressure profiles at centerline of front face of column; (b) Comparison of load-time histories simulated by different numerical models
Figure 2. (a) Distributed pressure profiles at centerline of front face of column; (b) Comparison of load-time histories simulated by different numerical models
Figure 3. Group of buildings in flooded area.
Figure 3. Group of buildings in flooded area.
Figure 4. Water depth and u-velocity profiles at gauge b.
Figure 4. Water depth and u-velocity profiles at gauge b.
Figure 5. Water hydrographs at gauges a and c.
Figure 5. Water hydrographs at gauges a and c.
Figure 6. Velocity component profiles at gauges a and c.
Figure 6. Velocity component profiles at gauges a and c.
Figure 7. Formation of incident and reflected waves.
Figure 7. Formation of incident and reflected waves.
Figure 8. Snapshots of streamlines of Froude number at different times: 1.0 s, 2.0 s, 5.0 s and 10 s.
Figure 8. Snapshots of streamlines of Froude number at different times: 1.0 s, 2.0 s, 5.0 s and 10 s.
Figure 9. Force in the flow direction exerted on 6 buildings.
Figure 9. Force in the flow direction exerted on 6 buildings.
Figure 10. The linear regression between forces per unit width (F) and q2b/h0.
Figure 10. The linear regression between forces per unit width (F) and q2b/h0.

Conclusions

댐 붕괴 흐름으로 인한 홍수 파도는 높은 속도 또는 큰 깊이가 관련되었을 때 건물에 큰 영향을 미칩니다. 본 논문에서는 2D 및 3D 수치 모델의 건물 및 건물 그룹에 대한 빠른 흐름에 의해 발생하는 유압 특성과 충격 부하를 추정할 수 있는 능력을 조사했습니다. 얕은 물 방정식에 기초한 2D 수학 모델은 FDS 방법으로 해결되었으며, FDS 방법은 최신 버전의 Flow 3D 유체 역학 모델과 함께 사용되었습니다. 연구의 주요 발견은 다음과 같습니다.
(1) 수심 또는 속도 프로파일을 공식화하기 위해 2D 및 3D 수치 솔루션은 모두 매우 유사합니다. 제안된 2D 수치 모델은 정적 힘의 최대 값 뿐만 아니라 수심 및 속도 구성 요소를 포함하는 유압 특성을 예측하는 데 적합합니다. 그러나 LES 및 RAN 난류 모듈이 포함된 3D 유체역학 모델은 2D 얕은 흐름 모델이 1개만 제공하는 동안 두 개의 최고 충격 부하를 잘 포착할 수 있습니다. 일반적으로 3D 결과는 실험 결과와 더 가깝습니다.
(2) 여러 건물에 대한 정적 및 동적 힘은 모두 LES 모듈을 사용하여 Flow 3D에 의해 계산되었습니다. 건물에서 속도에 의한 힘과 압력의 역할은 위치에 따라 다릅니다. 댐 현장 근처에서, 속도 유도 힘은 댐 파괴 파동의 주 방향에서 멀리 떨어져 있거나 두 번째 배열에서 압력 힘이 더 중요합니다. 속도 유도 힘의 영향은 매개 변수 α에 의해 정량화되며, 이는 사고파의 Froude 숫자와 수심 함수로 수행됩니다. q2b/h0과 정적 힘과 동적 힘의 피크 강도 사이의 선형 회귀 관계는 합리적인 R-제곱 양으로 해결됩니다.

추가 연구에서, 제시된 2D 수치 모델의 견고성과 효과는 더 명확하게 드러날 것입니다. 대규모 도메인에 대한 홍수 흐름을 시뮬레이션하는 데 쉽게 적용할 수 있습니다. 또한, α 매개변수의 제안된 방정식(21)은 실제 사례 연구에서 다운스트림 영역의 건물에 대한 속도 유도 힘의 영향을 정확하게 평가하기 위한 매우 의미가 있습니다. 이 매개 변수의 정확도 수준을 높이려면 서로 다른 조건에서 장애물에 작용하는 여러 가지 힘 실험이 구현되어야 합니다.

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수자원/수처리/환경분야

수자원 분야

Water & Environmental

FLOW-3D는 작은 하수 처리 시스템부터 대형 수력 발전 프로젝트까지 수처리 및 환경 산업에 직면한 광범위한 문제를 해결할 수 있는 뛰어난 CFD 소프트웨어 입니다. FLOW-3D는 시뮬레이션의 복잡성을 감소시키고 최적의 솔루션에 대해 노력을 집중할 수 있도록 해줍니다. 이를 통해 통해 파악된 가치 있는 통찰력은 귀하의 상당한 시간과 비용을 절약 할 수 있습니다.

실제 지형을 적용하여 3차원 shallow water hybrid model을 이용한 댐 붕괴 시뮬레이션

FLOW-3D는 자유표면 흐름이 있는 수치해석 알고리듬에 의해 유동의 표면이 시공간적으로 변하는 모사를 위한 이상적인 도구라고 할 수 있습니다. 자유 표면은 물과 공기 같은 높은 비율의 밀도 변화를 가지는 유체들 사이의 특정한 경계를 일컫습니다. 자유 표면 흐름을 모델링하는 것은 일반적인 유동방정식과 난류 모델이 결합된 고급 알고리즘을 필요로 합니다. 이 기능은 FLOW-3D로 하여금 침수 구조에 의해 형성된 방수, 수력 점프 및 수면 변화의 흐름의 궤적을 포착 할 수 있습니다.


Bibliography & Technical Data

Figure 3.4 Upstream View of the Radial Gated-Spillway

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e) 표시 탭에서 결과를 볼 수 있으며 필요한 경우 슬라이스 옵션을 사용하여 특정 영역을 분석할 수 있습니다.

유체 역학 및 응용 유압 분야에서 사용하기 위한 수치 모델링(CFD)을 적용한 가상 실험실 실습 매뉴얼

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Figure 1. Photorealistic view of an inclined axis TAST (photo A. Stergiopoulou).

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CFD Simulations of Tubular Archimedean Screw Turbines Harnessing the Small Hydropotential of Greek Watercourses Alkistis Stergiopoulou1, Vassilios Stergiopoulos21Institut für Wasserwirtschaft, ...
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Figure 7 | Variation of flow field of elliptical bridge pier with different axis ratios under multi-year average flow. (a) Axis ratio ¼ 1. (b) Axis ratio ¼ 0.85. (c) Axis ratio ¼ 0.75. (d) Axis ratio ¼ 0.5. (e) Axis ratio ¼ 0.25. (f) Axis ratio ¼ 0.15. (continued.)

교각의 형태학적 변화가 물의 이동 특성에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구

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Figure 9. Scour morphology under different times for case 7.

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Fig. 1  Layout of spillway tunnel

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Flow velocity profiles for canals with a depth of 3 m and flow velocities of 5–5.3 m/s.

Optimization Algorithms and Engineering: Recent Advances and Applications

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Probabilistic investigation of cavitation occurrence in chute spillway based on the results of Flow-3D numerical modeling

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FLOW-3D Water & Environmental Brochure (FSI) Bibliography

Models

Case Studies

Conference Proceedings

FLOW-3D HYDRO – The Complete CFD Solution for the Water & Environmental Industry

물 및 환경 산업을 위한 완벽한 CFD 솔루션인 FLOW-3D HYDRO의 신제품 출시를 알립니다.

Santa Fe, NM, 2020년 10월 29일 – Flow Science는 토목 및 환경 엔지니어링 산업을 위한 완벽한 CFD 모델링 솔루션인 FLOW-3D HYDRO를 출시했습니다. FLOW-3D HYDRO는 사용하기 편리한 수처리 해석 사용자 인터페이스를 갖추고 있으며 효율적인 모델링 워크플로우를 위한 새로운 시뮬레이션 템플릿과 토목 또는 환경 엔지니어의 요구에 맞춘 확장된 교육 자료를 제공합니다. FLOW-3D HYDRO의 진보된 솔버 개발에는 mine tailings, multiphase flows, shallow water models이 포함됩니다. 고성능 컴퓨팅을 위해 병렬 처리되고 모든 모델링 숙련도를 위해 설계된 FLOW-3D HYDRO는 사용자의 손에 뛰어난 시뮬레이션 기능을 제공합니다.
새로운 기능에 대한 자세한 설명은
https://flow3d.co.kr/flow-3d-hydro/
에서 확인할 수 있습니다.

“FLOW-3D HYDRO는 고객의 말을 경청하고 고객의 니즈를 파악한 결과입니다. 수처리 및 환경 고객을 위한 고급 CFD 솔루션을 개발하고 토목 및 환경 엔지니어링 업계에 범용-CFD 플로우-3D를 광범위하게 채택한 것을 바탕으로 소프트웨어 접근성과 사용자 관련성을 높일 수 있는 물 중심 인터페이스를 개발하여, 모델 설정 시간뿐만 아니라 설정 오류도 크게 감소했습니다. 유용성 및 모델링 성공 측면에서 이 신제품이 물과 환경 실무자들에게는 큰 자산이 될 것으로 생각합니다.

일련의 안내된 실습 과정을 통해 새로운 Flow-3D HYDRO소프트웨어를 소개하는 일련의 온라인 워크샵이 예정되어 있습니다. 워크샵 등록에는 참가자들이 소프트웨어와 소프트웨어 기능을 살펴볼 수 있도록 30일 평가 라이센스가 포함되어 있습니다. 등록은 다음 위치에서 사용할 수 있습니다.
https://www.flow3d.com/flow3d-hydro-workshop/에서 확인할 수 있습니다.

사용자 성공을 위해 FLOW-3D HYDRO는 높은 수준의 지원, 비디오 튜토리얼 및 광범위한 예제 시뮬레이션에 대한 액세스 권한을 제공합니다. 또한 고객은 Flow Science의 CFD 서비스를 활용하여 맞춤형 교육 과정, HPC 리소스 및 유연한 클라우드 컴퓨팅 옵션을 포함한 제품 경험을 강화할 수 있습니다.

FLOW-3D HYDRODOR 릴리즈 웨비나는 12월 3일에 열릴 예정입니다. 온라인 등록은 https://zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_pAh7Gi_fQXWc2Y3BGOrg-A에서 가능합니다.

FLOW-3D HYDRO

FLOW-3D HYDRO

제품 개요

최근 FLOW Science, Inc에서는 토목 및 환경 엔지니어링 산업을위한 완벽한 CFD 모델링 솔루션인 FLOW-3D HYDRO 제품을 출시했습니다. 기존 FLOW-3D 사용자이거나 유압 엔지니어링 관행에 CFD 모델링 기능을 사용하시는 것에 관심이 있는 경우, 언제든지 아래 연락처로 연락주세요.
연락처 : 02-2026-0442
이메일 : flow3d@stikorea.co.kr

FLOW-3D HYDRO 는 더 높은 수준의 정확도와 모델 해상도를 제공하기 위해 3D 비 유압 모델링 기능이 필요한 경우 고급 모델링 도구로 사용할 수 있습니다. 일반적인 모델링 응용 분야는 소형 댐 / 인프라, 운송 수력학, 복잡한 3D 하천 수력학, 열 부력 연기, 배수구 및 오염 물질 수송과 관련됩니다. 

FLOW-3D HYDRO의 핵심 기능은 전체 3D 모델과 동적으로 연결될 수있는 얕은 물 모델입니다. 

이 기능을 통해 사용자는 멀티 스케일 모델링 애플리케이션을위한 모델 도메인을 확장하여 필요한 모델 해상도로 계산 효율성을 극대화 할 수 있습니다. FLOW-3D HYDRO  또한 강 및 환경 응용 분야에 특화된 추가 기능과 고급 물리학을 포함합니다.

시뮬레이션 템플릿

FLOW-3D HYDRO 의 작업 공간 템플릿으로 시간을 절약하고 실수를 방지하며 일관된 모델을 실행하십시오 . 작업 공간 템플릿은 일반적인 응용 분야에 대한 유체 속성, 물리적 모델, 수치 설정 및 시뮬레이션 출력을 미리로드합니다.

작업 공간 템플릿은 7 가지 모델 클래스에 사용할 수 있습니다.

  • 자유 표면 – TruVOF (기본값)
  • 공기 유입
  • 열 기둥
  • 퇴적물 수송
  • 얕은 물
  • 자유 표면 – 2 유체 VOF
  • 자유 표면 없음

사전로드 된 예제 시뮬레이션

FLOW-3D HYDRO 의 40 개 이상의 사전로드 된 물 중심 예제 시뮬레이션 라이브러리는 애플리케이션 모델링을위한 훌륭한 시작점을 제공합니다. 사전로드 된 예제 시뮬레이션은 모델러에게 모델 설정 및 모범 사례의 로드맵뿐만 아니라 대부분의 애플리케이션에 대한 자세한 시작점을 제공합니다.이전다음

비디오 튜토리얼

비디오 자습서는 새로운 사용자가 다양한 응용 프로그램을 모델링하는 방법을 빠르게 배울 수있는 훌륭한 경로를 제공합니다. FLOW-3D HYDRO 비디오 튜토리얼 기능 :

  • 광범위한 응용 및 물리학을위한 AZ 단계별 기록
  • “사용 방법”정보
  • 모범 사례를위한 팁
  • CAD / GIS 데이터, 시뮬레이션 파일 및 후 처리 파일

고급 솔버 개발

Tailings Model

새로운 Tailings Model은 tailings dam failure로 인한 tailings runout을 시뮬레이션하기위한 고급 기능을 제공합니다. tailings정의에 대한 다층 접근 방식과 함께 미세하고 거친 입자 구성을 나타내는 이중 모드 점도 모델은 모든 방법으로 건설 된 tailings 댐의 모델링을 허용합니다. 

얕은 물, 3D 및 하이브리드 3D / 얕은 물 메싱을 포함한 유연한 메싱을 통해 얕은 지역에서 빠른 솔루션을 제공하면서 다층 tailings의 복잡성을 정확하게 모델링 할 수 있습니다. 점성 경계층의 정확한 표현을 위해 얕은 물 메시에 2 층 Herschel-Bulkley 점도 모델을 사용할 수 있습니다.

모델 하이라이트

  • 미세 입자 및 거친 입자 광미 조성물을위한 이중 모드 점도 모델
  • 침전, 패킹 및 입자 종의 난류 확산을 포함한 Tailings  수송
  • 얕은 물 메시를위한 2 층 Herschel-Bulkley 점도 모델
  • 3D, 얕은 물, 3D / 얕은 물 하이브리드 메시를 포함한 유연한 메시 접근 방식
  • Multi-layer, variable composition tailings for general definition of tailings dam construction

Shallow Water

FLOW-3D HYDRO 의 얕은 물 모델링 기능은 3D 메시를 얕은 물 메시와 결합하여 탁월한 모델링 다양성을 제공하는 고유 한 하이브리드 메시를 사용합니다. 압력 솔버의 수치 개선으로 더 안정적이고 빠른 시뮬레이션이 가능합니다. 하이브리드 메쉬의 하단 전단 응력 계산이 크게 향상되어 정확도가 더욱 향상되었습니다. 지형에 거칠기를 적용하는 새로운 방법에는 Strickler, Chezy, Nikuradse, Colebrook-White, Haaland 및 Ramette 방정식이 포함됩니다.

Two-Fluid VOF Model

sharp 인터페이스가 있거나 없는 압축 가능 또는 비압축성 2 유체 모델은 항상 1 유체 자유 표면 모델과 함께 FLOW-3D 에서 사용할 수 있습니다 . 사실, sharp 인터페이스 처리는 TruVOF 기술을 자유 표면 모델과 공유하며 상용 CFD 소프트웨어에서 고유합니다. 최근 개발에는 2- 필드 온도 및 인터페이스 슬립 모델이 포함되었습니다. 이 모델은 오일 / 물, 액체 / 증기, 물 / 공기 및 기타 2 상 시스템에 성공적으로 적용되었습니다.

FLOW-3D HYDRO 는 2- 유체 솔루션의 정확성과 안정성에서 두 가지 중요한 발전을보고 있습니다. 운동량과 질량 보존 방정식의 강화 된 결합은 특히 액체 / 기체 흐름에서 계면에서 운동량 보존을 향상시킵니다. 연속성 방정식에서 제한된 압축성 항의 확장 된 근사값은 더 빠르고 안정적인 2 유체 압력 솔버를 만듭니다.

예를 들어, 터널 및 드롭 샤프트 설계와 같은 유압 응용 분야에서 공기가 종종 중요한 역할을 하기 때문에 두 개발 모두 FLOW-3D HYDRO 릴리스에 적시에 적용됩니다. 일반적으로 낮은 마하 수로 인해 이러한 경우 물과 공기에 제한된 압축성이 사용됩니다.

고성능 컴퓨팅 및 클라우드

고성능 컴퓨팅 FLOW-3D HYDRO

일반 워크스테이션 또는 랩톱으로 많은 작업을 수행 할 수 있지만, 대형 시뮬레이션과 고화질 시뮬레이션은 더 많은 CPU 코어를 활용함으로써 엄청난 이점을 얻을 수 있습니다. FLOW-3D CLOUD 및 고성능 컴퓨팅은 더 빠르고 정확한 모델을 실행할 수있는 더 빠른 런타임과 더 많은 선택권을 제공합니다.

하천 및 환경 중심 애플리케이션

TRANSPORTATION HYDRAULICS
SMALL DAMS AND DIVERSIONS
RIVER HYDRAULICS
SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION
OUTFALLS EFFLUENTS
THERMAL PLUMES BUOYANT FLOWS

Case Studies

자유 표면 모델링 방법

본 자료는 국내 사용자들의 편의를 위해 원문 번역을 해서 제공하기 때문에 일부 오역이 있을 수 있어서 원문과 함께 수록합니다. 자료를 이용하실 때 참고하시기 바랍니다.

Free Surface Modeling Methods

An interface between a gas and liquid is often referred to as a free surface. The reason for the “free” designation arises from the large difference in the densities of the gas and liquid (e.g., the ratio of density for water to air is 1000). A low gas density means that its inertia can generally be ignored compared to that of the liquid. In this sense the liquid moves independently, or freely, with respect to the gas. The only influence of the gas is the pressure it exerts on the liquid surface. In other words, the gas-liquid surface is not constrained, but free.

자유 표면 모델링 방법

기체와 액체 사이의 계면은 종종 자유 표면이라고합니다.  ‘자유’라는 호칭이 된 것은 기체와 액체의 밀도가 크게 다르기 때문입니다 (예를 들어, 물 공기에 대한 밀도 비는 1000입니다).  기체의 밀도가 낮다는 것은 액체의 관성에 비해 기체의 관성은 일반적으로 무시할 수 있다는 것을 의미합니다.  이러한 의미에서, 액체는 기체에 대해 독립적으로, 즉 자유롭게 움직입니다.  기체의 유일한 효과는 액체의 표면에 대한 압력입니다.  즉, 기체와 액체의 표면은 제약되어있는 것이 아니라 자유롭다는 것입니다.

In heat-transfer texts the term ‘Stephen Problem’ is often used to describe free boundary problems. In this case, however, the boundaries are phase boundaries, e.g., the boundary between ice and water that changes in response to the heat supplied from convective fluid currents.

열전달에 관한 문서는 자유 경계 문제를 묘사할 때 “Stephen Problem’”라는 용어가 자주 사용됩니다.  그러나 여기에서 경계는 상(phase) 경계, 즉 대류적인 유체의 흐름에 의해 공급된 열에 반응하여 변화하는 얼음과 물 사이의 경계 등을 말합니다.

Whatever the name, it should be obvious that the presence of a free or moving boundary introduces serious complications for any type of analysis. For all but the simplest of problems, it is necessary to resort to numerical solutions. Even then, free surfaces require the introduction of special methods to define their location, their movement, and their influence on a flow.

이름이 무엇이든, 자유 또는 이동 경계가 존재한다는 것은 어떤 유형의 분석에도 복잡한 문제를 야기한다는 것은 분명합니다. 가장 간단한 문제를 제외한 모든 문제에 대해서는 수치 해석에 의존할 필요가 있습니다. 그 경우에도 자유 표면은 위치, 이동 및 흐름에 미치는 영향을 정의하기 위한 특별한 방법이 필요합니다.

In the following discussion we will briefly review the types of numerical approaches that have been used to model free surfaces, indicating the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Regardless of the method employed, there are three essential features needed to properly model free surfaces:

  1. A scheme is needed to describe the shape and location of a surface,
  2. An algorithm is required to evolve the shape and location with time, and
  3. Free-surface boundary conditions must be applied at the surface.

다음 설명에서는 자유 표면 모델링에 사용되어 온 다양한 유형의 수치적 접근에 대해 간략하게 검토하고 각 방법의 장단점을 설명합니다. 어떤 방법을 사용하는지에 관계없이 자유롭게 표면을 적절히 모델화하는 다음의 3 가지 기능이 필요합니다.

  1. 표면의 형상과 위치를 설명하는 방식
  2. 시간에 따라 모양과 위치를 업데이트 하는 알고리즘
  3. 표면에 적용할 자유 표면 경계 조건

Lagrangian Grid Methods

Conceptually, the simplest means of defining and tracking a free surface is to construct a Lagrangian grid that is imbedded in and moves with the fluid. Many finite-element methods use this approach. Because the grid and fluid move together, the grid automatically tracks free surfaces.

라그랑주 격자 법

개념적으로 자유 표면을 정의하고 추적하는 가장 간단한 방법은 유체와 함께 이동하는 라그랑주 격자를 구성하는 것입니다. 많은 유한 요소 방법이 이 접근 방식을 사용합니다. 격자와 유체가 함께 움직이기 때문에 격자는 자동으로 자유 표면을 추적합니다.

At a surface it is necessary to modify the approximating equations to include the proper boundary conditions and to account for the fact that fluid exists only on one side of the boundary. If this is not done, asymmetries develop that eventually destroy the accuracy of a simulation.

표면에서 적절한 경계 조건을 포함하고 유체가 경계의 한면에만 존재한다는 사실을 설명하기 위해 근사 방정식을 수정해야합니다. 이것이 수행되지 않으면 결국 시뮬레이션의 정확도를 훼손하는 비대칭이 발생합니다.

The principal limitation of Lagrangian methods is that they cannot track surfaces that break apart or intersect. Even large amplitude surface motions can be difficult to track without introducing regridding techniques such as the Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method. References 1970 and 1974 may be consulted for early examples of these approaches.

라그랑지안 방법의 주요 제한은 분리되거나 교차하는 표면을 추적 할 수 없다는 것입니다. ALE (Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian) 방법과 같은 격자 재생성 기법을 도입하지 않으면 진폭이 큰 표면 움직임도 추적하기 어려울 수 있습니다. 이러한 접근법의 초기 예를 보려면 참고 문헌 1970 및 1974를 참조하십시오.

The remaining free-surface methods discussed here use a fixed, Eulerian grid as the basis for computations so that more complicated surface motions may be treated.

여기에서 논의된 나머지 자유 표면 방법은 보다 복잡한 표면 움직임을 처리할 수 있도록 고정된 오일러 그리드를 계산의 기준으로 사용합니다.

Surface Height Method

Low amplitude sloshing, shallow water waves, and other free-surface motions in which the surface does not deviate too far from horizontal, can be described by the height, H, of the surface relative to some reference elevation. Time evolution of the height is governed by the kinematic equation, where (u,v,w) are fluid velocities in the (x,y,z) directions. This equation is a mathematical expression of the fact that the surface must move with the fluid:

표면 높이 법

낮은 진폭의 슬로 싱, 얕은 물결 및 표면이 수평에서 너무 멀리 벗어나지 않는 기타 자유 표면 운동은 일부 기준 고도에 대한 표면의 높이 H로 설명 할 수 있습니다. 높이의 시간 진화는 운동학 방정식에 의해 제어되며, 여기서 (u, v, w)는 (x, y, z) 방향의 유체 속도입니다. 이 방정식은 표면이 유체와 함께 움직여야한다는 사실을 수학적으로 표현한 것입니다.

Finite-difference approximations to this equation are easy to implement. Further, only the height values at a set of horizontal locations must be recorded so the memory requirements for a three-dimensional numerical solution are extremely small. Finally, the application of free-surface boundary conditions is also simplified by the condition on the surface that it remains nearly horizontal. Examples of this technique can be found in References 1971 and 1975.

이 방정식의 유한 차분 근사를 쉽게 실행할 수 있습니다.  또한 3 차원 수치 해법의 메모리 요구 사항이 극도로 작아지도록 같은 높이의 위치 값만을 기록해야합니다.  마지막으로 자유 표면 경계 조건의 적용도 거의 수평을 유지하는 표면의 조건에 의해 간소화됩니다.  이 방법의 예는 참고 문헌의 1971 및 1975을 참조하십시오.

Marker-and-Cell (MAC) Method

The earliest numerical method devised for time-dependent, free-surface, flow problems was the Marker-and-Cell (MAC) method (see Ref. 1965). This scheme is based on a fixed, Eulerian grid of control volumes. The location of fluid within the grid is determined by a set of marker particles that move with the fluid, but otherwise have no volume, mass or other properties.

MAC 방법

시간 의존성을 가지는 자유 표면 흐름의 문제에 대해 처음 고안된 수치 법이 MAC (Marker-and-Cell) 법입니다 (참고 문헌 1965 참조).  이 구조는 컨트롤 볼륨 고정 오일러 격자를 기반으로합니다.  격자 내의 유체의 위치는 유체와 함께 움직이고, 그 이외는 부피, 질량, 기타 특성을 갖지 않는 일련의 마커 입자에 의해 결정됩니다.

Grid cells containing markers are considered occupied by fluid, while those without markers are empty (or void). A free surface is defined to exist in any grid cell that contains particles and that also has at least one neighboring grid cell that is void. The location and orientation of the surface within the cell was not part of the original MAC method.

마커를 포함한 격자 셀은 유체로 채워져있는 것으로 간주되며 마커가 없는 격자 셀은 빈(무효)것입니다.  입자를 포함하고, 적어도 하나의 인접 격자 셀이 무효인 격자의 자유 표면은 존재하는 것으로 정의됩니다.  셀 표면의 위치와 방향은 원래의 MAC 법에 포함되지 않았습니다.

Evolution of surfaces was computed by moving the markers with locally interpolated fluid velocities. Some special treatments were required to define the fluid properties in newly filled grid cells and to cancel values in cells that are emptied.

표면의 발전(개선)은 국소적으로 보간된 유체 속도로 마커를 이동하여 계산되었습니다.  새롭게 충전된 격자 셀의 유체 특성을 정의하거나 비어있는 셀의 값을 취소하거나 하려면 특별한 처리가 필요했습니다.

The application of free-surface boundary conditions consisted of assigning the gas pressure to all surface cells. Also, velocity components were assigned to all locations on or immediately outside the surface in such a way as to approximate conditions of incompressibility and zero-surface shear stress.

자유 표면 경계 조건의 적용은 모든 표면 셀에 가스 압력을 할당하는 것으로 구성되었습니다. 또한 속도 성분은 비압축성 및 제로 표면 전단 응력의 조건을 근사화하는 방식으로 표면 위 또는 외부의 모든 위치에 할당되었습니다.

The extraordinary success of the MAC method in solving a wide range of complicated free-surface flow problems is well documented in numerous publications. One reason for this success is that the markers do not track surfaces directly, but instead track fluid volumes. Surfaces are simply the boundaries of the volumes, and in this sense surfaces may appear, merge or disappear as volumes break apart or coalesce.

폭넓게 복잡한 자유 표면 흐름 문제 해결에 MAC 법이 놀라운 성공을 거두고 있는 것은 수많은 문헌에서 충분히 입증되고 있습니다.  이 성공 이유 중 하나는 마커가 표면을 직접 추적하는 것이 아니라 유체의 체적을 추적하는 것입니다.  표면은 체적의 경계에 불과하며, 그러한 의미에서 표면은 분할 또는 합체된 부피로 출현(appear), 병합, 소멸 할 가능성이 있습니다.

A variety of improvements have contributed to an increase in the accuracy and applicability of the original MAC method. For example, applying gas pressures at interpolated surface locations within cells improves the accuracy in problems driven by hydrostatic forces, while the inclusion of surface tension forces extends the method to a wider class of problems (see Refs. 1969, 1975).

다양한 개선으로 인해 원래 MAC 방법의 정확성과 적용 가능성이 증가했습니다. 예를 들어, 셀 내 보간 된 표면 위치에 가스 압력을 적용하면 정 수력으로 인한 문제의 정확도가 향상되는 반면 표면 장력의 포함은 방법을 더 광범위한 문제로 확장합니다 (참조 문헌. 1969, 1975).

In spite of its successes, the MAC method has been used primarily for two-dimensional simulations because it requires considerable memory and CPU time to accommodate the necessary number of marker particles. Typically, an average of about 16 markers in each grid cell is needed to ensure an accurate tracking of surfaces undergoing large deformations.

수많은 성공에도 불구하고 MAC 방법은 필요한 수의 마커 입자를 수용하기 위해 상당한 메모리와 CPU 시간이 필요하기 때문에 주로 2 차원 시뮬레이션에 사용되었습니다. 일반적으로 큰 변형을 겪는 표면의 정확한 추적을 보장하려면 각 그리드 셀에 평균 약 16 개의 마커가 필요합니다.

Another limitation of marker particles is that they don’t do a very good job of following flow processes in regions involving converging/diverging flows. Markers are usually interpreted as tracking the centroids of small fluid elements. However, when those fluid elements get pulled into long convoluted strands, the markers may no longer be good indicators of the fluid configuration. This can be seen, for example, at flow stagnation points where markers pile up in one direction, but are drawn apart in a perpendicular direction. If they are pulled apart enough (i.e., further than one grid cell width) unphysical voids may develop in the flow.

마커 입자의 또 다른 한계는 수렴 / 발산 흐름이 포함된 영역에서 흐름 프로세스를 따라가는 작업을 잘 수행하지 못한다는 것입니다. 마커는 일반적으로 작은 유체 요소의 중심을 추적하는 것으로 해석됩니다. 그러나 이러한 유체 요소가 길고 복잡한 가닥으로 당겨지면 마커가 더 이상 유체 구성의 좋은 지표가 될 수 없습니다. 예를 들어 마커가 한 방향으로 쌓여 있지만 수직 방향으로 떨어져 있는 흐름 정체 지점에서 볼 수 있습니다. 충분히 분리되면 (즉, 하나의 그리드 셀 너비 이상) 비 물리적 공극이 흐름에서 발생할 수 있습니다.

Surface Marker Method

One way to limit the memory and CPU time consumption of markers is to keep marker particles only on surfaces and not in the interior of fluid regions. Of course, this removes the volume tracking property of the MAC method and requires additional logic to determine when and how surfaces break apart or coalesce.

표면 마커 법

마커의 메모리 및 CPU 시간의 소비를 제한하는 방법 중 하나는 마커 입자를 유체 영역의 내부가 아니라 표면에만 보존하는 것입니다.  물론 이는 MAC 법의 체적 추적 특성이 배제되기 때문에 표면이 분할 또는 합체하는 방식과 시기를 특정하기위한 논리를 추가해야합니다.

In two dimensions the marker particles on a surface can be arranged in a linear order along the surface. This arrangement introduces several advantages, such as being able to maintain a uniform particle spacing and simplifying the computation of intersections between different surfaces. Surface markers also provide a convenient way to locate the surface within a grid cell for the application of boundary conditions.

2 차원의 경우 표면 마커 입자는 표면을 따라 선형으로 배치 할 수 있습니다.  이 배열은 입자의 간격을 균일하게 유지할 수있는 별도의 표면이 교차하는 부분의 계산이 쉽다는 등 몇 가지 장점이 있습니다.  또한 표면 마커를 사용하여 경계 조건을 적용하면 격자 셀의 표면을 간단한 방법으로 찾을 수 있습니다.

Unfortunately, in three-dimensions there is no simple way to order particles on surfaces, and this leads to a major failing of the surface marker technique. Regions may exist where surfaces are expanding and no markers fill the space. Without markers the configuration of the surface is unknown, consequently there is no way to add markers. Reference 1975 contains examples that show the advantages and limitations of this method.

불행히도 3 차원에서는 표면에 입자를 정렬하는 간단한 방법이 없으며 이로 인해 표면 마커 기술이 크게 실패합니다. 표면이 확장되고 마커가 공간을 채우지 않는 영역이 존재할 수 있습니다. 마커가 없으면 표면의 구성을 알 수 없으므로 마커를 추가 할 방법이 없습니다.
참고 문헌 1975이 방법의 장점과 한계를 보여주는 예제가 포함되어 있습니다.

Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) Method

The last method to be discussed is based on the concept of a fluid volume fraction. The idea for this approach originated as a way to have the powerful volume-tracking feature of the MAC method without its large memory and CPU costs.

VOF (Volume-of-Fluid) 법

마지막으로 설명하는 방법은 유체 부피 분율의 개념을 기반으로합니다. 이 접근 방식에 대한 아이디어는 대용량 메모리 및 CPU 비용없이 MAC 방식의 강력한 볼륨 추적 기능을 갖는 방법에서 시작되었습니다.

Within each grid cell (control volume) it is customary to retain only one value for each flow quantity (e.g., pressure, velocity, temperature, etc.) For this reason it makes little sense to retain more information for locating a free surface. Following this reasoning, the use of a single quantity, the fluid volume fraction in each grid cell, is consistent with the resolution of the other flow quantities.

각 격자 셀 (제어 체적) 내에서 각 유량 (예 : 압력, 속도, 온도 등)에 대해 하나의 값만 유지하는 것이 일반적입니다. 이러한 이유로 자유 표면을 찾기 위해 더 많은 정보를 유지하는 것은 거의 의미가 없습니다. 이러한 추론에 따라 각 격자 셀의 유체 부피 분율인 단일 수량의 사용은 다른 유량의 해상도와 일치합니다.

If we know the amount of fluid in each cell it is possible to locate surfaces, as well as determine surface slopes and surface curvatures. Surfaces are easy to locate because they lie in cells partially filled with fluid or between cells full of fluid and cells that have no fluid.

각 셀 내의 유체의 양을 알고 있는 경우, 표면의 위치 뿐만 아니라  표면 경사와 표면 곡률을 결정하는 것이 가능합니다.  표면은 유체 가 부분 충전 된 셀 또는 유체가 전체에 충전 된 셀과 유체가 전혀없는 셀 사이에 존재하기 때문에 쉽게 찾을 수 있습니다.

Slopes and curvatures are computed by using the fluid volume fractions in neighboring cells. It is essential to remember that the volume fraction should be a step function, i.e., having a value of either one or zero. Knowing this, the volume fractions in neighboring cells can then be used to locate the position of fluid (and its slope and curvature) within a particular cell.

경사와 곡률은 인접 셀의 유체 체적 점유율을 사용하여 계산됩니다.  체적 점유율은 계단 함수(step function)이어야 합니다, 즉, 값이 1 또는 0 인 것을 기억하는 것이 중요합니다.  이 것을 안다면, 인접 셀의 부피 점유율을 사용하여 특정 셀 내의 유체의 위치 (및 그 경사와 곡률)을 찾을 수 있습니다.

Free-surface boundary conditions must be applied as in the MAC method, i.e., assigning the proper gas pressure (plus equivalent surface tension pressure) as well as determining what velocity components outside the surface should be used to satisfy a zero shear-stress condition at the surface. In practice, it is sometimes simpler to assign velocity gradients instead of velocity components at surfaces.

자유 표면 경계 조건을 MAC 법과 동일하게 적용해야 합니다.  즉, 적절한 기체 압력 (및 대응하는 표면 장력)을 할당하고, 또한 표면에서 제로 전단 응력을 충족 시키려면 표면 외부의 어떤 속도 성분을 사용할 필요가 있는지를 확인합니다.  사실, 표면에서의 속도 성분 대신 속도 구배를 지정하는 것이보다 쉬울 수 있습니다.

Finally, to compute the time evolution of surfaces, a technique is needed to move volume fractions through a grid in such a way that the step-function nature of the distribution is retained. The basic kinematic equation for fluid fractions is similar to that for the height-function method, where F is the fraction of fluid function:

마지막으로, 표면의 시간 변화를 계산하려면 분포의 계단 함수의 성질이 유지되는 방법으로 격자를 통과하고 부피 점유율을 이동하는 방법이 필요합니다.  유체 점유율의 기본적인 운동학방정식은 높이 함수(height-function) 법과 유사합니다.  F는 유체 점유율 함수입니다.

A straightforward numerical approximation cannot be used to model this equation because numerical diffusion and dispersion errors destroy the sharp, step-function nature of the F distribution.

이 방정식을 모델링 할 때 간단한 수치 근사는 사용할 수 없습니다.  수치의 확산과 분산 오류는 F 분포의 명확한 계단 함수(step-function)의 성질이 손상되기 때문입니다.

It is easy to accurately model the solution to this equation in one dimension such that the F distribution retains its zero or one values. Imagine fluid is filling a column of cells from bottom to top. At some instant the fluid interface is in the middle region of a cell whose neighbor below is filled and whose neighbor above is empty. The fluid orientation in the neighboring cells means the interface must be located above the bottom of the cell by an amount equal to the fluid fraction in the cell. Then the computation of how much fluid to move into the empty cell above can be modified to first allow the empty region of the surface-containing cell to fill before transmitting fluid on to the next cell.

F 분포가 0 또는 1의 값을 유지하는 같은 1 차원에서이 방정식의 해를 정확하게 모델링하는 것은 간단합니다.  1 열의 셀에 위에서 아래까지 유체가 충전되는 경우를 상상해보십시오.  어느 순간에 액체 계면은 셀의 중간 영역에 있고, 그 아래쪽의 인접 셀은 충전되어 있고, 상단 인접 셀은 비어 있습니다.  인접 셀 내의 유체의 방향은 계면과 셀의 하단과의 거리가 셀 내의 유체 점유율과 같아야 한다는 것을 의미합니다.  그 다음 먼저 표면을 포함하는 셀의 빈 공간을 충전 한 후 다음 셀로 유체를 보내도록 위쪽의 빈 셀에 이동하는 유체의 양의 계산을 변경할 수 있습니다.

In two or three dimensions a similar procedure of using information from neighboring cells can be used, but it is not possible to be as accurate as in the one-dimensional case. The problem with more than one dimension is that an exact determination of the shape and location of the surface cannot be made. Nevertheless, this technique can be made to work well as evidenced by the large number of successful applications that have been completed using the VOF method. References 1975, 1980, and 1981 should be consulted for the original work on this technique.

2 차원과 3 차원에서 인접 셀의 정보를 사용하는 유사한 절차를 사용할 수 있지만, 1 차원의 경우만큼 정확하게 하는 것은 불가능합니다.  2 차원 이상의 경우의 문제는 표면의 모양과 위치를 정확히 알 수없는 것입니다.  그래도 VOF 법을 사용하여 달성 된 다수의 성공 사례에서 알 수 있듯이 이 방법을 잘 작동시킬 수 있습니다.  이 기법에 관한 초기의 연구 내용은 참고 문헌 1975,1980,1981를 참조하십시오.

The VOF method has lived up to its goal of providing a method that is as powerful as the MAC method without the overhead of that method. Its use of volume tracking as opposed to surface-tracking function means that it is robust enough to handle the breakup and coalescence of fluid masses. Further, because it uses a continuous function it does not suffer from the lack of divisibility that discrete particles exhibit.

VOF 법은 MAC 법만큼 강력한 기술을 오버 헤드없이 제공한다는 목표를 달성 해 왔습니다.  표면 추적이 아닌 부피 추적 기능을 사용하는 것은 유체 질량의 분할과 합체를 처리하는 데 충분한 내구성을 가지고 있다는 것을 의미합니다.  또한 연속 함수를 사용하기 때문에 이산된 입자에서 발생하는 숫자를 나눌 수 없는 문제를 겪지 않게 됩니다.

Variable-Density Approximation to the VOF Method

One feature of the VOF method that requires special treatment is the application of boundary conditions. As a surface moves through a grid, the cells containing fluid continually change, which means that the solution region is also changing. At the free boundaries of this changing region the proper free surface stress conditions must also be applied.

VOF 법의 가변 밀도 근사

VOF 법의 특수 처리가 필요한 기능 중 하나는 경계 조건의 적용입니다.  표면이 격자를 통과하여 이동할 때 유체를 포함하는 셀은 끊임없이 변화합니다.  즉, 계산 영역도 변화하고 있다는 것입니다.  이 변화하고있는 영역의 자유 경계에는 적절한 자유 표면 응력 조건도 적용해야합니다.

Updating the flow region and applying boundary conditions is not a trivial task. For this reason some approximations to the VOF method have been used in which flow is computed in both liquid and gas regions. Typically, this is done by treating the flow as a single fluid having a variable density. The F function is used to define the density. An argument is then made that because the flow equations are solved in both liquid and gas regions there is no need to set interfacial boundary conditions.

유체 영역의 업데이트 및 경계 조건의 적용은 중요한 작업입니다.  따라서 액체와 기체의 두 영역에서 흐름이 계산되는 VOF 법에 약간의 근사가 사용되어 왔습니다.  일반적으로 가변 밀도를 가진 단일 유체로 흐름을 처리함으로써 이루어집니다.  밀도를 정의하려면 F 함수를 사용합니다.  그리고, 흐름 방정식은 액체와 기체의 두 영역에서 계산되기 때문에 계면의 경계 조건을 설정할 필요가 없다는 논증이 이루어집니다.

Unfortunately, this approach does not work very well in practice for two reasons. First, the sensitivity of a gas region to pressure changes is generally much greater than that in liquid regions. This makes it difficult to achieve convergence in the coupled pressure-velocity solution. Sometimes very large CPU times are required with this technique.

공교롭게도 이 방법은 두 가지 이유로 인해 실제로는 그다지 잘 작동하지 않습니다.  하나는 압력의 변화에 대한 기체 영역의 감도가 일반적으로 액체 영역보다 훨씬 큰 것입니다.  따라서 압력 – 속도 결합 해법 수렴을 달성하는 것은 어렵습니다.  이 기술은 필요한 CPU 시간이 매우 커질 수 있습니다.

The second, and more significant, reason is associated with the possibility of a tangential velocity discontinuity at interfaces. Because of their different responses to pressure, gas and liquid velocities at an interface are usually quite different. In the Variable-Density model interfaces are moved with an average velocity, but this often leads to unrealistic movement of the interfaces.

두 번째 더 중요한 이유는 계면에서 접선 속도가 불연속이되는 가능성에 관련이 있습니다.  압력에 대한 반응이 다르기 때문에 계면에서 기체와 액체의 속도는 일반적으로 크게 다릅니다.  가변 밀도 모델은 계면은 평균 속도로 동작하지만, 이는 계면의 움직임이 비현실적으로 되는 경우가 많습니다.

Even though the Variable-Density method is sometimes referred to as a VOF method, because is uses a fraction-of-fluid function, this designation is incorrect. For accurately tracking sharp liquid-gas interfaces it is necessary to actually treat the interface as a discontinuity. This means it is necessary to have a technique to define an interface discontinuity, as well as a way to impose the proper boundary conditions at that interface. It is also necessary to use a special numerical method to track interface motions though a grid without destroying its character as a discontinuity.

가변 밀도 방법은 유체 분율 함수를 사용하기 때문에 VOF 방법이라고도하지만 이것은 올바르지 않습니다. 날카로운 액체-가스 인터페이스를 정확하게 추적하려면 인터페이스를 실제로 불연속으로 처리해야합니다. 즉, 인터페이스 불연속성을 정의하는 기술과 해당 인터페이스에서 적절한 경계 조건을 적용하는 방법이 필요합니다. 또한 불연속성으로 특성을 훼손하지 않고 격자를 통해 인터페이스 동작을 추적하기 위해 특수한 수치 방법을 사용해야합니다.

Summary

A brief discussion of the various techniques used to numerically model free surfaces has been given here with some comments about their relative advantages and disadvantages. Readers should not be surprised to learn that there have been numerous variations of these basic techniques proposed over the years. Probably the most successful of the methods is the VOF technique because of its simplicity and robustness. It is this method, with some refinement, that is used in the FLOW-3D program.

여기에서는 자유 표면을 수치적으로 모델링 할 때 사용하는 다양한 방법에 대해 상대적인 장점과 단점에 대한 설명을 포함하여 쉽게 설명하였습니다.  오랜 세월에 걸쳐 이러한 기본적인 방법이 많이 제안되어 온 것을 알고도 독자 여러분은 놀라지 않을 것입니다.  아마도 가장 성과를 거둔 방법은 간결하고 강력한 VOF 법 입니다.  이 방법에 일부 개량을 더한 것이 현재 FLOW-3D 프로그램에서 사용되고 있습니다.

Attempts to improve the VOF method have centered on better, more accurate, ways to move fluid fractions through a grid. Other developments have attempted to apply the method in connection with body-fitted grids and to employ more than one fluid fraction function in order to model more than one fluid component. A discussion of these developments is beyond the scope of this introduction.

VOF 법의 개선은 더 나은, 더 정확한 방법으로 유체 점유율을 격자를 통과하여 이동하는 것에 중점을 두어 왔습니다.  기타 개발은 물체 적합 격자(body-fitted grids) 관련 기법을 적용하거나 여러 유체 성분을 모델링하기 위해 여러 유체 점유율 함수를 채용하기도 했습니다.  이러한 개발에 대한 논의는 여기에서의 설명 범위를 벗어납니다.

References

1965 Harlow, F.H. and Welch, J.E., Numerical Calculation of Time-Dependent Viscous Incompressible Flow, Phys. Fluids 8, 2182.

1969 Daly, B.J., Numerical Study of the Effect of Surface Tension on Interface Instability, Phys. Fluids 12, 1340.

1970 Hirt, C.W., Cook, J.L. and Butler, T.D., A Lagrangian Method for Calculating the Dynamics of an Incompressible Fluid with Free Surface, J. Comp. Phys. 5, 103.

1971 Nichols, B.D. and Hirt, C.W.,Calculating Three-Dimensional Free Surface Flows in the Vicinity of Submerged and Exposed Structures, J. Comp. Phys. 12, 234.

1974 Hirt, C.W., Amsden, A.A., and Cook, J.L.,An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Computing Method for all Flow Speeds, J. Comp. Phys., 14, 227.

1975 Nichols, B.D. and Hirt, C.W., Methods for Calculating Multidimensional, Transient Free Surface Flows Past Bodies, Proc. of the First International Conf. On Num. Ship Hydrodynamics, Gaithersburg, ML, Oct. 20-23.

1980 Nichols, B.D. and Hirt, C.W., Numerical Simulation of BWR Vent-Clearing Hydrodynamics, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 73, 196.

1981 Hirt, C.W. and Nichols, B.D., Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method for the Dynamics of Free Boundaries, J. Comp. Phys. 39, 201.

FLOW-3D What’s New Ver.12.0

FLOW-3D v12.0은 그래픽 사용자 인터페이스 (GUI)의 설계 및 기능에서 매우 큰 변화를 이룬 제품으로 모델 설정을 단순화하고 사용자 워크 플로를 향상시킵니다. 최첨단 Immersed Boundary Method(침수경계 방법)은 FLOW-3D v12.0 솔루션의 정확성을 높여줍니다. 다른 주요 기능으로는 슬러지 침강 모델, 2-Fluid 2-Temperature 모델 및 Steady State Accelerator가 있으며,이를 통해 사용자는 자유 표면 흐름을 더욱 빠르게 모델링 할 수 있습니다.

Physical and Numerical Model

Immersed boundary method

힘과 에너지 손실에 대한 정확한 예측은 고체 주위의 흐름과 관련된 많은 엔지니어링 문제를 모델링하는 데 중요합니다. 새 릴리스 FLOW-3 Dv1.2.0에는 이러한 문제점 해결을 위해 설계된 새로운 고스트 셀 기반 Immersed Boundary Method (IBM)가 있습니다. IBM은 내 외부 흐름 해석을 위해, 벽 근처에서 보다 정확한 해를 제공하여 드래그 앤 리프트 힘의 계산을 향상시킵니다.힘과 에너지 손실의 정확한 예측은 고체 주위의 흐름을 포함하는 많은 공학적 문제를 모델링 하는데 중요합니다.

Two-field temperature for the two-fluid model

2 유체 열전달 모델은 각 유체에 대한 에너지 전달 방정식을 분리하기 위해 확장되었습니다. 각 유체는 이제 자체 온도 변수를 가지므로 인터페이스 근처의 열 및 물질 전달 솔루션의 정확도가 향상됩니다. 인터페이스에서의 열전달은 이제 시간의 표 함수가 될 수 있는 사용자 정의 열전달 계수에 의해 제어됩니다.

블로그 보기

Sludge settling model

새로운 슬러지 정착 모델은 수처리 애플리케이션에 부가되어 사용자들이 수 처리 탱크와 클래리퍼의 고형 폐기물 역학을 모델링 할 수 있게 해 줍니다. 침전 속도가 분산상의 액적 크기의 함수 인 드리프트-플럭스 모델과 달리, 침전 속도는 슬러지 농도의 함수이며 기능 및 표 형식으로 입력 할 수 있습니다.

개발노트 읽기

Steady-state accelerator for free surface flows

이름에서 알 수 있듯이 정상 상태 가속기는 정상 상태 솔루션에 대한 접근을 빠르게합니다.
이것은 작은 진폭 중력과 모세관 표면파를 감쇠시킴으로써 달성되며 자유 표면 흐름에만 적용 할 수 있습니다.

개발노트 읽기

Void particles

Void particles 가 기포 및 상 변화 모델에 추가되었습니다. Void particles는 붕괴 된 Void 영역을 나타내며, 항력 및 압력을 통해 유체와 상호 작용하는 작은 기포로 작용합니다. 주변 유체 압력에 따라 크기가 변하고 시뮬레이션이 끝날 때의 최종 위치는 공기 유입 가능성을 나타냅니다.

Sediment scour model

퇴적물 수송 및 침식 모델은 정확성과 안정성을 향상시키기 위해 정비되었습니다. 특히 퇴적물 종의 질량 보존이 크게 개선되었습니다.

개발 노트 읽기>

Outflow pressure boundary condition

고정 압력 경계 조건에는 압력 및 유체 분율을 제외한 모든 유량이 해당 경계의 상류의 유량 조건을 반영하는 ‘유출’옵션이 포함됩니다. 유출 압력 경계 조건은 고정 압력 및 연속 경계 조건의 하이브리드입니다.

Moving particle sources

시뮬레이션 중에 입자 소스를 이동할 수 있습니다. 시간에 따른 병진 및 회전 속도는 표 형식으로 정의됩니다. 입자 소스의 운동은 소스에서 방출 된 입자의 초기 속도에 추가됩니다.

Variable center of gravity

기변 무게중심은 중력 및 비관 성 기준 프레임 모델에서, 시간의 함수로서 무게 중심의 위치는 외부 파일에서 테이블로서 정의 될 수있다. 이 기능은 연료를 소비하고 분리 단계를 수행하는 로켓과 같은 모형을 모델링 할 때 유용합니다.

공기 유입 모델

가장 간단한 부피 기반 공기 유입 모델 옵션이 기존 질량 기반 모델로 대체되었습니다. 질량 기반 모델은 부피와 달리 주변 유체 압력에 따라 부피가 변화하는 동안 흡입된 공기량이 보존되기 때문에 물리학적 모델입니다.

Tracer diffusion

유동 표면에서 생성된 추적 물질은 분자 및 난류 확산 과정에 의해 확산될 수 있으며, 예를 들어 실제 오염 물질의 동작을 모방한다.

Model Setup

Simulation units

온도를 포함하여 단위 시스템은 완전히 정의해야하는데 표준 단위 시스템이 제공됩니다. 또한 사용자는 다양한 옵션 중에서 질량, 시간 및 길이 단위를 정의 할 수 있으므로 사용자 정의가 가능한 편리한 단위를 사용할 수 있습니다. 사용자는 압력이 게이지 또는 절대 단위로 정의되는지 여부도 지정해야합니다. 기본 시뮬레이션 단위는 기본 설정에서 설정할 수 있습니다. 단위를 완전히 정의하면 FLOW-3D 가 물리량의 기본값을 정의하고 범용 상수를 설정하여 사용자가 요구하는 작업량을 최소화 할 수 있습니다.

Shallow water model

Manning’s roughness in shallow water model

Manning의 거칠기 계수는 지형 표면의 전단 응력 평가를 위해 얕은 물 모델에서 구현되었습니다. 표면 결함의 크기를 기반으로 기존 거칠기 모델을 보완하며 이 모델과 함께 사용할 수 있습니다. 표준 거칠기와 마찬가지로 매닝 계수는 구성 요소 또는 하위 구성 요소의 속성이거나 지형 래스터 데이터 세트에서 가져올 수 있습니다.

Mesh generation

하단 및 상단 경계 좌표의 정의만으로 수직 방향의 메시 설정이 단순화되었습니다.

Component transformations

사용자는 이제 여러 하위 구성 요소로 구성된 구성 요소에 회전, 변환 및 스케일링 변환을 적용하여 복잡한 형상 어셈블리 설정 프로세스를 단순화 할 수 있습니다. GMO (General Moving Object) 구성 요소의 경우, 이러한 변환을 구성 요소의 대칭 축과 정렬되도록 신체에 맞는 좌표계에 적용 할 수 있습니다.

Changing the number of threads at runtime

시뮬레이션 중에 솔버가 사용하는 스레드 수를 변경하는 기능이 런타임 옵션 대화 상자에 추가되어 사용 가능한 스레드를 추가하거나 다른 태스크에 자원이 필요한 경우 스레드 수를 줄일 수 있습니다.

Probe-controlled heat sources

활성 시뮬레이션 제어가 형상 구성 요소와 관련된 heat sources로 확장되었습니다. 히스토리 프로브로 열 방출을 제어 할 수 있습니다.

Time-dependent temperature at sources     

질량 및 질량 / 운동량 소스의 유체 온도는 이제 테이블 입력을 사용하여 시간의 함수로 정의 할 수 있습니다.

Emissivity coefficients

공극으로의 복사 열 전달을위한 방사율 계수는 이제 사용자가 방사율과 스테판-볼츠만 상수를 지정하도록 요구하지 않고 직접 정의됩니다. 후자는 이제 단위 시스템을 기반으로 솔버에 의해 자동으로 설정됩니다.

Output

  • 등속 필드 솔버 옵션을 사용할 때 유량 속도를 선택한 데이터 로 출력 할 수 있습니다 .
  • 벽 접착력으로 인한 지오메트리 구성 요소의 토크 는 기존 벽 접착력의 출력 외에도 일반 이력 데이터에 별도의 수량으로 출력됩니다.
  • 난류 모델 출력이 요청 될 때 난류 에너지 및 소산과 함께 전단 속도 및 y +가 선택된 데이터로 자동 출력됩니다 .
  • 공기 유입 모델 출력에 몇 가지 수량이 추가되었습니다. 자유 표면을 포함하는 모든 셀에서 혼입 된 공기 및 빠져 나가는 공기의 체적 플럭스가 재시작 및 선택된 데이터로 출력되어 사용자에게 공기가 혼입 및 탈선되는 위치 및 시간에 대한 자세한 정보를 제공합니다. 전체 계산 영역 및 각 샘플링 볼륨 에 대해이 두 수량의 시간 및 공간 통합 등가물 이 일반 히스토리 로 출력됩니다.
  • 솔버의 출력 파일 flsgrf 의 최종 크기 는 시뮬레이션이 끝날 때보 고됩니다.
  • 2 유체 시뮬레이션의 경우, 기존의 출력 수량 유체 체류 시간 및 유체 가 이동 한 거리는 이제 유체 # 1 및 # 2와 유체의 혼합물에 대해 별도로 계산됩니다.
  • 질량 입자의 경우 각 종의 총 부피와 질량이 계산되어 전체 계산 영역, 샘플링 볼륨 및 플럭스 표면에 대한 일반 히스토리 로 출력되어 입자 종 수에 대한 현재 출력을 보완합니다.
  • 예를 들어 사용자가 가스 미순환을 식별하고 연료 탱크의 환기 시스템을 설계하는 데 도움이 되도록 마지막 국부적 가스 압력이 옵션 출력량으로 추가되었습니다. 이 양은 유체가 채워지기 전에 셀의 마지막 간극 압력을 기록하며, 단열 버블 모델과 함께 사용됩니다.

New Customizable Source Routines

사용자 정의 가능한 새로운 소스 루틴이 추가되었으며 사용자의 개발 환경에서 액세스 할 수 있습니다.

소스 루틴 이름설명
cav_prod_cal캐비 테이션 생산 및 확산 속도
sldg_uset슬러지 정착 속도
phchg_mass_flux증발 및 응축에 의한 질량 흐름
flhtccl유체#1과#2사이의 열 전달 계수
dsize_cal2상 유동에서의 동적 낙하 크기 모델의 충돌 및 이탈율
elstc_custom.점탄성 유체에 대한 응력 방정식의 소스 용어

Brand New User Interface

FLOW-3D의 사용자 인터페이스가 완전히 재설계되어 사용자의 작업 흐름을 획기적으로 간소화하는 최신의 타일 구조를 제공합니다.

Dock widgets 설정

Physics, Fluids, Mesh 및 FAVOR ™를 포함한 모든 설정 작업이 형상 창 주위의 dock widgets으로 변환되어 모델 설정을 단일 탭으로 압축 할 수 있습니다. 이 전환을 통해 이전 버전의 복잡한 트리가 훨씬 깔끔하고 효율적인 메뉴 표시로 바뀌어 모델 설정 탭을 떠나지 않고도 모든 매개 변수에 쉽게 액세스 할 수 있습니다.

New Model Setup icons
With our new Model Setup design comes new icons, representing each step of the setup process.
New Physics icons
Our Physics icons are designed to be easily differentiated from one another at a glance, while providing clear visual representation of each model’s purpose and use.

RSS feed

새 RSS 피드부터 FLOW-3D v12.0 의 시뮬레이션 관리자 탭이 개선되었습니다 . FLOW-3D 를 시작하면 사용자에게 Flow Science의 최신 뉴스, 이벤트 및 블로그 게시물이 표시됩니다.

Configurable simulation monitor

시뮬레이션을 실행할 때 중요한 작업은 모니터링입니다. FLOW-3Dv12.0에서는 사용자가 시뮬레이션을 더 잘 모니터링할 수 있도록 Simulation Manager의 플로팅 기능이 향상되었습니다. 사용자는 시뮬레이션 런타임 그래프를 통해 모니터링할 사용 가능한 모든 일반 기록 데이터 변수를 선택하고 각 그래프에 여러 변수를 추가할 수 있습니다. 이제 런타임에서 사용할 수 있는 일반 기록 데이터는 다음과 같습니다.

  • 최소/최대 유체 온도
  • 프로브 위치의 온도
  • 유동 표면 위치에서의 유량
  • 시뮬레이션 진단(예:시간 단계, 안정성 한계)
Runtime plots of the flow rate at the gates of the large dam / Large dam with flux surfaces at the gates

Conforming mesh visualization

사용자는 이제 새로운 FAVOR ™ 독 위젯을 통해 적합한 메쉬 블록을 시각화 할 수 있습니다 .

Large raster and STL data

데이터를 처리하는 데 걸리는 시간으로 인해 큰 형상 데이터를 처리하는 것은 어려울 수 있습니다. 대형 지오메트리 데이터를 처리하는 데 여전히 상당한 시간이 소요될 수 있지만 FLOW-3D는 이제 이러한 대형 데이터 세트를 백그라운드 작업으로로드하여 사용자가 데이터를 처리하는 동안 완벽하게 응답하고 중단없는 인터페이스에서 계속 작업 할 수 있습니다.

FLOW-3D 교육 안내

education_banner

HIGH-END TOP CLASS
FLOW-3D CFD EDUCATION


(주)에스티아이씨앤디에서는 FLOW-3D 제품군의 사용자 교육을 지원하고 있습니다. 홈페이지에 안내되어 있는 교육 일정과 교육신청 절차를 참고하시어 교육을 받으실 수 있습니다.

  • 교육 과정명 : 수리 분야

댐, 하천의 여수로, 수문 등 구조물 설계 및 방류, 월류 등 흐름 검토를 하기 위한 유동 해석 방법을 소개하는 교육 과정입니다. 유입 조건(수위, 유량 등)과 유출 조건에 따른 방류량 및 유속, 압력 분포 등 유체의 흐름을 검토를 할 수 있도록 관련 예제를 통해 적절한 기능을 습득하실 수 있습니다.

  • 교육 과정명 : 수처리 분야

정수처리 및 하수처리 공정에서 각 시설물들의 특성에 맞는 최적 운영조건 검토 및 설계 검토을 위한 유동해석 방법을 소개하는 교육 과정입니다. 취수부터 시작하여 혼화지, 분배수로, 응집지, 침전지, 여과지, 정수지, 협기조, 호기조, 소독조 등 각 공정별 유동 특성을 검토하기 위한 해석 모델을 설정하는 방법에 대해 알려드립니다.

  • 교육 과정명 : 주조 분야

주조 분야 사용자들이 쉽게 접근할 수 있도록 각 공정별로 해석 절차 및 해석 방법을 소개하는 교육 과정입니다. 고압다이캐스팅, 저압다이캐스팅, 경동주조, 중력주조, 원심주조, 정밀주조 등 주조 공법 별 관련 예제를 통해 적절한 기능들을 습득할 수 있도록 도와 드립니다.

  • 교육 과정명 : Micro/Bio/Nano Fluidics 분야

점성력 및 모세관력 같은 유체 표면에 작용하는 힘이 지배적인 미세 유동의 특성을 정확하게 표현할 수 있는 해석 방법에 대해 소개하는 교육 과정입니다. 열적, 전기적 물리 현상을 구현할 수 있도록 관련 예제와 함께 해석 방법을 알려드립니다.

  • 교육 과정명 : 코팅 분야 과정

코팅 공정에 따른 코팅액의 두께, 균일도, 유동 특성 분석을 위한 해석 방법을 소개하는 교육 과정입니다. Slide coating, Dip coating, Spin coating, Curtain coating, Slot coating, Roll coating, Gravure coating 등 각 공정별 예제와 함께 적절한 기능을 습득하실 수 있도록 도와 드립니다.

  • 교육 과정명 : 레이저 용접 분야

레이저 용접 해석을 하기 위한 물리 모델과 용접 조건들을 설정하는 방법에 대해 소개하는 교육 과정입니다. 해석을 통해 용접 공정을 최적화할 수 있도록 관련 예제와 함께 적절한 기능들을 습득할 수 있도록 도와 드립니다.

  • 교육 과정명 : 3D프린팅 분야 과정

Powder Bed Fusion(PBF)와 Directed Energy Deposition(DED) 공정에 대한 해석 방법을 소개하는 교육 과정입니다. 파우더 적층 및 레이저 빔을 조사하면서 동시에 금속 파우더 용융지가 적층되는 공정을 해석하는 방법을 관련 예제와 함께 습득하실 수 있습니다.

  • 교육 과정명 : 해안/해양 분야

해안, 항만, 해양 구조물에 대한 파랑의 영향 및 유체의 수위, 유속, 압력의 영향을 예측할 수 있는 해석 방법을 소개하는 과정입니다. 항주파, 슬로싱, 계류 등 해안, 해양, 에너지, 플랜트 분야 구조물 설계 및 검토에 필요한 유동해석을 하실 수 있는 방법을 알려드립니다. 각 현상에 대한 적절한 예제를 통해 기능을 습득하실 수 있습니다.

  • 교육 과정명 : 우주/항공 분야

항공기 및 우주선의 연료 탱크와 추진체 관리장치의 내부 유동, 엔진 및 터빈 노즐 내부의 유동해석을 하실 수 있도록 관련 메뉴에 대한 설명, 설정 방법을 소개하는 과정입니다. 경계조건 설정, Mesh 방법 등 유동해석을 위한 기본적인 내용과 함께 관련 예제를 통해 기능들을 습득하실 수 있습니다.

기타 고객 맞춤형 과정

상기 과정 이외의 경우 고객의 사업 업무 환경에 적합한 사례를 중심으로 맞춤형 교육을 실시합니다. 필요하신 부분이 있으시면 언제든지 교육 담당자에게 연락하여 협의해 주시기 바랍니다.

고객센터 및 교육 담당자

  • 전화 : 02)2026-0455, 02)2026-0450
  • 이메일 : flow3d@stikorea.co.kr

교육은 정해진 일정에 시행되는 정기 교육과 고객의 요청에 의해 시행되는 특별 교육이 있습니다. 특별 교육이 실시될 경우 홈페이지를 통해 사전 공지를 합니다.

1. 연간교육 일정
FLOW-3D 연간교육일정

2. 교육 내용 : FLOW-3D Basic
  1. FLOW-3D 소개 및 이론
    • FLOW-3D 소개  – 연혁, 특징 등
    • FLOW-3D 기본 개념
      • VOF
      • FAVOR
    • 해석사례 리뷰
  2. GUI 소개 및 사용법
    • 해석 모델 작성법  – 물리 모델 설정
      • 모델 형상 정의
      • 격자 분할
      • 초기 유체 지정
      • 경계 조건 설정
    • 해석 결과 분석 방법  – 해석 모델 설명
  3. 해석 모델 작성 실습
    • 해석 모델 작성 실습  – 격자 분할
      • 물리 모델 설정
      • 모델 형상 및 초기 조건 정의
      • 경계 조건 설정
      • 해석 과정 모니터링
      • 해석 결과 분석
    • 질의 응답 및 토의

3. 교육 과정 : FLOW-3D Advanced
  1. Physics Ⅰ
    • Density evaluation
    • Drift flux
    • Scalars
    • Sediment scour
    • Shallow water
  2. Physics Ⅱ
    • Gravity and non-inertial reference frame
    • Heat transfer
    • Moving objects
    • Solidification
  3. FLOW-3D POST (Post-processor)
    • FLOW-3D POST 소개
    • Interface Basics
    • 예제 실습
Education Banner
  • 교육 신청은 홈페이지의 교육 신청 창에서 최소 3일 전에 신청합니다.
  • 모든 교육과정은 신청 인원이 2인 이상일때 개설되며, 선착순 마감입니다.
  • 교육 신청을 완료하시면, 신청시 입력하신 메일주소로 교육 담당자가 확인 메일을 보내드립니다.
  • 교육 시간은 Basic : 오전10시~오후5시, Advanced : 오후1시30분~오후5시30분까지입니다.
  • 교육비 안내
    • FLOW-3D Basic (2일) : 기업 66만원, 학생 55만원
    • FLOW-3D Basic 레이저용접, 3D 프린팅(2일) : 기업 88만원, 학생 66만원
    • FLOW-3D Advanced (1일) : 기업 33만원, 학생 25만원
    • 상기 가격은 부가세 포함 가격입니다.
  • 교육비는 현금(계좌이체)로 납부 가능하며, 교재 및 중식이 제공됩니다.
  • 세금계산서 발급을 위해 사업자등록증 또는 신분증 사본을 함께 첨부하여 신청해 주시기 바랍니다.
  • 교육 종료 후 이메일로 수료증이 발급됩니다.
고객센터 및 교육 담당자
  • 전화 : 02)2026-0455, 02)2026-0450
  • 이메일 : flow3d@stikorea.co.kr
교육 장소 안내
  • 지하철 1호선/가산디지털단지역 (8번출구), 지하철 7호선/가산디지털단지역 (5번출구)
  • 우림라이온스밸리 B동 302호 또는 교육장
  • 당사 건물에 주차할 경우 무료 주차 1시간만 지원되오니, 가능하면 대중교통을 이용해 주시기 바랍니다.
오시는 길

조선/해양 분야

Coastal & Maritime

FLOW-3D 는 선박설계, 슬로싱 동역학, 파도에 미치는 영향 및 환기를 포함하여 해안 및 해양 관련 분야에 사용할 수 있는 이상적인 소프트웨어입니다.

자유 표면 유체 역학, 파동 생성, 움직이는 물체, 계선 및 용접 공정과 관련한 FLOW-3D 의 기능은 해양 및 해양 산업에서 CFD 공정을 모델링하는 데 매우 적합한 도구입니다. 해안 응용 분야의 경우  FLOW-3D  해안 응용 분야의 경우 FLOW-3D  는 해안 구조물에 대한 심한 폭풍 및 쓰나미 파동의 세부 사항을 정확하게 예측하고 돌발 홍수 및 중요 구조물 홍수 및 피해 분석에 사용됩니다. 기능은 다음과 같습니다.

  • 자유 표면 – 파동 유체 역학 및 오버 토핑 : 규칙 및 불규칙파 및 파동 스펙트럼 (Pierson Moskowitz, JONSWAP)
  • Seakeeping – slamming, planing, porpoising 및 선체 선체 변위 : 완전히 결합된 선박 및 수중 차량 유체 역학
  • 선체 – Resistance, stability and dynamics: surging, heaving, pitching and rolling motion (response amplitude operators or RAOs)
  • 슬로싱 – LNG / 밸러스트 탱크
  • 해양 공학 – 파동 에너지 변환기
 

해안 응용 분야의 경우, FLOW-3D 는 강력한 폭풍과 쓰나미 현상에 의한 해안 구조물이 받는 영향에 대한 세부 사항 예측, 돌발 홍수에 의한 중요한 시설물에 대한 정확한 피해 분석 등을 위해 사용됩니다.

Mooring Lines, Springs and Ropes

FLOW-3D (계류선 및 스프링 등)의 특수 물체를 다른 움직이는 물체에 부착하면 엔지니어가 선박 런칭, 부유 장애물 역학, 부표, 파도에너지 변환기 등을 정확하게 포착할 수 있습니다.

Welding

FLOW-3D 용접 모듈이 추가되면서 조선업계의 용접분야에서는 다공성 등 용접 결함을 최소화할 수 있어 선체의 품질을 크게 높이는 동시에 생산 시간을 최적화할 수 있습니다.

Coastal & Maritime Case Studies

FLOW-3D 사용자들은 연약한 해안선 보호, 구조물에 대한 파장 시뮬레이션, 선체 설계 최적화, 선박 내 환기 연구 등 해안 및 해양 애플리케이션에 FLOW-3D를 사용합니다.

우리는 보트가 세계 항해를 하면서 마주칠 것 같은 다양한 조건에서 항해를 할 수 있는지를 볼 수 있었습니다. 그리고 속도뿐만 아니라 연료 효율과 안전도 고려하도록 설계를 수정할 수 있었습니다.
– Pete Bethune, skipper of Earthrace

Lateral wave impact in waterWave resultsEarthrace vessel
Validation of Sloshing Simulations in Narrow Tanks / Aerial Landslide Generated Wave Simulations / Earthrace: Speed, Fuel Efficiency and Safety
Wave impact vertical displacementEmerged breakwater accropodeStokes theory horizontal velocity
Wave Impact on Offshore StructuresInteraction Between Waves and BreakwatersWave Forces on Coastal Bridges

기타

Bibliography

Models


관련 기술자료

Watershed area

Analysis on inundation characteristics by compound external forces in coastal areas

연안 지역의 복합 외력에 의한 침수 특성 분석 Taeuk KangaDongkyun SunbSangho Leec*강 태욱a선 동균b이 상호c*aResearch Professor, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, ...
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Fig. 3. Breakwaters model in Flow-3D with meshing geometry and boundary (a) circular slots (b) square slots.

Study of Unconventional Alternatives to Vertical Breakwater

수직 방파제에 대한 비전통적 대안 연구 Karim Badr Hussein and Mohamed IbrahimLecturer of Irrigation and Hydraulics, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar ...
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Figure 3. Flow velocity on seawall in A2-3 modeling.

Modeling of the Changes in Flow Velocity on Seawalls under Different Conditions Using FLOW-3D Software

Open Journal of Marine ScienceVol.06 No.02(2016), Article ID:65874,6 pages10.4236/ojms.2016.62026 FLOW-3D 소프트웨어를 사용하여 다양한 조건에서 Seawalls의 흐름 속도 변경 모델링 Maryam Deilami-Tarifi1, ...
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Interaction between oblique waves and arc-shaped breakwater

Interaction between oblique waves and arc-shaped breakwater: Wave action on the breakwater and wave transformation behind it

XinyuHanaShengDongaYizhiWangbaCollege of Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266100, ChinabShandong Harbour Engineering Group Co., Ltd., Rizhao, 276826, China Highlights Interaction ...
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Figure 6. Maximum inundation field in simulations with (a) no barrier on the seawall (red line), (b) a 1 m barrier across the entire sea wall, and (c) a 1.7 m barrier partially installed on the seawall.

Storm surge inundation simulations comparing three-dimensional with two-dimensional models based on Typhoon Maemi over Masan Bay of South Korea

Jae-Seol Shim†, Jinah Kim†, Dong-Chul Kim‡, Kiyoung Heo†, Kideok Do†, Sun-Jung Park ‡† Coastal Disaster Research Center,Korea Institute of Ocean ...
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Fig. 3. Mesh and depth map for the storm surge model of ADCSWAN model.

ADCSWAN과 FLOW-3D 모델을 이용한 태풍 차바 내습 시 부산 마린시티의 침수범람 재현

최흥배․엄호식†․박종집․강태욱*, *** ㈜지오시스템리서치 선임, ** ㈜지오시스템리서치 책임, **** 부경대학교 박사 Reproduction of Flood Inundation in Marine City, Busan During the ...
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A photo of HeMOSU-1.

FLOW-3D를 이용한 해상 자켓구조물 주변의 세굴 수치모의 실험

Numerical Simulation Test of Scour around Offshore Jacket Structure using FLOW-3D J Korean Soc Coast Ocean Eng. 2015;27(6):373-381Publication date (electronic) ...
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Figure 6. Scour depth (in negative value) at different views around pier

Three-dimensional numerical simulation of local scour around circular bridge pier using Flow-3D software

Flow-3D 소프트웨어를 이용한 원형 교각 주변 지역 scour의 3 차원 수치 시뮬레이션 To cite this article: Halah Kais Jalal and ...
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圖1. 1 南海孤立內波空間分布圖(Hsu et al., 2000)

Numerical Modeling on Internal Solitary Wave propagation over an obstacle using Flow-3D

Keyword: Internal solitary waves, Numerical, Flow-3D, Computational Fluid Dynamics 연구자 : Yu-Ren Chen지도교수 : Dr John R C HsuJune 2012 ...
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유압 헤드 계산에서는 유선이 평행하다고 가정

FLOW-3D Output variables(출력 변수)

Output variables(출력 변수) FLOW-3D에서 주어진 시뮬레이션의 정확한 출력은 어떤 물리적 모델, 출력 위젯에 정의된 추가 출력 및 특정 구성 요소별 ...
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FLOW-3D 제품소개

About FLOW-3D


HPC-enabled FLOW-3D v12.0

FLOW-3D 개발 회사

Flow Science Inc Logo Green.svg
IndustryComputational Fluid Dynamics Software
Founded1980
FounderDr. C.W. “Tony” Hirt
Headquarters
Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA
United States
Key people
Dr. Amir Isfahani, President & CEO
ProductsFLOW-3D, FLOW-3D CAST, FLOW-3D AM, FLOW-3D CLOUD, FlowSight
ServicesCFD consultation and services

FLOW-3D 개요

FLOW-3D는 미국 뉴멕시코주(New Mexico) 로스알라모스(Los Alamos)에 있는 Flow Scicence, Inc에서 개발한 범용 전산유체역학(Computational Fluid Dynamics) 프로그램입니다. 로스알라모스 국립연구소의 수치유체역학 연구실에서 F.Harlow, B. Nichols 및 T.Hirt 등에 의해 개발된 MAC(Marker and Cell) 방법과 SOLA-VOF 방식을 기초로 하여, Hirt 박사가 1980년에 Flow Science, Inc사를 설립하여 계속 프로그램을 발전시켰으며 1985년부터 FLOW-3D를 전세계에 배포하였습니다.

유체의 3차원 거동 해석을 수행하는데 사용되는 CFD모형은 몇몇 있으나, 유동해석에 적용할 물리모델 선정은 해석의 정밀도와 밀접한 관계가 있으므로, 해석하고자 하는 대상의 유동 특성을 분석하여 신중하게 결정하여야 합니다.

FLOW-3D는 자유표면(Free Surface) 해석에 있어서 매우 정확한 해석 결과를 제공합니다. 해석방법은 자유표면을 포함한 비정상 유동 상태를 기본으로 하며, 연속방정식, 3차원 운동량 보전방정식(Navier-Stokes eq.) 및 에너지 보존방정식 등을 적용할 수 있습니다.

FLOW-3D는 유한차분법을 사용하고 있으며, 유한요소법(FEM, Finite Element Method), 경계요소법(Boundary Element Method)등을 포함하여 자유표면을 포함하는 유동장 해석(Fluid Flow Analysis)에서 공기와 액체의 경계면을 정밀하게 표현 가능합니다.

유체의 난류 해석에 대해서는 혼합길이 모형, 난류 에너지 모형, RNG(Renormalized Group Theory)  k-ε 모형, k-ω 모형, LES 모형 등 6개 모형을 적용할 수 있으며, 자유표면 해석을 위하여 VOF(Volume of Fluid) 방정식을 사용하고, 격자 생성시 사용자가 가장 쉽게 만들 수 있는 직각형상격자는 형상을 더욱 정확하게 표현하기 위해 FAVOR(Fractional Area Volume Obstacle Representation) 기법을 각 방정식에 적용하고 있습니다.

FLOW-3D는 비압축성(Incompressible Fluid Flow), 압축성 유체(Compressible Fluid Flow)의 유동현상 뿐만 아니라 고체와의 열전달 현상을 해석할 수 있으며, 비정상 상태의 해석을 기본으로 합니다.

FLOW-3D v12.0은 모델 설정을 간소화하고 사용자 워크 플로우를 개선하는 GUI(그래픽 사용자 인터페이스)의 설계 및 기능에 있어 중요한 변화를 가져왔습니다. 최첨단 Immersed Boundary Method는 FLOW-3Dv12.0솔루션의 정확도를 높여 줍니다. 다른 특징적인 주요 개발에는 슬러지 안착 모델, 2-유체 2-온도 모델, 사용자가 자유 표면 흐름을 훨씬 더 빠르게 모델링 할 수 있는 Steady State Accelerator등이 있습니다.

물리 및 수치 모델

Immersed Boundary Method

힘과 에너지 손실에 대한 정확한 예측은 솔리드 바디 주변의 흐름과 관련된 많은 엔지니어링 문제를 모델링하는 데 중요합니다. FLOW-3D v12.0의 릴리스에는 이러한 문제 해결을 위해 설계된 새로운 고스트 셀 기반 Immersed Boundary Method (IBM)가 포함되어 있습니다. IBM은 내부 및 외부 흐름을 위해 벽 근처 해석을 위해 보다 정확한 솔루션을 제공하여 드래그 앤 리프트 힘의 계산을 개선합니다.

Two-field temperature for the two-fluid model

2유체 열 전달 모델은 각 유체에 대한 에너지 전달 공식을 분리하도록 확장되었습니다. 이제 각 유체에는 고유한 온도 변수가 있어 인터페이스 근처의 열 및 물질 전달 솔루션의 정확도를 향상시킵니다. 인터페이스에서의 열 전달은 시간의 표 함수가 될 수 있는 사용자 정의 열 전달 계수에 의해 제어됩니다.

슬러지 침전 모델 / Sludge settling model

중요 추가 기능인 새로운 슬러지 침전 모델은 도시 수처리 시설물 응용 분야에 사용하면 수처리 탱크 및 정화기의 고형 폐기물 역학을 모델링 할 수 있습니다. 침전 속도가 확산된 위상의 방울 크기에 대한 함수인 드리프트-플럭스 모델과 달리, 침전 속도는 슬러지 농도의 함수이며 기능적인 형태와 표 형태로 모두 입력 할 수 있습니다.

Steady-state accelerator for free surface flows

이름이 암시하듯이, 정상 상태 가속기는 안정된 상태의 솔루션에 대한 접근을 가속화합니다. 이는 작은 진폭의 중력과 모세관 현상을 감쇠하여 이루어지며 자유 표면 흐름에만 적용됩니다.

꾸준한 상태 가속기

Void particles

보이드 입자가 버블 및 위상 변경 모델에 추가되었습니다. 보이드 입자는 항력과 압력 힘을 통해 유체와 상호 작용하는 작은 기포의 역할을 하는 붕괴된 보이드 영역을 나타냅니다. 주변 유체 압력에 따라 크기가 변경되고 시뮬레이션이 끝난 후 최종 위치는 공기 침투 가능성을 나타냅니다.

Sediment scour model

침전물의 정확성과 안정성을 향상시키기 위해 침전물의 운반과 침식 모델을 정밀 조사하였다. 특히, 침전물 종에 대한 질량 보존이 크게 개선되었습니다.

Outflow pressure boundary condition

고정 압력 경계 조건에는 이제 압력 및 유체 비율을 제외한 모든 유량이 해당 경계의 상류에 있는 흐름 조건을 반영하는 ‘유출’ 옵션이 포함됩니다. 유출 압력 경계 조건은 고정 압력 및 연속성 경계 조건의 혼합입니다.

Moving particle sources

시뮬레이션 중에 입자 소스는 이동할 수 있습니다. 시간에 따른 변환 및 회전 속도는 표 형식으로 정의됩니다. 입자 소스의 운동은 소스에서 방출 된 입자의 초기 속도에 추가됩니다.

Variable center of gravity

중력 및 비 관성 기준 프레임 모델에서 시간 함수로서의 무게 중심의 위치는 외부 파일의 표로 정의할 수 있습니다. 이 기능은 연료를 소모하는 로켓을 모델링하고 단계를 분리할 때 유용합니다.

공기 유입 모델

가장 간단한 부피 기반 공기 유입 모델 옵션이 기존 질량 기반 모델로 대체되었습니다.  질량 기반 모델은 부피와 달리 주변 유체 압력에 따라 부피가 변화하는 동안 흡입된 공기량이 보존되기 때문에 물리학적 모델입니다.

Air entrainment model in FLOW-3D v12.0

Tracer diffusion / 트레이서 확산

유동 표면에서 생성된 추적 물질은 분자 및 난류 확산 과정에 의해 확산될 수 있으며, 예를 들어 실제 오염 물질의 거동을 모방합니다.

모델 설정

시뮬레이션 단위

이제 온도를 포함하여 단위계 시스템을 완전히 정의해야 합니다. 표준 단위 시스템이 제공됩니다. 또한 사용자는 선택한 옵션에서 질량, 시간 및 길이 단위를 정의하여 편리하며, 사용자 정의된 단위를 사용할 수 있습니다. 사용자는 또한 압력이 게이지 단위로 정의되는지 절대 단위로 정의되는지 여부를 지정해야 합니다. 기본 시뮬레이션 단위는 Preferences(기본 설정)에서 설정할 수 있습니다. 단위를 완벽하게 정의하면 FLOW-3D는 물리적 수량에 대한 기본 값을 정의하고 범용 상수를 설정할 수 있으므로 사용자가 필요로 하는 작업량을 최소화할 수 있습니다.

Shallow water model

얕은 물 모델에서 매닝의 거칠기

Manning의 거칠기 계수는 지형 표면의 전단 응력 평가를 위해 얕은 물 모델에서 구현되었습니다. 표면 결함의 크기를 기반으로 기존 거칠기 모델을 보완하며이 모델과 함께 사용할 수 있습니다. 표준 거칠기와 마찬가지로 매닝 계수는 구성 요소 또는 하위 구성 요소의 속성이거나 지형 래스터 데이터 세트에서 가져올 수 있습니다.

메시 생성

하단 및 상단 경계 좌표의 정의만으로 수직 방향의 메시 설정이 단순화되었습니다.

구성 요소 변환

사용자는 이제 여러 하위 구성 요소로 구성된 구성 요소에 회전, 변환 및 스케일링 변환을 적용하여 복잡한 형상 어셈블리 설정 프로세스를 단순화 할 수 있습니다. GMO (General Moving Object) 구성 요소의 경우, 이러한 변환을 구성 요소의 대칭 축과 정렬되도록 신체에 맞는 좌표계에 적용 할 수 있습니다.

런타임시 스레드 수 변경

시뮬레이션 중에 솔버가 사용하는 스레드 수를 변경하는 기능이 런타임 옵션 대화 상자에 추가되어 사용 가능한 스레드를 추가하거나 다른 태스크에 자원이 필요한 경우 스레드 수를 줄일 수 있습니다.

프로브 제어 열원

활성 시뮬레이션 제어가 형상 구성 요소와 관련된 heat sources로 확장되었습니다.  history probes로 열 방출을 제어 할 수 있습니다.

소스에서 시간에 따른 온도

질량 및 질량/모멘트 소스의 유체 온도는 이제 테이블 입력을 사용하여 시간의 함수로 정의 할 수 있습니다.

방사율 계수

공극으로의 복사 열 전달을위한 방사율 계수는 이제 사용자가 방사율과 스테판-볼츠만 상수를 지정하도록 요구하지 않고 직접 정의됩니다. 후자는 이제 단위 시스템을 기반으로 솔버에 의해 자동으로 설정됩니다.

Output

  • 등속 필드 솔버 옵션을 사용할 때 유량 속도를 선택한 데이터로 출력 할 수 있습니다.
  • 벽 접착력으로 인한 지오메트리 구성 요소의 토크는 기존 벽 접착력 출력과 함께 별도의 수량으로 일반 이력 데이터에 출력됩니다.
  • 난류 모델 출력이 요청 될 때 난류 에너지 및 소산과 함께 전단 속도 및 y +가 선택된 데이터로 자동 출력됩니다.
  • 공기 유입 모델 출력에 몇 가지 수량이 추가되었습니다. 자유 표면을 포함하는 모든 셀에서 혼입 된 공기 및 빠져 나가는 공기의 체적 플럭스가 재시작 및 선택된 데이터로 출력되어 사용자에게 공기가 혼입 및 탈선되는 위치 및 시간에 대한 자세한 정보를 제공합니다. 전체 계산 영역 및 각 샘플링 볼륨 에 대해이 두 수량의 시간 및 공간 통합 등가물이 일반 히스토리 로 출력됩니다.
  • 솔버의 출력 파일 flsgrf 의 최종 크기는 시뮬레이션이 끝날 때 보고됩니다.
  • 2 유체 시뮬레이션의 경우, 기존의 출력 수량 유체 체류 시간 및 유체 가 이동 한 거리는 이제 유체 # 1 및 # 2와 유체의 혼합물에 대해 별도로 계산됩니다.
  • 질량 입자의 경우, 각 종의 총 부피 및 질량이 계산되어 전체 계산 영역, 샘플링 볼륨 및 플럭스 표면에 대한 일반 히스토리 로 출력되어 입자 종 수에 대한 현재 출력을 보완합니다.
  • 최종 로컬 가스 압력 은 사용자가 가스 포획을 식별하고 연료 탱크의 배기 시스템 설계를 지원하는 데 도움이되는 선택적 출력량으로 추가되었습니다. 이 양은 유체로 채워지기 전에 셀의 마지막 공극 압력을 기록하며 단열 버블 모델과 함께 사용됩니다.

새로운 맞춤형 소스 루틴

새로운 사용자 정의 가능 소스 루틴이 추가되었으며 사용자의 개발 환경에서 액세스 할 수 있습니다.

소스 루틴 이름기술
cav_prod_calCavitation 생성과 소산 비율
sldg_uset슬러지 침전 속도
phchg_mass_flux증발 및 응축으로 인한 질량 플럭스
flhtccl유체 # 1과 # 2 사이의 열전달 계수
dsize_cal2 상 흐름에서 동적 액적 크기 모델의 응집 및 분해 속도
elstc_custom점탄성 유체에 대한 응력 방정식의 Source Terms

새로운 사용자 인터페이스

FLOW-3D 사용자 인터페이스는 완전히 새롭게 디자인되어 현대적이고 평평한 구조로 사용자의 작업 흐름을 획기적으로 간소화합니다.

Setup dock widgets

Physics, Fluids, Mesh 및 FAVOR ™를 포함한 모든 설정 작업이 지오 메트리 윈도우 주변에서 독 위젯으로 변환되어 모델 설정을 단일 탭으로 요약할 수 있습니다. 이러한 전환으로 인해 이전 버전의 복잡한 접이식 트리가 훨씬 깨끗하고 효율적인 메뉴 프레젠테이션으로 대체되어 사용자는 ModelSetup탭을 떠나지 않고도 모든 매개 변수에 쉽게 액세스 할 수 있습니다.

New Model Setup icons

새로운 모델 설정 디자인에는 설정 프로세스의 각 단계를 나타내는 새로운 아이콘이 있습니다.

Model setup icons - FLOW-3D v12.0

New Physics icons

RSS feed

새 RSS 피드부터 FLOW-3D v12.0의 시뮬레이션 관리자 탭이 개선되었습니다. FLOW-3D 를 시작하면 사용자에게 Flow Science의 최신 뉴스, 이벤트 및 블로그 게시물이 표시됩니다.

RSS feed - FLOW-3D

Configurable simulation monitor

시뮬레이션을 실행할 때 중요한 작업은 모니터링입니다. FLOW-3Dv1.0에서는 사용자가 시뮬레이션을 더 잘 모니터링할 수 있도록 SimulationManager의 플로팅 기능이 향상되었습니다. 사용자는 시뮬레이션 런타임 그래프를 통해 모니터링할 사용 가능한 모든 일반 기록 데이터 변수를 선택하고 각 그래프에 여러 변수를 추가할 수 있습니다. 이제 런타임에서 사용할 수 있는 일반 기록 데이터는 다음과 같습니다.

  • 최소/최대 유체 온도
  • 프로브 위치의 온도
  • 유동 표면 위치에서의 유량
  • 시뮬레이션 진단(예:시간 단계, 안정성 한계)
출입문에 유동 표면이 있는 대형 댐
Runtime plots of the flow rate at the gates of the large dam

Conforming 메쉬 시각화

사용자는 이제 새로운 FAVOR ™ 독 위젯을 통해 적합한 메쉬 블록을 시각화 할 수 있습니다.Visualize conforming mesh blocks

Large raster and STL data

데이터를 처리하는 데 걸리는 시간 때문에 큰 지오 메트리 데이터를 처리하는 것은 수고스러울 수 있습니다. 대형 지오 메트리 데이터를 처리하는 데는 여전히 상당한 시간이 걸릴 수 있지만, FLOW-3D는 이제 이러한 대규모 데이터 세트를 백그라운드 작업으로 로드하여 사용자가 데이터를 처리하는 동안 완전히 응답하고 중단 없는 인터페이스에서 작업을 계속할 수 있습니다

[FLOW-3D 이론] Shallow Water Model / 천해모델

Shallow Water Model / 천해모델

천해유동은 수평의 규모가 수직의 규모보다 훨씬 큰유동이다. 그 예로 바다, 하구, 큰 호수,계절적 홍수,액체 코딩, 윤활막, 그리고 자동차 앞유리의 물 등의 유동이 있다.

천해유동에서 유체의 수직가속도는 무시할 정도이고 깊이 평균 등가로 모든 유동방정식 변수들을 치환할 수 있는 3차원 유동에의 좋은 근사법이다[Ped87]. 이 때 3차원 운동방정식은 천해 유동식 또는 천해 유동모델이라 불리는 수평 방향에서의 2차원식으로 축소된다. 이 모델에서 유체의 자유표면은 파동현상을 표현 할 수 있다. 불균일 수평경계(예, 경사가 있는 해변)는 순수 수평유동으로부터 약간의 편차가 있을 수 있다. 이런 의미에서 깊이 평균된 근사는 어느 정도의 3차원효과를 포함한다. 참고[Kna78], [SG69]에서 천해 방정식과 이의 고차원 개선에 관한 훌륭한 논의가 있다.

FLOW-3D에서의 천해 유동모델은 얕은 방향이z-방향이고 중력은 음의z-방향이다. 깊이 평균이 방향에서의 3차원 모멘텀 방정식에 적용될 때 이는 압력에 대한 수압 관련식으로 간소화 된다.

p = p0 + ρg(η z)                                                                         (10.256)

유체밀도ρ, 수직 중력가속도g, z = 0로부터 측정된 수위 그리고 자유표면 상의 표면 장력 효과를 포함하는 자유표면에서의 외부압력p0의 항으로.

FLOW-3D에서 천해유동은 단지 유한체적의 한수직층 내에서만 존재할 수 있다(즉, z-방향의 실제 첫째 층 셀). 자유표면을 포함하는 한 요소내 압력은 다음으로 정의되며,

p = p0 + ρgH                                                                              (10.257)

여기서H는 격자 바닥으로부터 측정된 표면수위이다. 그러므로H는 유체깊이와 물체높이의 합이며,

H = FVFδz + (1 − VF)δz                                                                    (10.258)

 

여기서δz는z방향의 셀크기, F는 유체분율 그리고 VF 는 체적율(셀내의 열려진 체적량)이다.

FAVORTM기법에서 사용되는 체적/면적 폐색이 바닥 윤곽의 높이로써 설명될 수 있다. 이렇게 할때FLOW-3D에서 사용된 모든 근사가 유한 체적의 바닥에 확실한 폐색이 있게끔 하는 것이 단지 필요하다.

3차원 모멘텀방정식에 깊이 평균을 수평방향에서 적용하면 천해모델에 대한 모멘텀방정식을 얻으며,

   (10.259)

   (10.260)

여기서u v는 각기 깊이평균x y속도이다. 식(10.259) 와 (10.260)에서 만들어진 하나의 추가 가정은 수평방향의 점성확산은 수직방향의 확선에 비해 무시할 만하다는 것이다. 식 우측의 세번째항은 수직방향의 점성확산의 깊이평균 효과를 고려하는데 이는 자유표면에서의 바람에 의한 전단 응력과 저수지 바닥에서의 전단 응력의 합에 연관되어 있다. 여기서d는 수심; τs,x τs,y는 각x y방향에서의 유체표면에서의 바람 전단응력이다. τb,x τb,y 는 각기 바닥 전단 응력의x y방향성분이다. τs,x τs,y는 2차법칙을 따르며,

   (10.261)

   (10.262)

 

여기서

  • ρa는 공기밀도,
  • CD는 일반적으로 0.003에해당하는 풍항력계수
  • W10,x W10,y는 각기 수표면10M상에서의 바람의x y속도.

식(10.262)은 풍속이 유체의 속도보다 훨씬 큰 것을가정한다.

난류유동에서 천해유동모델은FLOW-3D에 있는 어떤 난류모델도 사용하지 않는다. 대신에 바닥에서의 전단응력을 계산하기 위해 2차법칙을 사용하며,

   (10.263)

여기서CD는 항력계수이다. CD는 디폴트 값이 0.0026인 사용자 정의된 값이거나 다음 식에 의해 계산되며,

   (10.264)

where κ = 0.4 is Von Karman constant, B=0.71, z0 = ks/30, ks is surface roughness.

여기서κ = 0.4는Von Karman상수이고, B=0.71, z0 = ks/30, ks는 표면조도이다.

For laminar flow, τb,x and τb,y are calculated as

층류유동에대해τb,x τb,y는 다음과같이 계산되며,

             (10.265)

 

여기서 kµ 는 수직방향에서의 부족한 속도 개요를 보상하기 위해 계획된 수직점도 승수이다. 수직방향에서 2차속도 프로필을 가지는 정상상태의 전단유동에서kµ의 이론적 값은 1.5이다.

식(10.259) 또는 (10.260)에서의 마지막 항은 지구의 자전에 의한Coriolis힘을 나타낸다. Coriolis힘은 바다, 하구 그리고 큰호수 같은 곳에서의 유동같은 지구물리적 유동에서 중요하다. 이항에서Ω는 지구 회전속도의 수직 성분이며,

Ω = Ωe sinϕ                                                                              (10.266)

where: 여기서

  • e = 7.29 × 10−5 rad/s는 지구의 각속도이며
  • ϕ는 일정한(즉, 유동영역내 평균) 위도이다. 북반구에서는 양의수이고 남반구에서는 음의수이다.

3차원 연속방정식을 깊이평균하고 식(10.258)을 이용하여 유체높이로 치환한 후x 와 y방향에대한 적합한 면적율을 고려하면 다음에 도달한다.

   (10.267)

이는 천해유동모델(식(10.19) 참조)에 필요한 제약인 z방향으로F의 이송이 없다고 가정하면, 정확하게 유동에 대한VOF 방법에서 하나의 수평층 유한체적을 가지는사용된F에 대한 방정식이다. 천해 유동 모델에 대한VOF 방법은 유체가 없는 지역으로 들어가던지 또는 전에 유체가있던지역으로부터 배수되는 것을 허용한다.

식(10.257), (10.259), (10.260) 와 (10.267)들은 외재적으로 해를 구할 수 있는데 이 경우 중력파동이 한 시간단계에 한 격자셀보다 더 움직이는 것을 방지하기 위해 시간단계의 크기에 대한 제약이 있다. 내재적 반복해석법 이용 가능하며 이는 이런 제약을 없앤다. 내재적 선택이 디폴트로 사용된다.

천해 유동모델은hybrid접근법에서 다중 블럭 망을 사용하여 완전 3차원 방정식해석과 결합될 수 있다. 한 주어진 망 블럭은 천해 또는 3차원 형태의 망 블럭이다. 어느 블럭들이나 서로의 공통 경계에서 서로 경계면을 가진다. 블럭들은 서로가 연결되어 있거나(겹치지않게) 또는 다른 블록 안에 완전히 포함되어 있다(완전히 겹치는).

천해형태의 망 블럭은 z-방향으로 바닥셀은 전체가 유체로 차있고 위의 셀은 유체나 형상이없는 적어도 두 셀을 가져야 한다. 유체는단지 셀의 가장 밑바닥에만 실재해야하므로 둘 이상의 셀을 사용하는 것의 의미가 없다. 그러므로z방향에서의 셀의 크기는 모사 기간 중에 모든 유체가 포함되도록 충분히 커야한다. 유체가 위층의 셀로 넘어가면 에러가 생성될 것이다. z방향셀의 두번째 셀들은 유체나 형상이 없도록 남겨져야 한다. 이는 모델이 밑에 층에서의 자유표면을 적절히 처리하게끔 해준다.

파도 / Waves

파도 / Waves

FLOW-3D 는 비정형 파뿐만 아니라 일반 선형 및 비선형파 표면을 시뮬레이션 할 수 있는 기능이 있습니다. 선형파는 작은 진폭 및 급경사를 갖는 사인파 표면 프로파일을 가지며, 비선형파는 선형 파보다 더 큰 진폭 (유한 진폭), 더 뾰족한 볏 및 평탄한 골짜기를 갖는다. 비선형 파는 파동 문자와 그 해를 구하기 위해 사용 된 수학적 방법에 따라 스톡 (stookes), 코니이드 (cnoidal) 파 및 독방 파로 분류 될 수 있습니다.

그림 1. 다른 진행파의 프로파일 비교
도 1 및도 2에 도시 된 바와 같이, 스톡스 파는 심층 및 과도수의 주기적인 파이다. Cnoidal 파는 얕은 물과 중간 물에서 긴주기적인 파이고 Stokes 파보다 더 뾰족한 볏과 평평한 골짜기를 가지고 있습니다. 스톡스와 코니 형 파와 달리 독방 파는 얕은 물과 과도 수에서 존재하는 비 주기적 파이다. 그것은 하나의 산마루와 물마루를 가지며 완전히 방해받지 않은 수면 위입니다. 수학적으로 파장이 무한대가 될 때 그것은 코니 형 파의 제한적인 경우입니다. 심층수, 과도 수 및 파도에 대한 얕은 물의 분류는 표 1에서 찾아 볼 수있다.

그림 2. 다양한 파도의 적용 범위 (Le Méhauté, 1976, Sorensen, 2005 및 USACE, 2008). d : 평균 수심; H : 파고; T : 파주기; g : 중력 가속도

선형 파 이론 (Airy, 1845)이 많은 응용 분야에서 사용되었지만 비선형 파 이론은 파동의 진폭이 작지 않은 경우 선형 파 이론보다 정확도가 크게 향상되었습니다. FLOW-3D 에서 3 개의 비선형 파 이론이 5 차 스톡스 파 이론 (Fenton, 1985), 스톡스 및 코니이드 파에 대한 푸리에 급수 방법 (Fenton, 1999), McCowan의 독방 파 이론 (McCowan, 1891, Munk, 1949). 그 중에서 Fenton의 Fourier 시리즈 방법은 선형 물, 스톡 (Stokes) 및 코니형 (cnoidal) 파를 포함하여 심층수, 과도 수 및 얕은 물에서 모든 종류의 주기적 전파 파들에 유효합니다. 또한 다른 웨이브 이론보다 정확도가 높습니다 (USACE, 2008). 따라서 모든 수심에서 선형 및 비선형 주기파의 모든 유형을 생성하는 것이 권장되는 방법입니다. solitary wave의 경우, FLOW-3D 에 사용 된 McCowan의 이론은 Boussinesq (1871)에 의해 개발 된 다른 널리 사용되는 이론보다 더 높은 주문 정확도를 갖는다.

그림 3. PM과 JOHNSWAP 스펙트럼 (USCE, 2006에서 적응)

Classifications d /\lambda
Deep water 1/2 to ∞
Transitional water 1/20 to 1/2
Shallow water 0 to 1/20

불규칙한 물결은 파도의 물성이 일정하지 않은 자연적인 바다의 상태를 나타냅니다. FLOW-3D에서 불규칙한 파동은 다양한 진폭과 주파수 및 임의의 위상 변이를 갖는 많은 선형 성분 파의 중첩으로 표현됩니다. Pierson-Moskowitz (Pierson and Moskowitz, 1964)와 JONSWAP 파력 에너지 스펙트럼 (Hasselmann, et al., 1973)은 FLOW-3D에서 구성 요소 파를 생성하기 위해 구현된다. 다른 웨이브 에너지 스펙트럼은 사용자 정의 데이터 파일을 가져와서 사용할 수 있습니다.

계산 시간을 절약하기 위해 웨이브는 메시 블록 경계에서뿐만 아니라 초기 조건으로 정의 될 수 있습니다.

아래의 애니메이션은 웨이브 초기화가 있거나없는 웨이브의 모든 유형에 대한 예제를 보여줍니다.
선형 및 비선형 수위 시뮬레이션을 위해 FLOW-3D 의 성공적인 적용이 이루어졌습니다. Bhinder 외의 예를 참조하십시오. al (2009), Chen (2012), Hsu et. al (2012) Thanyamanta et. al (2011) 및 Yilmaz et. 자세한 내용은 알 (2011)을 참조하십시오.






References

Airy, G. B., 1845, Tides and Waves, Encyc. Metrop. Article 102.

Bhinder, M. A., Mingham, C. G., Causon, D. M., Rahmati, M. T., Aggidis, G. A. and Chaplin, R.V., 2009, A Joint Numerical And Experimental Study Of a Surging Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converter (WRASPA), Proceedings of the ASME 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2009-79392, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Boussinesq, J., 1871, Theorie de L’intumescence Liquide Appelee Onde Solitaire ou de Translation se Propageant dans un Canal Rectangulaire, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol 72, pp. 755-759.

Chen, C. H., 2012, Study on the Application of FLOW-3D for Wave Energy Dissipation by a Porous Structure, Master’s Thesis: Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University.

Fenton, J. D., 1985, A Fifth-Order Stokes Theory for Steady Waves, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 111, No. 2.

Fenton, J. D., 1999, Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Waves, Advances in Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 5, ed. P.L.-F. Liu, pp. 241-324, World Scientific: Singapore, 1999.

Hasselmann, K., Barnet, T. P., Bouws, E., Carlson, H., Cartwright, D. E., Enke, K., Ewing, J. A., Gienapp, H., Hasselmann, D. E., Kruseman, P., Meerburg, A., Muller, P., Olbers, D. J., Richter, K., Sell, W., and Walden, H., 1973, Measurement of Wind-Wave Growth and Swell Decay During the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP), German Hydrographic Institute, Amburg.

Hsu, T. W., Lai, J. W. and Lan, Y., J., 2012, Experimental and Numerical Studies on Wave Propagation over Coarse Grained Sloping Beach, Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering, No 32 (2010), Shanghai, China.

Kamphuis, J. M., 2000, Introduction to Coastal Engineering and Management, World Scientific, Singapore.

Le Méhauté, B., 1976, An Introduction to Hydrodynamics and Water Waves, Springer-Verlag.

McCowan, J., 1891, On the solitary wave, Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 32, pp. 45-58.

Munk, W. H., 1949, The Solitary Wave Theory and Its Application to Surf Problems, Annals New York Acad. Sci., Vol 51, pp 376-423.

Pierson W. J. and Moskowitz, L., 1964, A proposed spectral form for fully developed wind seas based on the similarity theory of S.A. Kitiagordskii, J. Geophys. Res. 9, pp. 5181-5190.

Thanyamanta, W., Herrington, P. and Molyneux, D., 2011, Wave patterns, wave induced forces and moments for a gravity based structure predicted using CFD, Proceedings of the ASME 2011, 30th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2011, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

USACE (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), 2006, Coastal Engineering Manual, EM 1110-2-1100, Washington, DC.

Yilmaz, N., Trapp, G. E., Gagan, S. M. and Emmerich, T., R., 2011 CFD Supported Examination of Buoy Design for Wave Energy Conversion, IGEC-VI-2011-173, pp. 537-541

The Sedimentation Scour Model [침전 세굴(쇄굴) 모델]

1. Introduction
The three-dimensional sediment scour model for non-cohesive soils was first introduced to FLOW-3D in Version 8.0 to simulate sediment erosion and deposition (Brethour, 2003). It was coupled with the three-dimensional fluid dynamics and considered entrainment, drifting and settling of sediment grains. In Version 9.4 the model was improved by introducing bedload transport and multiple sediment species (Brethour and Burnham, 2010). Although applications were successfully simulated, a major limitation of the model was the approximate treatment of the interface between the packed and suspended sediments. The packed bed was represented by scalars rather than FAVORTM (Fractional Area Volume Obstacle Representation, the standard treatment for solid components in FLOW-3D). As a result, limited information about the packed bed interface was available. That made accurate calculation of bed shear stress, a critical factor determining the model accuracy, challenging.

In this work, the 3D sediment scour model is mostly redeveloped and rewritten. The model is still fully coupled with fluid flow, allows multiple non-cohesive species and considers entrainment, deposition, bedload transport and suspended load transport. The fundamental difference from the old model is that the packed bed is described by the FAVORTM technique. At each time step, area and volume fractions describing the packed sediments are calculated throughout the domain. In the mesh cells at the bed interface, the location, orientation and area of the interface are calculated and used to determine the bed shear stress, the critical Shields parameter, the erosion rate and the bedload transport rate. Bed shear stress is evaluated using the standard wall function with consideration of bed surface roughness that is related to the median grain size d50. A sub-mesh method is developed and implemented to calculate bedload transport. Computation of erosion considers entrainment and deposition simultaneously in addition to bedload transport.

Furthermore, a shallow-water sediment scour model is developed in this work by adapting the new 3D model. It is coupled with the 2D shallow water flows to calculate depth-averaged properties for both suspended and packed sediments. Its main differences from the 3D model are 1) the settling velocity of grains is calculated using an existing equation instead of the drift-flux approach in the 3D model, and 2) turbulent bed shear stress is calculated using a well-accepted quadratic law rather than the log wall function. The drag coefficient for the bed shear stress is either user-given or locally evaluated using the water depth and the bed surface roughness that is proportional to d50 of the bed material. The following sections present the sediment theory used in the model and application and validation cases.

Sample Problem for Free Surface Hydraulics [자유표면 유압문제 샘플]

The field of open-channel hydraulics is filled with many interesting and complicated fluid dynamics problem. Large scale channel flows can often be adequately treated using simplified shallow water analysis methods, but localized flows around ge\ates, wairs, and other structures generally require more sophisticated methods.

물리 모델 소개

FLOW-3D 는 고도의 정확성이 필요한 항공, 자동차,  수자원 및 환경, 금속 산업분야의 세계적인 선진 기업에서 사용됩니다.

FLOW-3D의 광범위한 다중 물리 기능(multiphysics )은 자유 표면 흐름, 표면 장력, 열전달, 난류, 움직이는 물체, 단순 변형 고체, 전기 기계, 캐비테이션, 탄/소성, 점성, 가소성, 입자, 고체 연료, 연소 및 위상 변화를 포함합니다.
이러한 모델은 FLOW-3D를 사용하는 사용자들이 기술 및 과학의 광범위한 문제를 해결하도록 설계를 최적화하고 복잡한 프로세스 흐름에 대한 통찰력을 얻을 수 있도록 합니다.

flow-3d-multiphysics-model
Physics Models
Flow/Fluid Modes

Materials Databases

  • Fluids Database
  • Solids Database

매우 정확한
시뮬레이션 결과

FAVOR, 으로 알려진 특별한 메쉬 프로세스는 데카르트 구조의 단순함을 유지하면서 복잡한 형상을 효율적으로 구현합니다.

Optimized Setup
and Workflow

TruVOF 표면 추적 방법은 유동시뮬레이션을 위해 알려진 유체 체적을 사용하는 동안 가장 높은 정확도를 제공합니다.

FlowSight
Postprocessing

산업계에서 최고의 시각화 postprocessor인 FlowSight 는 사용자에게 2차원 및 3차원에 대한 심층 분석 기능을 제공합니다.

 

Coastal & Maritime Bibliography

Coastal & Maritime Bibliography

다음은 연안 및 해양 분야의 기술 문서 모음입니다.
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  결과를 포함하고 있습니다. FLOW-3D를 사용하여 연안 및 해양 시설물을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션 하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

2021년 8월 26일 Update

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Coastal & Maritime Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate Coastal & Maritime applications.

64-21   Pin-Tzu Su, Chen-shan Kung, Effects of diffusers on discharging jet, 31st International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Rhodes, Greece, June 20-25, 2021.

62-21   Fei Wu, Wei Li, Shuzhao Li, Xiaopeng Shen, Delong Dong, Numerical simulation of scour of backfill soil by jetting flows on the top of buried caisson, 31st International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Rhodes, Greece, June 20-25, 2021.

56-21   Murat Aksel, Oral Yagci, V.S. Ozgur Kirca, Eryilmaz Erdog, Naghmeh Heidari, A comparitive analysis of coherent structures around a pile over rigid-bed and scoured-bottom, Ocean Engineering, 226; 108759, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.108759

52-21   Byeong Wook Lee, Changhoon Lee, Equation for ship wave crests in a uniform current in the entire range of water depths, Coastal Engineering, 167; 103900, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2021.103900

43-21   Agnieszka Faulkner, Claire E. Bulgin, Christopher J. Merchant, Characterising industrial thermal plumes in coastal regions using 3-D numerical simulations, Environmental Research Communications, 3; 045003, 2021. doi.org/10.1088/2515-7620/abf62e

39-21   Fan Yang, Yiqi Zhang, Chao Liu, Tieli Wang, Dongin Jiang, Yan Jin, Numerical and experimental investigations of flow pattern and anti-vortex measures of forebay in a multi-unit pumping station, Water, 13.7; 935, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13070935

30-21   Norfadhlina Khalid, Aqil Azraie Che Shamshudin, Megat Khalid Puteri Zarina, Analysis on wave generation and hull: Modification for fishing vessels, Advanced Engineering for Processes and Technologies II: Advanced Structured Materials, 147; pp. 77-89, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-67307-9_9

28-21   Jae-Sang Jung, Jae-Seon Yoon, Seokkoo Kang, Seokil Jeong, Seung Oh Lee, Yong-Sung Park, Discharge characteristics of drainage gates on Saemangeum tidal dyke, South Korea, KSCE Journal of Engineering, 25; pp. 1308-1325, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s12205-021-0590-z

24-21   Ali Temel, Mustafa Dogan, Time dependent investigation of the wave induced scour at the trunk section of a rubble mound breakwater, Ocean Engineering, 221; 108564, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.108564

13-21   P.X. Zou, L.Z. Chen, The coupled tube-mooring system SFT hydrodynamic characteristics under wave excitations, Proceedings, 14th International Conference on Vibration Problems, Crete, Greece, September 1 – 4, 2019, pp. 907-923, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-8049-9_55

122-20  M.A. Musa, M.F. Roslan, M.F. Ahmad, A.M. Muzathik, M.A. Mustapa, A. Fitriadhy, M.H. Mohd, M.A.A. Rahman, The influence of ramp shape parameters on performance of overtopping breakwater for energy conversion, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8.11; 875, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/jmse8110875

120-20  Lee Hooi Chie, Ahmad Khairi Abd Wahab, Derivation of engineering design criteria for flow field around intake structure: A numerical simulation study, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8.10; 827, 2020.  doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100827

109-20  Mario Maiolo, Riccardo Alvise Mel, Salvatore Sinopoli, A stepwise approach to beach restoration at Calabaia Beach, Water, 12.10; 2677, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/w12102677

107-20  S. Deshpande, P. Sundsbø, S. Das, Ship resistance analysis using CFD simulations in Flow-3D, International Journal of Multiphysics, 14.3; pp. 227-236, 2020. doi.org/10.21152/1750-9548.14.3.227

103-20   Mahmood Nematollahi, Mohammad Navim Moghid, Numerical simulation of spatial distribution of wave overtopping on non-reshaping berm breakwaters, Journal of Marine Science and Application, 19; pp. 301-316, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s11804-020-00147-1

98-20   Lin Zhao, Ning Wang, Qian Li, Analysis of flow characteristics and wave dissipation performances of a new structure, Proceedings, 30th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Online, October 11-16, ISOPE-I-20-3289, 2020.

96-20   Xiaoyu Guo, Zhisong Li, Mingchao Cui, Benlong Wang, Numerical investigation on flow characteristics of water in the fish tank on a force-rolling aquaculture platform, Ocean Engineering, 217; 107936, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.107936

92-20   Yong-Jun Cho, Scour controlling effect of hybrid mono-pile as a substructure of offshore wind turbine: A numerical study, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8.9; 637, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/jmse8090637

89-20   Andrea Franco, Jasper Moernaut, Barbara Schneider-Muntau, Michael Strasser, Bernhard Gems, The
1958 Lituya Bay tsunami – pre-event bathymetry reconstruction and 3D numerical modelling utilising the computational fluid dynamics software
Flow-3D
, Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, 20; pp. 2255–2279, 2020. doi.org/10.5194/nhess-20-2255-2020

81-20   Eliseo Marchesi, Marco Negri, Stefano Malavasi, Development and analysis of a numerical model for a two-oscillating-body wave energy converter in shallow water, Ocean Engineering, 214; 107765, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.107765

79-20   Zegao Yin, Yanxu Wang, Yong Liu, Wei Zou, Wave attenuation by rigid emergent vegetation under combined wave and current flows, Ocean Engineering, 213; 107632, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.107632

71-20   B. Pan, N. Belyaev, FLOW-3D software for substantiation the layout of the port water area, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Construction Mechanics, Hydraulics and Water Resources Engineering (CONMECHYDRO), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23-25 April, 883; 012020, 2020. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/883/1/012020

51-20       Yupeng Ren, Xingbei Xu, Guohui Xu, Zhiqin Liu, Measurement and calculation of particle trajectory of liquefied soil under wave action, Applied Ocean Research, 101; 102202, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2020.102202

50-20       C.C. Battiston, F.A. Bombardelli, E.B.C. Schettini, M.G. Marques, Mean flow and turbulence statistics through a sluice gate in a navigation lock system: A numerical study, European Journal of Mechanics – B/Fluids, 84; pp.155-163, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.euromechflu.2020.06.003

49-20     Ahmad Fitriadhy, Nur Amira Adam, Nurul Aqilah Mansor, Mohammad Fadhli Ahmad, Ahmad Jusoh, Noraieni Hj. Mokhtar, Mohd Sofiyan Sulaiman, CFD investigation into the effect of heave plate on vertical motion responses of a floating jetty, CFD Letters, 12.5; pp. 24-35, 2020. doi.org/10.37934/cfdl.12.5.2435

40-20       P. April Le Quéré, I. Nistor, A. Mohammadian, Numerical modeling of tsunami-induced scouring around a square column: Performance assessment of FLOW-3D and Delft3D, Journal of Coastal Research (preprint), 2020. doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-19-00181

38-20       Sahameddin Mahmoudi Kurdistani, Giuseppe Roberto Tomasicchio, Daniele Conte, Stefano Mascetti, Sensitivity analysis of existing exponential empirical formulas for pore pressure distribution inside breakwater core using numerical modeling, Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 1; pp. 65-71, 2020. doi.org/10.4408/IJEGE.2020-01.S-08

36-20       Mohammadamin Torabi, Bruce Savage, Efficiency improvement of a novel submerged oscillating water column (SOWC) energy harvester, Proceedings, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress (Cancelled), Henderson, Nevada, May 17–21, 2020. doi.org/10.1061/9780784482940.003

32-20       Adriano Henrique Tognato, Modelagem CFD da interação entre hidrodinâmica costeira e quebra-mar submerso: estudo de caso da Ponta da Praia em Santos, SP (CFD modeling of interaction between sea waves and submerged breakwater at Ponta de Praia – Santos, SP: a case study, Thesis, Universidad Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil, 2020.

29-20   Ana Gomes, José L. S. Pinho, Tiago Valente, José S. Antunes do Carmo and Arkal V. Hegde, Performance assessment of a semi-circular breakwater through CFD modelling, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8.3, art. no. 226, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030226

23-20  Qi Yang, Peng Yu, Yifan Liu, Hongjun Liu, Peng Zhang and Quandi Wang, Scour characteristics of an offshore umbrella suction anchor foundation under the combined actions of waves and currents, Ocean Engineering, 202, art. no. 106701, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2019.106701

04-20  Bingchen Liang, Shengtao Du, Xinying Pan and Libang Zhang, Local scour for vertical piles in steady currents: review of mechanisms, influencing factors and empirical equations, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8.1, art. no. 4, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010004

104-19   A. Fitriadhy, S.F. Abdullah, M. Hairil, M.F. Ahmad and A. Jusoh, Optimized modelling on lateral separation of twin pontoon-net floating breakwater, Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences, 13.4, pp. 5764-5779, 2019. doi.org/10.15282/jmes.13.4.2019.04.0460

103-19  Ahmad Fitriadhy, Nurul Aqilah Mansor, Nur Adlina Aldin and Adi Maimun, CFD analysis on course stability of an asymmetrical bridle towline model of a towed ship, CFD Letters, 11.12, pp. 43-52, 2019.

90-19   Eric P. Lemont and Karthik Ramaswamy, Computational fluid dynamics in coastal engineering: Verification of a breakwater design in the Torres Strait, Proceedings, pp. 762-768, Australian Coasts and Ports 2019 Conference, Hobart, Australia, September 10-13, 2019.

86-19   Mohammed Arab Fatiha, Benoît Augier, François Deniset, Pascal Casari, and Jacques André Astolfi, Morphing hydrofoil model driven by compliant composite structure and internal pressure, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 7:423, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/jmse7120423

83-19   Cong-Uy Nguyen, So-Young Lee, Thanh-Canh Huynh, Heon-Tae Kim, and Jeong-Tae Kim, Vibration characteristics of offshore wind turbine tower with gravity-based foundation under wave excitation, Smart Structures and Systems, 23:5, pp. 405-420, 2019. doi.org/10.12989/sss.2019.23.5.405

68-19   B.W. Lee and C. Lee, Development of an equation for ship wave crests in a current in whole water depths, Proceedings, 10th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2019), Hanoi, Vietnam, September 25-28, 2019; pp. 207-212, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-0291-0_29

62-19   Byeong Wook Lee and Changhoon Lee, Equation for ship wave crests in the entire range of water depths, Coastal Engineering, 153:103542, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.103542

23-19     Mariano Buccino, Mohammad Daliri, Fabio Dentale, Angela Di Leo, and Mario Calabrese, CFD experiments on a low crested sloping top caisson breakwater, Part 1: Nature of loadings and global stability, Ocean Engineering, Vol. 182, pp. 259-282, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2019.04.017

21-19     Mahsa Ghazian Arabi, Deniz Velioglu Sogut, Ali Khosronejad, Ahmet C. Yalciner, and Ali Farhadzadeh, A numerical and experimental study of local hydrodynamics due to interactions between a solitary wave and an impervious structure, Coastal Engineering, Vol. 147, pp. 43-62, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.02.004

15-19     Chencong Liao, Jinjian Chen, and Yizhou Zhang, Accumulation of pore water pressure in a homogeneous sandy seabed around a rocking mono-pile subjected to wave loads, Vol. 173, pp. 810-822, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.12.072

09-19     Yaoyong Chen, Guoxu Niu, and Yuliang Ma, Study on hydrodynamics of a new comb-type floating breakwater fixed on the water surface, 2018 International Symposium on Architecture Research Frontiers and Ecological Environment (ARFEE 2018), Wuhan, China, December 14-16, 2018, E3S Web of Conferences Vol. 79, Art. No. 02003, 2019. doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20197902003

08-19     Hongda Shi, Zhi Han, and Chenyu Zhao, Numerical study on the optimization design of the conical bottom heaving buoy convertor, Ocean Engineering, Vol. 173, pp. 235-243, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.12.061

06-19   S. Hemavathi, R. Manjula and N. Ponmani, Numerical modelling and experimental investigation on the effect of wave attenuation due to coastal vegetation, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference in Ocean Engineering (ICOE2018), Vol. 2, pp. 99-110, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3134-3_9

87-18   Muhammad Syazwan Bazli, Omar Yaakob and Kang Hooi Siang, Validation study of u-oscillating water column device using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation, 11thInternational Conference on Marine Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 13-14, 2018.

86-18   Nur Adlina Aldin, Ahmad Fitriadhy, Nurul Aqilah Mansor, and Adi Maimun, CFD analysis on unsteady yaw motion characteristic of a towed ship, 11th International Conference on Marine Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 13-14, 2018.

78-18 A.A. Abo Zaid, W.E. Mahmod, A.S. Koraim, E.M. Heikal and H.E. Fath, Wave interaction of partially immersed semicircular breakwater suspended on piles using FLOW-3D, CSME Conference Proceedings, Toronto, Canada, May 27-30, 2018.

73-18   Jian Zhou and Subhas K. Venayagamoorthy, Near-field mean flow dynamics of a cylindrical canopy patch suspended in deep water, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 858, pp. 634-655, 2018. doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2018.775

69-18   Keisuke Yoshida, Shiro Maeno, Tomihiro Iiboshi and Daisuke Araki, Estimation of hydrodynamic forces acting on concrete blocks of toe protection works for coastal dikes by tsunami overflows, Applied Ocean Research, Vol. 80, pp. 181-196, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2018.09.001

68-18   Zegao Yin, Yanxu Wang and Xiaoyu Yang, Regular wave run-up attenuation on a slope by emergent rigid vegetation, Journal of Coastal Research (in-press), 2018. doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-17-00200.1

65-18   Dagui Tong, Chencong Liao, Jinjian Chen and Qi Zhang, Numerical simulation of a sandy seabed response to water surface waves propagating on current, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2018. doi.org/10.3390/jmse6030088

61-18   Manuel Gerardo Verduzco-Zapata, Aramis Olivos-Ortiz, Marco Liñán-Cabello, Christian Ortega-Ortiz, Marco Galicia-Pérez, Chris Matthews, and Omar Cervantes-Rosas, Development of a Desalination System Driven by Low Energy Ocean Surface Waves, Journal of Coastal Research: Special Issue 85 – Proceedings of the 15th International Coastal Symposium, pp. 1321 – 1325, 2018. doi.org/10.2112/SI85-265.1

37-18   Songsen Xu, Chunshuo Jiao, Meng Ning and Sheng Dong, Analysis of Buoyancy Module Auxiliary Installation Technology Based on Numerical Simulation, Journal of Ocean University of China, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 267-280, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s11802-018-3305-4

36-18   Deniz Velioglu Sogut and Ahmet Cevdet Yalciner, Performance comparison of NAMI DANCE and FLOW-3D® models in tsunami propagation, inundation and currents using NTHMP benchmark problems, Pure and Applied Geophysics, pp. 1-39, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s00024-018-1907-9

26-18   Mohammad Sarfaraz and Ali Pak, Numerical investigation of the stability of armour units in low-crested breakwaters using combined SPH–Polyhedral DEM method, Journal of Fluids and Structures, vol. 81, pp. 14-35, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2018.04.016

25-18   Yen-Lung Chen and Shih-Chun Hsiao, Numerical modeling of a buoyant round jet under regular waves, Ocean Engineering, vol. 161, pp. 154-167, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.04.093

13-18   Yizhou Zhang, Chencong Liao, Jinjian Chen, Dagui Tong, and Jianhua Wang, Numerical analysis of interaction between seabed and mono-pile subjected to dynamic wave loadings considering the pile rocking effect, Ocean Engineering, Volume 155, 1 May 2018, Pages 173-188, doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.02.041

11-18  Ching-Piao Tsai, Chun-Han Ko and Ying-Chi Chen, Investigation on Performance of a Modified Breakwater-Integrated OWC Wave Energy Converter, Open Access Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 643; doi:10.3390/su10030643, © Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018.

58-17   Jian Zhou, Claudia Cenedese, Tim Williams and Megan Ball, On the propagation of gravity currents over and through a submerged array of circular cylinders, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 831, pp. 394-417, 2017. doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2017.604

56-17   Yu-Shu Kuo, Chih-Yin Chung, Shih-Chun Hsiao and Yu-Kai Wang, Hydrodynamic characteristics of Oscillating Water Column caisson breakwaters, Renewable Energy, vol. 103, pp. 439-447, 2017. doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.11.028

47-17   Jae-Nam Cho, Chang-Geun Song, Kyu-Nam Hwang and Seung-Oh Lee, Experimental assessment of suspended sediment concentration changed by solitary wave, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 649-655 (2017) 649 DOI: 10.6119/JMST-017-1226-04

45-17   Muhammad Aldhiansyah Rifqi Fauzi, Haryo Dwito Armono, Mahmud Mustain and Aniendhita Rizki Amalia, Comparison Study of Various Type Artificial Reef Performance in Reducing Wave Height, Regional Conference in Civil Engineering (RCCE) 430 The Third International Conference on Civil Engineering Research (ICCER) August 1st-2nd 2017, Surabaya – Indonesia.

44-17   Fabio Dentale, Ferdinando Reale, Angela Di Leo, and Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, A CFD approach to rubble mound breakwater design, International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Available online 30 December 2017.

39-17   Milad Rashidinasab and Mehdi Behdarvandi Askar, Modeling the Pressure Distribution and the Changes of Water Level around the Offshore Platforms Exposed to Waves, Using the Numerical Model of FLOW-3D, Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, 2017, 6, 97-106, http://www.scirp.org/journal/cweee, ISSN Online: 2168-1570, ISSN Print: 2168-1562

30-17   Omid Nourani and Mehdi Behdarvandi Askar, Comparison of the Effect of Tetrapod Block and Armor X block on Reducing Wave Overtopping in Breakwaters, Open Journal of Marine Science, 2017, 7, 472-484 http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojms ISSN Online: 2161-7392.

29-17   J.A. Vasquez, Modelling the generation and propagation of landslide generated waves, Leadership in Sustainable Infrastructure, Annual Conference – Vancouver, May 31 – June 3, 2017

28-17   Manuel G. Verduzco-Zapata, Francisco J. Ocampo-Torres, Chris Matthews, Aramis Olivos-Ortiz, Diego E. and Galván-Pozos, Development of a Wave Powered Desalination Device Numerical Modelling, Proceedings of the 12th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference 27th Aug -1st Sept 2017, Cork, Ireland

20-17   Chu-Kuan Lin, Jaw-Guei Lin, Ya-Lan Chen, Chin-Shen Chang, Seabed Change and Soil Resistance Assessment of Jack up Foundation, Proceedings of the Twenty-seventh (2017) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, San Francisco, CA, USA, June 25-30, 2017, Copyright © 2017 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE), ISBN 978-1-880653-97-5; ISSN 1098-6189.

19-17   Velioğlu Deniz, Advanced Two- and Three-Dimensional Tsunami – Models Benchmarking and Validation, Ph.D Thesis:, Middle East Technical University, June 2017

18-17   Farrokh Mahnamfar and Abdüsselam Altunkaynak, Comparison of numerical and experimental analyses for optimizing the geometry of OWC systems, Ocean Engineering 130 (2017) 10–24.

07-17   Jonas Čerka, Rima Mickevičienė, Žydrūnas Ašmontas, Lukas Norkevičius, Tomas Žapnickas, Vasilij Djačkov and Peilin Zhou, Optimization of the research vessel hull form by using numerical simulation, Ocean Engineering 139 (2017) 33–38

05-17   Liang, B.; Ma, S.; Pan, X., and Lee, D.Y., Numerical modelling of wave run-up with interaction between wave and dolosse breakwater, In: Lee, J.L.; Griffiths, T.; Lotan, A.; Suh, K.-S., and Lee, J. (eds.), 2017, The 2nd International Water Safety Symposium. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 79, pp. 294-298. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.

02-17   A. Yazid Maliki, M. Azlan Musa, Ahmad M.F., Zamri I., Omar Y., Comparison of numerical and experimental results for overtopping discharge of the OBREC wave energy converter, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, In Press, © School of Engineering, Taylor’s University

01-17   Tanvir Sayeed, Bruce Colbourne, David Molyneux, Ayhan Akinturk, Experimental and numerical investigation of wave forces on partially submerged bodies in close proximity to a fixed structure, Ocean Engineering, Volume 132, Pages 70–91, March 2017

101-16 Xin Li, Liang-yu Xu, Jian-Min Yang, Study of fluid resonance between two side-by-side floating barges, Journal of Hydrodynamics, vol. B-28, no. 5, pp. 767-777, 2016. doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6058(16)60679-0

81-16   Loretta Gnavi, Deep water challenges: development of depositional models to support geohazard assessment for submarine facilities, Ph.D. Thesis: Politecnico di Torino, May 2016

80-16   Mohammed Ibrahim, Hany Ahmed, Mostafa Abd Alall and A.S. Koraim, Proposing and investigating the efficiency of vertical perforated breakwater, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 3, March 2016, ISSN 2229-5518

72-16   Yen-Lung Chen and Shih-Chun Hsiao, Generation of 3D water waves using mass source wavemaker applied to Navier–Stokes model, Coastal Engineering 109 (2016) 76–95.

64-16   Jae Nam Cho, Dong Hyun Kim and Seung Oh Lee, Experimental Study of Shape and Pressure Characteristics of Solitary Wave generated by Sluice Gate for Various Conditions, Journal of the Korean Society of Safety, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 70-75, April 2016, Copyright @ 2016 by The Korean Society of Safety (pISSN 1738-3803, eISSN 2383-9953) All right reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.14346/JKOSOS.2016.31.2.70

56-16   Ali A. Babajani, Mohammad Jafari and Parinaz Hafezi Sefat, Numerical investigation of distance effect between two Searasers for hydrodynamic performance, Alexandria Engineering Journal, June 2016.

53-16   Hwang-Ki Lee, Byeong-Kuk Kim, Jongkyu Kim and Hyeon-Ju Kim, OTEC thermal dispersion in coastal waters of Tarawa, Kiribati, OCEANS 2016 – Shanghai, April 2016, 10.1109/OCEANSAP.2016.7485548, © IEEE.

50-16   Mohsin A. R. Irkal, S. Nallayarasu and S. K. Bhattacharyya, CFD simulation of roll damping characteristics of a ship midsection with bilge keel, Proceedings of the ASME 2016 35th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2016, June 19-24, 2016, Busan, South Korea

49-16   Bill Baird, Seth Logan, Wim Van Der Molen, Trevor Elliot and Don Zimmer, Thoughts on the future of physical models in coastal engineering, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on the Application of Physical Modelling in Coastal and Port Engineering and Science (Coastlab16) Ottawa, Canada, May 10-13, 2016 Copyright ©: Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

47-16   KH Kim et. al, Numerical analysis on the effects of shoal on the ship wave, Applied Engineering, Materials and Mechanics: Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Applied Engineering, Materials and Mechanics (ICAEMM 2016)

17-16  Nan-Jing Wu, Shih-Chun Hsiao, Hsin-Hung Chen, and Ray-Yeng Yang, The study on solitary waves generated by a piston-type wave maker, Ocean Engineering, 117(2016)114–129

13-16   Maryam Deilami-Tarifi, Mehdi Behdarvandi-Askar, Vahid Chegini, and Sadegh Haghighi-Pou, Modeling of the Changes in Flow Velocity on Seawalls under Different Conditions Using FLOW-3DSoftware, Open Journal of Marine Science, 2016, 6, 317-322, Published Online April 2016 in SciRes.

01-16   Mohsin A.R. Irkal, S. Nallayarasu, and S.K. Bhattacharyya, CFD approach to roll damping of ship with bilge keel with experimental validation, Applied Ocean Research, Volume 55, February 2016, Pages 1–17

121-15   Josh Carter, Scott Fenical, Craig Hunter and Joshua Todd, CFD modeling for the analysis of living shoreline structure performance, Coastal Structures and Solutions to Coastal Disasters Joint Conference, Boston, MA, Sept. 9-11, 2015. © 2017 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. doi.org/10.1061/9780784480304.047

114-15   Jisheng Zhang, Peng Gao, Jinhai Zheng, Xiuguang Wu, Yuxuan Peng and Tiantian Zhang, Current-induced seabed scour around a pile-supported horizontal-axis tidal stream turbine, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 929-936 (2015) 929, DOI: 10.6119/JMST-015-0610-11

108-15  Tiecheng Wang, Tao Meng, and Hailong Zha, Analysis of Tsunami Effect and Structural Response, ISSN 1330-3651 (Print), ISSN 1848-6339 (Online), DOI: 10.17559/TV-20150122115308

107-15   Jie Chen, Changbo Jiang, Wu Yang, Guizhen Xiao, Laboratory study on protection of tsunami-induced scour by offshore breakwaters, Natural Hazards, 2015, 1-19

85-15   Majid A. Bhinder, M.T. Rahmati, C.G. Mingham and G.A. Aggidis, Numerical hydrodynamic modelling of a pitching wave energy converter, European Journal of Computational Mechanics, Volume 24, Issue 4, 2015, DOI: 10.1080/17797179.2015.1096228

65-15   Giancarlo Alfonsi, Numerical Simulations of Wave-Induced Flow Fields around Large-Diameter Surface-Piercing Vertical Circular CylinderComputation 20153(3), 386-426; doi:10.3390/computation3030386

61-15   Bingchen Liang, Duo Li, Xinying Pan and Guangxin Jiang, Numerical Study of Local Scour of Pipeline under Combined Wave and Current Conditions, Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth (2015) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, June 21-26, 2015 Copyright © 2015 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE) ISBN 978-1-880653-89-0; ISSN 1098-6189.

60-15   Chun-Han Ko, Ching-Piao Tsai, Ying-Chi Chen, and Tri-Octaviani Sihombing, Numerical Simulations of Wave and Flow Variations between Submerged Breakwaters and Slope Seawall, Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth (2015) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, June 21-26, 2015 Copyright © 2015 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE) ISBN 978-1-880653-89-0; ISSN 1098-6189.

57-15   Giacomo Viccione and Settimio Ferlisi, A numerical investigation of the interaction between debris flows and defense barriers, Advances in Environmental and Geological Science and Engineering, ISBN: 978-1-61804-314-6, 2015

56-15   Vittorio Bovolin, Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli and Giacomo Viccione, A numerical study of liquid impact on inclined surfaces, Advances in Environmental and Geological Science and Engineering, ISBN: 978-1-61804-314-6, 2015

49-15   Fabio Dentale, Giovanna Donnarumma, Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, and Ferdinando Reale, A numerical method to analyze the interaction between sea waves and rubble mound emerged breakwaters, WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on FLUID MECHANICS, E-ISSN: 2224-347X, Volume 10, 2015

45-15   Diego Vicinanza, Daniela Salerno, Fabio Dentale and Mariano Buccino, Structural Response of Seawave Slot-cone Generator (SSG) from Random Wave CFD Simulations, Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth (2015) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, June 21-26, 2015, Copyright © 2015 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE), ISBN 978-1-880653-89-0; ISSN 1098-6189

38-15   Yen-Lung Chen, Shih-Chun Hsiao, Yu-Cheng Hou, Han-Lun Wu and Yuan Chieh Wu, Numerical Simulation of a Neutrally Buoyant Round Jet in a Wave Environment, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

34-15   Dieter Vanneste and Peter Troch, 2D numerical simulation of large-scale physical model tests of wave interaction with a rubble-mound breakwater, Coastal Engineering, Volume 103, September 2015, Pages 22–41.

29-15   Masanobu Toyoda, Hiroki Kusumoto, and Kazuo Watanabe, Intrinsically Safe Cryogenic Cargo Containment System of IHI-SPB LNG Tank, IHI Engineering Review, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2015.

24-15   Xixi Pan, Shiming Wang, and Yongcheng Liang, Three-dimensional simulation of floating wave power device, International Power, Electronics and Materials Engineering Conference (IPEMEC 2015)

05-15   M. A. Bhinder, A. Babarit, L. Gentaz, and P. Ferrant, Potential Time Domain Model with Viscous Correction and CFD Analysis of a Generic Surging Floating Wave Energy Converter, (2015), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijome.2015.01.005

137-14   A. Najafi-Jilani, M. Zakiri Niri and Nader Naderi, Simulating three dimensional wave run-up over breakwaters covered by antifer units, Int. J. Nav. Archit. Ocean Eng. (2014) 6:297~306

128-14   Dong Chule Kim, Byung Ho Choi, Kyeong Ok Kim and Efim Pelinovsky, Extreme tsunami runup simulation at Babi Island due to 1992 Flores tsunami and Okushiri due to 1993 Hokkido tsunami, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 16, EGU2014-1341, 2014, EGU General Assembly 2014, © Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

123-14   Irkal Mohsin A.R., S. Nallayarasu and S.K. Bhattacharyya, Experimental and CFD Simulation of Roll Motion of Ship with Bilge Keel, International Conference on Computational and Experimental Marine Hydrodynamics MARHY 2014 3-4 December 2014, Chennai, India.

101-14  Dieter Vanneste, Corrado Altomare, Tomohiro Suzuki, Peter Troch and Toon Verwaest, Comparison of Numerical Models for Wave Overtopping and Impact on a Sea Wall, Coastal Engineering 2014

91-14   Fabio Dentale, Giovanna Donnarumma, and Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, Numerical wave interaction with tetrapods breakwater, Int. J. Nav. Archit. Ocean Eng. (2014) 6:0~0, http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/IJNAOE-2013-0214, ⓒSNAK, 2014, pISSN: 2092-6782, eISSN: 2092-6790

87-14   Philipp Behruzi, Simulation of breaking wave impacts on a flat wall, The 15th International Workshop on Trends In Numerical and Physical Modeling for Industrial Multiphase Flows, Cargèse, Corsica, October 13th–17th, 2014

86-14   Chuan Sim and Sung-uk Choi, Three-Dimensional Scour at Submarine Pipelines under Indefinite Boundary Conditions, 2014

83-14   Hongda Shi, Dong Wang, Jinghui Song, and Zhe Ma, Systematic Design of a Heaving Buoy Wave Energy Device, 5th International Conference on Ocean Energy, 4th November, Halifax, 2014

71-14   Hadi Sabziyan, Hassan Ghassemi, Farhood Azarsina, and Saeid Kazemi, Effect of Mooring Lines Pattern in a Semi-submersible Platform at Surge and Sway Movements, Journal of Ocean Research, 2014, Vol. 2, No. 1, 17-22 Available online at http://pubs.sciepub.com/jor/2/1/4 © Science and Education Publishing DOI:10.12691/jor-2-1-4

56-14   Fernandez-Montblanc, T., Izquierdo, A., and Bethencourt, M., Modelling the oceanographic conditions during storm following the Battle of Trafalgar, Encuentro de la Oceanografıa Fısica Espanola 2014

52-14   Fabio Dentale, Giovanna Donnarumma, and Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, A new numerical approach to the study of the interaction between wave motion and roubble mound breakwaters, Latest Trends in Engineering Mechanics, Structures, Engineering Geology, ISBN: 978-960-474-376-6

49-14   H. Ahmed and A. Schlenkhoff, Numerical Investigation of Wave Interaction with Double Vertical Slotted Walls, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Environmental, Ecological, Geological and Mining Engineering Vol:8 No:8, 2014

32-14  Richard Keough, Victoria Mullaley, Hilary Sinclair, and Greg Walsh, Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Water Current Energy Device, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Mechanical Design Project II – ENGI 8926, April 2014

25-14    Paulius Rapalis, Vytautas Smailys, Vygintas Daukšys, Nadežda Zamiatina, and Vasilij Djačkov, Vandens  – Duju Silumos Mainai Gaz-Lifto Tipo Skruberyje,Technologijos mokslo darbai Vakarų Lietuvoje, Vol 9 > Rapalis. Available for download at http://journals.ku.lt/index.php/TMD/article/view/259.

92-13   Matteo Tirindelli, Scott Fenical and Vladimir Shepsis, State-of-the-Art Methods for Extreme Wave Loading on Bridges and Coastal Highways, Seventh National Seismic Conference on Bridges and Highways (7NSC), May 20-22, 2013, Oakland, CA

89-13 Worakanok Thanyamanta, Don Bass and David Molyneux, Prediction of sloshing effects using a coupled non-linear seakeeping and CFD code, Proceedings of the ASME 2013 32nd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2013, June 9-14, 2013, Nantes, France. Available for purchase online at ASME.

83-13   B.W. Lee and C. Lee, Development of Wave Power Generation Device with Resonance Channels, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2013) Bali, Indonesia, September 24-26, 2013

68-13   Fabio Dentale, Giovanna Donnarumma, and Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, Rubble Mound Breakwater Run-Up, Reflection and Overtopping by Numerical 3D Simulation, ICE Conference, September 2013, Edinburgh (UK).

66-13  Peter Arnold, Validation of FLOW-3D against Experimental Data for an Axi-Symmetric Point Absorber WEC, © wavebob™, 2013

62-13 Yanan Li, Junwei Zhou, Dazheng Wang and Yonggang Cui, Resistance and Strength Analysis of Three Hulls with ifferent Knuckles, Advanced Materials Research Vols. 779-780 (2013) pp 615-618, © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.779-780.615.

61-13  M.R. Soliman, Satoru Ushijima, Nobu Miyagi and Tetsuay Sumi, Density Current Simulation Using Two-Dimensional High Resolution Model, Annuals of Disas. Prev. Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., No 56 B, 2013.

59-13  Guang Wei Liu, Qing He Zhang, and Jin Feng Zhang, Wave Forces on the Composite Bucket Foundation of Offshore Wind Turbines, Applied Mechanics and Materials, 405-408, 1420, September 2013. Available for purchase online at Scientific.net.

50-13  Joel Darnell and Vladimir Shepsis, Pontoon Launch Analysis, Design and Performance, Ports 2013, © ASCE 2013. Available for purchase online at ASCE.

45-13 Min-chi Li, Numerical Simulation of Wave Overtopping Rate at Sloping Seawalls with Different Configurations of Wave Dissipators, Master’s Thesis: Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University. Abstract only available here: http://etd.lib.nsysu.edu.tw/ETD-db/ETD-search/view_etd?URN=etd-0701113-144919.

22-13  Nahidul Khan, Jonathan Smith, and Michael Hinchey, Models with all the right curves, © Journal of Ocean Technology, The Journal of Ocean Technology, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2013.

20-13  Efim Pelinovsky, Dong-Chul Kim, Kyeong-Ok Kim and Byung-Ho Choi, Three-dimensional simulation of extreme runup heights during the 2004 Indonesian and 2011 Japanese tsunamis, EGU General Assembly 2013, held 7-12 April, 2013 in Vienna, Austria, id. EGU2013-1760. Online at: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1760P.

18-13 Dazheng Wang, Fei Ma, and Lei Mei, Optimization of a 17m Catamaran based on the Resistance Performance, Advanced Materials Research Vols. 690-693, pp 3414-3418, © Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.690-693.3414, May 2013.

16-13  Dong Chule Kim, Kyeong Ok Kim, Efim Pelinovsky, Ira Didenkulova, and Byung Ho Choi, Three-dimensional tsunami runup simulation for the port of Koborinai on the Sanriku coast of Japan, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 65, 2013.

15-13  Dong Chule Kim, Kyeong Ok Kim, Byung Ho Choi, Kyung Hwan Kim, and Efin Pelinovsky, Three –dimensional runup simulation of the 2004 Ocean tsunami at the Lhok Nga twin peaks, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 65, 2013.

14-13  Jae-Seol Shim, Jinah Kim, Dong-Shul Kim, Kiyoung Heo, Kideok Do, and Sun-Jung Park, Storm surge inundation simulations comparing three-dimensional with two-dimensional models based on Typhoon Maemi over Masan Bay of South Korea, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 65, 2013.

115-12  Worakanok Thanyamanta and David Molyneux, Prediction of Stabilizing Moments and Effects of U-Tube Anti-Roll Tank Geometry Using CFD, ASME 2012 31st International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, Volume 5: Ocean Engineering; CFD and VIV, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 1–6, 2012, ISBN: 978-0-7918-4492-2, Copyright © 2012 by ASME

114-12   Dane Kristopher Behrens, The Russian River Estuary: Inlet Morphology, Management, and Estuarine Scalar Field Response, Ph.D. Thesis: Civil and Environmental Engineering, UC Davis, © 2012 by Dane Kristopher Behrens. All Rights Reserved.

111-12  James E. Beget, Zygmunt Kowalik, Juan Horrillo, Fahad Mohammed, Brian C. McFall, and Gyeong-Bo Kim, NEeSR-CR Tsunami Generation by Landslides Integrating Laboratory Scale Experiments, Numerical Models and Natural Scale Applications, George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research, July 2012, Boston, MA.

110-12   Gyeong-Bo Kim, Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Tsunami Generation by Subaerial Landslides, M.S. Thesis: Texas A&M University, Copyright 2012 Gyeong-Bo Kim, December 2012

109-12 D. Vanneste, Experimental and Numerical study of Wave-Induced Porous Flow in Rubble-Mound Breakwaters, Ph.D. thesis (Chapters 5 and 6), Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium), 2012.

104-12 Junwoo Choi, Kab Keun Kwon, and Sung Bum Yoon, Tsunami Inundation Simulation of a Built-up Area using Equivalent Resistance Coefficient, Coastal Engineering Journal, Vol. 54, No. 2 (2012) 1250015 (25 pages), © World Scientific Publishing Company and Japan Society of Civil Engineers, DOI: 10.1142/S0578563412500155

94-12 Parviz Ghadimi, Abbas Dashtimanesh, Mohammad Farsi, and Saeed Najafi, Investigation of free surface flow generated by a planing flat plate using smoothed particle hydrodynamics method and FLOW-3D simulations, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment, December 7, 2012 1475090212465235. Available for purchase online at sage journals.

92-12    Panayotis Prinos, Maria Tsakiri, and Dimitris Souliotis, A Numerical Simulation of the WOS and the Wave Propagation along a Coastal Dike, Coastal Engineering 2012.

88-12  Nahidul Khan and Michael Hinchey, Adaptive Backstepping Control of Marine Current Energy Conversion System, PKP Open Conference Systems, IEEE Newfoundland and Labrador Section, 2012.

72-12   F. Dentale, G. Donnarumma, and E. Pugliese Carratelli, Wave Run Up and Reflection on Tridimensional Virtual, Journal of Hydrogeology & Hydrologic Engineering, 2012, 1:1, http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/jhhe.1000102.

64-12  Anders Wedel Nielsen, Xiaofeng Liu, B. Mutlu Sumer, Jørgen Fredsøe, Flow and bed shear stresses in scour protections around a pile in a current, Coastal Engineering, Volume 72, February 2013, Pages 20–38.

56-12  Giancarlo Alfonsi, Agostino Lauria, Leonardo Primavera, Flow structures around large-diameter circular cylinder, Journal of Flow Visualization and Image Processing, 2012. DOI:10.1615/JFlowVisImageProc.2012005088.

51-12  Chun-Ho Chen, Study on the Application of FLOW-3D for Wave Energy Dissipation by a Porous Structure, Master’s Thesis: Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, July 2012. In Chinese.

37-12  Yu-Ren Chen, Numerical Modeling on Internal Solitary Wave propagation over an obstacle using FLOW-3D, Master’s Thesis: Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University June 2012. In Chinese.

26-12  D.C. Lo Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic interaction produced during the overtaking and the head-on encounter process of two ships, Engineering Computations: International Journal for Computer-Aided Engineering and Software, Vol. 29 No. 1, 2012. pp. 83-10, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, www.emeraldinsight.com/0264-4401.htm.

14-12  Bahaa Elsharnouby, Akram Soliman, Mohamed Elnaggar, and Mohamed Elshahat, Study of environment friendly porous suspended breakwater for the Egyptian Northwestern Coast, Ocean Engineering 48 (2012) 47-58. Available for purchase online at Science Direct.

11-12  Sang-Ho Oh, Young Min Oh, Ji-Young Kim, Keum-Seok Kang, A case study on the design of condenser effluent outlet of thermal power plant to reduce foam emitted to surrounding seacoast, Ocean Engineering, Volume 47, June 2012, Pages 58–64. Available for purchase online at SciVerse.

101-11 Tsunami – A Growing Disaster, edited by Mohammad Mokhtari, ISBN 978-953-307-431-3, 232 pages, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published December 16, 2011 under CC BY 3.0 license, DOI: 10.5772/922. Available for download at Intech.

100-11 Kwang-Oh Ko, Jun-Woo Choi, Sung-Bum Yoon, and Chang-Beom Park, Internal Wave Generation in FLOW-3D Model, Proceedings of the Twenty-first (2011) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Maui, Hawaii, USA, June 19-24, 2011, Copyright © 2011 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE), ISBN 978-1-880653-96-8 (Set); ISSN 1098-6189 (Set); www.isope.org

95-11  S. Brizzolara, L. Savio, M. Viviani, Y. Chen, P. Temarel, N. Couty, S. Hoflack, L. Diebold, N. Moirod and A. Souto Iglesias, Comparison of experimental and numerical sloshing loads in partially filled tanks, Ships and Offshore StructuresVol. 6, Nos. 1–2, 2011, 15–43. Available for purchase online at Francis & Taylor.

85-11 Andrew Eoghan Maguire, Hydrodynamics, control and numerical modelling of absorbing wavemakers, thesis: The University of Edinburgh, 2011.

74-11  Jonathan Smith, Nahidul Khan and Michael Hinchey, CFD Simulation of AUV Depth Control, Paper presented at NECEC 2011, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Abstract available online.

70-11  G. Kim, S.-H. Oh, K.S. Lee, I.S. Han, J.W. Chae, and S.-J Ahn, Numerical Investigation on Water Discharge Capability of Sluice Caisson of Tidal Power Plant, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2011), December 14-16, 2011, Hong Kong, China.

69-11  G. Alfonsi, A. Lauria, and L. Primavera, Wave-Field Flow Structures Developing Around Large-Diameter Vertical Circular Cylinder, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2011), December 14-16, 2011, Hong Kong, China.

68-11    C. Lee, B.W. Lee, Y.J. Kim, and K.O. Ko, Ship Wave Crests in Intermediate-Depth Water, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2011), December 14-16, 2011, Hong Kong, China.

63-11   Worakanok Thanyamanta, Paul Herrington, and David Molyneux, Wave patterns, wave induced forces and moments for a gravity based structure predicted using CFD, Proceedings of the ASME 2011, 30th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2011, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, June 19-24, 2011.

61-11  Jun Jin and Bo Meng, Computation of wave loads on the superstructures of coastal highway bridges, Ocean Engineering, available online October 19, 2011, ISSN 0029-8018, 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2011.09.029. Available for purchase at Science Direct.

36-11    Nadir Yilmaz, Geoffrey E. Trapp, Scott M. Gagan, Timothy R. Emmerich, CFD Supported Examination of Buoy Design for Wave Energy Conversion, IGEC-VI-2011-173, pp: 537-541

28-11  Rodolfo Bolaños, Laurent O. Amoudry and Ken Doyle, Effects of Instrumented Bottom Tripods on Process Measurements, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, June 2011, Vol. 28, No. 6: pp. 827-837. Available online at: AMS Journals Online.

81-10    Ashwin Lohithakshan Parambath, Impact of Tsunamis on Near Shore Wind Power Units, M.S. Thesis: Texas A&M University, Copyright 2010 Ashwin Lohithakshan Parambath December 2010.

80-10    Juan J. Horrillo, Amanda L. Wood, Charles Williams, Ashwin Parambath, and Gyeong-Bo Kim, Construction of Tsunami Inundation Maps in the Gulf of Mexico, Report to the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, December 2010.

69-10    George A Aggidis and Clive Mingham, A Joint Numerical and Experimental Study of a Surging Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converter (WRASPA), Joule Centre Research Grant Joint Final Report (Lancaster University and Macnhester Metropolitan University), Joule Grant No: JIRP306/02, 2010

67-10  Kazuhiko Terashima, Ryuji Ito, Yoshiyuki Noda, Yoji Masui and Takahiro Iwasa, Innovative Integrated Simulator for Agile Control Design on Shipboard Crane Considering Ship and Load Sway, 2010 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, Part of 2010 IEEE Multi-Conference on Systems and Control, Yokohama, Japan, September 8-10, 2010

66-10  Shan-Hwei Ou, Tai-Wen Hsu, Jian-Feng Lin, Jian-Wu Lai, Shih-Hsiang Lin, Chen-Chen Chang, Yuan-Jyh Lan, Experimental and Numerical Studies on Wave Transformation over Artificial Reefs, Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering, No 32 (2010), Shanghai, China, 2010.

65-10 Tai-Wen Hsu, Jian-Wu Lai, Yuan-Jyh Lan, Experimental and Numerical Studies on Wave Propagation over Coarse Grained Sloping Beach, Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering, No 32 (2010), Shanghai, China, 2010.

26-10 R. Marcer, C. Berhault, C. de Jouëtte, N. Moirod and L. Shen, Validation of CFD Codes for Slamming, V European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics, ECCOMAS CFD 2010, J.C.F. Pereira and A. Sequeira (Eds), Lisbon, Portugal, 14-17 June 2010

25-10 J.M. Zhan, Z. Dong, W. Jiang, and Y.S. Li, Numerical Simulation of wave transformation and runup incorporating porous media wave absorber and turbulence models, Ocean Engineering (2010), doi: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2010.06.005. Available for purchase at Science Direct.

17-10 F. Dentale, S.D. Russo, E. Pugliese Carratelli, S. Mascetti, A New Numerical Approach to Study the Wave Motion with Breakwaters and the Armor Stability, Marine Technology Reporter, May 2010

01-10 F. Dentale, S.D. Russo, E. Pugliese Carratelli, Innovative Numerical Simulation to Study the Fluid withing Rubble Mound Breakwaters and the Armour Stability, 17th Armourstone Wallingford Armourstone Meeting, Wallingford, UK, February 2010.

52-09  Mark Reed, Øistein Johansen, Frode Leirvik, and Bård Brørs, Numerical Algorithm to Compute the Effects of Breaking Waves on Surface Oil Spilled at Sea, Final Report, Second revision, SINTEF, October 2009.

49-09  Anna Pellicioli, Indagine Numerica Sulla Resistenza Idrodinamica Di Uno Scafo In Presenza Di Superficie Libera, thesis: Univerista Degli Studi Di Bergamo, 2008/2009. In Italian. Available upon request.

46-09 Carlos Guedes Soares, P.K. Das, Analysis and Design of Marine Structures, CRC Press; 1 Har/Cdr edition (March 2, 2009), 0415549345

32-09 M.A. Binder, C.G. Mingham, D.M. Causon, M.T. Rahmati, G.A. Aggidis, R.V. Chaplin, Numerical Modelling of a Surging Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter, 8th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference EWTEC 2009, Uppsala, Sweden, 7-10 September 2009

28-09 D. C. Lo, Dong-Taur Su and Jan-Ming Chen (2009), Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations to the Analysis of Bank Effects in Restricted Waters, Journal of Navigation, 62, pp 477-491, doi:10.1017/S037346330900527X; Purchase the article online (clicking on this link will take you to the Cambridge Journals website).

26-09 Fabio Dentale, E. Pugliese Carratelli, S.D. Russo, and Stefano Mascetti, Advanced Numerical Simulations on the Interaction between Waves and Rubble Mound Breakwaters, Journal of the Engineering Association for Offshore and Marine in Italy, (translation from the Italian)

25-09 F. Dentale, B. Messina, E. Pugliese Carratelli, S. Mascetti, Studio numerico avanzato sul moto di filtrazione in ambito marittimo, A & C, Analisi e Calcolo, Giugno 2009 (in Italian)

22-09 M.A. Bhinder, C.G. Mingham, D.M. Causon, M.T. Rahmati, G.A. Aggidis and R.V. Chaplin, A Joint Numerical And Experimental Study Of a Surging Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converter (WRASPA)2, Proceedings of the ASME 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2009-79392, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 31-June 5, 2009

8-09 Basu, D., S. Green, K. Das, R. Janetzke, and J. Stamatakos, Numerical Simulation of Surface Waves Generated by a Subaerial Landslide at Lituya Bay, 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, May 31–June 5, 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii

17-09 Das, K., R. Janetzke, D. Basu, S. Green, and J. Stamatakos, Numerical Simulations of Tsunami Wave Generation by Submarine and Aerial Landslides Using RANS and SPH Models, 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, May 31–June 5, 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii

16-09 Basu, D., S. Green, K. Das, R. Janetzke, and J. Stamatakos, Navier-Stokes Simulations of Surface Waves Generated by Submarine Landslides Effect of Slide Geometry and Turbulence, 2009 Society of Petroleum Engineering Americas E&P Environmental & Safety Conference, March 23–25, 2009, San Antonio, Texas.

48-08    Osamu Kiyomiya1 and Kazuya Kuroki, Flap Gate to Prevent Urban Area from Tsunami, The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China

43-08  Eldina Fatimah, Ahmad Khairi Abd. Wahab, and Hadibah Ismail, Numerical modeling approach of an artificial mangrove root system (ArMs) submerged breakwater as wetland habitat protector, COPEDEC VII, Dubai UAE, 2008.

40-08 Giacomo Viccione, Fabio Dentale, and Vittorio Bovolin, Simulation of Wave Impact Pressure on Vertical Structures with the SPH Method, 3rd ERCOFTAC SPHERIC workshop on SPH applications, Laussanne, Switzerland, June 4-6, 2008.

39-08 Kang, Young-Seung, Kim, Pyeong-Joong, Hyun, Sang-Kwon and Sung, Ha-Keun, Numerical Simulation of Ship-induced Wave Using FLOW-3D, Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers / v.20, no.3, 2008, pp.255-267, ISSN: 1976-8192, http://ksci.kisti.re.kr/search/article/articleView.ksci?articleBean.artSeq=HOHODK_2008_v20n3_255

35-08 B.W. Nam, S.H. Shin, K.Y. Hong, S.W. Hong, Numerical Simulation of Wave Flow over the Spiral-Reef Overtopping Device, Proceedings of the Eighth (2008) ISOPE Pacific/Asia Offshore Mechanics Symposium, Bangkok, Thailand, November 10-14, 2008, © 2008 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, ISBN 978-1-880653-52-4

34-08 B. H. Choi, E. Pelinovsky, D.C. Kim, I. Didenkulova and S.-B. Woo, Two and three-dimensional computation of solitary wave runup on non-plane beach, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 15, 489-502, 2008, www.nonlin-processes-geophys.net/15/489/2008 (c) Author(s) 2008.

23-08 Barb Schmitz, Tecplot, Nastran & FLOW-3D Win the Race, Desktop Engineering’s Elements of Analysis, September 2008

38-07 Choi, B.-H., Kim, D. C., Pelinovsky, E., and Woo, S. B., Three-dimensional simulation of tsunami run-up around conical island, Coast. Eng., Vol. 54, Issue 8, 618-629, 2007.

33-07 Mirela Zalar, Sime Malenica, Zoran Mravak, Nicolas Moirod, Some Aspects of Direct Calculation Methods for the Assessment of LNG Tank Structure Under Sloshing Impacts, La Asociación Española del Gas (sedigas) Spain 2007

20-07 Oceanic Consulting Corporation, Berthing Studies for LNG Carriers in the Calcasieu River Waterway, Making Waves: Newsletter of Oceanic Consulting Corporation, Winter 2007

10-07 Gildas Colleter, Breaking wave uplift and overtopping on a horizontal deck using physical and numerical modeling, Coasts and Ports 2007 Conference in Melbourne, Australia

18-06 Brizzolara, Stefano and Rizzuto, Enrico, Wind Heeling Moments on Very Large Ships. Some Insights through CFD Results, Proceedings on the 9th International Conference on Stability of Ships and Ocean Vehicles, Rio de Janeiro, September 25, 2006

16-06 Ransau, Samuel R, and Hansen, Ernst W.M., Numerical Simulations of Sloshing in Rectangular Tanks, Proceedings of OMAE2006, 25th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Hamburg, Germany, June 4-9, 2006

15-06 Ema Muk-Pavic, Shin Chin and Don Spencer, Validation of the CFD code FLOW-3D for the free surface flow around the ships’; hulls, 14th Annual Conference of the CFD Society of Canada, Kingston, Canada, July 16-18, 2006

3-06 Hansen, E.W.M. and Geir J. Rørtveit, Numerical Simulation of Fluid Mechanisms and Separation Behaviour in Offshore Gravity Separators, Chapter 16 in Emulsions and Emulsion Stability, 2nd Edition, edited by Johan Sjøblom, Taylor & Francis, 2006

24-05 Hansen E.W., Separation Offshore Survey – Design-Redesign of Gravity Separators, Exploration & Production: The Oil & Gas Review 2005 – Issue 2

8-05 T. Kristiansen, R. Baarholm, C.T. Stansberg, G. Rortveit and E.W.M. Hansen, Kinematics in a Diffracted Wave Field Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Numerical Models, Presented at the 24th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, OMAE 67176, Halkidiki, Greece, June 12-17, 2005

7-05 C.T. Stansberg, R. Baarholm, T. Kristiansen, E.W.M. Hansen and G. Rortveit, Extreme Wave Amplification and Impact Loads on Offshore Structures, presented at the 2005 Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 2-5, 2005

16-04 Carl Trygve Stansberg, Kjetil Berget, Oyvind Hellan, Ole A. Hermundstad, Jan R. Hoff and Trygve Kristiansen and Ernst Hansen, Prediction of Green Sea Loads on FPSO in Random Seas, presented at the 14th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE 2004), Toulon, France, May 2004

15-04 Š. Malenica, M. Zalar, J.M. Orozco, B. LeGallo & X.B. Chen, Linear and Non-Linear Effects of Sloshing on Ship Motions, 23rd International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Artic Engineering, OMAE 2004, Vancouver, June 2004

11-04 Don Bass, David Molyneux, Kevin McTaggart, Simulating Wave Action in the Well Deck of Landing Platform Dock Ships Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

37-03  Sreenivasa C Chopakatla, A CFD Model for Wave Transformations and Breaking in the Surf Zone, thesis: Master of Science, The Ohio State Univeristy, 2003.

29-02   O. Bayle, V. L’Hullier, M. Ganet, P. Delpy, J.L. Francart and D. Paris, Influence of the ATV Propellant Sloshing on the GNC Performance, AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference and Exhibit, Monterey, California, 5-8 August 2002, © 2002 by EADS Launch Vehicles

25-02 Y. Kim, Numerical Analysis of Sloshing Problem, American Bureau of Shipping, Research Dept, Houston, TX

10-02 Peter Chang III & Xiongjun Wu, Entrainment Correlations Based on a Fuel-Water Stratified Shear Flow, Proceedings of FEDSM2002, 2002 ASME Fluids Engineering Decision Summer Meeting, July 14-18, 2002, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

37-01 Ismail B. Celik, Allen E. Badeau Jr., Andrew Burt and Sherif Kandil, A Single Fluid Transport Model For Computation of Stratified Immiscible Liquid-Liquid Flows, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, West Virginia University, Proceedings of the XXIX IAHR Congress, September 2001. Beijing, China

14-01 Charles Ortloff, CTC/United Defense, Computer Simulation Analyzed Typhoon Damage to FPSOs, Marine News, April 30, 2001, pp. 22-23

8-01 Charles Ortloff, Computer Simulations Analyze Wave Damage to Offloading Vessels, Marine News, April 30, 2001, pp. 22-23

25-00 Faltinsen, O.A. and Rognebakke, O.F., Sloshing in Rectangular Tanks and Interaction with Ship Motions-Sloshing, Int. Conf. on Ship and Shipping Research NAV, Venice, Italy, 2000.

20-97   C.R. Ortloff, Numerical Test Tank Simulation of Ocean Engineering Problems by Computational Fluid Dynamics, Offshore Technology Conference Paper 8269B, Houston, TX, 1997

19-97   C.R. Ortloff and M. Krafft, Numerical Test Tanks-Computer Simulation-Test Verification of Major Ocean Engineering Problems for the Off-Shore Oil Industry, OTC 8269A, Offshore Technology Conference, Copyright 1997, Houston, Texas, May 1997

9-94 P. A. Chang, C-W Lin, CD-NSWC, Hydrodynamic Analysis of Oil Outflow from Double Hull Tankers, The Advanced Double-Hull Technical Symposium, Gaithersburg, MD, October 25-26, 1994.

8-90 C. W. Hirt, Computational Modeling of Cavitation, Flow Science report, July 1990, presented at the 2nd International Symposium on Performance Enhancement for Marine Applications, Newport, RI, October 14-16, 1990

10-87 H. W. Meldner, USA’s Revolutionary Appendages and CFD, CORDTRAN Corp. Report presented at AIAA and SNAME 17th Annual International Symposium on Sailing, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, Oct. 31-Nov. 1, 1987

3-85 C. W. Hirt and J. M. Sicilian, A Porosity Technique for the Definition of Obstacles in Rectangular Cell Meshes, Fourth International Conference on Ship Hydrodynamics, Washington, DC, September 1985

Water & Environmental Bibliography

다음은 수자원 및 환경 분야에 대한 참고 문 기술 문서 모음입니다.
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  해석 결과를 사용하였습니다. FLOW-3D  를 사용하여 수처리 및 환경 산업을 위한 응용 프로그램을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

Water and Environmental Bibliography

2021년 8월 26일 Update

68-21   R. Daneshfaraz, E. Aminvash, S. Di Francesco, A. Najibi, J. Abraham, Three-dimensional study of the effect of block roughness geometry on inclined drop, Numerical Methods in Civil Engineering, 6.1; pp. 1-9, 2021. 

66-21   Benjamin Hohermuth, Lukas Schmoker, Robert M. Boes, David Vetsch, Numerical simulation of air entrainment in uniform chute flow, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 59.3; pp. 378-391, 2021. doi.org/10.1080/00221686.2020.1780492

65-21   Junjun Tan, Honglin Tan, Elsa Goerig, Senfan Ke, Haizhen Huang, Zhixiong Liu, Xiaotao Shi, Optimization of fishway attraction flow based on endemic fish swimming performance and hydraulics, Ecological Engineering, 170; 106332, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2021.106332

63-21   Erdinc Ikinciogullari, Muhammet Emin Emiroglu, Mehmet Cihan Aydin, Comparison of scour properties of classical and trapezoidal labyrinth weirs, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s13369-021-05832-z

59-21   Elias Wehrmeister, José J. Ota, Separation in overflow spillways: A computational analysis, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 59, 2021. doi.org/10.1080/00221686.2021.1908438

53-21   Zongxian Liang, John Ditter, Riadh Atta, Brian Fox, Karthik Ramaswamy, Numerical modeling of tailings dam break using a Herschel-Bulkley rheological model, USSD Annual Conference, online, May 11-21, 2021. 

51-21   Yansong Zhang, Jianping Chen, Chun Tan, Yiding Bao, Xudong Han, Jianhua Yan, Qaiser Mehmood, A novel approach to simulating debris flow runout via a three-dimensional CFD code: A case study of Xiaojia Gully, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 80.5, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s10064-021-02270-x

49-21   Ramtin Sabeti, Mohammad Heidarzadeh, Preliminary results of numerical simulation of submarine landslide-generated waves, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, April 19-30, 2021. doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-284

48-21   Anh Tuan Le, Ken Hiramatsu, Tatsuro Nishiyama, Hydraulic comparison between piano key weir and rectangular labyrinth weir, International Journal of GEOMATE, 20.82; pp. 153-160, 2021. doi.org/10.21660/2021.82.j2106

46-21   Maoyi Luo, Faxing Zhang, Zhaoming Song, Liyuan Zhang, Characteristics of flow movement in complex canal system and its influence on sudden pollution accidents, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 6617385, 2021. doi.org/10.1155/2021/6617385

42-21   Jakub Major, Martin Orfánus, Zbyněk Zachoval, Flow over broad-crested weir with inflow by approach shaft – Numerical model, Civil Engineering Journal, 30.1; 19, 2021. doi.org/10.14311/CEJ.2021.01.0019 

41-21   Amir Ghaderi, Saeed Abbasi, Experimental and numerical study of the effects of geometric appendance elements on energy dissipation over stepped spillway, Water, 13.7; 957, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13070957

38-21   Ana L. Quaresma, António N. Pinheiro, Modelling of pool-type fishways flows: Efficiency and scale effects assessment, Water, 13.6; 851, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13060851

37-21   Alireza Khoshkonesh, Blaise Nsom, Farhad Bahmanpouri, Fariba Ahmadi Dehrashid, Atefah Adeli, Numerical study of the dynamics and structure of a partial dam-break flow using the VOF Method, Water Resources Management, 35; pp. 1513-1528, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s11269-021-02799-2

36-21   Amir Ghaderi, Mehdi Dasineh, Francesco Aristodemo, Constanza Aricò, Numerical simulations of the flow field of a submerged hydraulic jump over triangular macroroughnesses, Water, 13.5; 674, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13050674

35-21   Hongliang Qi, Junxing Zheng, Chenguang Zhang, Modeling excess shear stress around tandem piers of the longitudinal bridge by computational fluid dynamics, Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research, 2021. doi.org/10.1080/23249676.2021.1884614

31-21   Seth Siefken, Robert Ettema, Ari Posner, Drew Baird, Optimal configuration of rock vanes and bendway weirs for river bends: Numerical-model insights, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 147.5, 2021. doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001871

29-21   Débora Magalhães Chácara, Waldyr Lopes Oliveira Filho, Rheology of mine tailings deposits for dam break analyses, REM – International Engineering Journal, 74.2; pp. 235-243, 2021. doi.org/10.1590/0370-44672020740098

27-21   Ling Peng, Ting Zhang, Youtong Rong, Chunqi Hu, Ping Feng, Numerical investigation of the impact of a dam-break induced flood on a structure, Ocean Engineering, 223; 108669, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.108669

26-21   Qi-dong Hou, Hai-bo Li, Yu-Xiang Hu, Shun-chao Qi, Jian-wen Zhou, Overtopping process and structural safety analyses of the earth-rock fill dam with a concrete core wall by using numerical simulations, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 14; 234, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s12517-021-06639-w

25-21   Filipe Romão, Ana L. Quaresma, José M. Santos, Susana D. Amaral, Paulo Branco, António N. Pinheiro, Performance and fish transit time over vertical slots, Water, 13.3; 275, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13030275

23-21   Jiahou Hu, Chengwei Na, Yi Wang, Study on discharge velocity of tailings mortar in dam break based on FLOW-3D, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 6th International Conference on Hydraulic and Civil Engineering, Xi’an, China, December 11-13, 2020, 643; 012052, 2021. doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/643/1/012052

21-21   Asad H. Aldefae, Rusul A. Alkhafaji, Experimental and numerical modeling to investigate the riverbank’s stability, SN Applied Sciences, 3; 164, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s42452-021-04168-5

20-21   Yangliang Lu, Jinbu Yin, Zhou Yang, Kebang Wei, Zhiming Liu, Numerical study of fluctuating pressure on stilling basin slabwith sudden lateral enlargement and bottom drop, Water, 13.2; 238, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13020238

18-21   Prashant Prakash Huddar, Vishwanath Govind Bhave, Hydraulic structure design with 3D CFD model, Proceedings, 25th International Conference on Hydraulics, Water Resources and Coastal Engineering (HYDRO 2020), Odisha, India, March 26-28, 2021.

17-21   Morteza Sadat Helbar, Atefah Parvaresh Rizi, Javad Farhoudi, Amir Mohammadi, 3D flow simulation to improve the design and operation of the dam bottom outlets, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 14; 90, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-06378-4

15-21   Charles R. Ortloff, Roman hydraulic engineering: The Pont du Gard Aqueduct and Nemausus (Nîmes) Castellum, Water, 13.1; 54, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13010054

12-21   Mehdi Karami Moghadam, Ata Amini, Ehsan Karami Moghadam, Numerical study of energy dissipation and block barriers in stepped spillways, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 23.2; pp. 284-297, 2021. doi.org/10.2166/hydro.2020.245

08-21   Prajakta P. Gadge, M. R. Bhajantri, V. V. Bhosekar, Numerical simulations of air entraining characteristics over high head chute spillway aerator, Proceedings, ICOLD Symposium on Sustainable Development of Dams and River Basins, New Dehli, India, February 24 – 27, 2021.

07-21   Pankaj Lawande, Computational fluid dynamics simulation methodologies for stilling basins, Proceedings, ICOLD Symposium on Sustainable Development of Dams and River Basins, New Dehli, India, February 24 – 27, 2021.

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Water & Environmental Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate applications for the Water & Environmental Industry.

02-21   Aytaç Güven, Ahmed Hussein Mahmood, Numerical investigation of flow characteristics over stepped spillways, Water Supply, in press, 2021. doi.org/10.2166/ws.2020.283

01-21   Le Thi Thu Hien, Nguyen Van Chien, Investigate impact force of dam-break flow against structures by both 2D and 3D numerical simulations, Water, 13.3; 344, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13030344

125-20   Farhad Bahmanpouri, Mohammad Daliri, Alireza Khoshkonesh, Masoud Montazeri Namin, Mariano Buccino, Bed compaction effect on dam break flow over erodible bed; experimental and numerical modeling, Journal of Hydrology, in press, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.125645

124-20   John Petrie, Yan Qi, Mark Cornwell, Md Al Adib Sarker, Pranesh Biswas, Sen Du, Xianming Shi, Design of living barriers to reduce the impacts of snowdrifts on Illinois freeways, Illinois Center for Transportation Series No. 20-019, Research Report No. FHWA-ICT-20-012, 2020. doi.org/10.36501/0197-9191/20-019

123-20   Mohammad Reza Namaee, Jueyi Sui, Yongsheng Wu, Natalie Linklater, Three-dimensional numerical simulation of local scour in the vicinity of circular side-by-side bridge piers with ice cover, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 2020. doi.org/10.1139/cjce-2019-0360

119-20   Tuğçe Yıldırım, Experimental and numerical investigation of vortex formation at multiple horizontal intakes, Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, , 2020.

118-20   Amir Ghaderi, Mehdi Dasineh, Francesco Aristodemo, Ali Ghahramanzadeh, Characteristics of free and submerged hydraulic jumps over different macroroughnesses, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 22.6; pp. 1554-1572, 2020. doi.org/10.2166/hydro.2020.298

117-20   Rasoul Daneshfaraz, Amir Ghaderi, Aliakbar Akhtari, Silvia Di Francesco, On the effect of block roughness in ogee spillways with flip buckets, Fluids, 5.4; 182, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/fluids5040182

115-20   Chi Yao, Ligong Wu, Jianhua Yang, Influences of tailings particle size on overtopping tailings dam failures, Mine Water and the Environment, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s10230-020-00725-3

114-20  Rizgar Ahmed Karim, Jowhar Rasheed Mohammed, A comparison study between CFD analysis and PIV technique for velocity distribution over the Standard Ogee crested spillways, Heliyon, 6.10; e05165, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05165

113-20   Théo St. Pierre Ostrander, Analyzing hydraulics of broad crested lateral weirs, Thesis, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria, 2020.

111-20   Mahla Tajari, Amir Ahmad Dehghani, Mehdi Meftah Halaghi, Hazi Azamathulla, Use of bottom slots and submerged vanes for controlling sediment upstream of duckbill weirs, Water Supply, 20.8; pp. 3393-3403, 2020. doi.org/10.2166/ws.2020.238

110-20   Jian Zhou, Subhas K. Venayagamoorthy, How does three-dimensional canopy geometry affect the front propagation of a gravity current?, Physics of Fluids, 32.9; 096605, 2020. doi.org/10.1063/5.0019760

106-20   Juan Francisco Macián-Pérez, Arnau Bayón, Rafael García-Bartual, P. Amparo López-Jiménez, Characterization of structural properties in high reynolds hydraulic jump based on CFD and physical modeling approaches, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 146.12, 2020. doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001820

105-20   Bin Deng, He Tao, Changbo Jian, Ke Qu, Numerical investigation on hydrodynamic characteristics of landslide-induced impulse waves in narrow river-valley reservoirs, IEEE Access, 8; pp. 165285-165297, 2020. doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3022651

102-20   Mojtaba Mehraein, Mohammadamin Torabi, Yousef Sangsefidi, Bruce MacVicar, Numerical simulation of free flow through side orifice in a circular open-channel using response surface method, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 76; 101825, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2020.101825

101-20   Juan Francisco Macián Pérez, Numerical and physical modelling approaches to the study of the hydraulic jump and its application in large-dam stilling basins, Thesis, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain, 2020.

99-20   Chen-Shan Kung, Pin-Tzu Su, Chin-Pin Ko, Pei-Yu Lee, Application of multiple intake heads in engineering field, Proceedings, 30th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Online, October 11-17,  ISOPE-I-20-3116, 2020.

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Water & Environmental Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate applications for the Water & Environmental Industry.

91-20      Selahattin Kocaman, Stefania Evangelista, Giacomo Viccione, Hasan Güzel, Experimental and numerical analysis of 3D dam-break waves in an enclosed domain with a single oriented obstacle, Environmental Science Proceedings, 2; 35, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2020002035

89-20      Andrea Franco, Jasper Moernaut, Barbara Schneider-Muntau, Michael Strasser, Bernhard Gems, The 1958 Lituya Bay tsunami – pre-event bathymetry reconstruction and 3D numerical modelling utilising the computational fluid dynamics software Flow-3D, Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, 20; pp. 2255–2279, 2020. doi.org/10.5194/nhess-20-2255-2020

88-20      Cesar Simon, Eddy J. Langendoen, Jorge D. Abad, Alejandro Mendoza, On the governing equations for horizontal and vertical coupling of one- and two-dimensional open channel flow models, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 58.5; pp. 709-724, 2020. doi.org/10.1080/00221686.2019.1671507

87-20       Mohammad Nazari-Sharabian, Moses Karakouzian, Donald Hayes, Flow topology in the confluence of an open channel with lateral drainage pipe, Hydrology, 7.3; 57, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7030057

84-20       Naohiro Takeichi, Takeshi Katagiri, Harumi Yoneda, Shusaku Inoue, Yusuke Shintani, Virtual Reality approaches for evacuation simulation of various disasters, Collective Dynamics (originally presented in Proceedings from the 9th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics (PED2018), Lund, Sweden, August 21-23, 2018), 5, 2020. doi.org/10.17815/CD.2020.93

83-20       Eric Lemont, Jonathan Hill, Ryan Edison, A problematic installation: CFD modelling of waste stabilisation pond mixing alternatives, Ozwater’20, Australian Water Association, Online, June 2, 2020, 2020.

77-20       Peng Yu, Ruigeng Hu, Jinmu Yang, Hongjun Liu, Numerical investigation of local scour around USAF with different hydraulic conditions under currents and waves, Ocean Engineering, 213; 107696, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.107696

76-20       Alireza Mojtahedi, Nasim Soori, Majid Mohammadian, Energy dissipation evaluation for stepped spillway using a fuzzy inference system, SN Applied Sciences, 2; 1466, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s42452-020-03258-0

74-20       Jackson D., Tellez Alvarez E., Manuel Gómez, Beniamino Russo, Modelling of surcharge flow through grated inlet, Advances in Hydroinformatics: SimHydro 2019 – Models for Extreme Situations and Crisis Management, Nice, France, June 12-14, 2019, pp. 839-847, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-5436-0_65

73-20       Saurav Dulal, Bhola NS Ghimire, Santosh Bhattarai, Ram Krishna Regmi, Numerical simulation of flow through settling basin: A case study of Budhi-Ganga Hydropower Project (BHP), International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 9.7; pp. 992-998, 2020.

70-20       B. Nandi, S. Das, A. Mazumdar, Experimental analysis and numerical simulation of hydraulic jump, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2020 6th International Conference on Environment and Renewable Energy, Hanoi, Vietnam, February 24-26, 505; 012024, 2020. doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/505/1/012024

69-20       Amir Ghaderi, Rasoul Daneshfaraz, Mehdi Dasineh, Silvia Di Francesco, Energy dissipation and hydraulics of flow over trapezoidal–triangular labyrinth weirs, Water (Special Issue: Combined Numerical and Experimental Methodology for Fluid–Structure Interactions in Free Surface Flows), 12.7; 1992, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/w12071992

68-20       Jia Ni, Linwei Wang, Xixian Chen, Luan Luan Xue, Isam Shahrour, Effect of the fish-bone dam angle on the flow mechanisms of a fish-bone type dividing dyke, Marine Technology Society Journal, 54.3; pp. 58-67, 2020. doi.org/10.4031/MTSJ.54.3.9

67-20       Yu Zhuang, Yueping Yin, Aiguo Xing, Kaiping Jin, Combined numerical investigation of the Yigong rock slide-debris avalanche and subsequent dam-break flood propagation in Tibet, China, Landslides, 17; pp. 2217-2229, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s10346-020-01449-9

66-20       A. Ghaderi, R. Daneshfaraz, S. Abbasi, J. Abraham, Numerical analysis of the hydraulic characteristics of modified labyrinth weirs, International Journal of Energy and Water Resources, 4.2, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s42108-020-00082-5

65-20      D.P. Zielinski, S. Miehls, G. Burns, C. Coutant, Adult sea lamprey espond to induced turbulence in a low current system, Journal of Ecohydraulics, 5, 2020. doi.org/10.1080/24705357.2020.1775504

63-20       Raffaella Pellegrino, Miguel Ángel Toledo, Víctor Aragoncillo, Discharge flow rate for the initiation of jet flow in sky-jump spillways, Water, Special Issue: Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure, 12.6; 1814, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/w12061814

59-20       Nesreen Taha, Maged M. El-Feky, Atef A. El-Saiad, Ismail Fathy, Numerical investigation of scour characteristics downstream of blocked culverts, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 59.5; pp. 3503-3513, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2020.05.032

57-20       Charles Ortloff, The Hydraulic State: Science and Society in the Ancient World, Routledge, London, UK, eBook ISBN: 9781003015192, 2020. doi.org/10.4324/9781003015192

54-20       Navid Aghajani, Hojat Karami, Hamed Sarkardeh, Sayed‐Farhad Mousavi, Experimental and numerical investigation on effect of trash rack on flow properties at power intakes, Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (ZAMM), online pre-issue, 2020. doi.org/10.1002/zamm.202000017

53-20     Tian Zhou, Theodore Endreny, The straightening of a river meander leads to extensive losses in flow complexity and ecosystem services, Water (Special Issue: A Systems Approach of River and River Basin Restoration), 12.6; 1680, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/w12061680

50-20       C.C. Battiston, F.A. Bombardelli, E.B.C. Schettini, M.G. Marques, Mean flow and turbulence statistics through a sluice gate in a navigation lock system: A numerical study, European Journal of Mechanics – B/Fluids, 84; pp.155-163, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.euromechflu.2020.06.003

47-20       Mohammad Nazari-Sharabian, Aliasghar Nazari-Sharabian, Moses Karakouzian, Mehrdad Karami, Sacrificial piles as scour countermeasures in river bridges: A numerical study using FLOW-3D, Civil Engineering Journal, 6.6; pp. 1091-1103, 2020. doi.org/10.28991/cej-2020-03091531

44-20    Leena Jaydeep Shevade, L. James Lo, Franco A. Montalto, Numerical 3D model development and validation of curb-cut inlet for efficiency prediction, Water, 12; 1791, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/w12061791

43-20       Vitor Hugo Pereira de Morais, Tiago Zenker Gireli, Paulo Vatavuk, Numerical and experimental models applied to an ogee crest spillway and roller bucket stilling basin, Brazilian Journal of Water Resources, 2020. doi.org/10.1590/2318-0331.252020190005

42-20       Chen Xie, Qin Chen, Gang Fan, Chen Chen, Numerical simulation of the natural erosion and breaching process of the “10.11” Baige Landslide Dam on the Jinsha River, Dam Breach Modelling and Risk Disposal, pp. 376-377, International Conference on Embankment Dams (ICED), Beijing, China, June 5 – 7, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-46351-9_40

41-20       Niloofar Aghili Mahabadi, Hamed Reza Zarif Sanayei, Performance evaluation of bilateral side slopes in piano key weirs by numerical simulation, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 6; pp. 1477-1486, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s40808-020-00764-3

40-20       P. April Le Quéré, I. Nistor, A. Mohammadian, Numerical modeling of tsunami-induced scouring around a square column: Performance assessment of FLOW-3D and Delft3D, Journal of Coastal Research (preprint), 2020. doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-19-00181

39-20       Jian Zhou, Subhas K. Venayagamoorthy, Impact of ambient stable stratification on gravity currents propagating over a submerged canopy, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 898; A15, 2020. doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2020.418

37-20     Aliasghar Azma, Yongxiang Zhang, The effect of variations of flow from tributary channel on the flow behavior in a T-shape confluence, Processes, 8; 614, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/pr8050614

35-20     Selahattin Kocaman, Hasan Güzel, Stefania Evangelista, Hatice Ozmen-Cagatay, Giacomo Viccione, Experimental and numerical analysis of a dam-break flow through different contraction geometries of the channel, Water, 12; 1124, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/w12041124

32-20       Adriano Henrique Tognato, Modelagem CFD da interação entre hidrodinâmica costeira e quebra-mar submerso: estudo de caso da Ponta da Praia em Santos, SP (CFD modeling of interaction between sea waves and submerged breakwater at Ponta de Praia – Santos, SP: a case study, Thesis, Universidad Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil, 2020.

31-20   Hamidreza Samma, Amir Khosrojerdi, Masoumeh Rostam-Abadi, Mojtaba Mehraein and Yovanni Cataño-Lopera, Numerical simulation of scour and flow field over movable bed induced by a submerged wall jet, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 22.2, pp. 385-401, 2020. doi.org/10.2166/hydro.2020.091

28-20   Halah Kais Jalal and Waqed H. Hassan, Three-dimensional numerical simulation of local scour around circular bridge pier using FLOW-3D software, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, art. no. 012150, 3rd International Conference on Engineering Sciences, Kerbala, Iraq, November 4-6, 2019745. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/745/1/012150

25-20   Faizal Yusuf and Zoran Micovic, Prototype-scale investigation of spillway cavitation damage and numerical modeling of mitigation options, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 146.2, 2020. doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001671

24-20   Huan Zhang, Zegao Yin, Yipei Miao, Minghui Xia and Yingnan Feng, Hydrodynamic performance investigation on an upper and lower water exchange device, Aquacultural Engineering, 90, art. no. 102072, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2020.102072

22-20   Yu-xiang Hu, Zhi-you Yu and Jian-wen Zhou, Numerical simulation of landslide-generated waves during the 11 October 2018 Baige landslide at the Jinsha River, Landslides, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s10346-020-01382-x

19-20   Amir Ghaderi, Mehdi Dasineh, Saeed Abbasi and John Abraham, Investigation of trapezoidal sharp-crested side weir discharge coefficients under subcritical flow regimes using CFD, Applied Water Science, 10, art. no. 31, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s13201-019-1112-8

18-20   Amir Ghaderi, Saeed Abbasi, John Abraham and Hazi Mohammad Azamathulla, Efficiency of trapezoidal labyrinth shaped stepped spillways, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 72, art. no. 101711, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2020.101711

16-20   Majid Omidi Arjenaki and Hamed Reza Zarif Sanayei, Numerical investigation of energy dissipation rate in stepped spillways with lateral slopes using experimental model development approach, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s40808-020-00714-z

15-20   Bo Wang, Wenjun Liu, Wei Wang, Jianmin Zhang, Yunliang Chen, Yong Peng, Xin Liu and Sha Yang, Experimental and numerical investigations of similarity for dam-break flows on wet bed, Journal of Hydrology, 583, art. no. 124598, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.124598

14-20   Halah Kais Jalal and Waqed H. Hassan, Effect of bridge pier shape on depth of scour, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, art. no. 012001, 3rd International Conference on Engineering Sciences, Kerbala, Iraq, November 4-6, 2019671. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/671/1/012001

13-20   Shahad R. Mohammed, Basim K. Nile and Waqed H. Hassan, Modelling stilling basins for sewage networks, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, art. no. 012111, 3rd International Conference on Engineering Sciences, Kerbala, Iraq, November 4-6, 2019671. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/671/1/012111

11-20   Xin Li, Liping Jin, Bernie A. Engel, Zeng Wang, Wene Wang, Wuquan He and Yubao Wang, Influence of the structure of cylindrical mobile flumes on hydraulic performance characteristics in U-shaped channels, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 72, art. no. 101708, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2020.101708

10-20   Nima Aein, Mohsen Najarchi, Seyyed Mohammad Mirhosseini Hezaveh, Mohammad Mehdi Najafizadeh and Ehsanollah Zeigham, Simulation and prediction of discharge coefficient of combined weir–gate structure, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Water Management (ahead of print), 2020. doi.org/10.1680/jwama.19.00047

03-20   Agostino Lauria, Francesco Calomino, Giancarlo Alfonsi, and Antonino D’Ippolito, Discharge coefficients for sluice gates set in weirs at different upstream wall inclinations, Water, 12, art. no. 245, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/w12010245

113-19   Ruidong An, Jia Li, Typical biological behavior of migration and flow pattern creating for fish schooling, E-Proceedings, 38th IAHR World Congress, Panama City, Panama, September 1-6, 2019.

112-19   Wenjun Liu, Bo Wang, Hang Wang, Jianmin Zhang, Yunliang Chen, Yong Peng, Xin Liu, Sha Yang, Experimental and numerical modeling of dam-break flows in wet downstream conditions, E-Proceedings, 38th IAHR World Congress, Panama City, Panama, September 1-6, 2019.

111-19   Zhang Chendi, Liu Yingjun, Xu Mengzhen, Wang Zhaoyin, The 3D numerical study on flow properties of individual step-pool, Proceedings: 14th International Symposium on River Sedimentation, Chengdu, China, September 16-19, 2019.

110-19   Mason Garfield, The effects of scour on the flow field at a bendway weir, Thesis: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

109-19   Seth Siefken, Computational fluid dynamics models of Rio Grande bends fitted with rock vanes or bendway weirs, Thesis: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

108-19   Benjamin Israel Devadason and Paul Schweiger, Decoding the drowning machines: Using CFD modeling to predict and design solutions to remediate the dangerous hydraulic roller at low head dams, The Journal of Dam Safety, 17.1, pp. 20-31, 2019.

106-19   Amir Ghaderi and Saeed Abbasi, CFD simulations of local scouring around airfoil-shaped bridge piers with and without collar, Sādhanā, art. no. 216, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s12046-019-1196-8

105-19   Jacob van Alwon, Numerical and physical modelling of aerated skimming flows over stepped spillways, Thesis, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom, 2019.

100-19   E.H. Hussein Al-Qadami, A.S. Abdurrasheed, Z. Mustaffa, K.W. Yusof, M.A. Malek and A. Ab Ghani, Numerical modelling of flow characteristics over sharp crested triangular hump, Results in Engineering, 4, art. no. 100052, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.rineng.2019.100052

99-19   Agostino Lauria, Francesco Calomino, Giancarlo Alfonsi, and Antonino D’Ippolito, Discharge coefficients for sluice gates set in weirs at different upstream wall inclinations, Water, 12.1, art. no. 245, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/w12010245

98-19   Redvan Ghasemlounia and M. Sedat Kabdasli, Surface suspended sediment distribution pattern for an unexpected flood event at Lake Koycegiz, Turkey, Proceedings, 14th National Conference on Watershed Management Sciences and Engineering, Urmia, Iran, July 16-17, 2019.

97-19   Brian Fox, Best practices for simulating hydraulic structures with CFD, Proceedings, Dam Safety 2019, Orlando, Florida, USA, September 8-12, 2019.

96-19   John Wendelbo, Verification of CFD predictions of self-aeration onset on stepped chute spillways, Proceedings, Dam Safety 2019, Orlando, Florida, USA, September 8-12, 2019.

95-19   Pankaj Lawande, Anurag Chandorkar and Adhirath Mane, Predicting discharge rating curves for tainter gate controlled spillway using CFD simulations, Proceedings, 24th HYDRO 2019, International Conference, Hyderabad, India, December 18-20, 2019.

91-19   Gyeong-Bo Kim, Wei Cheng, Richards C. Sunny, Juan J. Horrillo, Brian C. McFall, Fahad Mohammed, Hermann M. Fritz, James Beget, and Zygmunt Kowalik , Three Dimensional Landslide Generated Tsunamis: Numerical and Physical Model Comparisons, Landslides, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s10346-019-01308-2

85-19   Susana D. Amaral, Ana L. Quaresma, Paulo Branco, Filipe Romão, Christos Katopodis, Maria T. Ferreira, António N. Pinheiro, and José M. Santos, Assessment of retrofitted ramped weirs to improve passage of potamodromous fish, Water, 11, art. no. 2441, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/w11122441

82-19   Shubing Dai, Yong He, Jijian Yang, Yulei ma, Sheng Jin, and Chao Liang, Numerical study of cascading dam-break characteristics using SWEs and RANS, Water Supply, 2019. doi.org/10.2166/ws.2019.168

81-19   Kyong Oh Baek, Evaluation technique for efficiency of fishway based on hydraulic analysis, Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, 52.spc2, pp. 855-863, 2019. doi.org/10.3741/JKWRA.2019.52.S-2.855

80-19   Yongye Li, Yuan Gao, Xiaomeng Jia, Xihuan Sun, and Xuelan Zhang, Numerical simulations of hydraulic characteristics of a flow discharge measurement process with a plate flowmeter in a U-channel, Water, art. no. 2392, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/w11112382

76-19   Youtong Rong, Ting Zhang, Yanchen Zheng, Chunqi Hu, Ling Peng, and Ping Feng, Three-dimensional urban flood inundation simulation based on digital aerial photogrammetry, Journal of Hydrology, in press, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.124308

74-19   Youtong Rong, Ting Zhang, Ling Peng, and Ping Feng, Three-dimensional numerical simulation of dam discharge and flood routing in Wudu Reservoir, Water, 11, art. no. 2157, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/w11102157

70-19   Le Thi Thu Hien, Study the flow over chute spillway by both numerical and physical models, Proceedings, pp. 845-851, 10th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2019), Hanoi, Vietnam, September 25-28, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-0291-0_116

69-19   T. Vinh Cuong, N. Thanh Hung, V. Thanh Te, P. Anh Tuan, Analysis of spur dikes spatial layout to river bed degradation under reversing tidal flow, Proceedings, pp. 737-744, 10th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2019), Hanoi, Vietnam, September 25-28, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-0291-0_101

67-19   Zongshi Dong, Junxing Wang, David Florian Vetsch, Robert Michael Boes, and Guangming Tan, Numerical simulation of air–water two-phase flow on stepped spillways behind X-shaped flaring gate piers under very high unit discharge, Water, 11, art. no. 1956, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/w11101956

66-19   Tony L. Wahl, Effect of boundary layer conditions on uplift pressures at open offset spillway joints, Sustainable and Safe Dams Around the World: Proceedings, 2019. doi.org/10.1201/9780429319778-182

65-19   John Petrie, Kun Zhang, and Mahmoud Shehata, Numerical simulation of snow deposition around living snow fences, Community Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates (CESTiCC), Project Report, 2019.

64-19   Andrea Franco, Jasper Moernaut, Barbara Schneider-Muntau, Markus Aufleger, Michael Strasser, and Bernhard Gems, Lituya Bay 1958 Tsunami – detailed pre-event bathymetry reconstruction and 3D-numerical modelling utilizing the CFD software FLOW-3D, Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, under review, 2019. doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2019-285

63-19   J. Patarroyo, D. Damov, D. Shepherd, G. Snyder, M. Tremblay, and M. Villeneuve, Hydraulic design of stepped spillway using CFD supported by physical modelling: Muskrat Falls hydroelectric generating facility, Sustainable and Safe Dams Around the World: Proceedings, , pp. 205-219, 2019. doi.org/10.1201/9780429319778-19

61-19   A.S. Abdurrasheed, K.W. Yusof, E.H. Hussein Alqadami, H. Takaijudin, A.A. Ghani, M.M. Muhammad, A.T. Sholagberu, M.K. Zainalfikry, M. Osman, and M.S. Patel, Modelling of flow parameters through subsurface drainage modules for application in BIOECODS, Water, 11, art. no. 1823, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/w11091823

59-19     Brian Fox and Robert Feurich, CFD analysis of local scour at bridge piers, Proceedings of the Federal Interagency Sedimentation and Hydraulic Modeling Conference (SEDHYD), Reno, Nevada, June 24-28, 2019.

56-19     Pankaj Lawande, Brian Fox, and Anurag Chandorkar, Three dimensional CFD modeling of flow over a tainter gate spillway, International Dam Safety Conference, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, February 13-14, 2019.

49-19     Yousef Sangsefidi, Bruce MacVicar, Masoud Ghodsian, Mojtaba Mehraein, Mohammadamin Torabi, and Bruce M. Savage, Evaluation of flow characteristics in labyrinth weirs using response surface methodology, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 69, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2019.101617

43-19     Gongyun Liao, Zancheng Tang, and Fei Zhu, Self-cleaning performance of double-layer porous asphalt pavements with different granular diameters and layer combinations, 19th COTA International Conference of Transportation, Nanjing, China, July 6-8, 2019.

42-19     Tsung-Chun Ho, Gwo-Jang Hwang, Kao-Shu Hwang, Kuo-Cheng Hsieh, and Lung-Wei Chen, Experimental and numerical study on desilting efficiency of the bypassing tunnel for Nan-Hua reservoir, 3rd International Workshop on Sediment Bypass Tunnels, Taipei, Taiwan, April 9-12, 2019.

41-19     Chang-Ting Hsieh, Sheng-Yung Hsu, and Chin-Pin Ko, Planning of sluicing tunnel in front of the Wushe dam – retrofit the existing water diversion tunnel as an example, 3rd International Workshop on Sediment Bypass Tunnels, Taipei, Taiwan, April 9-12, 2019.

40-19     Chi-Lin Yang, Pang-ku Yang, Fu-June Wang, and Kuo-Cheng Hsieh, Study on the transportation of high-concentration sediment flow and the operation of sediment de-silting in Deji Reservoir, 3rd International Workshop on Sediment Bypass Tunnels, Taipei, Taiwan, April 9-12, 2019.

39-19   Sam Glovik and John Wendelbo, Advanced CFD air entrainment capabilities for baffle drop structure design, NYWEA 91st Annual Meeting, New York, NY, February 3-6, 2019.

36-19     Ahmed M. Helmi, Heba T. Essawy, and Ahmed Wagdy, Three-dimensional numerical study of stacked drop manholes, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Vol. 145, No. 9, 2019. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0001414

33-19     M. Cihan Aydin, A. Emre Ulu, and Çimen Karaduman, Investigation of aeration performance of Ilısu Dam outlet using two-phase flow model, Applied Water Science, Vol. 9, No. 111, 2019. doi: 10.1007/s13201-019-0982-0

16-19     Bernard Twaróg, The analysis of the reactive work of the Alden Turbine, Technical Transactions I, Environmental Engineering, 2019. doi: 10.4467/2353737XCT.19.010.10050

14-19     Guodong Li, Xingnan Li, Jian Ning, and Yabing Deng, Numerical simulation and engineering application of a dovetail-shaped bucket, Water, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2019. doi: 10.3390/w11020242

13-19     Ilaria Rendina, Giacomo Viccione, and Leonardo Cascini, Kinematics of flow mass movements on inclined surfaces, Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 107-123, 2019. doi: 10.1007/s00162-019-00486-y

10-19     O.K. Saleh, E.A. Elnikhely, and Fathy Ismail, Minimizing the hydraulic side effects of weirs construction by using labyrinth weirs, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 66, pp. 1-11, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2019.01.016

05-19   Hakan Ersoy, Murat Karahan, Kenan Gelişli, Aykut Akgün, Tuğçe Anılan, M. Oğuz Sünnetci, Bilgehan Kul Yahşi, Modelling of the landslide-induced impulse waves in the Artvin Dam reservoir by empirical approach and 3D numerical simulation, Engineering Geology, Vol. 249, pp. 112-128, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2018.12.025

96-18     Kyung-Seop Sin, Robert Ettema, Christopher I. Thornton, Numerical modeling to assess the influence of bendway weirs on flow distribution in river beds, Task 4 of Study: Native Channel Topography and Rock-Weir Structure Channel-Maintenance Techniques, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. CSU-HYD Report No. 2018-1, 2018.

95-18   Thulfikar Razzak Al-Husseini, Hayder A. Al-Yousify and Munaf A. Al-Ramahee, Experimental and numerical study of the effect of the downstream spillway face’s angle on the stilling basin’s energy dissipation, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9.8, pp. 1327-1337, 2018.

94-18   J. Michalski and J. Wendelbo, Utilizing CFD methods as a forensic tool in pipeline systems to assess air/water transient issues, Proceedings, 7, pp. 5519-5527, 91st Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition & Conference (WEFTEC), New Orleans, LA, United States, September 29 – October 3, 2018. doi.org/10.2175/193864718825138817

79-18 Harold Alvarez and John Wendelbo, Estudio de 3 modelos matemáticos para similar olas producidas por derrumbes en embalses y esfuerzos en compuertas, XXVIII Congreso Latinoamericano de Hidráulica, Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 2018. (In Spanish)

70-18   Michael Pfister, Gaetano Crispino, Thierry Fuchsmann, Jean-Marc Ribi and Corrado Gisonni, Multiple inflow branches at supercritical-type vortex drop shaft, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 144, No. 11, 2018. doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001530

67-18   F. Nunes, J. Matos and I. Meireles, Numerical modelling of skimming flow over small converging spillways, 3rd International Conference on Protection against Overtopping, June 6-8, 2018, Grange-over-Sands, UK, 2018.

66-18   Maria João Costa, Maria Teresa Ferreira, António N. Pinheiro and Isabel Boavida, The potential of lateral refuges for Iberian barbel under simulated hydropeaking conditions, Ecological Engineering, Vol. 124, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2018.07.029

63-18   Michael J. Seluga, Frederick Vincent, Samuel Glovick and Brad Murray, A new approach to hydraulics in baffle drop shafts to address dry and wet weather flow in combined sewer tunnels, North American Tunneling Conference Proceedings, June 24-27, 2018, Washington, D.C. pp. 448-461, 2018. © Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration

62-18   Ana Quaresma, Filipe Romão, Paulo Branco, Maria Teresa Ferreira and António N. Pinheiro, Multi slot versus single slot pool-type fishways: A modelling approach to compare hydrodynamics, Ecological Engineering, Vol. 122, pp. 197-206, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2018.08.006

57-18   Amir Isfahani, CFD modeling of piano key weirs using FLOW-3D, International Dam Safety Conference, January 23-24, 2018, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India; Technical Session 1A, Uncertainties and Risk Management in Dams, 2018.

49-18   Jessica M. Thompson, Jon M. Hathaway and John S. Schwartz, Three-dimensional modeling of the hydraulic function and channel stability of regenerative stormwater conveyances, Journal of Sustainable Water in the Built Environment, vol. 4, no.3, 2018. doi.org/10.1061/JSWBAY.0000861

46-18   A.B. Veksler and S.Z. Safin, Hydraulic regimes and downstream scour at the Kama Hydropower Plant, Power Technology and Engineering, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 2-13, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s10749-018-0862-z

45-18   H. Omara and A. Tawfik, Numerical study of local scour around bridge piers, 9th Annual Conference on Environmental Science and Development, Paris, France, Feb. 7-9, 2018; IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Sciences, vol. 151, 2018. doi.org:10.1088/1755-1315/151/1/012013

40-18   Vincent Libaud, Christophe Daux and Yanis Oukid, Practical Capacities and Challenges of 3D CFD Modelling: Feedback Experience in Engineering Projects, Advances in Hydroinformatics, pp. 767-780, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7218-5_55

39-18   Khosro Morovati and Afshin Eghbalzadeh, Study of inception point, void fraction and pressure over pooled stepped spillways using FLOW-3D, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 28, no. 4, pp.982-998, 2018. doi.org/10.1108/HFF-03-2017-0112

34-18   Tomasz Siuta, The impact of deepening the stilling basin on the characteristics of hydraulic jump, Technical Transactions, vol. 3, pp. 173-186, 2018.

32-18   Azin Movahedi, M.R. Kavianpour, M. R and Omid Aminoroayaie Yamini, Evaluation and modeling scouring and sedimentation around downstream of large dams, Environmental Earth Sciences, vol. 77, no. 8, pp. 320, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7487-2

31-18   Yang Song, Ling-Lei Zhang, Jia Li, Min Chen and Yao-Wen Zhang, Mechanism of the influence of hydrodynamics on Microcystis aeruginosa, a dominant bloom species in reservoirs, Science of The Total Environment, vol. 636, pp. 230-239, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.257

30-18   Shaolin Yang, Wanli Yang, Shunquan Qin, Qiao Li and Bing Yang, Numerical study on characteristics of dam-break wave, Ocean Engineering, vol. 159, pp.358-371, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.04.011

27-18   Rachel E. Chisolm and Daene C. McKinney, Dynamics of avalanche-generated impulse waves: three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations and sensitivity analysis, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, vol. 18, pp. 1373-1393, 2018. doi.org/10.5194/nhess-18-1373-2018.

24-18   Han Hu, Zhongdong Qian, Wei Yang, Dongmei Hou and Lan Du, Numerical study of characteristics and discharge capacity of piano key weirs, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, vol. 62, pp. 27-32, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2018.05.004

23-18   Manoochehr Fathi-Moghaddam, Mohammad Tavakol Sadrabadi and Mostafa Rahmanshahi, Numerical simulation of the hydraulic performance of triangular and trapezoidal gabion weirs in free flow condition, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, vol. 62, pp. 93-104, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2018.05.005

22-18   Anastasios I.Stamou, Georgios Mitsopoulos, Peter Rutschmann and Minh Duc Bui, Verification of a 3D CFD model for vertical slot fish-passes, Environmental Fluid Mechanics, June 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s10652-018-9602-z

17-18   Nikou Jalayeri, John Wendelbo, Joe Groeneveld, Andrew John Bearlin, and John Gulliver, Boundary dam total dissolved gas analysis using a CFD model, Proceedings from the U.S. Society on Dams Annual Conference, April 30 – May 4, 2018, © 2018 U.S. Society on Dams.

12-18   Bernard Twaróg, Interaction between hydraulic conditions and structures – fluid structure interaction problem solving. A case study of a hydraulic structure, Technical Transactions 2/2018, Environmental Engineering, DOI: 10.4467/2353737XCT.18.029.8002

06-18   Oscar Herrera-Granados, Turbulence Flow Modeling of One-Sharp-Groyne Field, © Springer International Publishing AG 2018, M. B. Kalinowska et al. (eds.), Free Surface Flows and Transport Processes, GeoPlanet: Earth and Planetary Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70914-7_12

05-18  Shangtuo Qian, Jianhua Wu, Yu Zhou and Fei Ma, Discussion of “Hydraulic Performance of an Embankment Weir with Rough Crest” by Stefan Felder and Nushan Islam, J. Hydraul. Eng., 2018, 144(4): 07018003, © ASCE.

04-18   Faezeh Tajabadi, Ehsan Jabbari and Hamed Sarkardeh, Effect of the end sill angle on the hydrodynamic parameters of a stilling basin, DOI 10.1140/epjp/i2018-11837-y, Eur. Phys. J. Plus (2018) 133: 10

03-18   Dhemi Harlan, Dantje K. Natakusumah, Mohammad Bagus Adityawan, Hernawan Mahfudz and Fitra Adinata, 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow in Sedimentation Basin, MATEC Web of Conferences 147, 03012 (2018), https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201814703012 SIBE 2017

02-18   ARKAN IBRAHIM, AZHEEN KARIM and Mustafa GÜNAL, Simulation of local scour development downstream of broad-crested weir with inclined apron, European Journal of Science and Technology Special Issue, pp. 57-61, January 2018, Copyright © 2017 EJOSAT.

62-17   Abbas Mansoori, Shadi Erfanian and Farhad Khamchin Moghadam, A study of the conditions of energy dissipation in stepped spillways with A-shaped step using FLOW-3D, Civil Engineering Journal, 3.10, 2017.

57-17   Ben Modra, Brett Miller, Nigel Moon and Andrew Berghuis, Physical model testing of a bespoke articulated concrete block (ACB) fishway, 13th Hydraulics in Water Engineering Conference, Sydney, Nov. 13-18, 2017; Engineers Australia, pp. 301-309, 2017.

53-17   C. Gonzalez, U. Baeumer and C. Russell, Natural disaster relief and recovery arrangements Fitzroy project, bridge scour remediation, 13th Hydraulics in Water Engineering Conference, Sydney. Nov. 13-18, 2017; Engineers Australia, pp. 274-281, 2017.

52-17   Nigel Moon, Russell Merz, Sarah Luu and Daley Clohan, Utilising CFD modelling to conceptualise a novel rock ramp fishway design, 13th Hydraulics in Water Engineering Conference, Sydney, Nov. 13-18, 2017; Engineers Australia, pp. 382-389, 2017.

50-17   B.M. Crookston, R.M. Anderson and B.P. Tullis, Free-flow discharge estimation method for Piano Key weir geometries, Journal of Hydro-environment Research (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jher.2017.10.003.

48-17   Jian Zhou, Physics of Environmental Flows Interacting with Obstacles, PhD Thesis: Colorado State University, Copyright by Jian Zhou 2017, All Rights Reserved.

46-17   Michael Sturn, Bernhard Gems, Markus Aufleger, Bruno Mazzorana, Maria Papathoma-Köhle and Sven Fuchs, Scale Model Measurements of Impact Forces on Obstacles Induced by Bed-load Transport Processes, Proceedings of the 37th IAHR World Congress August 13 – 18, 2017, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

43-17   Paula Beceiro, Maria do Céu Almeida and Jorge Matos, Numerical modelling of air-water flows in sewer drops, Available Online 28 April 2017, wst2017246; DOI: 10.2166/wst.2017.246

42-17   Arnau Bayon, Juan Pablo Toro,  Fabián A.Bombardelli, Jorge Matose and Petra Amparo López-Jiménez, Influence of VOF technique, turbulence model and discretization scheme on the numerical simulation of the non-aerated, skimming flow in stepped spillwaysJournal of Hydro-environment Research, Available online 26 October 2017

40-17   Sturm M, Gems B, Mazzorana B, Gabl R and Aufleger M, Validation of physical and 3D numerical modelling of hydrodynamic flow impacts on objects (Validierung experimenteller und 3-D-numerischer Untersuchungen zur Einwirkung hydrodynamischer Fließprozesse auf Objekte), Bozen-Bolzano Institutional Archive (BIA), ISSN: 0043-0978, https://bia.unibz.it/handle/10863/3893, 2017

38-17   Tsung-Hsien Huang, Chyan-Deng Jan, and Yu-Chao Hsu, Numerical Simulations of Water Surface Profiles and Vortex Structure in a Vortex Settling Basin by using FLOW-3D, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 531-542 (2017) 531, DOI: 10.6119/JMST-017-0509-1

36-17   Jacob van Alwon, Duncan Borman and Andrew Sleigh, Numerical Modelling of Aerated Flows Over Stepped Spillways, 37th IAHR World Congress, 2017.

35-17   Abolfazl Nazari Giglou, John Alex Mccorquodale and Luca Solari, Numerical study on the effect of the spur dikes on sedimentation pattern, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Available online 8 March 2017.

33-17   Giovanni De Cesare, Khalid Essyad, Paloma Furlan, Vu Nam Khuong, Sean Mulligan, Experimental study at prototype scale of a self-priming free surface siphon, Congrès SHF : SIMHYDRO 2017, Nice, 14-16 June

32-17   Kathryn Plymesser and Joel Cahoon, Pressure gradients in a steeppass fishway using a computational fluid dynamics model, Ecological Engineering 108 (2017) 277–283.

31-17   M. Ghasemi, S. Soltani-Gerdefaramarzi, The Scour Bridge Simulation around a Cylindrical Pier Using FLOW-3D, Journal of Hydrosciences and Environment 1(2): 2017 46-54

27-17   John Wendelbo and Brian Fox, CFD modeling of Piano Key weirs: validation and numerical parameter space analysis, 2017 Dam Safety, San Antonio, September 10-14, 2017, Copyright © 2017 Association of State Dam Safety Officials, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

26-17   Brian Fox and John Wendelbo, Numerical modeling of Piano Key Weirs using FLOW-3D, USSD Annual Conference, Anaheim, CA, April 3- 7, 2017

25-17   Rasoul Daneshfaraz, Sina Sadeghfam and Ali Ghahramanzadeh, Three-dimensional Numerical Investigation of Flow through Screens as Energy Dissipators, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, https://doi.org/10.1139/cjce-2017-0273

23-17   J.M, Duguay, R.W.J. Lacey and J. Gaucher, A case study of a pool and weir fishway modeled with OpenFOAM and FLOW-3D, Ecological Engineering, Volume 103, Part A, June 2017, Pages 31-42

22-17   Hanif Pourshahbaz, Saeed Abbasi and Poorya Taghvaei, Numerical scour modeling around parallel spur dikes in FLOW-3D, https://doi.org/10.5194/dwes-2017-21, Drinking Water Engineering and Science, © Author(s) 2017

21-17   Hamid Mirzaei, Zohreh Heydari and Majid Fazli, The effect of meshing and comparing different models of turbulence in topographic prediction of bed and amplitude of flow around the groin in 90-degree arc with movable bed, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, pp 1–16, July 2017

13-17   Lan Qi, Hui Chen, Xiao Wang, Wencai Fei and Donghai Liu, Establishment and application of three-dimensional realistic river terrain in the numerical modeling of flow over spillways, Water Science & Technology: Water Supply | in press | 2017.

11-17   Allison, M.A., Yuill, B.T., Meselhe, E.A., Marsh, J.K., Kolker, A.S., Ameen, A.D., Observational and numerical particle tracking to examine sediment dynamics in a Mississippi River delta diversion, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2017.06.004.

09-17   Hamid Mirzaei, Zohreh Heydari and Majid Fazli, The effect of meshing and comparing different turbulence models in predicting the topography of bed and flow field in the 90 degree bend with moving bed, M. Model. Earth Syst. Environ. (2017). doi:10.1007/s40808-017-0336-6

03-17   Luis G. Castillo and José M. Carrillo, Comparison of methods to estimate the scour downstream of a ski jump, Civil Engineering Department, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, UPCT Paseo Alfonso XIII, 52 – 30203 Cartagena, Spain, International Journal of Multiphase Flow 92 (2017) 171–180.

103-16 Daniel Valero and Rafael Garcia-Bartual, Calibration of an Air Entrainment Model for CFD Spillway Applications, Advances in Hydroinformatics, P. Gourbesville et al. (eds), pp. 571-582, 2016. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-615-7_38

97-16   M. Taghavi and H. Ghodousi, A Comparison on Discharge Coefficients of Side and Normal Weirs with Suspended Flow Load using FLOW-3D, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 9(3), doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i3/78537, January 2016.

96-16   Luis G. Castillo and José M. Carrillo, Scour, Velocities and Pressures Evaluations Produced by Spillway and Outlets of DamWater 2016, 8(3), 68; doi.org/10.3390/w8030068.

95-16   Majid Heydari and Alireza KhoshKonesh, The Comparison of the Performance of Prandtl Mixing Length, Turbulence Kinetic Energy, K-e, RNG and LES Turbulence Models in Simulation of the Positive Wave Motion Caused by Dam Break on the Erodible Bed, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 9(7), 2016. doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i7/87856

93-16   Saleh I. Khassaf, Ali N. Attiyah and Hayder A. Al-Yousify, Experimental investigation of compound side weir with modeling using computational fluid dynamic, International Journal of Energy and Environment, Volume 7, Issue 2, 2016 pp.169-178

92-16   Jason Duguay and Jay Lacey, Modeling: OpenFOAM CFD Modeling Case Study of a Pool and Weir Fishway with Implications for Free-Surface Flows, International Conference on Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage 2016

90-16   Giacomo Viccione, Vittorio Bovolin and Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, A numerical investigation of liquid impact on planar surfaces, ECCOMAS Congress 2016 VII European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, Greece, June 2016.

89-16   Giacomo Viccione, A numerical investigation of flow dynamics over a trapezoidal smooth open channel, ECCOMAS Congress 2016 VII European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, Greece, June 2016.

87-16  Jian Zhou and Subhas K. Venayagamoorthy, Numerical simulations of intrusive gravity currents interacting with a bottom-mounted obstacle in a continuously stratified ambient, Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 17; 191–209, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s10652-016-9454-3

86-16   Charles R. Ortloff, Similitude in Archaeology: Examining Agricultural System Science in PreColumbian Civilizations of Ancient Peru and Bolivia, Hydrol Current Res 7:259. doi: 10.4172/2157-7587.1000259, October 2016.

85-16   Charles R. Ortloff, New Discoveries and Perspectives on Water Management at 300 Bc – Ad 1100 Tiwanaku’s Urban Center (Bolivia), MOJ Civil Eng 1(3): 00014. DOI: 10.15406/mojce.2016.01.00014.

82-16   S. Paudel and N. Saenger, Grid refinement study for three dimensional CFD model involving incompressible free surface flow and rotating object, Computers & Fluids, Volume 143, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compfluid.2016.10.025, 17 January 2017, Pages 134–140

77-16   José A. Vásquez, Daniel M. Robb, MODELACIÓN CFD DE ROTURA DE PRESAS EN PRESENCIA DE OBSTÁCULOS, XXVII CONGRESO LATINOAMERICANO DE HIDRÁULICA, LIMA, PERÚ, 28 AL 30 DE SETIEMBRE DE 2016.

76-16   José A. Vásquez and Guilherme de Lima, MODELACIÓN CFD DE ONDAS TSUNAMI EN RESERVORIOS, LAGOS Y MINAS CAUSADAS POR DESLIZAMIENTOS DE LADERAS, XXVII CONGRESO LATINOAMERICANO DE HIDRÁULICA, LIMA, PERÚ, 28 AL 30 DE SETIEMBRE DE 2016.

75-16   Bernhard Gems, Bruno Mazzorana, Thomas Hofer, Michael Sturm, Roman Gabl and Markus Aufleger, 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1351-1368, 2016, http://www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/16/1351/2016/, doi:10.5194/nhess-16-1351-2016 © Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

74-16   Roman Gabl, Jakob Seibl, Manfred Pfeifer, Bernhard Gems and Markus Aufleger, 3D-numerische Modellansätze für die Berechnung von Lawineneinstößen in Speicher (Concepts to simulate avalanche impacts into a reservoir based on 3D-numerics), Österr Wasser- und Abfallw (2016). doi:10.1007/s00506-016-0346-z.

73-16   Sebastian Krzyzagorski, Roman Gabl, Jakob Seibl, Heidi Böttcher and Markus Aufleger, Implementierung eines schräg angeströmten Rechens in die 3D-numerische Berechnung mit FLOW-3D (Implementation of an angled trash rack in the 3D-numerical simulation with FLOW-3D), Österr Wasser- und Abfallw (2016) 68: 146. doi:10.1007/s00506-016-0299-2.

71-16   Khosro Morovati, Afshin Eghbalzadeh and Saba Soori, Numerical Study of Energy Dissipation of Pooled Stepped Spillways, Civil Engineering Journal Vol. 2, No. 5, May, 2016.

66-16   Sooyoung Kim, Seo-hye Choi and Seung Oh Lee, Analysis of Influence for Breach Flow According to Asymmetry of Breach Cross-section, Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, Vol. 17, No. 5 pp. 557-565, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.5.557, ISSN 1975-4701 / eISSN 2288-4688.

65-16   Dae-Geun Kim, Analysis of Overflow Characteristics around a Circular-Crested Weir by Using Numerical Model, Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater Vol. 30, No. 2, April 2016.

63-16   Farzad Ferdos and Bijan Dargahi, A study of turbulent flow in largescale porous media at high Reynolds numbers. Part II: flow physics, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 2016, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2016.1211185.

62-16   Farzad Ferdos and Bijan Dargahi, A study of turbulent flow in largescale porous media at high Reynolds numbers. Part I: numerical validation, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 2016, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2016.1211184.

60-16   Chia-Lin Chiu, Chia-Ming Fan and Shun-Chung Tsung, Numerical modeling for  periodic oscillation of free overfall in a vertical drop pool, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001236. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.

54-16   Serife Yurdagul Kumcu, Investigation of Flow Over Spillway Modeling and Comparison between Experimental Data and CFD Analysis, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, (0000) 00(0):1-10, Copyright 2016 Korean Society of Civil Engineers, DOI 10.1007/s12205-016-1257-z.

52-16   Gharehbaghi, A., Kaya, B. and Saadatnejadgharahassanlou, Two-Dimensional Bed Variation Models Under Non-equilibrium Conditions in Turbulent Streams, H. Arab J Sci Eng (2016). doi:10.1007/s13369-016-2258-4

48-16   M. Mohsin Munir, Taimoor Ahmed, Javed Munir and Usman Rasheed, Application of Computational Flow Dynamics Analysis for Surge Inception and Propagation for Low Head Hydropower Projects, Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: Pakistan Academy of Sciences, A. Physical and Computational Sciences 53 (2): 177–185 (2016), Copyright © Pakistan Academy of Sciences

46-16   Manuel Gómez, Joan Recasens, Beniamino Russo and Eduardo Martínez-Gomariz, Assessment of inlet efficiency through a 3D simulation: numerical and experimental comparison, wst2016326; DOI: 10.2166/wst.2016.326, August 2016

45-16   Chia-Ying Chang, Frederick N.-F. Chou, Yang-Yih Chen, Yi-Chern Hsieh, Chia-Tzu Chang, Analytical and experimental investigation of hydrodynamic performance and chamber optimization of oscillating water column system, Energy 113 (2016) 597-614

42-16   Bung, D. and Valero, D., Application of the Optical Flow Method to Velocity Determination, In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June 2016, doi:10.15142/T3150628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

41-16   Valero, D., Bung, D., Crookston, B. and Matos, J., Numerical investigation of USBR type III stilling basin performance downstream of smooth and stepped spillways, In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management. 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June 2016, doi:10.15142/T340628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

40-16   Bruce M. Savage, Brian M. Crookston and Greg S. Paxson, Physical and Numerical Modeling of Large Headwater Ratios for a 15° Labyrinth Spillway, J. Hydraul. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001186, 04016046.

36-16   Kai-Wen Hsiao, Yu-Chao Hsu, Chyan-Deng Jan, and Yu-Wen Su, Characteristics of Hydraulic Shock Waves in an Inclined Chute Contraction by Using Three Dimensional Numerical Model, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 18, EGU 2016-11505, 2016, EGU General Assembly 2016, © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

34-16   Dunlop, S., Willig, I., Paul, G., Cabinet Gorge Dam Spillway Modifications for TDG Abatement – Design Evolution and Field Performance, In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management. 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June, 2016, doi:10.15142/T3650628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

33-16   Crispino, G., Dorthe, D., Fuchsmann, T., Gisonni, C., Pfister, M., Junction chamber at vortex drop shaft: case study of Cossonay, In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June 2016, doi:10.15142/T350628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

32-16  Brown, K., Crookston, B., Investigating Supercritical Flows in Curved Open Channels with Three Dimensional Numerical Modeling, In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June, 2016, doi:10.15142/T3580628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

31-16  Cicero, G, Influence of some geometrical parameters on Piano Key Weir discharge efficiency,In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June, 2016, doi:10.15142/T3320628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

28-16   Anthoula Gkesouli, Maria Nitsa, Anastasios I. Stamou, Peter Rutschmann and Minh Duc Bui, Modeling the effect of wind in rectangular settling tanks for water supply, DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2016.1195290, Desalination and Water Treatment, June 22, 2016.

27-16   Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, Giacomo Viccione and Vittorio Bovolin, Free surface flow impact on a vertical wall: a numerical assessment, Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn., DOI 10.1007/s00162-016-0386-9, February 2016.

25-16   Daniel Valero and Daniel B. Bung, Sensitivity of turbulent Schmidt number and turbulence model to simulations of jets in crossflow, Environmental Modelling & Software 82 (2016) 218e228.

24-16   Il Won Seo, Young Do Kim, Yong Sung Park and Chang Geun Song, Spillway discharges by modification of weir shapes and overflow surroundings, Environmental Earth Sciences, March 2016, 75:496, 14 March 2016

23-16   Du Han Lee, Myounghwan Kim and Dong Sop Rhee, Evacuation Safety Evaluation of Inundated Stairs Using 3D Numerical Simulation, International Journal of Smart Home Vol. 10, No. 3, (2016), pp.149-158 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijsh.2016.10.3.15

22-16   Arnau Bayon, Daniel Valero, Rafael García-Bartual, Francisco Jose Valles-Moran and Amparo Lopez-Jimenez, Performance assessment of OpenFOAM and FLOW-3D in the numerical modeling of a low Reynolds number hydraulic jump, Environmental Modelling & Software 80 (2016) 322e335.

21-16   Shima Bahadori and Mehdi Behdarvandi Askar, Investigating the Effect of Relative Width on Momentum Transfer between Main Channel and Floodplain in Rough Rectangular Compound Channel Sunder Varius Relative Depth Condition, Open Journal of Geology, 2016, 6, 225-231, Published Online April 2016 in SciRes.

18-16   Ali Ahrari,  Hong Lei, Montassar Aidi Sharif, Kalyanmoy Deb and  Xiaobo Tan, Optimum Design of Artificial Lateral Line Systems for Object Tracking under Uncertain Conditions, COIN Report Number: 2016006

16-16   Elena Battisacco, Giovanni De Cesare and Anton J. Schleiss, Re-establishment of a uniform discharge on the Olympic fountain in Lausanne, Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research, (2016) DOI: 10.1080/23249676.2016.1163648.

14-16   Shima Bahadori, Mehdi and Behdarvandi Askar, Investigating the Simultaneous Effect of Relative Width and Relative Roughness on Apparent Shear Stress in Symmetric Compound Rectangular Channels, JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH IN SCIENCE, ISSN 2322-5009 CODEN (USA): JCRSDJ, S (1), 2016: 654-660

12-16   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering Innovations at 100 BC- AD 300 Nabataean Petra (Jordan), In conference proceedings: De Aquaeductu atque Aqua Urbium Lyciae Pamphyliae Pisidiae. The Legacy of Sextus Julius Frontinus, Antalya, Turkey, G. Wiplinger, ed.  ISBN: 978-90-429-3361-3, 2016 Peeters Publisher, Leuven, Belgium.

11-16 G. Robblee, S. Kees and B.M. Crookston, Schnabel Engineering; and K. Keel, Town of Hillsborough, Ensuring Water Supply Reliability with Innovative PK Weir Spillway Design, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, Denver, CO, April 11-15, 2016

10-16 Tina Stanard and Victor Vasquez, Freese and Nichols, Inc.; Ruth Haberman, Upper Brushy Creek Water Control and Improvement District; Blake Tullis, Utah State University; and Bruce Savage, Idaho State University, Importance of Site Considerations for Labyrinth Spillway Hydraulic Design — Upper Brushy Creek Dam 7 Modernization, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, Denver, CO, April 11-15, 2016

09-16 James R. Crowder, Brian M. Crookston, Bradley T. Boyer and J. Tyler Coats, Schnabel Engineering, Cultivating Ingenuity and Safety in Alabama: The Taming of Lake Ogletree Reservoir, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, Denver, CO, April 11-15, 2016

08-16 Frank Lan, Robert Waddell and Michael Zusi, AECOM; and Brian Grant, Montana DNRC, Replacing Ruby Dam Outlet Uses Computational Fluid Dynamics to Model Energy Dissipation, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, Denver, CO, April 11-15, 2016

07-16 Elise N. Dombeck, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Applications of FLOW-3D for Stability Analyses of Concrete Spillways at FERC Projects, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, Denver, CO, April 11-15, 2016

06-16   Farhad Ghazizadeh and M. Azhdary Moghaddam, An Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Flow Hydraulic Parameters in Circular Crested Weir Using FLOW-3D, Civil Engineering Journal Vol. 2, No. 1, January, 2016

05-16   Sadegh Dehdar-behbahani and Abbas Parsaie, Numerical modeling of flow pattern in dam spillway’s guide wall. Case study: Balaroud dam, Iran, doi:10.1016/j.aej.2016.01.006, February 2016.

04-16   Oscar Herrera-Granados and Stanisław W. Kostecki, Numerical and physical modeling of water flow over the ogee weir of the new Niedów barrage, DOI: 10.1515/johh-2016-0013, J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 64, 2016, 1, 67–74

03-16   B. Gems, B. Mazzorana, T. Hofer, M. Sturm, R. Gabl, M. Aufleger, 3D-hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/nhess-2015-326, 2016, Manuscript under review for journal Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., Published: 19 January 2016 © Author(s) 2016. CC-BY 3.0 License.

124-15 Yousef Sangsefidi, Mojtaba Mehraein, and Masoud Ghodsian, Numerical simulation of flow over labyrinth spillways, Scientia Iranica, Transaction A, 22(5), 1779–1787, 2015.

120-15   Du Han Lee, Myounghwan Kim and Dong Sop Rhee, Analysis of Critical Evacuation Condition on Inundated Stairs Using Numerical Simulation, Advanced Science and Technology Letters Vol.120 (GST 2015), pp.522-525 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/astl.2015.120.104

119-15  Shiqiang Ye and Paul Toth, Bank Erosion Control at Frederickhouse Dam, Ontario, CDA 2015 Annual Conference, Congrès annuel 2015 de l’ACB, Mississauga, ON, Canada, 2015 Oct 5-8

118-15  D.M. Robb and J.A. Vasquez, Numerical simulation of dam-break flows using depth-averaged hydrodynamic and three-dimensional CFD models, 22nd Canadian Hydrotechnical Conference, Montreal, Quebec, April 29 – May 2, 2015

117-15 Ashkan. Reisi, Parastoo. Salah, and Mohamad Reza. Kavianpour, Impact of Chute Walls Convergence Angle on Flow Characteristics of Spillways using Numerical Modeling, International Journal of Chemical, Environmental & Biological Sciences (IJCEBS), Volume 3, Issue 3 (2015) ISSN 2320–4087 (Online)

115-15  Ivana Vouk, Field and Numerical Investigation of Mixing and Transport of Ammonia in the Ottawa River, Master’s Thesis: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, August 2015, © Ivana Vouk, Canada 2016.

113-15   J. Amblard, C. Pams Capoccioni, D. Nivon, L. Mellal, G. De Cesare, T. Ghilardi, M. Jafarnejad and E. Battisacco, Analysis of Ballast Transport in the Event of Overflowing of the Drainage System on High Speed Lines, International Journal of Railway Technology, Volume 4, 2015. doi:10.4203/ijr, t.4.xx.xx , ©Saxe-Coburg Publications, 2015

111-15   Y. Oukid, V. Libaud and C. Daux, 3D CFD modelling of spillways -Practical feedback on capabilities and challenges, Hydropower & Dams Issue Six, 2015

110-15  Zhiyong Zhang and Yuanping Yang, Numerical Study on Onset Condition of Scour Below Offshore Pipeline Under Reversing Tidal Flow, © EJGE, Vol. 20 [2015], Bund. 25

109-15  He Baohua, Numerical Simulation Analysis of Karst Tunnel Water Bursting Movement, © EJGE, Vol. 20 [2015], Bund. 25

105-15   Ali Yıldız and A. İhsan Martı, Comparison of Experimental Study and CFD Analysis of the Flow Under a Sluice Gate, Proceedings of International Conference on Structural Architectural and Civil Engineering Held on 21-22, Nov, 2015, in Dubai, ISBN:9788193137321

104-15  Yehui Zhu and Liquan Xie, Numerical Analysis of Flow Effects on Water Interface over a Submarine Pipeline, Resources, Environment and Engineering II: Proceedings of the 2nd Technical Congress on Resources, Environment and Engineering (CREE 2015, Hong Kong, 25-26 September 2015), Edited by Liquan Xie, CRC Press 2015, Pages 99–104, DOI: 10.1201/b19136-16.

100-15  Yizhou Xiao, Wene Wang, Xiaotao Hu, and Yan Zhou, Experimental and numerical research on portable short-throat flume in the field, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, doi:10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2015.11.003, Available online December 8, 2015

99-15   Mehdi Taghavi and Hesam Ghodousi, Simulation of Flow Suspended Load in Weirs by Using FLOW-3D Model, Civil Engineering Journal Vol. 1, No. 1, November 2015

98-15   Azin Movahedi, Ali Delavari and Massoud Farahi, Designing Manhole in Water Transmission Lines Using FLOW-3D Numerical Model, Civil Engineering Journal Vol. 1, No. 1, November 2015

97-15   R. Gabl, J. Seibl, B. Gems, and M. Aufleger, 3-D numerical approach to simulate the overtopping volume caused by an impulse wave comparable to avalanche impact in a reservoir, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2617-2630, doi:10.5194/nhess-15-2617-2015, 2015.

94-15   Jason Matthew Duguay and Jay Lacey, Numerical Study of an Innovative Fish Ladder Design for Perched Culverts, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 10.1139/cjce-2014-0436, November 2015

92-15   H. A. Hussein, R. Abdulla and  M. A. Md Said, Computational Investigation of Inlet Baffle Height on the Flow in a Rectangular Oil/Water Separator Tanks, Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 802, pp. 587-592, Oct. 2015

91-15   Mahmoud Mohammad Rezapour Tabari and Shiva Tavakoli, Effects of Stepped Spillway Geometry on Flow Pattern and Energy DissipationArabian Journal for Science and Engineering, October 2015

87-15   Erin R. Ryan, Effects of Hydraulic Structures on Fish Passage – An Evaluation of 2D vs 3D Hydraulic Analysis Methods, Master’s Thesis: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado State University, Summer 2015, Copyright by Erin Rose Ryan 2015

79-15   Ana L. Quaresma, Is CFD an efficient tool to develop pool type fishways? International Conference on Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage. Paper 20, June 24, 2015

78-15   Amir Alavi, Don Murray, Claude Chartrand and Derek McCoy, CFD Modeling Provides Value Engineering, Hydro Review, October 2015

75-15   Rebekka Czerny, Classification of flow patterns in a nature-oriented fishway based on 3D hydraulic simulation results, International Conference on Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage. Paper 39, June 22, 2015

73-15   Frank Seidel, Hybrid model approach for designing fish ways – example fish lift system at Baldeney/Ruhr and fishway at Geesthacht /Elbet, International Conference on Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage 2015

72-15   G. Guyot, B. Huber, and A. Pittion-Rossillon, Assessment of a numerical method to forecast vortices with a scaled model, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

71-15   Abbas Parsaie, Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi and Amir Moradinejad, CFD modeling of flow pattern in spillway’s approach channel, Sustainable Water Resources Management, September 2015, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp 245-251

70-15   T. Liepert, A. Kuhlmann, G. Haimer, M.D. Bui and P. Rutschmann, Optimization of Fish Pass Entrance Location at a Hydropower Plant Considering Site-Specific Constraints, Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, Rhodes, Greece, 3-5 September 2015

67-15   Alkistis Stergiopoulou and Efrossini Kalkani, Towards a first CFD study of modern horizontal axis Archimedean water current turbines, Volume: 02 Issue: 04, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal © 2015, IRJET, July 2015

66-15   Won Choi, Jeongbae Jeon, Jinseon Park, Jeong Jae Lee and Seongsoo Yoon, System reliability analysis of downstream spillways based on collapse of upstream spillways, Int J Agric & Biol Eng, 2015; 8(4): 140-150.

64-15   Szu-Hsien Peng and Chuan Tang, Development and Application of Two-Dimensional Numerical Model on Shallow Water Flows Using Finite Volume Method, Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 2015, 3, 989-996, Published Online August 2015 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/jamp, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2015.38121

62-15   Cuneyt Yavuz, Ali Ersin Dincer, Kutay Yilmaz and Samet Dursun, Head Loss Estimation of Water Jets from Flip Bucket of Cakmak-1 Diversion Weir and HEPP, RESEARCH GATE, August 2015 DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3650.5440

54-15   Guo-bin Xu, Li-na Zhao, and Chih Ted Yang, Derivation and verification of minimum energy dissipation rate principle of fluid based on minimum entropy production rate principle, International Journal of Sediment Research, August 2015

50-15   Vafa Khoolosi, Sedat Kabdaşli, and Sevda Farrokhpour, Modeling and Comparison of Water Waves Caused by Landslides into Reservoirs, Watershed Management 2015 © ASCE 2015.

48-15   Mohammad Rostami and Maaroof Siosemarde, Human Life Saving by Simulation of Dam Break using FLOW-3D (A Case Study: Upper Gotvand Dam), www.sciencejournal.in, Volume- 4 Issue- 3 (2015) ISSN: 2319–4731 (p); 2319–5037 (e) © 2015 DAMA International. All rights reserved.

47-15   E. Kolden, B. D. Fox, B. P. Bledsoe and M. C. Kondratieff, Modelling Whitewater Park Hydraulics and Fish Habitat in Colorado, River Res. Applic., doi: 10.1002/rra.2931, 2015

43-15   Firouz Ghasemzadeh, Behzad Parsa, and Mojtaba Noury, Numerical Study of Overflow Capacity of Spillways, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

42-15   Mario Oertel, Numerical Modeling of Free-Surface Flows in Practical Applications, Chapter 8 in Rivers – Physical, Fluvial and Environmental Processes (GeoPlanet: Earth and Planetary Sciences), by Pawel Rowiński and Artur Radecki-Pawlik, July 2, 2015

39-15   R. Gabl, J. Seibl, B. Gems, and M. Aufleger, 3-D-numerical approach to simulate an avalanche impact into a reservoir, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 3, 4121–4157, 2015, www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/3/4121/2015/, doi:10.5194/nhessd-3-4121-2015, © Author(s) 2015. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

37-15   Mario Oertel, Discharge Coefficients of Piano Key Weirs from Experimental and Numerical Models, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

36-15   Jessica Klein and Mario Oertel, Comparison between Crossbar Block Ramp and Vertical Slot Fish Pass via Numerical 3D CFD Simulation, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

35-15   Mario Oertel, Jan P. Balmes and Daniel B. Bung, Numerical Simulation of Erosion Processes on Crossbar Block Ramps, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

33-15   Daniel Valero and Daniel B. Bung, Hybrid Investigation of Air Transport Processes in Moderately Sloped Stepped Spillway Flows, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

32-15   Deniz Velioglu, Nuray Denli Tokyay, and Ali Ersin Dincer, A Numerical and Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Hydraulic Jumps on Rough Beds, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

31-15   J.C.C. Amorim, R.C.R. Amante, and V.D. Barbosa, Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Flow in a Stilling Basin, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

30-15   Luna B.J. César, Salas V. Christian, Gracia S. Jesús, and Ortiz M. Victor, Comparative Analysis of the Modification of Turbulence and Its Effects on a Trapezoidal Section Stilling Basin, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

27-15   L. Castillo, J. Carrillo, and M. Álvarez, Complementary Methods for Determining the Sedimentation and Flushing in a Reservoir, J. Hydraul. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001050 , 05015004, 2015.

22-15   Mohammad Vaghefi, Mohammad Shakerdargah and Maryam Akbari, Numerical investigation of the effect of Froude number on flow pattern around a submerged T-shaped spur dike in a 90º bend, © Turkish Journal of Engineering & Environmental Sciences, 03.04.2015, doi:10.3906/muh-1405-2

18-15   S. Michael Scurlock, Amanda L. Cox, Drew C. Baird, Christopher I. Thornton and Steven R. Abt, Hybrid Modeling of River Training Structures in Sinuous Channels, SEDHYD 2015, Joint 10th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, 5th Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference, April 19-23, 2015, Reno, Nevada

13-15   Selahattin Kocaman and Hatice Ozmen-Cagatay, Investigation of dam-break induced shock waves impact on a vertical wall, Journal of Hydrology (2015), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.03.040.

12-15   Nguyen Cong Thanh and Wang Ling-Ling, Physical and Numerical Model of Flow through the Spillways with a Breast Wall, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering (0000) 00(0):1-8, Copyright 2015 Korean Society of Civil Engineers, DOI 10.1007/s12205-015-0742-0, April 10, 2015.

10-15   Yueping Yin, Bolin Huang, Guangning Liu and Shichang Wang, Potential risk analysis on a Jianchuandong dangerous rockmass-generated impulse wave in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China, Environ Earth Sci, DOI 10.1007/s12665-015-4278-x, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

08-15   Yue-ping Yin, Bolin Huang, Xiaoting Chen, Guangning Liu and Shichang Wang, Numerical analysis on wave generated by the Qianjiangping landslide in Three Gorges Reservoir, China, 10.1007/s10346-015-0564-7, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

07-15   M. Vaghefi, A. Ahmadi and B. Faraji, The Effect of Support Structure on Flow Patterns Around T-Shape Spur Dike in 90° Bend Channel, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, February 2015,

06-15   Sajjad Mohammadpour Zalaki, Hosein Fathian, Ebrahim Zalaghi and Farhad Kalantar Hormozi, Investigation of hydraulic parameters and cavitation in Kheir Abad flood release structure, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, February 2015

04-15  Der-Chang Lo, Jin-Shuen Liou, and Shyy Woei Chang, Hydrodynamic Performances of Air-Water Flows in Gullies with and without Swirl Generation Vanes for Drainage Systems of Buildings, Water 2015, 7(2), 679-696; doi:10.3390/w7020679

01-15   William Daley Clohan, Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Subaerial Landslide Generated Waves, Master’s Thesis: Civil Engineering, The University of British Columbia (Vancouver), January 2015 © William Daley Clohan, 2015. Available upon request.

136-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in 300 BCE- CE 300 Petra (Jordan), Encyclopedia of Ancient Science, Technology and Medicine in Nonwestern Cultures, Springer Publishing, Berlin Germany, 2014.

135-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Land, Labor, Water and Technology in Precolumbian South America, Encyclopedia of Ancient Science, Technology and Medicine in Nonwestern Cultures, Springer Publishing, Berlin Germany, 2014.

134-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydrologic Engineering of the 300 BCE- CE 1100 Precolumbian Tiwanaku State (Bolivia), Encyclopedia of Ancient Science, Technology and Medicine in Nonwestern Cultures, Springer Publishing, Berlin Germany, 2014.

133-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Water engineering at Petra (Jordan): Recreating the decision process underlying hydraulic engineering of the Wadi Mataha pipeline system, Journal of Archaeological Science, April 2014. 44. 91–97. 10.1016/j.jas.2014.01.015.

132-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in Ancient Peru and Bolivia, Encyclopedia of Ancient Science, Technology and Medicine in Nonwestern Cultures, Springer Publishing, Berlin Germany, 2014.

131-14    Charles R. Ortloff, Water Management in Ancient Peru, Living Reference Work Entry, Encyclopedia of Ancient Science, Technology and Medicine in Nonwestern Cultures, Springer Publishing, Berlin Germany, 2014.

130-14  Kordula Schwarzwälder and Peter Rutschmann, Sampling bacteria with a laser, Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-15144, 2014 EGU General Assembly 2014 © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

129-14   Kordula Schwarzwälder, Eve Walters and Peter Rutschmann, Bacteria fate and transport in a river, Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-14022, 2014 EGU General Assembly 2014 © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

127-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in Petra, Living Reference Work Entry, Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, pp 1-13, 03 July 2014

124-14  G. Wei. M. Grünzner and F. Semler, Combination of 2D shallow water and full 3D numerical modeling for sediment transport in reservoirs and basins, Reservoir Sedimentation – Schleiss et al. (Eds) © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-02675-9.

121-14    A. Bayón-Barrachina, D. Valero, F. Vallès-Morán, and P.A. López-Jiménez, Comparison of CFD Models for Multiphase Flow Evolution in Bridge Scour Processes, 5th International Junior Researcher and Engineer Workshop on Hydraulic Structures, Spa, Belgium, 28-30 August 2014

120-14  D. Valero, R. García-Bartual and J. Marco, Optimisation of Stilling Basin Chute Blocks Using a Calibrated Multiphase RANS Model, 5th International Junior Researcher and Engineer Workshop on Hydraulic Structures, Spa, Belgium, 28-30 August 2014

119-14   R. Gabl, B. Gems, M. Plörer, R. Klar, T. Gschnitzer, S. Achleitner, and M. Aufleger, Numerical Simulations in Hydraulic Engineering, Computational Engineering, 2014, pp 195-224, April 2014

118-14  Kerilyn Ambrosini, Analysis of Flap Gate Design and Implementations for Water Delivery Systems in California and Nevada, BioResource and Agricultural Engineering, BioResource and Agricultural Engineering Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, 2014

117-14  Amir Moradinejad, Abas Parssai, Mohamad Noriemamzade, Numerical Modeling of Flow Pattern In Kamal Saleh Dam Spillway Approach Channel, App. Sci. Report.10 (2), 2014: 82-89, © PSCI Publications

116-14  Luis G. Castillo and José M. Carrillo, Characterization of the Dynamic Actions and Scour Estimation Downstream of a Dam, 1st International Seminar on Dam Protection against Overtopping and Accidental Leakage, M.Á. Toledo, R. Morán, E. Oñate (Eds), Madrid, 24-25 November 2014

115-14  Luis G. Castillo, José M. Carrillo, Juan T. García, Antonio Vigueras-Rodríguez, Numerical Simulations and Laboratory Measurements in Hydraulic Jumps, 11th International Conference on Hydroinformatics, HIC 2014, New York City, USA

114-14  Du Han Lee, Young Joo Kim, and Samhee Lee, Numerical modeling of bed form induced hyporheic exchangePaddy and Water Environment, August 2014, Volume 12, Issue 1 Supplement, pp 89-97

112-14  Ed Zapel, Hank Nelson, Brian Hughes, Steve Fry, Options for Reducing Total Dissolved Gas at the Long Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Hydrovision International, July 22-24, 2014, Nashville, TN

111-14  Jason Duguay, Jay Lace, Dave Penny and Ken Hannaford, Evolution of an Innovative Fish Ladder Design to Address Issues of Perched Culverts, 2014 Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec

106-14   Manuel Gomez and Eduardo Martinez, 1D, 2D and 3D Modeling of a PAC-UPC Laboratory Canal Bend, SimHydro 2014: Modelling of rapid transitory flows, 11-13 June 2014, Sophia Antipolis

105-14 Jason Duguay and Jay Lacey, Numerical Validation of an Innovative Fish Baffle Design in Response to Fish Passage Issues at Perched Culverts, CSPI Technical Bulletin, January 14, 2014

104-14  Di Ning, Di,  A Computational Study on Hydraulic Jumps, including Air Entrainment, Master’s Thesis: Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, 2014, 1569799, Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2014

103-14  S. M. Sayah, S. Bonanni, Ph. Heller, and M. Volpato, Physical and Numerical Modelling of Cerro del Águila Dam -Hydraulic and Sedimentation, DOI: 10.13140/2.1.5042.1122 Conference: Hydro 2014

102-14   Khosrow Hosseini, Shahab Rikhtegar, Hojat Karami, Keivan Bina, Application of Numerical Modeling to Assess Geometry Effect of Racks on Performance of Bottom Intakes, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, December 2014

98-14  Aysel Duru, Numerical Modelling of Contracted Sharp Crested Weirs, Master’s Thesis: The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University, November 2014

97-14  M Angulo, S Liscia, A Lopez and C Lucino, Experimental validation of a low-head turbine intake designed by CFD following Fisher and Franke guidelines, 27th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2014), IOP Publishing, IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 22 (2013) 042014 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/22/4/042014

94-14   Hamidreza Babaali, Abolfazl Shamsai, and Hamidreza Vosoughifar, Computational Modeling of the Hydraulic Jump in the Stilling Basin with ConvergenceWalls Using CFD Codes, Arab J Sci Eng, DOI 10.1007/s13369-014-1466-z, October 2014

93-14   A.J. Vellinga, M.J.B. Cartigny, J.T. Eggenhuisen, E.W.M. Hansen, and R. Rouzairol, Morphodynamics of supercritical-flow bedforms using depth-resolved computational fluid dynamics model, International Association of Sedimentologists, Geneva, 2014.

88-14   Marcelo A. Somos-Valenzuela, Rachel E. Chisolm, Daene C. McKinney, and Denny Rivas, Inundation Modeling of a Potential Glacial Lake Outburst Flood in Huaraz, Peru, CRWR Online Report 14-01, March 2014

84-14   Hossein Shahheydari, Ehsan Jafari Nodoshan, Reza Barati, and Mehdi Azhdary Moghadam, Discharge coefficient and energy dissipation over stepped spillway under skimming flow regimeKSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 10.1007/s12205-013-0749-3, November 2014

81-14   Gaël Epely-Chauvin, Giovanni De Cesare and Sebastian Schwindt, Numerical Modelling of Plunge Pool Scour Evolution in Non-Cohesive Sediments, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 477–487 (2014).

79-14   Liquan Xie, Yanhui Xu, and Wenrui Huang, Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Mechanism of Sediment Trapping by Geotextile Mattress with Sloping Curtain (GMSC), Proceedings of the Eleventh (2014) Pacific/Asia Offshore Mechanics Symposium Shanghai, China, October 12-16, 2014 Copyright © 2014 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, ISBN 978–1 880653 90-6: ISSN 1946-004X.

78-14  D. N. Powell and A. A. Khan, Flow Field Upstream of an Orifice under Fixed Bed and Equilibrium Scour ConditionsJ. Hydraul. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000960, 04014076, 2014.

76-14   Berk Sezenöz, Numerical Modelling of Continuous Transverse Grates for Hydraulic Efficiency, Master’s Thesis: The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University, October 2014

75-14   Francesco Calomino and Agostino Lauria, 3-D Underflow of a Sluice Gate at a Channel Inlet; Experimental Results and CFD Simulations, Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism, Volume 4, Issue 5: 501-508 (2014)

73-14   Som Dutta, Talia E. Tokyay, Yovanni A. Cataño-Lopera, Sergio Serafinod and Marcelo H. Garcia, Application of computational fluid dynamic modeling to improve flow and grit transport in Terence J. O’Brien Water Reclamation Plant, Chicago, Illinois, Journal of Hydraulic Research, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2014.949883, October 2014

72-14   Ali Heidari, Poria Ghassemi, Evaluation of step’s slope on energy dissipation in stepped spillway, International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 3 (4) (2014) 501-505, ©Science Publishing Corporation, www.sciencepubco.com/index.php/IJET, doi: 10.14419/ijet.v3i4.3561

70-14   M. Tabatabai, M. Heidarnejad, A. Bordbar, Numerical Study of Flow Patterns in Stilling Basin with Sinusoidal Bed using FLOW-3D Model, Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(13) August 2014, Pages: 787-792

66-14   John S. Schwartz, Keil J. Neff, Frank E. Dworak, Robert R. Woockman, Restoring riffle-pool structure in an incised, straightened urban stream channel using an ecohydraulic modeling approach, Ecol. Eng. (2014), doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.06.002

65-14  Laura Rozumalski and Michael Fullarton, CFD Modeling to Design a Fish Lift Entrance, Hydro Review, July 2014

64-14   Pam Waterman, Scaled for Success: Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Prompts Swift Stormwater System Improvements in Indianapolis, WaterWorld, August 2014.

63-14   Markus Grünzner and Peter Rutschmann, Large Eddy Simulation  – Ein Beitrag zur Auflösung turbulenter Strömungsstrukturen in technischen Fischaufstiegshilfen; (LES – resolving turbulent flow in technical fish bypasses), Tagungsband Internationales Symposium in Zurich, Wasser- und Flussbau im Alpenraum, Versuchsanstalt fur Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glaziologie, ETH Zurich. In German.

62-14   Jason Duguay, Jay Lace, Dave Penny, and Ken Hannaford, Evolution of an Innovative Fish Ladder Design to Address Issues of Perched Culverts, 2014 Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec

60-14   Kordula Schwarzwälder, Minh Duc Bui, and Peter Rutschmann, Simulation of bacteria transport processes in a river with FLOW-3D, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 16, EGU2014-12993, 2014, EGU General Assembly 2014, © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

58-14   Eray Usta, Numercial Investigation of Hydraulic Characteristics of Laleili Dam Spillway and Comparison with Physical Model Study, Master’s Thesis: The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University, May 2014

57-14   Selahattin Kocaman, Prediction of Backwater Profiles due to Bridges in a Compound Channel Using CFD, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Volume 2014, Article ID 905217, 9 pages, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/905217

54-14   Ines C. Meireles, Fabian A. Bombardelli, and Jorge Matos, Air entrainment onset in skimming flows on steep stepped spillways: an analysis, (2014) Journal of Hydraulic Research, 52:3, 375-385, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2013.878401

53-14   Charles R Ortloff, Groundwater Management in the 300 bce-1100ce Pre-Columbian City of Tiwanaku (Bolivia), Hydrol Current Res 5: 168. doi:10.4172/2157-7587.1000168, 2014

50-14   Mohanad A. Kholdier, Weir-Baffled Culvert Hydrodynamics Evaluation for Fish Passage using Particle Image Velocimetry and Computational Fluid Dynamic Techniques, Ph.D. Thesis: Utah State University (2014). All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 3078. http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd/3078

48-14   Yu-Heng Lin, Study on raceway pond for microalgae culturing system, Master Thesis: Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, August 2014. In Chinese

38-14   David Ingram, Robin Wallacey, Adam Robinsonz and Ian Bryden, The design and commissioning of the first, circular, combined current and wave test basin, Proceedings of Oceans 2014 MTS/IEEE, Taipei, Taiwan, IEEE, April 2014

36-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in Precolumbian Peru and Bolivia, The Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, Springer-Verlag, Volumes II and III, Heidelberg, Germany, 2014.

35-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in BC 100- AD 300 Petra (Jordan), The Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, Springer-Verlag, Volumes II and III, Heidelberg, Germany, 2014.

34-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in Precolumbian Peru and Bolivia, The Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, Springer-Verlag, Volumes II and III, Heidelberg, Germany, 2014.

33-14   Roman Gabl, Bernhard Gems, Giovanni De Cesare, and Markus Aufleger, Contribution to Quality Standards for 3D-Numerical Simulations with FLOW-3D, Wasserwirtschaft (ISSN: 0043-0978), vol. 104, num. 3, p. 15-20, Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg-Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden Gmbh, 2014. Available for download at the University of InnsbruckIn German.

31-14   E. Fadaei-Kermani and G.A. Barani, Numerical simulation of flow over spillway based on the CFD method, Scientia Iranica A, 21(1), 91-97, 2014

30-14   Luis G. Castillo  and José M. Carrillo, Scour Analysis Downstream of Paute-Cardenillo Dam, © 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, Book of Proceedings, 2014, Porto, Portugal.

29-14    L. G. Castillo, M. A. Álvarez, and J. M. Carrillo, Numerical modeling of sedimentation and flushing at the Paute-Cardenillo Reservoir, ASCE-EWRI. International Perspective on Water Resources and Environment Quito, January 8-10, 2014

28-14   L. G. Castillo and J. M. CarrilloScour estimation of the Paute-Cardenillo Dam, ASCE-EWRI. International Perspective on Water Resources and Environment Quito, January 8-10, 2014.

27-14   Luis G. Castillo, Manual A. Álvarez and José M. Carrillo, Analysis of Sedimentation and Flushing into the Reservoir Paute-Cardenillo© 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, Book of Proceedings, 2014, Porto, Portugal.

24-14   Carter R. Newell and John Richardson, The Effects of Ambient and Aquaculture Structure Hydrodynamics on the Food Supply and Demand of Mussel Rafts, Journal of Shellfish Research, 33(1):257-272, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2983/035.033.0125, 0125, 2014.

16-14   Han Hu, Jiesheng Huang, Zhongdong Qian, Wenxin Huai, and Genjian Yu, Hydraulic Analysis of Parabolic Flume for Flow Measurement, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2014.03.002, 2014.

14-14   Seung Oh Lee, Sooyoung Kim, Moonil Kim, Kyoung Jae Lim and Younghun Jung, The Effect of Hydraulic Characteristics on Algal Bloom in an Artificial Seawater Canal: A Case Study in Songdo City, South Korea, Water 2014, 6, 399-413; doi:10.3390/w6020399, ISSN 2073-4441, www.mdpi.com/journal/water

13-14   Kathryn Elizabeth Plymesser, Modeling Fish Passage and Energy Expenditure for American Shad in a Steeppass Fishway using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Ph.D. Thesis: Montana State University, January 2014, © Kathryn Elizabeth Plymesser, 2014, All Rights Reserved.

12-14   Sangdo An and Pierre Y. Julien, Three-Dimensional Modeling of Turbid Density Currents in Imha Reservoir, J. Hydraul. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000851, 05014004, 2014.

09-14   B. Gems, M. Wörndl, R. Gabl, C. Weber, and M. Aufleger, Experimental and numerical study on the design of a deposition basin outlet structure at a mountain debris cone, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 175–187, 2014, www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/14/175/2014/, doi:10.5194/nhess-14-175-2014, © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

07-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Water Engineering at Petra (Jordan): Recreating the Decision Process underlying Hydraulic Engineering of the Wadi Mataha Pipeline System, Journal of Archaeological Science, Available online January 2014.

06-14   Hatice Ozmen-Cagatay, Selahattin Kocaman, Hasan Guzel, Investigation of dam-break flood waves in a dry channel with a hump, Journal of Hydro-environment Research, Available online January 2014.

05-14   Shawn P. Clark, Jonathan Scott Toews, and Rob Tkach, Beyond average velocity: Modeling velocity distributions in partially-filled culverts to support fish passage guidelines, International Journal of River Basin Management, DOI10.1080/15715124.2013.879591, January 2014.

04-14   Giovanni De Cesare, Martin Bieri, Stéphane Terrier, Sylvain Candolfi, Martin Wickenhäuser and Gaël Micoulet, Optimization of a Shared Tailrace Channel of Two Pumped-Storage Plants by Physical and Numerical Modeling, Advances in Hydroinformatics Springer Hydrogeology 2014, pp 291-305.

03-14   Grégory Guyot, Hela Maaloul and Antoine Archer, A Vortex Modeling with 3D CFD, Advances in Hydroinformatics Springer Hydrogeology 2014, pp 433-444.

02-14   Géraldine Milési and Stéphane Causse, 3D Numerical Modeling of a Side-Channel Spillway, Advances in Hydroinformatics Springer Hydrogeology 2014, pp 487-498.

01-14   Mohammad R. Namaee, Mohammad Rostami, S. Jalaledini and Mahdi Habibi, A 3-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Flow Over a Broad-Crested Side Weir, Advances in Hydroinformatics, Springer Hydrogeology 2014, pp 511-523.

104-13   Alireza Nowroozpour, H. Musavi Jahromi and A. Dastgheib, Studying different cases of wedge shape deflectors on energy dissipation in flip bucket using CFD model, Proceedings, 6th International Perspective on Water Resources & the Environment Conference (IPWE), Izmir, Turkey, January 7-9, 2013.

102-13   Shari Dunlop, Isaac Willig and Roger L. Kay, Emergency Response to Erosion at Fort Peck Spillway: Hydraulic Analysis and Design, ICOLD 2013 International Symposium, Seattle, WA.

101-13   Taeho Kang and Heebeom Shin, Dam Emergency Action Plans in Korea, ICOLD 2013 International Symposium, Seattle, WA.

100-13   John Hess, Jeffrey Wisniewski, David Neff and Mike Forrest, A New Auxiliary Spillway for Folsom Dam, ICOLD 2013 International Symposium, Seattle, WA.

98-13   Neda Sharif and Amin Rostami Ravori, Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effect of Flow Separation on Dissipating Energy in Compound Bucket, 2013 5th International Conference on Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering (ICBEE 2013); 2013 2nd International Conference on Civil Engineering (ICCEN 2013)

97-13  A. Stergiopoulou, V. Stergiopoulos, and E. Kalkani, Contributions to the Study of Hydrodynamic Behaviour of Innovative Archimedean Screw Turbines Recovering the Hydropotential of Watercourses and of Coastal Currents, Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology Athens, Greece, 5-7 September 2013

96-13   Shokry Abdelaziz, Minh Duc Bui, Namihira Atsushi, and Peter Rutschmann, Numerical Simulation of Flow and Upstream Fish Movement inside a Pool-and-Weir Fishway, Proceedings of 2013 IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China

95-13  Guodong Li, Lan Lang, and Jian Ning, 3D Numerical Simulation of Flow and Local Scour around a Spur Dike, Proceedings of 2013 IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China

93-13   Matthew C. Kondratieff and Eric E. Richer, Stream Habitat Investigations and Assistance, Federal Aid Project F-161-R19, Federal Aid in Fish and Wildlife Restoration, Job Progress Report, Colorado Parks & Wildlife, Aquatic Wildlife Research Section, Fort Collins, Colorado, August 2013. Available upon request

92-13   Matteo Tirindelli, Scott Fenical and Vladimir Shepsis, State-of-the-Art Methods for Extreme Wave Loading on Bridges and Coastal Highways, Seventh National Seismic Conference on Bridges and Highways (7NSC), May 20-22, 2013, Oakland, CA

91-13   Cecia Millán Barrera, Víctor Manuel Arroyo Correa, Jorge Armando Laurel Castillo, Modeling contaminant transport with aerobic biodegradation in a shallow water body, Proceedings of 2013 IAHR Congress © 2013 Tsinghua University Press, Beijing

80-13  Brian Fox, Matthew Kondratieff, Brian Bledsoe, Christopher Myrick, Eco-Hydraulic Evaluation of Whitewater Parks as Fish Passage Barriers, International Conference on Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage, June 25-27, 2013, Oregon State University. Presentation available for download on the Scholarworks site.

79-13  Changsung Kim, Jongtae Kim, Joongu Kang, Analysis of the Cause for the Collapse of a Temporary Bridge Using Numerical Simulation, Engineering, 2013, 5, 997-1005, (http://www.scirp.org/journal/eng), Copyright © 2013 Changsung Kim et al. Published Online December 2013

76-13   Riley J. Olsen, Michael C. Johnson, and Steven L. Barfuss, Low-Head Dam Reverse Roller Remediation Options, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, November 2013; doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000848.

72-13  M. Pfister, E. Battisacco, G. De Cesare, and A.J. Schleiss, Scale effects related to the rating curve of cylindrically crested Piano Key weirs, Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II – PKW 2013 – Erpicum et al. (eds), © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-00085-8.

71-13  F. Laugier, J. Vermeulen, and V. Lefebvre, Overview of Piano KeyWeirs experience developed at EDF during the past few years, Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II – PKW 2013 – Erpicum et al. (eds), © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-00085-8.

70-13   G.M. Cicero, J.R. Delisle, V. Lefebvre, and J. Vermeulen, Experimental and numerical study of the hydraulic performance of a trapezoidal Piano Key weir, Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II – PKW 2013 – Erpicum et al. (eds, © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-00085-8.

69-13   V. Lefebvre, J. Vermeulen, and B. Blancher, Influence of geometrical parameters on PK-Weirs discharge with 3D numerical analysis, Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II – PKW 2013 – Erpicum et al. (eds), © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-00085-8.

65-13 Alkistis Stergiopoulou and Efrossini Kalkani, Towards a First CFD Study of Innovative Archimedean Inclined Axis Hydropower Turbines, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), ISSN: 2278-0181, Vol. 2 Issue 9, September 2013.

58-13  Timothy Sassaman, Andrew Johansson, Ryan Jones, and Marianne Walter, Hydraulic Analysis of a Pumped Storage Pond Using Complementary Methods, Hydrovision 2013 Conference Proceedings, Denver, CO, July 2013.

57-13  Jose Vasquez, Kara Hurtig, and Brian Hughes, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling of Run-of-River Intakes, Hydrovision 2013 Conference Proceedings, Denver, CO July 2013.

56-13  David Souders, Jayesh Kariya, and Jeff Burnham, Validation of a Hybrid 3-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional Flow Modeling Technique for an Instanenous Dam-Break, Hydrovision 2013 Conference Proceedings, Denver, CO July 2013.

55-13  Keith Moen, Dan Kirschbaum, Joe Groeneveld, Steve Smith and Kimberly Pate, Sluiceway Deflector Design as part of the Boundary TDG Abatement Program, Hydrovision 2013 Conference Proceedings, Denver, CO, July 2013.

54-13  S. Temeepattanapongsa, G. P. Merkley, S. L. Barfuss and B. Smith, Generic unified rating for Cutthroat flumes, Irrig Sci, DOI 10.1007/s00271-013-0411-3, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013, August 2013.

53-13 Hossein Afshar and Seyed Hooman Hoseini, Experimental and 3-D Numerical Simulation of Flow over a Rectangular Broad-Crested Weir, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), ISSN: 2249-8958, Volume 2, Issue 6, August 2013

52-13  Abdulmajid Matinfard (Kabi), Mohammad Heidarnejad, Javad Ahadian, Effect of Changes in the Hydraulic Conditions on the Velocity Distribution around a L-Shaped Spur Dike at the River Bend, Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences Available online at www.tjeas.com ©2013 TJEAS Journal-2013-3-16/1862-1868 ISSN 2051-0853 ©2013 TJEAS

51-13  Elham Radaei, Sahar Nikbin, and Mahdi Shahrokhi, Numerical Investigation of Angled Baffle on the Flow Pattern in a Rectangular Primary Sedimentation Tank, RCEE, Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering 1 (2013) 79-91.

48-13   Mohammad Kayser, Mohammed A. Gabr, Assessment of Scour on Bridge Foundations by Means of In Situ Erosion Evaluation Probe, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 0361-1981 (Print), Volume 2335 / 2013, pp 72-78. 10.3141/2335-08, August 2013.

47-13  Wei Ping Yin et al., 2013, Three-Dimensional Water Temperature and Hydrodynamic Simulation of Xiangxi River Estuary, Advanced Materials Research, 726-731, 3212, August, 2013.

41-13   N. Nekoue, R. Mahajan, J. Hamrick, and H. Rodriguez, Selective Withdrawal Hydraulic Study Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2013: pp. 1808-1813. doi: 10.1061/9780784412947.177.

40-13  Eleanor Kolden, Modeling in a three-dimensional world: whitewater park hydraulics and their impact on aquatic habitat in Colorado, Thesis: Master of Science, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado State University. Full thesis available online at Colorado State University.

38-13  Prashant Huddar P.E. and Yashodhan Dhopavkar, CFD Use in Water – Insight, Foresight, and Efficiency, CFD Application in Water Engineering, Bangalore, India, June 2013.

37-13 B. Gems, M. Wörndl, R. Gabl, C. Weber, and M. Aufleger, Experimental and numerical study on the design of a deposition basin outlet structure at a mountain debris cone, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 1, 3169–3200, 2013, www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/1/3169/2013/, doi:10.5194/nhessd-1-3169-2013, © Author(s) 2013. Full paper online at: Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences.

33-13   Tian Zhou and Theodore A. Endreny, Reshaping of the hyporheic zone beneath river restoration structures: Flume and hydrodynamic experiments, Water Resources Research, DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20384, ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

31-13  Francesco Calomino and Agostino Lauria, MOTO ALL’IMBOCCO DI UN CANALE RETTANGOLARE CONTROLLATO DA PARATOIA PIANA. Analisi sperimentale e modellazione numerica 3DFLOW AT THE INTAKE OF THE RECTANGULAR CHANNEL ;CONTROLLED BY A FLAT SLUICE GATE. Experimental and Numerical 3D ModelL’acqua, pp. 29-36, © Idrotecnica Italiana, 2013. In Italian and English.

30-13  Vinod V. Nair and S.K. Bhattacharyya, Numerical Study of Water Impact of Rigid Sphere under the Action of Gravity CFD Application in Water Engineering, Bangalore, India, June 2013. Abstract only.

29-13   Amar Pal Singh, Faisal Bhat, Ekta Gupta, 3-D Spillway Simulations of Ratle HEP (J&K) for the Assessment of Design Alternatives to be Tested in Model Studies, CFD Application in Water Engineering, Bangalore, India, June 2013.

28-13  Shun-Chung Tsung, Jihn-Sung Lai, and Der-Liang Young, Velocity distribution and discharge calculation at a sharp-crested weir, Paddy Water Environ, DOI 10.1007/s10333-013-0378-y, © Springer Japan 2013, May 2013.

27-13  Karen Riddette and David Ho, Assessment of Spillway Modeling Using Computational Fluid DynamicsANCOLD Proceedings of Technical Groups, 2013.

21-13  Tsung-Hsien Huang and Chyan-Deng Jan, Simulation of Velocity Distribution for Water Flow in a Vortex-Chamber-Type Sediment Extractor, EGU General Assembly 2013, held 7-12 April, 2013 in Vienna, Austria, id. EGU2013-7061. Online at: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7061H

19-13  Riley J. Olsen, Hazard Classification and Hydraulic Remediation Options for Flat-Topped and Ogee-Crested Low- Head Dams, Thesis: Master of Science in Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 1538. http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd/1538, 2013.

17-13  Mohammad-Hossein Erfanain-Azmoudeh and Amir Abbas Kamanbedast, Determine the Appropriate Location of Aerator System on Gotvandolia Dam’s Spillway Using FLOW-3D, American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 13 (3): 378-383, 2013, ISSN 1818-6769, © IDOSI Publications, 2013.

13-13   Chia-Cheng Tsai, Yueh-Ting Lin, and Tai-Wen Hsu, On the weak viscous effect of the reflection and transmission over an arbitrary topography, Phys. Fluids 25, 043103 (2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4799099 (21 pages).

07-13  M. Kayser and M. A. Gabr, Scour Assessment of Bridge Foundations Using an In Situ Erosion Evaluation Probe (ISEEP), 92nd Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, January 13-17, 2013, Washington, D.C.

06-13   Yovanni A. Cataño-Lopera, Blake J. Landry, Jorge D. Abad, and Marcelo H. García, Experimental and Numerical Study of the Flow Structure around Two Partially Buried Objects on a Deformed Bed, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering © ASCE /March 2013, 269-283.

04-13  Safinaz El-Solh, SPH Modeling of Solitary Waves and Resulting Hydrodynamic Forces on Vertical and Sloping Walls, Thesis: Master of Applied Science in Civil Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, October 2012, © Safinaz El-Solh, Ottawa, Canada, 2013. Full paper available online at uOttawa.

108-12  Hatice Ozmen-Cagatay and Selahattin Kocaman, Investigation of Dam-Break Flow Over Abruptly Contracting Channel With Trapezoidal-Shaped Lateral Obstacles, Journal of Fluids Engineering © 2012 by ASME August 2012, Vol. 134 / 081204-1

102-12 B.M. Crookston, G.S. Paxson, and B.M. Savage, Hydraulic Performance of Labryinth Weirs for High Headwater Ratios, 4th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, 9-11 February 2012, Porto, Portugal, ISBN: 978-989-8509-01-7.

101-12 Jungseok Ho and Wonil Kim, Discrete Phase Modeling Study for Particle Motion in Storm Water Retention, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering (2012) 16(6):1071-1078, DOI 10.1007/s12205-012-1304-3.

99-12  Charles R. Ortloff and Michael E. Mosely, Environmental change at a Late Archaic period site in north central coast Perú, Ñawpa Pacha, Journal of Andean Archaeology, Volume 32, Number 2 / December 2012, ISSN: 0077-6297 (Print); 2051-6207 (Online), Left Coast Press, Inc.

98-12  Tao Wang and Vincent H. Chu, Manning Friction in Steep Open-channel Flow, Seventh International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ICCFD7), Big Island, Hawaii, July 9-13, 2012.

96-12  Zhi Yong Dong, Qi Qi Chen, Yong Gang, and Bin Shi, Experimental and Numerical Study of Hydrodynamic Cavitation of Orifice Plates with Multiple Triangular Holes, Applied Mechanics and Materials, Volumes 256-259, Advances in Civil Engineering, December 2012.

95-12  Arjmandi H., Ghomeshi M.,  Ahadiayn J., and Goleij G., Prediction of Plunge Point in the Density Current using RNG Turbulence Modeling, Water and Soil Science (Agricultural Science) Spring 2012; 22(1):171-185. Abstract available online at the Scientific Online Database.

84-12  Li Ping Zhao, Jian Qiu Zhang, Lei Chen, Xuan Xie, Jun Qiang Cheng, Study of Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Sloping Breakwater of Circular Protective Facing, Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 588 – 589), Advances in Mechanics Engineering, 1781-1785, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.588-589.1781.

83-12 Parviz Ghadimi, Abbas Dashtimanesh, and Seyed Reza Djeddi, Study of water entry of circular cylinder by using analytical and numerical solutions, J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. & Eng. 2012, vol.34, n.3, pp. 225-232 . ISSN 1678-5878. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-58782012000300001.

81-12  R. Gabl, S. Achleitner, A. Sendlhofer, T. Höckner, M. Schmitter and M. Aufleger, Side-channel spillway – Hybrid modeling, Hydraulic Measurements and Experimental Methods 2012, EWRI/ASCE, August 12-15, 2012, Snowbird, Utah.

80-12  Akin Aybar, Computational Modelling of Free Surface Flow in Intake Structures using FLOW-3D Software, Thesis: MS in Civil Engineering, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University, June 2012.

74-12  Mahdi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Rostami, Md Azlin Md Said, Saeed Reza Sabbagh Yazdi, and Syafalni Syafalni, Computational investigations of baffle configuration effects on the performance of primary sedimentation tanks, Water and Environment Journal, 22 October 2012, © 2012 CIWEM.

68-12  Jalal Attari and Mohammad Sarfaraz, Transitional Steps Zone in Steeply Stepped Spillways, 9th International Congress on Civil Engineering, May 8-10, 2012, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan, Iran

67-12  Mohammad Sarfaraz, Jalal Attari and Michael Pfister, Numerical Computation of Inception Point Location for Steeply Sloping Stepped Spillways, 9th International Congress on Civil Engineering, May 8-10, 2012, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan, Iran

64-12  Anders Wedel Nielsen, Xiaofeng Liu, B. Mutlu Sumer, Jørgen Fredsøe, Flow and bed shear stresses in scour protections around a pile in a current, Coastal Engineering, Volume 72, February 2013, Pages 20–38.

62-12  Ehab A. Meselhe, Ioannis Georgiou, Mead A. Allison, John A McCorquodale, Numerical Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport in Lower Mississippi at a Proposed Delta Building Diversion, Journal of Hydrology, October 2012.

60-12  Markus Grünzner and Gerhard Haimerl, Numerical Simulation Downstream Attraction Flow at Danube Weir Donauwörth, 9th ISE 2012, Vienna, Austria.

59-12 M. Grünzner, A 3 Dimensional Numerical (LES) and Physical ‘Golf Ball’ Model in Comparison to 1 Dimensional Approach, Hydraulic Measurements and Experimental Methods 2012, EWRI/ASCE, August 12-15, 2012, Snowbird, Utah

58-12  Shawn P. Clark, Jonathan S. Toews, Martin Hunt and Rob Tkach, Physical and Numerical Modeling in Support of Fish Passage Regulations, 9th ISE 2012, Vienna, Austria.

57-12  Mahdi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Rostami, Md Azlin Md Said, Syafalni, Numerical Modeling of Baffle Location Effects on the Flow Pattern of Primary Sedimentation Tanks, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Available online October 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2012.09.060.

50-12  Gricelda Ramirez, A Virtual Flow Meter to Develop Velocity-Index Ratings and Evaluate the Effect of Flow Disturbances on these Ratings, Master’s Thesis: Department of Civil Engineering in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2012.

43-12  A. A. Girgidov, A. D. Girgidov and M. P. Fedorov, Use of dispersing springboards to reduce near-bottom velocity in a toe basin, Power Technology and Engineering (formerly Hydrotechnical Construction), Volume 46, Number 2 (2012), 113-115, DOI: 10.1007/s10749-012-0316-y.

40-12  Jong Pil Park, Kyung Sik Choi, Ji Hwan Jeong, Gyung Min Choi, Ju Yeop Park, and Man Woong Kim, Experimental and numerical evaluation of debris transport augmentation by turbulence during the recirculation-cooling phase, Nuclear Engineering and Design 250 (2012) 520-537

39-12  Hossein Basser, Abdollah Ardeshir, Hojat Karami, Numerical simulation of flow pattern around spur dikes series in rigid bed, 9th International Congress on Civil Engineering, May 8-10, 2012 Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan, Iran

38-12  Sathaporn Temeepattanapongsa, Unified Equations for Cutthroat Flumes Derived from a Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Model, (2012). Thesis: Utah State University, All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 1308. Available online at: http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd/1308

36-12 Robert Feurich, Jacques Boubée, Nils Reidar B. Olsen, Improvement of fish passage in culverts using CFD, Ecological Engineering, Volume 47, October 2012, Pages 1–8.

35-12 Yovanni A. Cataño-Lopera and Jorge D. Abad, Flow Structure around a Partially Buried Object in a Simulated River Bed, World Environmental And Water Resources Congress 2012, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States, May 20-24, 2012.

33-12  Fatemeh Rostami, Saeed Reza Sabbagh Yazdi, Md Azlin Md Said and Mahdi Shahrokhi, Numerical simulation of undular jumps on graveled bed using volume of fluid method, Water Science & Technology Vol 66 No 5 pp 909–917 © IWA Publishing 2012 doi:10.2166/wst.2012.213.

30-12  Saman Abbasi and Amir Abbas Kamanbedast, Investigation of Effect of Changes in Dimension and Hydraulic of Stepped Spillways for Maximization Energy Dissipation, World Applied Sciences Journal 18 (2): 261-267, 2012, ISSN 1818-4952, © IDOSI Publications, 2012, DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2012.18.02.492

24-12  Mario Oertel, Jan Mönkemöller and Andreas Schlenkhoff, Artificial stationary breaking surf waves in a physical and numerical model, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 50:3, 338-343, 2012.

23-12  Mario Oertel, Cross-bar block ramps:Flow regimes – flow resistance – energy dissipation – stability, thesis, Bericht Nr. 20, 2012, © 2011/12 Dr. Mario Oertel, Hydraulic Engineering Section, Bergische University of Wuppertal. Duplication only with author’s permission.

20-12  M. Oertel and A. Schlenkhoff, Crossbar Block Ramps: Flow Regimes, Energy Dissipation, Friction Factors, and Drag Forces, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering © ASCE, May 2012, pp. 440-448.

19-12  Mohsen Maghrebi, Saeed Alizadeh, and Rahim Lotfi, Numerical Simulation of Flow Over Rectangular Broad Crested Weir, 1st International and 3rd National Conference on Dams and Hydropower in Iran, Tehran, Iran, February 8 – February 9, 2012

18-12  Alireza Daneshkhah and Hamidreza Vosoughifar, Solution of Flow Field Equations to Investigate the Best Turbulent Model of Flow over a Standard Ogee Spillway, 1st International and 3rd National Conference on Dams and Hydropower in Iran, Tehran, Iran, February 8 – February 9, 2012

03-12  Hamed Taghizadeh, Seyed Ali Akbar Salehi Neyshabour and Firouz Ghasemzadeh, Dynamic Pressure Fluctuations in Stepped Three-Side Spillway, Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment 3 (1): 95-104, 2012, ISSN 2079-2115

02-12   Kim, Seojun, Yu, Kwonkyu, Yoon, Byungman, and Lim, Yoonsung, A numerical study on hydraulic characteristics in the ice Harbor-type fishway, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 2012-02-01, Issn: 1226-7988, pp 265- 272, Volume: 16, Issue: 2, Doi: 10.1007/s12205-012-0010-5.

105-11 Hatice Ozmen Cagatay and Selahattin Kocaman, Dam-break Flow in the Presence of Obstacle: Experiment and CFD Simulation, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechancis, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 541-552, 2011

102-11 Sang Do An, Interflow Dynamics and Three-Dimensional Modeling of Turbid Density Currents in IMHA Reservoir, South Korea, thesis: Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Colorado State University, 2011.

101-11 Tsunami – A Growing Disaster, edited by Mohammad Mokhtari, ISBN 978-953-307-431-3, 232 pages, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published December 16, 2011 under CC BY 3.0 license, DOI: 10.5772/922. Available for download at Intech.

98-11  Selahattin Kocaman and Hasan Guzel, Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Dam-Break Wave on a Single Building Situated Downstream, Epoka Conference Systems, 1st International Balkans Conference on Challenges of Civil Engineering, 19-21 May 2011, EPOKA University, Tirana, Albania.

97-11   T. Endreny, L. Lautz, and D. I. Siegel, Hyporheic flow path response to hydraulic jumps at river steps: Flume and hydrodynamic models, WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, VOL. 47, W02517, doi:10.1029/2009WR008631, 2011.

96-11   Mahdi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Rostami, Md Azlin Md Said and Syafalni, Numerical Simulation of Influence of Inlet Configuration on Flow Pattern in Primary Rectangular Sedimentation Tanks, World Applied Sciences Journal 15 (7): 1024-1031, 2011, ISSN 1818-4952, © IDOSI Publications, 2011. Full article available online at IODSI.

94-11  Kathleen H. Frizell, Summary of Hydraulic Studies for Ladder and Flume Fishway Design- Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project, Hydraulic Laboratory Report HL-2010-04, U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation Technical Service Center Hydraulic Investigations and Laboratory Services Group, December 2011

88-11   Abdelaziz, S, Bui, MD, Rutschmann, P, Numerical Investigation of Flow and Sediment Transport around a Circular Bridge Pier, Proceedings of the 34th World Congress of the International Association for Hydro- Environment Research and Engineering: 33rd Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium and 10th Conference on Hydraulics in Water Engineering, ACT: Engineers Australia, 2011: 2624-2630.

86-11  M. Heidarnejad, D. Halvai and M. Bina, The Proper Option for Discharge the Turbidity Current and Hydraulic Analysis of Dez Dam Reservoir, World Applied Sciences Journal 13 (9): 2052-2056, 2011, ISSN 1818-4952 © IDOSI Publications, 2011

84-11  Martina Reichstetter and Hubert Chanson, Physical and Numerical Modelling of Negative Surges in Open Channels, School of Civil Engineering at the University of Queensland, Report CH84/11, ISBN No. 9781742720388, © Reichstetter and Chanson, 2011.

83-11  Reda M. Abd El-Hady Rady, 2D-3D Modeling of Flow Over Sharp-Crested Weirs, Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 7(12): 2495-2505, ISSN 1819-544X, 2011.

78-11  S. Abbasi, A. Kamanbedast and J. Ahadian, Numerical Investigation of Angle and Geometric of L-Shape Groin on the Flow and Erosion Regime at River Bends, World Applied Sciences Journal 15 (2): 279-284, 2011, ISSN 1818-4952 © IDOSI Publications, 2011.

75-11  Mario Oertel and Daniel B. Bung, Initial stage of two-dimensional dam-break waves: laboratory versus VOF, Journal of Hydraulic Research, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2011.639981, Available online: 08 Dec 2011.

73-11  T.N. Aziz and A.A. Khan, Simulation of Vertical Plane Turbulent Jet in Shallow Water, Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2011, Article ID 292904, 10 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/292904.

67-11   Chung R. Song, ASCE, Jinwon Kim, Ge Wang, and Alexander H.-D. Cheng, Reducing Erosion of Earthen Levees Using Engineered Flood Wall SurfaceJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 137, No. 10, October 2011, pp. 874-881, http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000500.

64-11  Mahdi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Rostami, Md Azlin Md Said, Syafalni, The Effect of Number of Baffles on the Improvement Efficiency of Primary Sedimentation Tanks, Available online 11 November 2011, ISSN 0307-904X, 10.1016/j.apm.2011.11.001.

62-11  Jana Hadler, Klaus Broekel, Low head hydropower – its design and economic potential, World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Sweden, May 8-13, 2011.

60-11 Md. Imtiaj Hassan and Nahidul Khan, Performance of a Quarter-Pitch Twisted Savonius Turbine, The International Conference and Utility Exhibition 2011, Pattaya City, Thailand, 28-30 September 2011.

59-11   Erin K. Gleason, Ashraful Islam, Liaqat Khan, Darrne Brinker and Mike Miller, Spillway Analysis Techniques Using Traditional and 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling, Dam Safety 2011, National Harbor, MD, September 25-29, 2011.

58-11  William Rahmeyer, Steve Barfuss, and Bruce Savage, Composite Modeling of Hydraulic Structures, Dam Safety 2011, National Harbor, MD, September 25-29, 2011.

57-11  B. Dasgupta, K. Das, D. Basu, and R. Green, Computational Methodology to Predict Rock Block Erosion in Plunge Pools, Dam Safety 2011, National Harbor, MD, September 25-29, 2011.

56-11  Jeff Burnham, Modeling Dams with Computational Fluid Dynamics- Past Success and New Directions, Dam Safety 2011, National Harbor, MD, September 25-29, 2011.

52-11  Madhi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Rostami, Md Azlin Md Said, and Syafalni, The Computational Modeling of Baffle Configuration in the Primary Sedimentation Tanks, 2011 2nd International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology IPCBEE vol 6. (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore.

47-11  Stefan Haun, Nils Reidar B. Olsen and Robert Feurich, Numerical Modeling of Flow over Trapezoidal Broad-Crested Weir, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol 5., No. 3, pp. 397-405, 2011.

42-11  Anu Acharya, Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation of Flow and Sediment Transport around a Series of Spur Dikes, thesis: The University of Arizona Graduate College, Copyright © Anu Acharya 2011, July 2011.

38-11  Mehdi Shahosseini, Amirabbas Kamanbedast and Roozbeh Aghamajidi, Investigation of Hydraulic Conditions around Bridge Piers and Determination of Shear Stress using Numerical Methods, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011, © ASCE 2011.

35-11  L. Toombes and H. Chanson, Numerical Limitations of Hydraulic Models, 34th IAHR World Congress, 33rd Hydrology & Water Resources Symposium, 10th Hydraulics Conference, Brisbane, Australia, 26 June – 1 July 2011.

34-11  Mohammad Sarfaraz, and Jalal Attari, Numerical Simulation of Uniform Flow Region over a Steeply Sloping Stepped Spillway, 6th National Congress on Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran, April 26-27, 2011.

30-11  John Richardson and Pamela Waterman, Stemming the Flood, Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 133/No.7 July 2011

29-11  G. Möller & R. Boes, D. Theiner & A. Fankhauser, G. De Cesare & A. Schleiss, Hybrid modeling of sediment management during drawdown of Räterichsboden reservoir, Dams and Reservoirs under Changing Challenges – Schleiss & Boes (Eds), © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-68267-1.

24-11  Liaqat A. Khan, Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Emergency Overflows through an Energy Dissipation Structure of a Water Treatment Plant, ASCE Conf. Proc. doi:10.1061/41173(414)155, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011.

23-11  Anu Acharya and Jennifer G. Duan, Three Dimensional Simulation of Flow Field around Series of Spur Dikes, ASCE Conf. Proc. doi:10.1061/41173(414)218, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011.

22-11  Mehdi Shahosseini, Amirabbas Kamanbedast, and Roozbeh Aghamajidi, Investigation of Hydraulic Conditions around Bridge Piers and Determination of Shear Stress Using Numerical Method, ASCE Conf. Proc. doi:10.1061/41173(414)435, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011.

20-11  Jong Pil Park, Ji Hwan Jeong, Won Tae Kim, Man Woong Kim and Ju Yeop Park, Debris transport evaluation during the blow-down phase of a LOCA using computational fluid dynamics, Nuclear Engineering and Design, June 2011, ISSN 0029-5493, DOI: 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2011.05.017.

13-11 Ehab A. Meselhe, Myrtle Grove Delta Building Diversion Project, The Geological Society of America, South-Central Section – 45th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 2011.

12-11  Bryan Heiner and Steven L. Barfuss, Parshall Flume and Discharge Corrections Wall Staff Gauge and Centerline Measurements, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, posted ahead of print February 1, 2011, DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000355, © 2011 by the American Society of Civil Engineers.

06-11  T. Endreny, L. Lautz, and D. Siegel, Hyporheic flow path response to hydraulic jumps at river steps- Hydrostatic model simulations, Water Resources Research, Vol. 47, W02518, doi: 10.1029/2010WR010014, 2011, © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union, 0043-1397/11/2010WR010014

03-11  Jinwon Kim, Chung R. Song, Ge Wang and Alexander H.-D. Cheng Reducing Erosion of Earthen Levees Using Engineered Flood Wall Surface, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, © ASCE, January 2011.

02-11  F. Montagna, G. Bellotti and M. Di Risio, 3D numerical modeling of landslide-generated tsunamis around a conical island, Springer Link, Earth and Environmental Science, Natural Hazards, DOI: 10.1007/s11069-010-9689-0, Online First™, 7 January 2011.

83-10   S. Abdelaziz, M.D. Bui and P. Rutschmann, Numerical simulation of scour development due to submerged horizontal jet, River Flow 2010, eds. Dittrich, Koll, Aberle & Geisenhainer, © 2010 Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau, ISBN 978-3-939230-00-7.

79-10  Daniel J. Howes, Charles M. Burt, and Brett F. Sanders, Subcritical Contraction for Improved Open-Channel Flow Measurement Accuracy with an Upward-Looking ADVM, J. Irrig. Drain Eng. 2010.136:617-626.

78-10  M. Kaheh, S. M. Kashefipour, and A. Dehghani, Comparison of k-ε and RNG k-ε Turbulent Models for Estimation of Velocity Profiles along the Hydraulic Jump, presented at the 6th International Symposium on Environmental Hydraulics, Athens, Greece, June 2010.

75-10  Shahrokh Amiraslani, Jafar Fahimi, Hossein Mehdinezhad, The Numerical Investigation of Free Falling Jet’s Effect on the Scour of Plunge Pool, XVIII International Conference on Water Resources CMWR 2010 J. Carrera (Ed) CIMNE, Barcelona 2010

74-10  M. Ho Ta Khanh, Truong Chi Hien, and Dinh Sy Quat, Study and construction of PK Weirs in Vietnam (2004 to 2011), 78th Annual Meeting of the International Commission on Large Dams,  VNCOLD, Hanoi, Vietnam, May 23-26, 2010.

72-10  DKH Ho and KM Riddette, Application of computational fluid dynamics to evaluate hydraulic performance of spillways in Australia, © Institution of Engineers Australia, 2010, Australian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 6 No 1, 2010.

71-10  Cecilia Lucino, Sergio Liscia y Gonzalo Duro, Vortex Detection in Pump Sumps by Means of CFD, XXIV Latin American Congress on Hydraulics, Punta Del Este, Uruguay, November 2010; Deteccion de Vortices en Darsenas de Bombeo Mediante Modelacion MatematicaAvailable in English and Spanish.

64-10 Jose (Pepe) Vasquez, Assessing Sediment Movement by CFD Particle Tracking, 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, June 27-July 1, 2010.

63-10 Sung-Min Cho, Foundation Design of the Incheon Bridge, Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA Vol 41 No.4, ISSN0046-5828, December 2010.

61-10  I. Meireles, F.A. Bombardelli and J. Matos, Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Non-Aerated Skimming Flow on Stepped Spillways Over Embankment Dams, Presented at the 2010 IAHR European Congress, Edinburgh, UK, May 4-6, 2010.

60-10  Mario Oertel, G. Heinz and A. Schlenkhoff, Physical and Numerical Modelling of Rough Ramps and Slides, Presented at the 2010 IAHR European Congress, Edinburgh, UK, May 4-6, 2010.

59-10  Fatemeh Rostami, Mahdi Shahrokhi, Md Azlin Md Said, Rozi Abdullah and Syafalni, Numerical modeling on inlet aperture effects on flow pattern in primary settling tanks, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc., DOI: 10.1016/j.apm.2010.12.007, December 2010.

56-10  G. B. Sahoo, F Bombardelli, D. Behrens and J.L. Largier, Estimation of Stratification and Mixing of a Closed River System Using FLOW-3D, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #H31G-1091

50-10  Sung-Duk Kim, Ho-Jin Lee and Sang-Do An, Improvement of hydraulic stability for spillway using CFD model, International Journal of the Physical Sciences Vol. 5(6), pp. 774-780, June 2010. Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/IJPS, ISSN 1992

49-10  Md. Imtiaj Hassan, Tariq Iqbal, Nahidul Khan, Michael Hinchey, Vlastimil Masek, CFD Analysis of a Twisted Savonius Turbine, PKP Open Conference Systems, IEEE Newfoundland and Labrador Section, October 2010

46-10  Hatice Ozmen-Cagatay and Selahattin Kocaman, Dam-break flows during initial stage using SWE and RANS approaches, Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol 48, No. 5 (2010), pp. 603-611, doi: 10.108/00221686.2010.507342, © 2010 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research.

44-10  Marie-Hélène Briand, Catherine Tremblay, Yannick Bossé, Julian Gacek, Carola Alfaro, and Richard Blanchet, Ashlu Creek hydroelectric project- Design and optimization of hydraulic structures under construction, CDA 2010 Annual Conference, Congrès annuel 2010 de l’A CB, Niagra Falls, ON, Canada, 2010 Oct 2-7.

43-10 Gordon McPhail, Justin Lacelle, Bert Smith, and Dave MacMillan, Upgrading of Boundary Dam Spillway, CDA 2010 Annual Conference, Congrès annuel 2010 de l’A CB, Niagra Falls, ON, Canada, 2010 Oct 2-7.

40-10 Selahattin Kocamana; Galip Seckinb; Kutsi S. Erduran, 3D model for prediction of flow profiles around bridges, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2010.507340, Journal of Hydraulic Research, Volume 48, Issue 4 August 2010, pages 521 – 525. Available online at: informaworld

38-10  Kevin M. Sydor and Pamela J. Waterman, Engineering and Design: The Value of CFD Modeling in Designing a Hydro Plant, Hydro Review, Volume 29, Issue 6, September 2010 Available online at HydroWorld.com

33-10  Fabián A. Bombardelli, Inês Meireles and Jorge Matos, Laboratory measurements and multi-block numerical simulations of the mean flow and turbulence, SpringerLink, Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Online First™, 26 August 2010

30-10 Bijan Dargahi, Flow characteristics of bottom outlets with moving gates, IAHR, Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 48, No. 4 (2010), pp. 476-482, doi: 10.1080/00221686.20101.507001, © 2010 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research

24-10 Shuang Ming Wang and Kevin Sydor, Power Intake Velocity Modeling Using FLOW-3D at Kelsey Generating Station, Canadian Dam Association Bulletin, Vol. 21. No. 2, Spring 2010, pp: 16-21

20-10 Jungseok Ho, Todd Marti and Julie Coonrod, Flood debris filtering structure for urban storm water treatment, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2010.481834, Journal of Hydraulic Research, Volume 48, Issue 3, pages 320 – 328, June 2010.

16-10 J. Jacobsen and N. R. B. Olsen, Three-dimensional numerical modeling of the capacity for a complex spillway, Proceedings of the ICE – Water Management, Volume 163, Issue 6, pages 283 –288, ISSN: 1741-7589, E-ISSN: 1751-7729.

13-10 J. Ho, J. Coonrod, L. J. Hanna, B. W. Mefford, Hydrodynamic modelling study of a fish exclusion system for a river diversion, River Research and Applications Volume 9999, mIssue 9999, Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

12-10 Nils Rüther, Jens Jacobsen, Nils Reidar B. Olsen and Geir Vatne, Prediction of the three-dimensional flow field and bed shear stresses in a regulated river in mid-Norway, Hydrology Research Vol 41 No 2 pp 145–152 © IWA Publishing 2010, doi:10.2166/nh.2010.064.

11-10 Xing Fang, Shoudong Jiang, and Shoeb R. Alam, Numerical Simulations of Efficiency of Curb-Opening Inlets, J. Hydr. Engrg. Volume 136, Issue 1, pp. 62-66 (January 2010).

54-09    K.W. Frizell, J.P. Kubitschek, and R.F. Einhellig, Folsom Dam Joint Federal Project Existing Spillway Modeling – Discharge Capacity Studies, American River Division Central Valley Project Mid-Pacific Region, Hydraulic Laboratory Report HL-2009-02, US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colorado, September 2009

50-09  Mark Fabian, Variation in Hyporheic Exchange with Discharge and Slope in a Tropical Mountain Stream, thesis: State University of New York, College of Environmental Science & Forestry, 2009. Available online: http://gradworks.umi.com/14/82/1482174.html.

48-09 Junwoo Choi, Kwang Oh Ko, and Sung Bum Yoon, 3D Numerical Simulation for Equivalent Resistance Coefficient for Flooded Built-Up Areas, Asian and Pacific Coasts 2009 (pp 245-251), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on APAC 2009, Singapore, 13 – 16 October 2009

47-09 Young-Il Kim, Chang-Jin Ahn, Chae-Young Lee, Byung-Uk Bae, Computational Fluid Dynamics for Optimal Design of Horizontal-Flow Baffled-Channel Powdered Activated Carbon Contactors, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers, Volume: 26 Issue 1: January 15, 2009.

43-09 Charles R. Ortloff, Water Engineering in the Ancient World: Archaeological and Climate Perspectives on Societies of Ancient South America, Meso-America, the Middle East and South East Asia, Oxford University Press, ISBN13: 978-0-19-923909-2ISBN10: 0-19-923909-6, December 2009 Available at Oxford University Press (clicking on this link will take you to OUP’s website).

40-09 Ge Wang, Chung R. Song, Jinwon Kim and Alexander, H.-D Cheng, Numerical Study of Erosion-proof of Loose Sand in an Overtopped Plunging Scour Process — FLOW-3D, The 2009 Joint ASCE-ASME-SES Conference on Mechanics and Materials, Blacksburg, Virginia, June 24-27, 2009

39-09 Charles R. Ortloff, Water Engineering in the Ancient World: Archaeological and Climate Perspectives on Societies of Ancient South America, the Middle East, and South-East Asia(Hardcover), Oxford University Press, USA (October 15, 2009), ISBN-10: 0199239096; ISBN-13: 978-0199239092 Buy Water Engineering in the Ancient World on Amazon.com.

38-09 David S. Brown, Don MacDonell, Kevin Sydor, and Nicolas Barnes, An Integrated Computational Fluid Dynamics and Fish Habitat Suitability Model for the Pointe Du Bois Generating Station, CDA 2009 Annual Conference, Congres annuel 2009 de l’A CB, Whistler, BC, Canada, 2009 Oct 3-8, pdf pages: 53-66

37-09 Warren Gendzelevich, Andrew Baryla, Joe Groenveld, and Doug McNeil, Red River Floodway Expansion Project-Design and Construction of the Outlet Structure, CDA 2009 Annual Conference, Congres annuel 2009 de l’A CB, Whistler, BC, Canada, 2009 Oct 3-8, pdf pages: 13-26

36-09 Jose A. Vasquez and Jose J. Roncal, Testing River2D and FLOW-3D for Sudden Dam-Break Flow Simulations, CDA 2009 Annual Conference, Congres annuel 2009 de l’A CB, Whistler, BC, Canada, 2009 Oct 3-8, pdf pages: 44-55

33-09 Pamela J. Waterman, Modeling Commercial Aquaculture Systems Employing FLOW-3D, (clicking on this link will take you to Desktop Engineering’s website) Desktop Engineering, November 2009

29-09 Bruce M. Savage, Michael C. Johnson, Brett Towler, Hydrodynamic Forces on a Spillway- Can we calculate them?, Dam Safety 2009, Hollywood, FL, USA, October 2009

27-09 Charles “Chick” Sweeney, Keith Moen, and Daniel Kirschbaum, Hydraulic Design of Total Dissolved Gas Mitigation Measures for Boundary Dam, Waterpower XVI, © PennWell Corporation, Spokane, WA, USA, July 2009

23-09 J.A. Vasquez and B.W. Walsh, CFD simulation of local scour in complex piers under tidal flow, 33rd IAHR Congress: Water Engineering for a Sustainable Environment, © 2009 by International Association of Hydraulic Engineering & Research (IAHR), ISBN: 978-94-90365-01-1

15-09 Kaushik Das, Steve Green, Debashis Basu, Ron Janetzke, and John Stamatakos, Effect of Slide Deformation and Geometry on Waves Generated by Submarine Landslides- A Numerical Investigation, Copyright 2009, Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, May 4-7, 2009

5-09 Remi Robbe, Douglas Sparks, Calculation of the Rating Curves for the Matawin Dam’s Bottom Sluice Gates using FLOW-3D, Conference of the Société Hydrotechnique de France (SHF), 20-21 January 2009, Paris, France. (in French)

4-09 Frederic Laugier, Gregory Guyot, Eric Valette, Benoit Blancher, Arnaud Oguic, Lily Lincker, Engineering Use of Hydrodynamic 3D Simulation to Assess Spillway Discharge Capacity, Conference of the Société Hydrotechnique de France (SHF), 20-21 January 2009, Paris, France. (in French)

50-08   H. Avila and R.Pitt, The Calibration and use of CFD Models to Examine Scour from Stormwater Treatment Devices – Hydrodynamic Analysis, 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 2008

47-08    Greg Paxson, Brian Crookston, Bruce Savage, Blake Tullis, and Frederick Lux III, The Hydraulic Design Toolbox- Theory and Modeling for the Lake Townsend Spillway Replacement Project, Assoc. of State Dam Safety Officials (ASDSO), Indian Wells, CA, September 2008.

46-08  Sh. Amirslani, M. Pirestani and A.A.S. Neyshabouri, The 3D numerical simulation of scour by free falling jet and compare geometric parameters of scour hole with DOT, River flow 2008-Altinakar, Kokipar, Gogus, Tayfur, Kumcu & Yildirim (eds) © 2008 Kubaba Congress Department and Travel Services ISBN 978-605-601360201

44-08  Paul Guy Chanel, An Evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Spillway Modeling, thesis: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Manitoba, Copyright © 2008 by Paul Guy Chanel

41-08 Jinwei Qiu, Gravel transport estimation and flow simulation over low-water stream crossings, thesis: Lamar University – Beaumont, 2008, 255 pages; AAT 3415945

37-08 Dae-Geun Kim, Numerical analysis of free flow past a sluice gate, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 11, Number 2 / March, 2007, 127-132.

36-08 Shuang Ming Wang and Kevin Sydor, Power Intake Velocity Modeling using FLOW-3D at Kelsey Generating Station, CDA 2008 Annual Conference, Congres annuel 2008 de l’ACB, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, September 27-October 2, 2008, du 27 septembre au 2 octobre 2008

33-08 Daniel B. Bung, Arndt Hildebrandt, Mario Oertel, Andreas Schlenkhoff and Torsten Schlurmann, Bore Propagation Over a Submerged Horizontal Plate by Physical and Numerical Simulation, ICCE 2008, Hamburg, Germany

32-08 Paul G. Chanel and John C. Doering, Assessment of Spillway Modeling Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 35: 1481-1485 (2008), doi: 10.1139/L08-094 © NRC Canada

31-08 M. Oertel & A. Schlenkhoff, Flood wave propagation and flooding of underground facilities, River Flow 2008, © 2008, International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics, Izmir, Turkey, September, 2008

18-08 Efrem Teklemariam, Bernie Shumilak, Don Murray, and Graham K. Holder, Combining Computational and Physical Modeling to Design the Keeyask Station, Hydro Review, © HCI Publications, July 2008

15-08 Jorge D. Abad; Bruce L. Rhoads; İnci Güneralp; and Marcelo H. García, Flow Structure at Different Stages in a Meander-Bend with Bendway Weirs, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering © ASCE, August 2008

11-08 Sreenivasa C. Chopakatla, Thomas C. Lippmann and John E. Richardson, Field Verification of a Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Wave Transformation and Breaking in the Surf Zone, J. Wtrwy., Port, Coast., and Oc. Engrg., Volume 134, Issue 2, pp. 71-80 (March/April 2008) Abstract Only

51-07   Richmond MC, TJ Carlson, JA Serkowski, CB Cook, JP Duncan, and WA Perkins, Characterizing the Fish Passage Environment at The Dalles Dam Spillway: 2001-2004, PNNL-16521, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 2007. Available upon request

46-07 Uplift and Crack Flow Resulting from High Velocity Discharges Over Open Offset Joints, Reclamation, Managing Water in the West, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Report DSO-07-07, December 2007

45-07 Selahattin Kocaman, thesis: Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Çukurova, Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Dam Break Problem, 2007. In Turkish. Available on request.

44-07   Saeed-reza Sabbagh-yazdi, Fatemeh Rostami, Habib Rezaei-manizani, and Nikos E. Mastorakis, Comparison of the Results of 2D and 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow over Spillway chutes with Vertical Curvatures, International Journal of Computers, Issue 4, Volume 1, 2007.

43-07    Staša Vošnjak and Jure Mlacnik, Verification of a FLOW-3D mathematical model by a physical hydraulic model of a turbine intake structure, International Conference and exhibition Hydro 2007, 15- 17 October 2007, Granada, Spain. New approaches for a new era: proceedings. [S.l.]: Aqua-Media International Ltd., 2007, 7 str. [COBISS.SI-ID 4991329]

42-07   Merlynn D. Bender, Joseph P. Kubitschek, Tracy B. Vermeyen, Temperature Modeling of Folsom Lake, Lake Natoma, and the Lower American River, Special Report, Sacramento County, California, April 2007

37-07 Heather D. Smith, Flow and Sediment Dynamics Around Three-Dimensional Structures in Coastal Environments, thesis: The Ohio State Unviersity, 2007 (available upon request)

34-07   P.G. Chanel and J.C. Doering, An Evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Spillway Modeling, 16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Gold Coast, Australia, December 2007

29-07   J. Groeneveld, C. Sweeney, C. Mannheim, C. Simonsen, S. Fry, K. Moen, Comparison of Intake Pressures in Physical and Numerical Models of the Cabinet Gorge Dam Tunnel, Waterpower XV, Copyright HCI Publications, July 2007

25-07   Jungseok Ho, Hong Koo Yeo, Julie Coonrod, Won-Sik Ahn, Numerical Modeling Study for Flow Pattern Changes Induced by Single Groyne, IAHR Conference Proc., Harmonizing the Demands of Art and Nature in Hydraulics, IAHR, July 2007, Venice, Italy.

24-07   Jungseok Ho, Julie Coonrod, Todd Marti, Storm Water Best Management Practice- Development of Debris Filtering Structure for Supercritical Flow, EWRI Conference Proc. of World Water and Environmental Resources Congress, ASCE, May 2007, Tampa, Florida.

21-07 David S. Mueller, and Chad R. Wagner, Correcting Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Discharge Measurements Biased by Sediment Transport, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Volume 133, Issue 12, pp. 1329-1336 (December 2007), Copyright © 2007, ASCE. All rights reserved.

19-07   A. Richard Griffith, James H. Rutherford, A. Alavi, David D. Moore, J. Groeneveld, Stability Review of the Wanapum Spillway Using CFD Analysis, Canadian Dam Association Bulletin, Fall 2007

06-07   John E. Richardson, CFD Saves the Alewife- Computer simulation helps the Alewife return to its Mt. Desert Island spawning grounds, Desktop Engineering, July 2007; Hatchery International, July/August 2007

39-06    Dae Geun Kim and Hong Yeun Cho, Modeling the buoyant flow of heated water discharged from surface and submerged side outfalls in shallow and deep water with a cross flow, Environ Fluid Mech (2006) 6: 501. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10652-006-9006-3

38-06   Cook, C., B. Dibrani, M. Richmond, M. Bleich, P. Titzler, T. Fu, Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River during Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration, 2002-2006 Final Report, Project No. 200202700, 176 electronic pages, (BPA Report DOE/BP-00000652-29)

37-06  Cook CB, MC Richmond, and JA Serkowski, The Dalles Dam, Columbia River: Spillway Improvement CFD Study, PNNL-14768, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 2006. Available upon request

31-06 John P. Raiford and Abdul A. Khan, Numerical Modeling of Internal Flow Structure in Submerged Hydraulic Jumps, ASCE Conf. Proc. 200, 49 (2006), DOI:10.1061/40856(200)49

29-06    Michael C. Johnson and Bruce Savage, Physical and Numerical Comparison of Flow over Ogee Spillway in the Presence of Tailwater, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering © ASCE, December 2006

28-06   Greg Paxson and Bruce Savage, Labyrinth Spillways- Comparison of Two Popular U.S.A. Design Methods and Consideration of Non-standard Approach Conditions and Geometries, International Junior Researcher and Engineer Workshop on Hydraulic Structures, Report CH61/06, Div. of Civil Eng., The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia-ISBN 1864998687

22-06   Brent Mefford and Jim Higgs, Link River Falls Passage Investigation – Flow Velocity Simulation, Water Resources Research Laboratory, February 2006

27-06  Jungseok Ho, Leslie Hanna, Brent Mefford, and Julie Coonrod, Numerical Modeling Study for Fish Screen at River Intake Channel, EWRI Conference Proc. of World Water and Environmental Resources Congress, ASCE, May 2006, Omaha, Nebraska.

17-06  Woolgar, Robert and Eddy, Wilmore, Using Computational Fluid Dynamics to Address Fish Passage Concerns at the Grand Falls-Windsor Hydroelectric Development, Canadian Dam Association meeting, Quebec City, Canada October 2006

14-06  Fuamba, M., Role and behavior of surge chamber in hydropower- Case of the Robert Bourassa hydroelectric power plant in Quebec, Canada, Dams and Reservoirs, Societies and Environment in the 21st Century- Berga et al (eds) @ 2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 40423 1

13-06  D.K.H. Ho, B.W. Cooper, K.M. Riddette, S.M. Donohoo, Application of numerical modelling to spillways in Australia, Dams and Reservoirs, Societies and Environment in the 21st Century—Berga et al (eds) © 2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 40423 1

4-06 James Dexter, William Faisst, Mike Duer and Jerry Flanagan, Computer Simulation Helps Prevent Nitrification of Storage Reservoir, Waterworld, March 2006, pp 18-24

36-05   P. Coussot, N. Rousell, Jarny and H. Chanson, (2005), Continuous or Catastrophic Solid-Liquid Transition in Jammed Systems, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 17, No. 1, Article 011703, 4 pages (ISSN 0031-9171).

35-05    Dae Geun Kim and Jae Hyun Park, Analysis of Flow Structure over Ogee-Spillway in Consideration of Scale and Roughness Effects by Using CFD Model,  KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering. Volume 9, Number 2, March 2005, pp 161 – 169.

31-05 Frank James Dworak, Characterizing Turbulence Structure along Woody Vegetated Banks in Incised Channels: Implications for Stream Restoration, thesis: The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, December 2005 (available upon request)

29-05 Gessler, Dan and Rasmussen, Bernie, Before the Flood, Desktop Engineering, October 2005

25-05   Jorge D. Abad and Marcelo H. Garcia, Hydrodynamics in Kinoshita-generated meandering bends- Importance for river-planform evolution, 4th IAHR Symposium on River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics, October 4-7, 2005, Urbana, Illinois

23-05 Kristiansen T., Baarholm R., Stansberg C.T., Rørtveit G.J. and Hansen E.W., Steep Wave Kinematics and Interaction with a Vertical Column, Presented at The Fifth International Symposium on Ocean Wave Measurement and Analysis (Waves 2005), Spain, July, 2005

16-05 Dan Gessler, CFD Modeling of Spillway Performance, Proceedings of the 2005 World Water and Environmental Resources Congress (sponsored by Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers), May 15-19, 2005, Anchorage, Alaska

12-05 Charles Ortloff, The Water Supply and Distribution System of the Nabataean City of Petra (Jordan), 300 BC- AD 300, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 15:1, 93-109

33-04    Jose Carlos C. Amorim, Cavalcanti Renata Rodrigues, and Marcelo G. Marques, A Numerical and Experimental Study of Hydraulic Jump Stilling Basin, Advances in Hydro-Science and Engineering, Volume VI, Presented at the International Conference on Hydro-Science and Engineering, 2004

23-04   Jose F. Rodriguez, Fabian A. Bombardelli, Marcelo H. Garcia, Kelly Frothingham, Bruce L. Rhoads and Jorge D. Abad, High-Resolution Numerical Simulation of Flow Through a Highly Sinuous River Reach, Water Resources Management, 18:177-199, 2004.

18-04   John Richardson and Douglas Dixon, Modeling the Hydraulics Zone of Influence of Connecticut Yankee Nuclear Plants Cooling Water Intake Structure, a chapter in The Connecticut River Ecological Study (1965-1973) Revisited: Ecology of the Lower Connecticut River 1973-2003, Paul M. Jacobson, Douglas A. Dixon, William C. Leggett, Barton C. Marcy, Jr., and Ronald R. Massengill, editors; Published by American Fisheries Society, Publication date: November 2004, ISBN 1-888569-66-2

10-04   Bruce Savage, Kathleen Frizell, and Jimmy Crowder, Brains versus Brawn- The Changing World of Hydraulic Model Studies

7-04   C. B. Cook and M. C. Richmond, Monitoring and Simulating 3-D Density Currents and the Confluence of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers, Proceedings of EWRI World

24-03  David Ho, Karen Boyes, Shane Donohoo, and Brian Cooper, Numerical Flow Analysis for Spillways, 43rd ANCOLD Conference, Hobart, Tasmania, 24-29 October 2003

15-03   Ho, Dr K H, Boyes, S M, Donohoo, S M, Investigation of Spillway Behaviour Under Increased Maximum Flood by Computational Fluid Dynamics Technique, Proc Conf 14th Australian Fluid Mechanics, Adelaide, Australia, December 2001, 577-580

14-03   Ho, Dr K H, Donohoo, S M, Boyes, K M, Lock, C C, Numerical Analysis and the Real World- It Looks Pretty, but is It Right?, Proceedings of the NAFEMS World Congress, May 2003, Orlando, FL

13-03 Brethour, J. M., Sediment Scour, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-03-TN62)

26-02   Sungyul Yoo, Kiwon Hong and Manha Hwang, A 3-dimensional numerical study of flow patterns around a multipurpose dam, 2002 Hydroinformatics Conference, Cardiff, Wales

23-02   Christopher B. Cook, Marshall C. Richmond, John A. Serkowski, and Laurie L. Ebner, Free-Surface Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Spillway and Tailrace- Case Study of The Dalles Project, Hydrovision 2002, 29 July -†2 Aug, 2002 Portland, OR

13-02   Efrem Teklemariam, Brian W. Korbaylo, Joe L. Groeneveld & David M. Fuchs, Computational Fluid Dynamics- Diverse Applications In Hydropower Project’s Design and Analysis, June 11-14, 2002, CWRA 55th Annual Conference, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CA

12-02   Snorre Heimsund, Ernst Hansen, W Nemec, Computational 3-D Fluid Dynamics Model for Sediment Transport, Erosion, and Deposition by Turbidity Currents, 16th International Sedimentological Congress Abstract Volume (2002) XX-XX

9-02   D. T. Souders & C. W. Hirt, Modeling Roughness Effects in Open Channel Flows, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-02-TN60), May 2002

47-01    Fabián A. Bombardelli and Marcelo H. García, Three-dimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling of Density Currents in the Chicago River, Illinois, CIVIL ENGINEERING SERIES, UILU-ENG-01-2001 Hydraulic Engineering Series No. # 68, ISSN: 0442-1744, 2001

44-01   Christopher B. Cook and Marshall C. Richmond, Simulation of Tailrace Hydrodynamics Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Models, Report Number: PNNL-13467, May 2001

40-01 Joe L. Groeneveld, Kevin M. Sydor and David M. Fuchs (Acres Manitoba Ltd., Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada) and Efrem Teklemariam and Brian W. Korbaylo (Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada), Optimization of Hydraulic Design Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Waterpower XII, July 9-11, 2001, Salt Lake City, Utah

39-01   Savage, B.M and Johnson, M.C., Flow over Ogee Spillway- Physical and Numerical Model Case Study, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, August 2001, pp. 640-649

38-01   Newell, Carter, Sustainable Mussel Culture- A Millenial Perspective, Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association of Canada, August 2001, pp 15-21

36-01   Diane L. Foster, Ohio State University, Numerical Simulations of Sediment Transport and Scour Around Mines, paper presented to the Office of Naval Research, Mine Burial Prediction Program, 2001

35-01 Heather D. Smith, Diane L. Foster, Ohio State University, The Modeling of Flow Around a Cylinder and Scour Hole, Poster prepared for the Office of Naval Research, Mine Burial Prediction Program, 2002

28-01   Brethour, J.M., Transient 3D Model for Lifting, Transporting, and Depositing Solid Material, Proc. 3rd Intrn. Environmental Hydraulics, Dec. 5-8, 2001, Tempe, AZ

25-01  Yuichi Kitamura, Takahiro Kato, & Petek Kitamura, Mathematical Modeling for Fish Adaptive Behavior in a Current, Proceedings of the 2001International Symposium of Environmental Hydraulics, Chigaski R&D Center

22-01 C. R. Ortloff, D. P. Crouch, The Urban Water Supply and Distribution System of the Ionian City of Ephesos in the Roman Imperial Period, CTC/United Defense Journal of Archeological Science (2001), pp 843-860

13-01 I. Lavedrine, and Darren Woolf, ARUP Research and Development, Application of CFD Modelling to Hydraulic Structures, CCWI 2001, Leicaster United Kingdom, 3-5 September 2001, De Montfort University

4-01 Rodriguez, Garcia, Bombardelli, Guzman, Rhoads, and Herricks, Naturalization of Urban Streams Using In-Channel Structures, Joint Conference on Water Resources Engineering and Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, July 30-August 2, 2000, Minneapolis, Minnesota

27-00    Tony L. Wahl, John A. Replogle, Brain T. Wahlin, and James A. Higgs, New Developments in Design and Application of Long-Throated Flumes, 2000 Joint Conference on Water Resources Engineering and Water Resources Planning & Management, Minneapolis, Minnesota, July 30-August 2, 2000.

5-00   John E. Richardson and Karel Pryl, Computer Simulation Helps Prague Modernize and Expand Sewer System, Water Engineering and Management, June, 2000, pp. 10-13; and in Municipal World, June, 2000, pp. 19-20,30

3-00 Efrem Teklemariam and John L. Groeneveld, Solving Problems in Design and Dam Safety with Computational Fluid Dynamics, Hydro Review, May, 2000, pp.48-52

1-00 Scott F. Bradford, Numerical Simulation of Surf Zone Dynamics, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, January/February, 2000, pp.1-13

9-99 John E. Richardson and Karel Pryl, Computational Fluid Dynamics, CE News, October, 1999, pp. 74-76

4-99 J. Groeneveld, Computer Simulation Leads to Faster, Cheaper Options, Water Engineering & Management magazine, pp.14-17, June 1999

16-98 C. R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Analysis of a Self-Cleaning Drainage Outlet at the Hellenistic City of Priene, Journal Archaeological Science, 25, 1211-1220, Article No. as980292, 1998

13-98 J. F. Echols, M.A. Pratt, K. A. Williams, Using CFD to Model Flow in Large Circulating Water Systems, Proc. PowerGen International, Orlando, FL, Dec. 9-11, 1998.

12-98 K. A. Williams, I. A. Diaz-Tous, P. Ulovg, Reduction in Pumping Power Requirements of the Circulation Water (CW) System at TU Electric’s Martin Lake Plant Using Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD), ASME Mechanical Engineering Magazine, Jan. 1999

8-98 D. Hrabak, K. Pryl, J. Richardson, Calibration of Flowmeters using FLOW-3D Software, Hydroinform, a.s., Prague, CTU Prague, Flow Science Inc, USA, proceedings from the 3rd International Novatech Conference, Lyon, France, May 4-6, 1998

16-96 E. J. Kent and J.E. Richardson, Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Analysis for Calculation of Scour at Bridge Piers with Fender Systems, Earth Tech, Concord, NK and Flow Science Inc, Los Alamos, NM report, December 1996

12-96 J. E. Richardson, Control of Hydraulic Jump by Abrupt Drop, XXVII IAHR Congress, Water for a Changing Global Community, San Francisco, August 10, 1997

6-96 Y. Miyamoto, A Three-Dimensional Analysis around the Open Area of a Tsunami Breakwater, technical report, SEA Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, to be presented at the HYDROINFORMATICS 96 Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, Sept. 11-13, 1996

4-95 J. E. Richardson, V. G. Panchang and E. Kent, Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Flow Around Bridge Sub-structures, presented at the Hydraulics ’95 ASCE Conference, San Antonio, TX, Aug. 1995

3-95 Y. Miyamoto and K. Ishino, Three Dimensional Flow Analysis in Open Channel, presented at the IAHR Conference, HYDRA 2000, Vol. 1, Thomas Telford, London, Sept. 1995

16-94 M. S. Gosselin and D. M. Sheppard, Time Rate of Local Scour, proceedings of ASCE Conf. on Water Resources Engineering, San Antonio, TX, August 1994

8-94 C. W. Hirt, Weir Discharges and Counter Currents, Flow Science report, FSI-94-00-3, to be presented at the Hydroinformatics Conference, IHE Delft, The Netherlands, Sept. 1994

7-94 C. W. Hirt and K. A.Williams, FLOW-3D Predictions for Free Discharge and Submerged Parshall Flumes, Flow Science Technical Note #40, August 1994 (FSI-94-TN40)

11-93 K. Ishino, H. Otani, R. Okada and Y. Nakagawa, The Flow Structure Around a Cylindrical Pier for the Flow of Transcritical Reynolds Number, Taisei Corp., Honshu Shikoku Bridge Authority, Akashi Kaikyo Ohashi Substructure Construction, Proc. XXV, Congress Intern. Assoc. Hydraulic Res., V, 417-424 (1993) Tokyo, Japan

6-87 J.M. Sicilian, FLOW-3D Model for Flow in a Water Turbine Passage, Flow Science report, July 1987 (FSI-87-36-1)

Water Rivers Bridge Piers

Bridge Piers

FLOW-3DSediment Scour Model 은 강이나 하천에서 수리학적으로 복잡한 교각과 지형에 따라 여러가지 퇴적물들의 높이 변화를 해석할 수 있습니다. 세굴 모델은 FLOW-3D 난류 모델들로 적분하여 3차원 분석이 가능합니다. FLOW-3D의 Shallow Water Model로 더 넓은 범위의 세굴 분석이 가능합니다.

Bridge piers scour simulation using FLOW-3D

교각 주위의 세굴 해석

세굴 모델은 deposition, packing, entrainment and drift-flux 메커니즘으로 되어있습니다. FLOW-3D v11 에서는 퇴적층의 형상을 FAVOR 하여 좀 더 정확하게 bed net 높이 변화를 시각화 할 수 있습니다. 시공간적으로 침전물의 변화뿐 아니라 유체의 부유물들, 바닥/유체 계면에서의 전단응력들을 분석할 수 있습니다.

Modeling Hydraulic Control Structures

In addition to the flow rates and detail of hydraulic behaviors associated with the control gate structures and powerhouse operation, FLOW-3D‘s sediment and scour model allows users to identify regions of high scour both near the control structure and further downstream in the vicinity of the bridge piers.

Bridge Pier Simulations

The first video shows a FLOW-3D simulation of the erosion that occurs around a group of three 2.4 m diameter piers as river water flows past at 1.5 m/s. The river depth is 15.8 m and the mean sediment size was presumed to be 0.35 mm.

FLOW-3D/MP Features List

FLOW-3D/MP Features

FLOW-3D/MP v6.1 은 FLOW-3D v11.1 솔버에 기초하여 물리 모델, 특징 및 그래픽 사용자 인터페이스가 동일합니다. FLOW-3D v11.1의 새로운 기능은 아래 파란색으로 표시되어 있으며 FLOW-3D/MP v6.1 에서 사용할 수 있습니다. 새로운 개발 기능에 대한 자세한 설명은 FLOW-3D v11.1에서 새로운 기능을 참조하십시오.

Meshing & Geometry

  • Structured finite difference/control volume meshes for fluid and thermal solutions
  • Finite element meshes in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates for structural analysis
  • Multi-Block gridding with nested, linked, partially overlapping and conforming mesh blocks
  • Fractional areas/volumes (FAVOR™) for efficient & accurate geometry definition
  • Mesh quality checking
  • Basic Solids Modeler
  • Import CAD data
  • Import/export finite element meshes via Exodus-II file format
  • Grid & geometry independence
  • Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates
Flow Type Options
  • Internal, external & free-surface flows
  • 3D, 2D & 1D problems
  • Transient flows
  • Inviscid, viscous laminar & turbulent flows
  • Hybrid shallow water/3D flows
  • Non-inertial reference frame motion
  • Multiple scalar species
  • Two-phase flows
  • Heat transfer with phase change
  • Saturated & unsaturated porous media
Physical Modeling Options
  • Fluid structure interaction
  • Thermally-induced stresses
  • Plastic deformation of solids
  • Granular flow
  • Moisture drying
  • Solid solute dissolution
  • Sediment transport and scour
  • Cavitation (potential, passive tracking, active tracking)
  • Phase change (liquid-vapor, liquid-solid)
  • Surface tension
  • Thermocapillary effects
  • Wall adhesion
  • Wall roughness
  • Vapor & gas bubbles
  • Solidification & melting
  • Mass/momentum/energy sources
  • Shear, density & temperature-dependent viscosity
  • Thixotropic viscosity
  • Visco-elastic-plastic fluids
  • Elastic membranes & walls
  • Evaporation residue
  • Electro-mechanical effects
  • Dielectric phenomena
  • Electro-osmosis
  • Electrostatic particles
  • Joule heating
  • Air entrainment
  • Molecular & turbulent diffusion
  • Temperature-dependent material properties
  • Spray cooling
Flow Definition Options
  • General boundary conditions
    • Symmetry
    • Rigid and flexible walls
    • Continuative
    • Periodic
    • Specified pressure
    • Specified velocity
    • Outflow
    • Grid overlay
    • Hydrostatic pressure
    • Volume flow rate
    • Non-linear periodic and solitary surface waves
    • Rating curve and natural hydraulics
    • Wave absorbing layer
  • Restart from previous simulation
  • Continuation of a simulation
  • Overlay boundary conditions
  • Change mesh and modeling options
  • Change model parameters
Thermal Modeling Options
  • Natural convection
  • Forced convection
  • Conduction in fluid & solid
  • Fluid-solid heat transfer
  • Distributed energy sources/sinks in fluids and solids
  • Radiation
  • Viscous heating
  • Orthotropic thermal conductivity
  • Thermally-induced stresses
Turbulence Models
  • RNG model
  • Two-equation k-epsilon model
  • Two-equation k-omega model
  • Large eddy simulation
Metal Casting Models
  • Thermal stress & deformations
  • Iron solidification
  • Sand core blowing
  • Sand core drying
  • Permeable molds
  • Solidification & melting
  • Solidification shrinkage with interdendritic feeding
  • Micro & macro porosity
  • Binary alloy segregation
  • Thermal die cycling
  • Surface oxide defects
  • Cavitation potential
  • Lost-foam casting
  • Semi-solid material
  • Core gas generation
  • Back pressure & vents
  • Shot sleeves
  • PQ2 diagram
  • Squeeze pins
  • Filters
  • Air entrainment
  • Temperature-dependent material properties
  • Cooling channels
  • Fluid/wall contact time
Numerical Modeling Options
  • TruVOF Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method for fluid interfaces
  • First and second order advection
  • Sharp and diffuse interface tracking
  • Implicit & explicit numerical methods
  • GMRES, point and line relaxation pressure solvers
  • User-defined variables, subroutines & output
  • Utilities for runtime interaction during execution
Fluid Modeling Options
  • One incompressible fluid – confined or with free surfaces
  • Two incompressible fluids – miscible or with sharp interfaces
  • Compressible fluid – subsonic, transonic, supersonic
  • Stratified fluid
  • Acoustic phenomena
  • Mass particles with variable density or diameter
Shallow Flow Models
  • General topography
  • Raster data interface
  • Subcomponent-specific surface roughness
  • Wind shear
  • Ground roughness effects
  • Laminar & turbulent flow
  • Sediment transport and scour
  • Surface tension
  • Heat transfer
  • Wetting & drying
Advanced Physical Models
  • General Moving Object model with 6 DOF–prescribed and fully-coupled motion
  • Rotating/spinning objects
  • Collision model
  • Tethered moving objects (springs, ropes, mooring lines)
  • Flexing membranes and walls
  • Porosity
  • Finite element based elastic-plastic deformation
  • Finite element based thermal stress evolution due to thermal changes in a solidifying fluid
  • Combusting solid components
Chemistry Models
  • Stiff equation solver for chemical rate equations
  • Stationary or advected species
Porous Media Models
  • Saturated and unsaturated flow
  • Variable porosity
  • Directional porosity
  • General flow losses (linear & quadratic)
  • Capillary pressure
  • Heat transfer in porous media
  • Van Genunchten model for unsaturated flow
Discrete Particle Models
  • Massless marker particles
  • Mass particles of variable size/mass
  • Linear & quadratic fluid-dynamic drag
  • Monte-Carlo diffusion
  • Particle-Fluid momentum coupling
  • Coefficient of restitution or sticky particles
  • Point or volumetric particle sources
  • Charged particles
  • Probe particles
Two-Phase & Two-Component Models
  • Liquid/liquid & gas/liquid interfaces
  • Variable density mixtures
  • Compressible fluid with a dispersed incompressible component
  • Drift flux
  • Two-component, vapor/non-condensable gases
  • Phase transformations for gas-liquid & liquid-solid
  • Adiabatic bubbles
  • Bubbles with phase change
  • Continuum fluid with discrete particles
  • Scalar transport
  • Homogeneous bubbles
  • Super-cooling
Coupling with Other Programs
  • Geometry input from Stereolithography (STL) files – binary or ASCII
  • Direct interfaces with EnSight®, FieldView® & Tecplot® visualization software
  • Finite element solution import/export via Exodus-II file format
  • PLOT3D output
  • Neutral file output
  • Extensive customization possibilities
  • Solid Properties Materials Database
Data Processing Options
  • State-of-the-art post-processing tool, FlowSight™
  • Batch post-processing
  • Report generation
  • Automatic or custom results analysis
  • High-quality OpenGL-based graphics
  • Color or B/W vector, contour, 3D surface & particle plots
  • Moving and stationary probes
  • Measurement baffles
  • Arbitrary sampling volumes
  • Force & moment output
  • Animation output
  • PostScript, JPEG & Bitmap output
  • Streamlines
  • Flow tracers
User Conveniences
  • Active simulation control (based on measurement of probes)
  • Mesh generators
  • Mesh quality checking
  • Tabular time-dependent input using external files
  • Automatic time-step control for accuracy & stability
  • Automatic convergence control
  • Mentor help to optimize efficiency
  • Change simulation parameters while solver runs
  • Launch and manage multiple simulations
  • Automatic simulation termination based on user-defined criteria
  • Run simulation on remote servers using remote solving
Multi-Processor Computing

FLOW-3D Features

The features in blue are newly-released in FLOW-3D v12.0.

Meshing & Geometry

  • Structured finite difference/control volume meshes for fluid and thermal solutions
  • Finite element meshes in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates for structural analysis
  • Multi-Block gridding with nested, linked, partially overlapping and conforming mesh blocks
  • Conforming meshes extended to arbitrary shapes
  • Fractional areas/volumes (FAVOR™) for efficient & accurate geometry definition
  • Closing gaps in geometry
  • Mesh quality checking
  • Basic Solids Modeler
  • Import CAD data
  • Import/export finite element meshes via Exodus-II file format
  • Grid & geometry independence
  • Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates

Flow Type Options

  • Internal, external & free-surface flows
  • 3D, 2D & 1D problems
  • Transient flows
  • Inviscid, viscous laminar & turbulent flows
  • Hybrid shallow water/3D flows
  • Non-inertial reference frame motion
  • Multiple scalar species
  • Two-phase flows
  • Heat transfer with phase change
  • Saturated & unsaturated porous media

Physical Modeling Options

  • Fluid structure interaction
  • Thermally-induced stresses
  • Plastic deformation of solids
  • Granular flow
  • Moisture drying
  • Solid solute dissolution
  • Sediment transport and scour
  • Sludge settling
  • Cavitation (potential, passive tracking, active tracking)
  • Phase change (liquid-vapor, liquid-solid)
  • Surface tension
  • Thermocapillary effects
  • Wall adhesion
  • Wall roughness
  • Vapor & gas bubbles
  • Solidification & melting
  • Mass/momentum/energy sources
  • Shear, density & temperature-dependent viscosity
  • Thixotropic viscosity
  • Visco-elastic-plastic fluids
  • Elastic membranes & walls
  • Evaporation residue
  • Electro-mechanical effects
  • Dielectric phenomena
  • Electro-osmosis
  • Electrostatic particles
  • Joule heating
  • Air entrainment
  • Molecular & turbulent diffusion
  • Temperature-dependent material properties
  • Spray cooling

Flow Definition Options

  • General boundary conditions
    • Symmetry
    • Rigid and flexible walls
    • Continuative
    • Periodic
    • Specified pressure
    • Specified velocity
    • Outflow
    • Outflow pressure
    • Outflow boundaries with wave absorbing layers
    • Grid overlay
    • Hydrostatic pressure
    • Volume flow rate
    • Non-linear periodic and solitary surface waves
    • Rating curve and natural hydraulics
    • Wave absorbing layer
  • Restart from previous simulation
  • Continuation of a simulation
  • Overlay boundary conditions
  • Change mesh and modeling options
  • Change model parameters

Thermal Modeling Options

  • Natural convection
  • Forced convection
  • Conduction in fluid & solid
  • Fluid-solid heat transfer
  • Distributed energy sources/sinks in fluids and solids
  • Radiation
  • Viscous heating
  • Orthotropic thermal conductivity
  • Thermally-induced stresses

Numerical Modeling Options

  • TruVOF Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method for fluid interfaces
  • Steady state accelerator for free-surface flows
  • First and second order advection
  • Sharp and diffuse interface tracking
  • Implicit & explicit numerical methods
  • Immersed boundary method
  • GMRES, point and line relaxation pressure solvers
  • User-defined variables, subroutines & output
  • Utilities for runtime interaction during execution

Fluid Modeling Options

  • One incompressible fluid – confined or with free surfaces
  • Two incompressible fluids – miscible or with sharp interfaces
  • Compressible fluid – subsonic, transonic, supersonic
  • Stratified fluid
  • Acoustic phenomena
  • Mass particles with variable density or diameter

Shallow Flow Models

  • General topography
  • Raster data interface
  • Subcomponent-specific surface roughness
  • Wind shear
  • Ground roughness effects
  • Manning’s roughness
  • Laminar & turbulent flow
  • Sediment transport and scour
  • Surface tension
  • Heat transfer
  • Wetting & drying

Turbulence Models

  • RNG model
  • Two-equation k-epsilon model
  • Two-equation k-omega model
  • Large eddy simulation

Advanced Physical Models

  • General Moving Object model with 6 DOF–prescribed and fully-coupled motion
  • Rotating/spinning objects
  • Collision model
  • Tethered moving objects (springs, ropes, breaking mooring lines)
  • Flexing membranes and walls
  • Porosity
  • Finite element based elastic-plastic deformation
  • Finite element based thermal stress evolution due to thermal changes in a solidifying fluid
  • Combusting solid components

Chemistry Models

  • Stiff equation solver for chemical rate equations
  • Stationary or advected species

Porous Media Models

  • Saturated and unsaturated flow
  • Variable porosity
  • Directional porosity
  • General flow losses (linear & quadratic)
  • Capillary pressure
  • Heat transfer in porous media
  • Van Genunchten model for unsaturated flow

Discrete Particle Models

  • Massless marker particles
  • Multi-species material particles of variable size and mass
  • Solid, fluid, gas particles
  • Void particles tracking collapsed void regions
  • Non-linear fluid-dynamic drag
  • Added mass effects
  • Monte-Carlo diffusion
  • Particle-fluid momentum coupling
  • Coefficient of restitution or sticky particles
  • Point or volumetric particle sources
  • Initial particle blocks
  • Heat transfer with fluid
  • Evaporation and condensation
  • Solidification and melting
  • Coulomb and dielectric forces
  • Probe particles

Two-Phase & Two-Component Models

  • Liquid/liquid & gas/liquid interfaces
  • Variable density mixtures
  • Compressible fluid with a dispersed incompressible component
  • Drift flux with dynamic droplet size
  • Two-component, vapor/non-condensable gases
  • Phase transformations for gas-liquid & liquid-solid
  • Adiabatic bubbles
  • Bubbles with phase change
  • Continuum fluid with discrete particles
  • Scalar transport
  • Homogeneous bubbles
  • Super-cooling
  • Two-field temperature

Coupling with Other Programs

  • Geometry input from Stereolithography (STL) files – binary or ASCII
  • Direct interfaces with EnSight®, FieldView® & Tecplot® visualization software
  • Finite element solution import/export via Exodus-II file format
  • PLOT3D output
  • Neutral file output
  • Extensive customization possibilities
  • Solid Properties Materials Database

Data Processing Options

  • State-of-the-art post-processing tool, FlowSight™
  • Batch post-processing
  • Report generation
  • Automatic or custom results analysis
  • High-quality OpenGL-based graphics
  • Color or B/W vector, contour, 3D surface & particle plots
  • Moving and stationary probes
  • Visualization of non-inertial reference frame motion
  • Measurement baffles
  • Arbitrary sampling volumes
  • Force & moment output
  • Animation output
  • PostScript, JPEG & Bitmap output
  • Streamlines
  • Flow tracers

User Conveniences

  • Active simulation control (based on measurement of probes)
  • Mesh generators
  • Mesh quality checking
  • Tabular time-dependent input using external files
  • Automatic time-step control for accuracy & stability
  • Automatic convergence control
  • Mentor help to optimize efficiency
  • Units on all variables
  • Custom units
  • Component transformations
  • Moving particle sources
  • Change simulation parameters while solver runs
  • Launch and manage multiple simulations
  • Automatic simulation termination based on user-defined criteria
  • Run simulation on remote servers using remote solving
  • Copy boundary conditions to other mesh blocks

Multi-Processor Computing

  • Shared memory computers
  • Distributed memory clusters

FlowSight

  • Particle visualization
  • Velocity vector fields
  • Streamlines & pathlines
  • Iso-surfaces
  • 2D, 3D and arbitrary clips
  • Volume render
  • Probe data
  • History data
  • Vortex cores
  • Link multiple results
  • Multiple data views
  • Non-inertial reference frame
  • Spline clip