Fig. 1 Multi-physics phenomena in the laser-material interaction zone

COMPARISON BETWEEN GREEN AND
INFRARED LASER IN LASER POWDER BED
FUSION OF PURE COPPER THROUGH HIGH
FIDELITY NUMERICAL MODELLING AT MESOSCALE

316-L 스테인리스강의 레이저 분말 베드 융합 중 콜드 스패터 형성의 충실도 높은 수치 모델링

W.E. ALPHONSO1*, M. BAYAT1 and J.H. HATTEL1
*Corresponding author
1Technical University of Denmark (DTU), 2800, Kgs, Lyngby, Denmark

ABSTRACT

L-PBF(Laser Powder Bed Fusion)는 금속 적층 제조(MAM) 기술로, 기존 제조 공정에 비해 부품 설계 자유도, 조립품 통합, 부품 맞춤화 및 낮은 툴링 비용과 같은 여러 이점을 산업에 제공합니다.

전기 코일 및 열 관리 장치는 일반적으로 높은 전기 및 열 전도성 특성으로 인해 순수 구리로 제조됩니다. 따라서 순동의 L-PBF가 가능하다면 기하학적으로 최적화된 방열판과 자유형 전자코일을 제작할 수 있습니다.

그러나 L-PBF로 조밀한 순동 부품을 생산하는 것은 적외선에 대한 낮은 광 흡수율과 높은 열전도율로 인해 어렵습니다. 기존의 L-PBF 시스템에서 조밀한 구리 부품을 생산하려면 적외선 레이저의 출력을 500W 이상으로 높이거나 구리의 광흡수율이 높은 녹색 레이저를 사용해야 합니다.

적외선 레이저 출력을 높이면 후면 반사로 인해 레이저 시스템의 광학 구성 요소가 손상되고 렌즈의 열 광학 현상으로 인해 공정이 불안정해질 수 있습니다. 이 작업에서 FVM(Finite Volume Method)에 기반한 다중 물리학 중간 규모 수치 모델은 Flow-3D에서 개발되어 용융 풀 역학과 궁극적으로 부품 품질을 제어하는 ​​물리적 현상 상호 작용을 조사합니다.

녹색 레이저 열원과 적외선 레이저 열원은 기판 위의 순수 구리 분말 베드에 단일 트랙 증착을 생성하기 위해 개별적으로 사용됩니다.

용융 풀 역학에 대한 레이저 열원의 유사하지 않은 광학 흡수 특성의 영향이 탐구됩니다. 수치 모델을 검증하기 위해 단일 트랙이 구리 분말 베드에 증착되고 시뮬레이션된 용융 풀 모양과 크기가 비교되는 실험이 수행되었습니다.

녹색 레이저는 광흡수율이 높아 전도 및 키홀 모드 용융이 가능하고 적외선 레이저는 흡수율이 낮아 키홀 모드 용융만 가능하다. 레이저 파장에 대한 용융 모드의 변화는 궁극적으로 기계적, 전기적 및 열적 특성에 영향을 미치는 열 구배 및 냉각 속도에 대한 결과를 가져옵니다.

Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) is a Metal Additive Manufacturing (MAM) technology which offers several advantages to industries such as part design freedom, consolidation of assemblies, part customization and low tooling cost over conventional manufacturing processes. Electric coils and thermal management devices are generally manufactured from pure copper due to its high electrical and thermal conductivity properties. Therefore, if L-PBF of pure copper is feasible, geometrically optimized heat sinks and free-form electromagnetic coils can be manufactured. However, producing dense pure copper parts by L-PBF is difficult due to low optical absorptivity to infrared radiation and high thermal conductivity. To produce dense copper parts in a conventional L-PBF system either the power of the infrared laser must be increased above 500W, or a green laser should be used for which copper has a high optical absorptivity. Increasing the infrared laser power can damage the optical components of the laser systems due to back reflections and create instabilities in the process due to thermal-optical phenomenon of the lenses. In this work, a multi-physics meso-scale numerical model based on Finite Volume Method (FVM) is developed in Flow-3D to investigate the physical phenomena interaction which governs the melt pool dynamics and ultimately the part quality. A green laser heat source and an infrared laser heat source are used individually to create single track deposition on pure copper powder bed above a substrate. The effect of the dissimilar optical absorptivity property of laser heat sources on the melt pool dynamics is explored. To validate the numerical model, experiments were conducted wherein single tracks are deposited on a copper powder bed and the simulated melt pool shape and size are compared. As the green laser has a high optical absorptivity, a conduction and keyhole mode melting is possible while for the infrared laser only keyhole mode melting is possible due to low absorptivity. The variation in melting modes with respect to the laser wavelength has an outcome on thermal gradient and cooling rates which ultimately affect the mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties.

Keywords

Pure Copper, Laser Powder Bed Fusion, Finite Volume Method, multi-physics

Fig. 1 Multi-physics phenomena in the laser-material interaction zone
Fig. 1 Multi-physics phenomena in the laser-material interaction zone
Fig. 2 Framework for single laser track simulation model including powder bed and substrate (a) computational domain with boundaries (b) discretization of the domain with uniform quad mesh.
Fig. 2 Framework for single laser track simulation model including powder bed and substrate (a) computational domain with boundaries (b) discretization of the domain with uniform quad mesh.
Fig. 3 2D melt pool contours from the numerical model compared to experiments [16] for (a) VED = 65 J/mm3 at 7 mm from the beginning of the single track (b) VED = 103 J/mm3 at 3 mm from the beginning of the single track (c) VED = 103 J/mm3 at 7 mm from the beginning of the single track. In the 2D contour, the non-melted region is indicated in blue, and the melted region is indicated by red and green when the VED is 65 J/mm3 and 103 J/mm3 respectively.
Fig. 3 2D melt pool contours from the numerical model compared to experiments [16] for (a) VED = 65 J/mm3 at 7 mm from the beginning of the single track (b) VED = 103 J/mm3 at 3 mm from the beginning of the single track (c) VED = 103 J/mm3 at 7 mm from the beginning of the single track. In the 2D contour, the non-melted region is indicated in blue, and the melted region is indicated by red and green when the VED is 65 J/mm3 and 103 J/mm3 respectively.
Fig. 4 3D temperature contour plots of during single track L-PBF process at time1.8 µs when (a) VED = 65 J/mm3 (b) VED = 103 J/mm3 along with 2D melt pool contours at 5 mm from the laser initial position. In the 2D contour, the non-melted region is indicated in blue, and the melted region is indicated by red and green when the VED is 65 J/mm3 and 103 J/mm3 respectively.
Fig. 4 3D temperature contour plots of during single track L-PBF process at time1.8 µs when (a) VED = 65 J/mm3 (b) VED = 103 J/mm3 along with 2D melt pool contours at 5 mm from the laser initial position. In the 2D contour, the non-melted region is indicated in blue, and the melted region is indicated by red and green when the VED is 65 J/mm3 and 103 J/mm3 respectively.

References

[1] L. Jyothish Kumar, P. M. Pandey, and D. I. Wimpenny, 3D printing and additive
manufacturing technologies. Springer Singapore, 2018. doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-0305-0.
[2] T. DebRoy et al., “Additive manufacturing of metallic components – Process, structure
and properties,” Progress in Materials Science, vol. 92, pp. 112–224, 2018, doi:
10.1016/j.pmatsci.2017.10.001.
[3] C. S. Lefky, B. Zucker, D. Wright, A. R. Nassar, T. W. Simpson, and O. J. Hildreth,
“Dissolvable Supports in Powder Bed Fusion-Printed Stainless Steel,” 3D Printing and
Additive Manufacturing, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 3–11, 2017, doi: 10.1089/3dp.2016.0043.
[4] J. L. Bartlett and X. Li, “An overview of residual stresses in metal powder bed fusion,”
Additive Manufacturing, vol. 27, no. January, pp. 131–149, 2019, doi:
10.1016/j.addma.2019.02.020.
[5] I. H. Ahn, “Determination of a process window with consideration of effective layer
thickness in SLM process,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing
Technology, vol. 105, no. 10, pp. 4181–4191, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s00170-019-04402-w.

[6] R. McCann et al., “In-situ sensing, process monitoring and machine control in Laser
Powder Bed Fusion: A review,” Additive Manufacturing, vol. 45, no. May, 2021, doi:
10.1016/j.addma.2021.102058.
[7] M. Bayat et al., “Keyhole-induced porosities in Laser-based Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF)
of Ti6Al4V: High-fidelity modelling and experimental validation,” Additive
Manufacturing, vol. 30, no. August, p. 100835, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2019.100835.
[8] M. Bayat, S. Mohanty, and J. H. Hattel, “Multiphysics modelling of lack-of-fusion voids
formation and evolution in IN718 made by multi-track/multi-layer L-PBF,” International
Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 139, pp. 95–114, 2019, doi:
10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.05.003.
[9] S. D. Jadhav, L. R. Goossens, Y. Kinds, B. van Hooreweder, and K. Vanmeensel, “Laserbased powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of pure copper,” Additive Manufacturing,
vol. 42, no. March, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2021.101990.
[10] S. D. Jadhav, S. Dadbakhsh, L. Goossens, J. P. Kruth, J. van Humbeeck, and K.
Vanmeensel, “Influence of selective laser melting process parameters on texture evolution
in pure copper,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 270, no. January, pp.
47–58, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.02.022.
[11] H. Siva Prasad, F. Brueckner, J. Volpp, and A. F. H. Kaplan, “Laser metal deposition of
copper on diverse metals using green laser sources,” International Journal of Advanced
Manufacturing Technology, vol. 107, no. 3–4, pp. 1559–1568, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s00170-
020-05117-z.
[12] L. R. Goossens, Y. Kinds, J. P. Kruth, and B. van Hooreweder, “On the influence of
thermal lensing during selective laser melting,” Solid Freeform Fabrication 2018:
Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium – An
Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2018, no. December, pp. 2267–2274, 2020.
[13] M. Bayat, V. K. Nadimpalli, D. B. Pedersen, and J. H. Hattel, “A fundamental investigation
of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys,” International
Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 166, p. 120766, 2021, doi:
10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.120766.
[14] H. Chen, Q. Wei, Y. Zhang, F. Chen, Y. Shi, and W. Yan, “Powder-spreading mechanisms
in powder-bed-based additive manufacturing: Experiments and computational modeling,”
Acta Materialia, vol. 179, pp. 158–171, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2019.08.030.
[15] S. K. Nayak, S. K. Mishra, C. P. Paul, A. N. Jinoop, and K. S. Bindra, “Effect of energy
density on laser powder bed fusion built single tracks and thin wall structures with 100 µm
preplaced powder layer thickness,” Optics and Laser Technology, vol. 125, May 2020, doi:
10.1016/j.optlastec.2019.106016.
[16] G. Nordet et al., “Absorptivity measurements during laser powder bed fusion of pure
copper with a 1 kW cw green laser,” Optics & Laser Technology, vol. 147, no. April 2021,
p. 107612, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.optlastec.2021.107612.
[17] M. Hummel, C. Schöler, A. Häusler, A. Gillner, and R. Poprawe, “New approaches on
laser micro welding of copper by using a laser beam source with a wavelength of 450 nm,”
Journal of Advanced Joining Processes, vol. 1, no. February, p. 100012, 2020, doi:
10.1016/j.jajp.2020.100012.
[18] M. Hummel, M. Külkens, C. Schöler, W. Schulz, and A. Gillner, “In situ X-ray
tomography investigations on laser welding of copper with 515 and 1030 nm laser beam
sources,” Journal of Manufacturing Processes, vol. 67, no. April, pp. 170–176, 2021, doi:
10.1016/j.jmapro.2021.04.063.
[19] L. Gargalis et al., “Determining processing behaviour of pure Cu in laser powder bed
fusion using direct micro-calorimetry,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol.
294, no. March, p. 117130, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2021.117130.
[20] A. Mondal, D. Agrawal, and A. Upadhyaya, “Microwave heating of pure copper powder
with varying particle size and porosity,” Journal of Microwave Power and
Electromagnetic Energy, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 4315–43110, 2009, doi:
10.1080/08327823.2008.11688599.

Fig 3. Front view of the ejected powder particles due to the plume movement. Powder particles are colored by their respective temperature while trajectory colors show their magnitude at 0.007 seconds.

316-L 스테인리스강의 레이저 분말 베드 융합 중 콜드 스패터 형성의 충실도 높은 수치 모델링

316-L 스테인리스강의 레이저 분말 베드 융합 중 콜드 스패터 형성의 충실도 높은 수치 모델링

M. BAYAT1,* , AND J. H. HATTEL1

  • Corresponding author
    1 Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Building 425, Kgs. 2800 Lyngby, Denmark

ABSTRACT

Spatter and denudation are two very well-known phenomena occurring mainly during the laser powder bed fusion process and are defined as ejection and displacement of powder particles, respectively. The main driver of this phenomenon is the formation of a vapor plume jet that is caused by the vaporization of the melt pool which is subjected to the laser beam. In this work, a 3-dimensional transient turbulent computational fluid dynamics model coupled with a discrete element model is developed in the finite volume-based commercial software package Flow-3D AM to simulate the spatter phenomenon. The numerical results show that a localized low-pressure zone forms at the bottom side of the plume jet and this leads to a pseudo-Bernoulli effect that drags nearby powder particles into the area of influence of the vapor plume jet. As a result, the vapor plume acts like a momentum sink and therefore all nearby particles point are dragged towards this region. Furthermore, it is noted that due to the jet’s attenuation, powder particles start diverging from the central core region of the vapor plume as they move vertically upwards. It is moreover observed that only particles which are in the very central core region of the plume jet get sufficiently accelerated to depart the computational domain, while the rest of the dragged particles, especially those which undergo an early divergence from the jet axis, get stalled pretty fast as they come in contact with the resting fluid. In the last part of the work, two simulations with two different scanning speeds are carried out, where it is clearly observed that the angle between the departing powder particles and the vertical axis of the plume jet increases with increasing scanning speed.

스패터와 denudation은 주로 레이저 분말 베드 융합 과정에서 발생하는 매우 잘 알려진 두 가지 현상으로 각각 분말 입자의 배출 및 변위로 정의됩니다.

이 현상의 주요 동인은 레이저 빔을 받는 용융 풀의 기화로 인해 발생하는 증기 기둥 제트의 형성입니다. 이 작업에서 이산 요소 모델과 결합된 3차원 과도 난류 ​​전산 유체 역학 모델은 스패터 현상을 시뮬레이션하기 위해 유한 체적 기반 상용 소프트웨어 패키지 Flow-3D AM에서 개발되었습니다.

수치적 결과는 플룸 제트의 바닥면에 국부적인 저압 영역이 형성되고, 이는 근처의 분말 입자를 증기 플룸 제트의 영향 영역으로 끌어들이는 의사-베르누이 효과로 이어진다는 것을 보여줍니다.

결과적으로 증기 기둥은 운동량 흡수원처럼 작용하므로 근처의 모든 입자 지점이 이 영역으로 끌립니다. 또한 제트의 감쇠로 인해 분말 입자가 수직으로 위쪽으로 이동할 때 증기 기둥의 중심 코어 영역에서 발산하기 시작합니다.

더욱이 플룸 제트의 가장 중심 코어 영역에 있는 입자만 계산 영역을 벗어날 만큼 충분히 가속되는 반면, 드래그된 나머지 입자, 특히 제트 축에서 초기 발산을 겪는 입자는 정체되는 것으로 관찰됩니다. 그들은 휴식 유체와 접촉하기 때문에 꽤 빠릅니다.

작업의 마지막 부분에서 두 가지 다른 스캔 속도를 가진 두 가지 시뮬레이션이 수행되었으며, 여기서 출발하는 분말 입자와 연기 제트의 수직 축 사이의 각도가 스캔 속도가 증가함에 따라 증가하는 것이 명확하게 관찰되었습니다.

Fig 1. Two different views of the computational domain for the fluid domain. The vapor plume is simulated by a moving momentum source with a prescribed temperature of 3000 K.
Fig 1. Two different views of the computational domain for the fluid domain. The vapor plume is simulated by a moving momentum source with a prescribed temperature of 3000 K.
Fig 2. (a) and (b) are two snapshots taken at an x-y plane parallel to the powder layer plane before and 0.008 seconds after the start of the scanning process. (c) Shows a magnified view of (b) where detailed powder particles' movement along with their velocity magnitude and directions are shown.
Fig 2. (a) and (b) are two snapshots taken at an x-y plane parallel to the powder layer plane before and 0.008 seconds after the start of the scanning process. (c) Shows a magnified view of (b) where detailed powder particles’ movement along with their velocity magnitude and directions are shown.
Fig 3. Front view of the ejected powder particles due to the plume movement. Powder particles are colored by their respective temperature while trajectory colors show their magnitude at 0.007 seconds.
Fig 3. Front view of the ejected powder particles due to the plume movement. Powder particles are colored by their respective temperature while trajectory colors show their magnitude at 0.007 seconds.

References

[1] T. DebRoy et al., “Additive manufacturing of metallic components – Process, structure
and properties,” Prog. Mater. Sci., vol. 92, pp. 112–224, 2018, doi:
10.1016/j.pmatsci.2017.10.001.
[2] M. Markl and C. Körner, “Multiscale Modeling of Powder Bed–Based Additive
Manufacturing,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res., vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 93–123, 2016, doi:
10.1146/annurev-matsci-070115-032158.
[3] A. Zinoviev, O. Zinovieva, V. Ploshikhin, V. Romanova, and R. Balokhonov, “Evolution
of grain structure during laser additive manufacturing. Simulation by a cellular automata
method,” Mater. Des., vol. 106, pp. 321–329, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2016.05.125.
[4] Y. Zhang and J. Zhang, “Modeling of solidification microstructure evolution in laser
powder bed fusion fabricated 316L stainless steel using combined computational fluid
dynamics and cellular automata,” Addit. Manuf., vol. 28, no. July 2018, pp. 750–765,
2019, doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2019.06.024.
[5] A. A. Martin et al., “Ultrafast dynamics of laser-metal interactions in additive
manufacturing alloys captured by in situ X-ray imaging,” Mater. Today Adv., vol. 1, p.
100002, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.mtadv.2019.01.001.
[6] Y. C. Wu et al., “Numerical modeling of melt-pool behavior in selective laser melting
with random powder distribution and experimental validation,” J. Mater. Process.
Technol., vol. 254, no. July 2017, pp. 72–78, 2018, doi:
10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2017.11.032.
[7] W. Gao, S. Zhao, Y. Wang, Z. Zhang, F. Liu, and X. Lin, “Numerical simulation of
thermal field and Fe-based coating doped Ti,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 92, pp. 83–
90, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2015.08.082.
[8] A. Charles, M. Bayat, A. Elkaseer, L. Thijs, J. H. Hattel, and S. Scholz, “Elucidation of
dross formation in laser powder bed fusion at down-facing surfaces: Phenomenonoriented multiphysics simulation and experimental validation,” Addit. Manuf., vol. 50,
2022, doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2021.102551.
[9] C. Meier, R. W. Penny, Y. Zou, J. S. Gibbs, and A. J. Hart, “Thermophysical phenomena
in metal additive manufacturing by selective laser melting: Fundamentals, modeling,
simulation and experimentation,” arXiv, 2017, doi:
10.1615/annualrevheattransfer.2018019042.
[10] W. King, A. T. Anderson, R. M. Ferencz, N. E. Hodge, C. Kamath, and S. A. Khairallah,
“Overview of modelling and simulation of metal powder bed fusion process at Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory,” Mater. Sci. Technol. (United Kingdom), vol. 31, no. 8,
pp. 957–968, 2015, doi: 10.1179/1743284714Y.0000000728.

Fig. 1. Schematic figure showing the PREP with additional gas flowing on the end face of electrode.

플라즈마 회전 전극 공정 중 분말 형성에 대한 공정 매개변수 및 냉각 가스의 영향

Effects of process parameters and cooling gas on powder formation during the plasma rotating electrode process

Yujie Cuia Yufan Zhaoa1 Haruko Numatab Kenta Yamanakaa Huakang Biana Kenta Aoyagia AkihikoChibaa
aInstitute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, JapanbDepartment of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan

Highlights

•The limitation of increasing the rotational speed in decreasing powder size was clarified.

•Cooling and disturbance effects varied with the gas flowing rate.

•Inclined angle of the residual electrode end face affected powder formation.

•Additional cooling gas flowing could be applied to control powder size.

Abstract

The plasma rotating electrode process (PREP) is rapidly becoming an important powder fabrication method in additive manufacturing. However, the low production rate of fine PREP powder limits the development of PREP. Herein, we investigated different factors affecting powder formation during PREP by combining experimental methods and numerical simulations. The limitation of increasing the rotation electrode speed in decreasing powder size is attributed to the increased probability of adjacent droplets recombining and the decreased tendency of granulation. The effects of additional Ar/He gas flowing on the rotational electrode on powder formation is determined through the cooling effect, the disturbance effect, and the inclined effect of the residual electrode end face simultaneously. A smaller-sized powder was obtained in the He atmosphere owing to the larger inclined angle of the residual electrode end face compared to the Ar atmosphere. Our research highlights the route for the fabrication of smaller-sized powders using PREP.

플라즈마 회전 전극 공정(PREP)은 적층 제조 에서 중요한 분말 제조 방법으로 빠르게 자리잡고 있습니다. 그러나 미세한 PREP 분말의 낮은 생산율은 PREP의 개발을 제한합니다. 여기에서 우리는 실험 방법과 수치 시뮬레이션을 결합하여 PREP 동안 분말 형성에 영향을 미치는 다양한 요인을 조사했습니다. 분말 크기 감소에서 회전 전극 속도 증가의 한계는 인접한 액적 재결합 확률 증가 및 과립화 경향 감소에 기인합니다.. 회전 전극에 흐르는 추가 Ar/He 가스가 분말 형성에 미치는 영향은 냉각 효과, 외란 효과 및 잔류 전극 단면의 경사 효과를 통해 동시에 결정됩니다. He 분위기에서는 Ar 분위기에 비해 잔류 전극 단면의 경사각이 크기 때문에 더 작은 크기의 분말이 얻어졌다. 우리의 연구는 PREP를 사용하여 더 작은 크기의 분말을 제조하는 경로를 강조합니다.

Keywords

Plasma rotating electrode process

Ti-6Al-4 V alloy, Rotating speed, Numerical simulation, Gas flowing, Powder size

Introduction

With the development of additive manufacturing, there has been a significant increase in high-quality powder production demand [1,2]. The initial powder characteristics are closely related to the uniform powder spreading [3,4], packing density [5], and layer thickness observed during additive manufacturing [6], thus determining the mechanical properties of the additive manufactured parts [7,8]. Gas atomization (GA) [9–11], centrifugal atomization (CA) [12–15], and the plasma rotating electrode process (PREP) are three important powder fabrication methods.

Currently, GA is the dominant powder fabrication method used in additive manufacturing [16] for the fabrication of a wide range of alloys [11]. GA produces powders by impinging a liquid metal stream to droplets through a high-speed gas flow of nitrogen, argon, or helium. With relatively low energy consumption and a high fraction of fine powders, GA has become the most popular powder manufacturing technology for AM.

The entrapped gas pores are generally formed in the powder after solidification during GA, in which the molten metal is impacted by a high-speed atomization gas jet. In addition, satellites are formed in GA powder when fine particles adhere to partially molten particles.

The gas pores of GA powder result in porosity generation in the additive manufactured parts, which in turn deteriorates its mechanical properties because pores can become crack initiation sites [17]. In CA, a molten metal stream is poured directly onto an atomizer disc spinning at a high rotational speed. A thin film is formed on the surface of the disc, which breaks into small droplets due to the centrifugal force. Metal powder is obtained when these droplets solidify.

Compared with GA powder, CA powder exhibits higher sphericity, lower impurity content, fewer satellites, and narrower particle size distribution [12]. However, very high speed is required to obtain fine powder by CA. In PREP, the molten metal, melted using the plasma arc, is ejected from the rotating rod through centrifugal force. Compared with GA powder, PREP-produced powders also have higher sphericity and fewer pores and satellites [18].

For instance, PREP-fabricated Ti6Al-4 V alloy powder with a powder size below 150 μm exhibits lower porosity than gas-atomized powder [19], which decreases the porosity of additive manufactured parts. Furthermore, the process window during electron beam melting was broadened using PREP powder compared to GA powder in Inconel 718 alloy [20] owing to the higher sphericity of the PREP powder.

In summary, PREP powder exhibits many advantages and is highly recommended for powder-based additive manufacturing and direct energy deposition-type additive manufacturing. However, the low production rate of fine PREP powder limits the widespread application of PREP powder in additive manufacturing.

Although increasing the rotating speed is an effective method to decrease the powder size [21,22], the reduction in powder size becomes smaller with the increased rotating speed [23]. The occurrence of limiting effects has not been fully clarified yet.

Moreover, the powder size can be decreased by increasing the rotating electrode diameter [24]. However, these methods are quite demanding for the PREP equipment. For instance, it is costly to revise the PREP equipment to meet the demand of further increasing the rotating speed or electrode diameter.

Accordingly, more feasible methods should be developed to further decrease the PREP powder size. Another factor that influences powder formation is the melting rate [25]. It has been reported that increasing the melting rate decreases the powder size of Inconel 718 alloy [26].

In contrast, the powder size of SUS316 alloy was decreased by decreasing the plasma current within certain ranges. This was ascribed to the formation of larger-sized droplets from fluid strips with increased thickness and spatial density at higher plasma currents [27]. The powder size of NiTi alloy also decreases at lower melting rates [28]. Consequently, altering the melting rate, varied with the plasma current, is expected to regulate the PREP powder size.

Furthermore, gas flowing has a significant influence on powder formation [27,29–31]. On one hand, the disturbance effect of gas flowing promotes fluid granulation, which in turn contributes to the formation of smaller-sized powder [27]. On the other hand, the cooling effect of gas flowing facilitates the formation of large-sized powder due to increased viscosity and surface tension. However, there is a lack of systematic research on the effect of different gas flowing on powder formation during PREP.

Herein, the authors systematically studied the effects of rotating speed, electrode diameter, plasma current, and gas flowing on the formation of Ti-6Al-4 V alloy powder during PREP as additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4 V alloy exhibits great application potential [32]. Numerical simulations were conducted to explain why increasing the rotating speed is not effective in decreasing powder size when the rotation speed reaches a certain level. In addition, the different factors incited by the Ar/He gas flowing on powder formation were clarified.

Fig. 1. Schematic figure showing the PREP with additional gas flowing on the end face of electrode.
Fig. 1. Schematic figure showing the PREP with additional gas flowing on the end face of electrode.

References

[1] W. Ding, G. Chen, M. Qin, Y. He, X. Qu, Low-cost Ti powders for additive manufacturing treated by fluidized bed, Powder Technol. 350 (2019) 117–122, https://doi.org/
10.1016/j.powtec.2019.03.042.
[2] W.S.W. Harun, M.S.I.N. Kamariah, N. Muhamad, S.A.C. Ghani, F. Ahmad, Z. Mohamed,
A review of powder additive manufacturing processes for metallic biomaterials,
Powder Technol. 327 (2018) 128–151, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2017.12.
058.
[3] M. Ahmed, M. Pasha, W. Nan, M. Ghadiri, A simple method for assessing powder
spreadability for additive manufacturing, Powder Technol. 367 (2020) 671–679,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2020.04.033.
[4] W. Nan, M. Pasha, M. Ghadiri, Numerical simulation of particle flow and segregation
during roller spreading process in additive manufacturing, Powder Technol. 364
(2020) 811–821, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2019.12.023.
[5] A. Averardi, C. Cola, S.E. Zeltmann, N. Gupta, Effect of particle size distribution on the
packing of powder beds : a critical discussion relevant to additive manufacturing,
Mater. Today Commun. 24 (2020) 100964, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtcomm.
2020.100964.
[6] K. Riener, N. Albrecht, S. Ziegelmeier, R. Ramakrishnan, L. Haferkamp, A.B. Spierings,
G.J. Leichtfried, Influence of particle size distribution and morphology on the properties of the powder feedstock as well as of AlSi10Mg parts produced by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), Addit. Manuf. 34 (2020) 101286, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
addma.2020.101286.
[7] W.S.W. Harun, N.S. Manam, M.S.I.N. Kamariah, S. Sharif, A.H. Zulkifly, I. Ahmad, H.
Miura, A review of powdered additive manufacturing techniques for Ti-6Al-4V biomedical applications, Powder Technol. 331 (2018) 74–97, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
powtec.2018.03.010.
[8] A.T. Sutton, C.S. Kriewall, M.C. Leu, J.W. Newkirk, Powder characterisation techniques and effects of powder characteristics on part properties in powder-bed fusion processes, Virtual Phys. Prototyp. 12 (2017) (2017) 3–29, https://doi.org/10.
1080/17452759.2016.1250605.
[9] G. Chen, Q. Zhou, S.Y. Zhao, J.O. Yin, P. Tan, Z.F. Li, Y. Ge, J. Wang, H.P. Tang, A pore
morphological study of gas-atomized Ti-6Al-4V powders by scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron X-ray computed tomography, Powder Technol. 330
(2018) 425–430, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2018.02.053.
[10] Y. Feng, T. Qiu, Preparation, characterization and microwave absorbing properties of
FeNi alloy prepared by gas atomization method, J. Alloys Compd. 513 (2012)
455–459, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2011.10.079.

[11] I.E. Anderson, R.L. Terpstra, Progress toward gas atomization processing with increased uniformity and control, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 326 (2002) 101–109, https://
doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(01)01427-7.
[12] P. Phairote, T. Plookphol, S. Wisutmethangoon, Design and development of a centrifugal atomizer for producing zinc metal powder, Int. J. Appl. Phys. Math. 2 (2012)
77–82, https://doi.org/10.7763/IJAPM.2012.V2.58.
[13] L. Tian, I. Anderson, T. Riedemann, A. Russell, Production of fine calcium powders by
centrifugal atomization with rotating quench bath, Powder Technol. 308 (2017)
84–93, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2016.12.011.
[14] M. Eslamian, J. Rak, N. Ashgriz, Preparation of aluminum/silicon carbide metal matrix composites using centrifugal atomization, Powder Technol. 184 (2008) 11–20,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2007.07.045.
[15] T. Plookphol, S. Wisutmethangoon, S. Gonsrang, Influence of process parameters on
SAC305 lead-free solder powder produced by centrifugal atomization, Powder
Technol. 214 (2011) 506–512, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2011.09.015.
[16] M.Z. Gao, B. Ludwig, T.A. Palmer, Impact of atomization gas on characteristics of austenitic stainless steel powder feedstocks for additive manufacturing, Powder
Technol. 383 (2021) 30–42, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2020.12.005.
[17] X. Shui, K. Yamanaka, M. Mori, Y. Nagata, A. Chiba, Effects of post-processing on cyclic fatigue response of a titanium alloy additively manufactured by electron beam
melting, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 680 (2017) 239–248, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.
2016.10.059.
[18] C. Wang, X.H. Zhao, Y.C. Ma, Q.X. Wang, Y.J. Lai, S.J. Liang, Study of the spherical
HoCu powders prepared by supreme-speed plasma rotating electrode process,
Powder Metallurgy Technology 38 (3) (2020) 227–233, https://doi.org/10.19591/
j.cnki.cn11-1974/tf.2020.03.011 (in Chinese).
[19] G. Chen, S.Y. Zhao, P. Tan, J. Wang, C.S. Xiang, H.P. Tang, A comparative study of Ti6Al-4V powders for additive manufacturing by gas atomization, plasma rotating
electrode process and plasma atomization, Powder Technol. 333 (2018) 38–46,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2018.04.013.
[20] Y. Zhao, K. Aoyagi, Y. Daino, K. Yamanaka, A. Chiba, Significance of powder feedstock
characteristics in defect suppression of additively manufactured Inconel 718, Addit.
Manuf. 34 (2020) 101277, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101277.
[21] Y. Nie, J. Tang, B. Yang, Q. Lei, S. Yu, Y. Li, Comparison in characteristic and atomization behavior of metallic powders produced by plasma rotating electrode process,
Adv. Powder Technol. 31 (2020) 2152–2160, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2020.03.
006.
[22] Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, H. Numata, H. Bian, K. Wako, K. Yamanaka, K. Aoyagi, C. Zhang, A.
Chiba, Effects of plasma rotating electrode process parameters on the particle size
distribution and microstructure of Ti-6Al-4 V alloy powder, Powder Technol 376
(2020) 363–372, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2020.08.027.
[23] J. Tang, Y. Nie, Q. Lei, Y. Li, Characteristics and atomization behavior of Ti-6Al-4V
powder produced by plasma rotating electrode process Adv, Powder Technol. 10
(2019) 2330–2337, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2019.07.015.
[24] M. Zdujić, D. Uskoković, Production of atomized metal and alloy powders by the rotating electrode process, Sov. Powder Metall. Met. Ceram. 29 (1990) 673–683,
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00795571.
[25] L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Particle size distribution of tin powder produced by centrifugal
atomisation using rotating cups, Powder Technol. 318 (2017) 62–67, https://doi.
org/10.1016/j.powtec.2017.05.038.
[26] Y. Liu, S. Liang, Z. Han, J. Song, Q. Wang, A novel model of calculating particle sizes in
plasma rotating electrode process for superalloys, Powder Technol. 336 (2018)
406–414, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2018.06.002.
[27] Y. Zhao, Y. Cui, H. Numata, H. Bian, K. Wako, K. Yamanaka, Centrifugal granulation
behavior in metallic powder fabrication by plasma rotating electrode process, Sci.
Rep. (2020) 1–15, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75503-w.
[28] T. Hsu, C. Wei, L. Wu, Y. Li, A. Chiba, M. Tsai, Nitinol powders generate from plasma
rotation electrode process provide clean powder for biomedical devices used with
suitable size, spheroid surface and pure composition, Sci. Rep. 8 (2018) 1–8,
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32101-1.
[29] M. Wei, S. Chen, M. Sun, J. Liang, C. Liu, M. Wang, Atomization simulation and preparation of 24CrNiMoY alloy steel powder using VIGA technology at high gas pressure, Powder Technol. 367 (2020) 724–739, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.
2020.04.030.
[30] Y. Tan, X. Zhu, X.Y. He, B. Ding, H. Wang, Q. Liao, H. Li, Granulation characteristics of
molten blast furnace slag by hybrid centrifugal-air blast technique, Powder Technol.
323 (2018) 176–185, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2017.09.040.
[31] P. Xu, D.H. Liu, J. Hu, G.Y. Lin, Synthesis of Ni-Ti composite powder by radio frequency plasma spheroidization process, Nonferrous Metals Science and Engineering
39 (1) (2020) 67–71 , (in Chinese) 10.13264/j.cnki.ysjskx.2020.01.011.
[32] H. Mehboob, F. Tarlochan, A. Mehboob, S.H. Chang, S. Ramesh, W.S.W. Harun, K.
Kadirgama, A novel design, analysis and 3D printing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy bioinspired porous femoral stem, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 31 (2020) 78, https://doi.
org/10.1007/s10856-020-06420-7.
[33] FLOW-3D® Version 11.2 [Computer software]. , Flow Science, Inc., Santa Fe, NM,
2017https://www.flow3d.com.
[34] M. Boivineau, C. Cagran, D. Doytier, V. Eyraud, M.H. Nadal, B. Wilthan, G. Pottlacher,
Thermophysical properties of solid and liquid Ti-6Al-4V (TA6V) alloy, Int. J.
Thermophys. 27 (2006) 507–529, https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00021868.
[35] J. Liu, Q. Qin, Q. Yu, The effect of size distribution of slag particles obtained in dry
granulation on blast furnace slag cement strength, Powder Technol. 362 (2020)
32–36, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2019.11.115.
[36] M. Tanaka, S. Tashiro, A study of thermal pinch effect of welding arcs, J. Japan Weld.
Soc. 25 (2007) 336–342, https://doi.org/10.2207/qjjws.25.336 (in Japanese).
[37] T. Kamiya, A. Kayano, Disintegration of viscous fluid in the ligament state purged
from a rotating disk, J. Chem. Eng. JAPAN. 4 (1971) 364–369, https://doi.org/10.
1252/jcej.4.364.
[38] T. Kamiya, An analysis of the ligament-type disintegration of thin liquid film at the
edge of a rotating disk, J. Chem. Eng. Japan. 5 (1972) 391–396, https://doi.org/10.
1252/jcej.5.391.
[39] J. Burns, C. Ramshaw, R. Jachuck, Measurement of liquid film thickness and the determination of spin-up radius on a rotating disc using an electrical resistance technique, Chem. Eng. Sci. 58 (2003) 2245–2253, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2509
(03)00091-5.
[40] J. Rauscher, R. Kelly, J. Cole, An asymptotic solution for the laminar flow of a thin film
on a rotating disk, J. Appl. Mech. Trans. ASME 40 (1973) 43–47, https://doi.org/10.
1115/1.3422970

Flow Field in a Sloped Channel with Damaged and Undamaged Piers: Numerical and Experimental Studies

Flow Field in a Sloped Channel with Damaged and Undamaged Piers: Numerical and Experimental Studies

Ehsan OveiciOmid Tayari & Navid Jalalkamali
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering volume 25, pages4240–4251 (2021)Cite this article

Abstract

본 논문은 경사가 완만한 수로에서 손상되거나 손상되지 않은 교각 주변의 유동 패턴을 분석했습니다. 실험은 길이가 12m이고 기울기가 0.008인 직선 수로에서 수행되었습니다. Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter(ADV)를 이용하여 3차원 유속 데이터를 수집하였고, 그 결과를 PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) 데이터와 분석하여 비교하였습니다.

다중 블록 옵션이 있는 취수구의 퇴적물 시뮬레이션(SSIIM)은 이 연구에서 흐름의 수치 시뮬레이션을 위해 통합되었습니다. 일반적으로 비교에서 얻은 결과는 수치 데이터와 실험 데이터 간의 적절한 일치를 나타냅니다. 결과는 모든 경우에 수로 입구에서 2m 거리에서 기복적 수압 점프가 발생했음을 보여주었습니다.

경사진 수로의 최대 베드 전단응력은 2개의 손상 및 손상되지 않은 교각을 설치하기 위한 수평 수로의 12배였습니다. 이와 같은 경사수로 교각의 위치에 따라 상류측 수위는 수평수로의 유사한 조건에 비해 72.5% 감소한 반면, 이 감소량은 경사면에서 다른 경우에 비해 8.3% 감소하였다. 채널 또한 두 교각이 있는 경우 최대 Froude 수는 수평 수로의 5.7배였습니다.

This paper analyzed the flow pattern around damaged and undamaged bridge piers in a channel with a mild slope. The experiments were carried out on a straight channel with a length of 12 meters and a slope of 0.008. Acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) was employed to collect three-dimensional flow velocity data, and the results were analyzed and compared with particle image velocimetry (PIV) data. Sediment Simulation in Intakes with Multiblock option (SSIIM) was incorporated for the numerical simulation of the flow in this study. Generally, the results obtained from the comparisons referred to the appropriate agreement between the numerical and the experimental data. The results showed that an undular hydraulic jump occurred at a distance of two meters from the channel entrance in every case; the maximum bed shear stress in the sloped channel was 12 times that in a horizontal channel for installing two damaged and undamaged piers. With this position of the piers in the sloped channel, the upstream water level underwent a 72.5% reduction compared to similar conditions in a horizontal channel, while the amount of this water level decrease was equal to 8.3% compared to the other cases in a sloped channel. In addition, with the presence of both piers, the maximum Froude number was 5.7 times that in a horizontal channel.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

Download references

The Study of the effect of step penetration depth on exchanges between surface and subsurface fluxes

The Study of the effect of step penetration depth on exchanges between surface and subsurface fluxes

Authors

1 irrigation department, university of Tehran

2 Dep. of Water Engineering, Faculty of Water and Soil, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Golestan.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, P. O. Box 4111, Karaj, 31587-77871, Iran.

Abstract

The exchange of surface and subsurface flows in riverbeds, especially upstream of control structures as an important ecological area, is very important and noteworthy. The natural morphology of rivers and various in-stream structures along the flow path are important factors in the formation of such flows. Since the in-stream structures in the flow path have a more controlled and effective role than the morphology of rivers in the formation of these exchanges, in this study the effect of the penetration depth of these structures in the porous bed on the characteristics of exchange flows through experiments and Numerical simulation has been investigated. The experiments were performed in a flume with a length of 10 m, width of 20 cm, depth of 30 cm and a slope of 0.01, for three different penetration depths. Potassium permanganate detector was used for tracking the flow. In addition, to obtain exchange flow characteristics; the mainstream and the exchange pattern were simulated by particle tracking method using Flow 3D software. The results showed that in the Reynolds range 1020 to 3450, with increasing the penetration depth of the structure from 0.09 to 0.13 m, the retention time of the exchange flow increases up to 6.6%. In addition, the length of the effect of the structure up to 9%, the length of the exchange path up to 4.6% and the penetration depth of the exchange increases up to 7.7% while the exchange rate decreases to 22%. Therefore, in order to increase the exchange rate, it is recommended to use a structure with a lower penetration depth and to increase the retention time, a structure with a greater penetration depth is recommended.

중요한 생태 지역으로서 특히 제어 구조물의 상류 하천 바닥에서 지표 및 지하 흐름의 교환은 매우 중요하고 주목할 만합니다. 하천의 자연적 형태와 유동 경로를 따라 흐르는 다양한 하천 구조는 이러한 유동 형성에 중요한 요소입니다.

흐름 경로의 유류 구조는 이러한 교환의 형성에서 강의 형태보다 더 제어되고 효과적인 역할을 하기 때문에 본 연구에서는 다공성 층에서 이러한 구조의 침투 깊이가 교환의 특성에 미치는 영향 실험과 수치 시뮬레이션을 통한 흐름이 조사되었습니다.

실험은 길이 10m, 너비 20cm, 깊이 30cm, 기울기 0.01의 수로에서 세 가지 다른 침투 깊이에 대해 수행되었습니다. 흐름을 추적하기 위해 과망간산 칼륨 검출기가 사용되었습니다. 또한, 교환 흐름 특성을 얻기 위해; Flow 3D 소프트웨어를 사용하여 입자 추적 방법으로 주류 및 교환 패턴을 시뮬레이션했습니다.

결과는 Reynolds 범위 1020 ~ 3450에서 구조물의 침투 깊이가 0.09에서 0.13m로 증가함에 따라 교환 흐름의 체류 시간이 최대 6.6%까지 증가함을 보여주었습니다. 또한 구조의 효과 길이는 최대 9%, 교환 경로의 길이는 최대 4.6%, 교환의 침투 깊이는 최대 7.7%까지 증가하는 반면 환율은 22%로 감소합니다.

따라서 환율을 높이기 위해서는 침투깊이가 낮은 구조를 사용하는 것이 좋으며, 머무름 시간을 늘리기 위해서는 침투깊이가 큰 구조를 사용하는 것이 좋습니다.

Keywords

Fig. 1. Model geometry with the computational domain, extrusion nozzle, toolpath, and boundary conditions. The model is presented while printing the fifth layer.

재료 압출 적층 제조에서 증착된 층의 안정성 및 변형

Md Tusher Mollah Raphaël 사령관 Marcin P. Serdeczny David B. Pedersen Jon Spangenberg덴마크 공과 대학 기계 공학과, Kgs. 덴마크 링비

2020년 12월 22일 접수, 2021년 5월 1일 수정, 2021년 7월 15일 수락, 2021년 7월 21일 온라인 사용 가능, 기록 버전 2021년 8월 17일 .

Abstract

이 문서는 재료 압출 적층 제조 에서 여러 레이어를 인쇄하는 동안 증착 흐름의 전산 유체 역학 시뮬레이션 을 제공합니다 개발된 모델은 증착된 레이어의 형태를 예측하고 점소성 재료 를 인쇄하는 동안 레이어 변형을 캡처합니다 . 물리학은 일반화된 뉴턴 유체 로 공식화된 Bingham 구성 모델의 연속성 및 운동량 방정식에 의해 제어됩니다. . 증착된 층의 단면 모양이 예측되고 재료의 다양한 구성 매개변수에 대해 층의 변형이 연구됩니다. 층의 변형은 인쇄물의 정수압과 압출시 압출압력으로 인한 것임을 알 수 있다. 시뮬레이션에 따르면 항복 응력이 높을수록 변형이 적은 인쇄물이 생성되는 반면 플라스틱 점도 가 높을수록 증착된 레이어에서변형이 커 집니다 . 또한, 인쇄 속도, 압출 속도 의 영향, 층 높이 및 인쇄된 층의 변형에 대한 노즐 직경을 조사합니다. 마지막으로, 이 모델은 후속 인쇄된 레이어의 정수압 및 압출 압력을 지원하기 위해 증착 후 점소성 재료가 요구하는 항복 응력의 필요한 증가에 대한 보수적인 추정치를 제공합니다.

This paper presents computational fluid dynamics simulations of the deposition flow during printing of multiple layers in material extrusion additive manufacturing. The developed model predicts the morphology of the deposited layers and captures the layer deformations during the printing of viscoplastic materials. The physics is governed by the continuity and momentum equations with the Bingham constitutive model, formulated as a generalized Newtonian fluid. The cross-sectional shapes of the deposited layers are predicted, and the deformation of layers is studied for different constitutive parameters of the material. It is shown that the deformation of layers is due to the hydrostatic pressure of the printed material, as well as the extrusion pressure during the extrusion. The simulations show that a higher yield stress results in prints with less deformations, while a higher plastic viscosity leads to larger deformations in the deposited layers. Moreover, the influence of the printing speed, extrusion speed, layer height, and nozzle diameter on the deformation of the printed layers is investigated. Finally, the model provides a conservative estimate of the required increase in yield stress that a viscoplastic material demands after deposition in order to support the hydrostatic and extrusion pressure of the subsequently printed layers.

Fig. 1. Model geometry with the computational domain, extrusion nozzle, toolpath, and boundary conditions. The model is presented while printing the fifth layer.
Fig. 1. Model geometry with the computational domain, extrusion nozzle, toolpath, and boundary conditions. The model is presented while printing the fifth layer.

키워드

점성 플라스틱 재료, 재료 압출 적층 제조(MEX-AM), 다층 증착, 전산유체역학(CFD), 변형 제어
Viscoplastic Materials, Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing (MEX-AM), Multiple-Layers Deposition, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Deformation Control

Introduction

Three-dimensional printing of viscoplastic materials has grown in popularity over the recent years, due to the success of Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing (MEX-AM) [1]. Viscoplastic materials, such as ceramic pastes [2,3], hydrogels [4], thermosets [5], and concrete [6], behave like solids when the applied load is below their yield stress, and like a fluid when the applied load exceeds their yield stress [7]. Viscoplastic materials are typically used in MEX-AM techniques such as Robocasting [8], and 3D concrete printing [9,10]. The differences between these technologies lie in the processing of the material before the extrusion and in the printing scale (from microscale to big area additive manufacturing). In these extrusion-based technologies, the structure is fabricated in a layer-by-layer approach onto a solid surface/support [11, 12]. During the process, the material is typically deposited on top of the previously printed layers that may be already solidified (wet-on-dry printing) or still deformable (wet-on-wet printing) [1]. In wet-on-wet printing, control over the deformation of layers is important for the stability and geometrical accuracy of the prints. If the material is too liquid after the deposition, it cannot support the pressure of the subsequently deposited layers. On the other hand, the material flowability is a necessity during extrusion through the nozzle. Several experimental studies have been performed to analyze the physics of the extrusion and deposition of viscoplastic materials, as reviewed in Refs. [13–16]. The experimental measurements can be supplemented with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to gain a more complete picture of MEX-AM. A review of the CFD studies within the material processing and deposition in 3D concrete printing was presented by Roussel et al. [17]. Wolfs et al. [18] predicted numerically the failure-deformation of a cylindrical structure due to the self-weight by calculating the stiffness and strength of the individual layers. It was found that the deformations can take place in all layers, however the most critical deformation occurs in the bottom layer. Comminal et al. [19,20] presented three-dimensional simulations of the material deposition in MEX-AM, where the fluid was approximated as Newtonian. Subsequently, the model was experimentally validated in Ref. [21] for polymer-based MEX-AM, and extended to simulate the deposition of multiple layers in Ref. [22], where the previously printed material was assumed solid. Xia et al. [23] simulated the influence of the viscoelastic effects on the shape of deposited layers in MEX-AM. A numerical model for simulating the deposition of a viscoplastic material was recently presented and experimentally validated in Refs. [24] and [25]. These studies focused on predicting the cross-sectional shape of a single printed layer for different processing conditions (relative printing speed, and layer height). Despite these research efforts, a limited number of studies have focused on investigating the material deformations in wet-on-wet printing when multiple layers are deposited on top of each other. This paper presents CFD simulations of the extrusion-deposition flow of a viscoplastic material for several subsequent layers (viz. three- and five-layers). The material is continuously printed one layer over another on a fixed solid surface. The rheology of the viscoplastic material is approximated by the Bingham constitutive equation that is formulated using the Generalized Newtonian Fluid (GNF) model. The CFD model is used to predict the cross-sectional shapes of the layers and their deformations while printing the next layers on top. Moreover, the simulations are used to quantify the extrusion pressure applied by the deposited material on the substrate, and the previously printed layers. Numerically, it is investigated how the process parameters (i.e., the extrusion speed, printing speed, nozzle diameter, and layer height) and the material rheology affect the deformations of the deposited layers. Section 2 describes the methodology of the study. Section 3 presents and discusses the results. The study is summarized and concluded in Section 4.

References

[1] R.A. Buswell, W.R. Leal De Silva, S.Z. Jones, J. Dirrenberger, 3D printing using
concrete extrusion: a roadmap for research, Cem. Concr. Res. 112 (2018) 37–49.
[2] Z. Chen, Z. Li, J. Li, C. Liu, C. Lao, Y. Fu, C. Liu, Y. Li, P. Wang, Y. He, 3D printing of
ceramics: a review, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 39 (4) (2019) 661–687.
[3] A. Bellini, L. Shor, S.I. Guceri, New developments in fused deposition modeling of
ceramics, Rapid Prototyp. J. 11 (4) (2005) 214–220.
[4] S. Aktas, D.M. Kalyon, B.M. Marín-Santib´
anez, ˜ J. P´erez-Gonzalez, ´ Shear viscosity
and wall slip behavior of a viscoplastic hydrogel, J. Rheol. 58 (2) (2014) 513–535.
[5] J. Lindahl, A. Hassen, S. Romberg, B. Hedger, P. Hedger Jr., M. Walch, T. Deluca,
W. Morrison, P. Kim, A. Roschli, D. Nuttall, Large-scale Additive Manufacturing
with Reactive Polymers, Oak Ridge National Lab.(ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United
States), 2018.
[6] V.N. Nerella, V. Mechtcherine, Studying the printability of fresh concrete for
formwork-free Concrete onsite 3D Printing Technology (CONPrint3D), 3D Concr.
Print. Technol. (2019) 333–347.
[7] C. Tiu, J. Guo, P.H.T. Uhlherr, Yielding behaviour of viscoplastic materials, J. Ind.
Eng. Chem. 12 (5) (2006) 653–662.
[8] B. Dietemann, F. Bosna, M. Lorenz, N. Travitzky, H. Kruggel-Emden, T. Kraft,
C. Bierwisch, Modeling robocasting with smoothed particle hydrodynamics:
printing gapspanning filaments, Addit. Manuf. 36 (2020), 101488.
[9] B. Khoshnevis, R. Russell, H. Kwon, S. Bukkapatnam, Contour crafting – a layered
fabrication, Spec. Issue IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag. 8 (3) (2001) 33–42.
[10] D. Asprone, F. Auricchio, C. Menna, V. Mercuri, 3D printing of reinforced concrete
elements: technology and design approach, Constr. Build. Mater. 165 (2018)
218–231.
[11] J. Jiang, Y. Ma, Path planning strategies to optimize accuracy, quality, build time
and material use in additive manufacturing: a review, Micromachines 11 (7)
(2020) 633.
[12] J. Jiang, A novel fabrication strategy for additive manufacturing processes,
J. Clean. Prod. 272 (2020), 122916.
[13] F. Bos, R. Wolfs, Z. Ahmed, T. Salet, Additive manufacturing of concrete in
construction: potentials and challenges, Virtual Phys. Prototyp. 11 (3) (2016)
209–225.
[14] P. Wu, J. Wang, X. Wang, A critical review of the use of 3-D printing in the
construction industry, Autom. Constr. 68 (2016) 21–31.
[15] T.D. Ngo, A. Kashani, G. Imbalzano, K.T. Nguyen, D. Hui, Additive manufacturing
(3D printing): a review of materials, methods, applications and challenges,
Compos. Part B: Eng. 143 (2018) 172–196.
[16] M. Valente, A. Sibai, M. Sambucci, Extrusion-based additive manufacturing of
concrete products: revolutionizing and remodeling the construction industry,
J. Compos. Sci. 3 (3) (2019) 88.
[17] N. Roussel, J. Spangenberg, J. Wallevik, R. Wolfs, Numerical simulations of
concrete processing: from standard formative casting to additive manufacturing,
Cem. Concr. Res. 135 (2020), 106075.
[18] R.J.M. Wolfs, F.P. Bos, T.A.M. Salet, Early age mechanical behaviour of 3D printed
concrete: numerical modelling and experimental testing, Cem. Concr. Res. 106
(2018) 103–116.
[19] R. Comminal, M.P. Serdeczny, D.B. Pedersen, J. Spangenberg, Numerical modeling
of the strand deposition flow in extrusion-based additive manufacturing, Addit.
Manuf. 20 (2018) 68–76.
[20] R. Comminal, M.P. Serdeczny, D.B. Pedersen, J. Spangenberg, Numerical modeling
of the material deposition and contouring precision in fused deposition modeling,
in Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication
Symposium, Austin, TX, USA, 2018, pp. 1855–1864.
[21] M.P. Serdeczny, R. Comminal, D.B. Pedersen, J. Spangenberg, Experimental
validation of a numerical model for the strand shape in material extrusion additive
manufacturing, Addit. Manuf. 24 (2018) 145–153.
[22] M.P. Serdeczny, R. Comminal, D.B. Pedersen, J. Spangenberg, Numerical
simulations of the mesostructure formation in material extrusion additive
manufacturing, Addit. Manuf. 28 (2019) 419–429.
[23] H. Xia, J. Lu, G. Tryggvason, A numerical study of the effect of viscoelastic stresses
in fused filament fabrication, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 346 (2019)
242–259.
[24] R. Comminal, W.R.L. da Silva, T.J. Andersen, H. Stang, J. Spangenberg, Influence
of processing parameters on the layer geometry in 3D concrete printing:
experiments and modelling, in: Proceedings of the Second RILEM International
Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication, vol. 28, 2020, pp. 852–862.
[25] R. Comminal, W.R.L. da Silva, T.J. Andersen, H. Stang, J. Spangenberg, Modelling
of 3D concrete printing based on computational fluid dynamics, Cem. Concr. Res.
38 (2020), 106256.
[26] E.C. Bingham, An investigation of the laws of plastic flow, US Bur. Stand. Bull. 13
(1916) 309–352.
[27] N. Casson, A flow equation for pigment-oil suspensions of the printing ink type,
Rheol. Disperse Syst. (1959) 84–104.
[28] W.H. Herschel, R. Bulkley, Konsistenzmessungen von Gummi-Benzollosungen, ¨
Kolloid Z. 39 (1926) 291–300.
[29] “FLOW-3D | We solve The World’s Toughest CFD Problems,” FLOW SCIENCE.
〈https://www.flow3d.com/〉. (Accessed 27 June 2020).
[30] S. Jacobsen, R. Cepuritis, Y. Peng, M.R. Geiker, J. Spangenberg, Visualizing and
simulating flow conditions in concrete form filling using pigments, Constr. Build.
Mater. 49 (2013) 328–342.
[31] E.J. O’Donovan, R.I. Tanner, Numerical study of the Bingham squeeze film
problem, J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech. 15 (1) (1984) 75–83.
[32] C.W. Hirt, B.D. Nichols, Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free
boundaries, J. Comput. Phys. 39 (1) (1981) 201–225.
[33] R. Comminal, J. Spangenberg, J.H. Hattel, Cellwise conservative unsplit advection
for the volume of fluid method, J. Comput. Phys. 283 (2015) 582–608.
[34] A. Negar, S. Nazarian, N.A. Meisel, J.P. Duarte, Experimental prediction of material
deformation in large-scale additive manufacturing of concrete, Addit. Manuf. 37
(2021), 101656.

Gating System Design Based on Numerical Simulation and Production Experiment Verification of Aluminum Alloy Bracket Fabricated by Semi-solid Rheo-Die Casting Process

Gating System Design Based on Numerical Simulation and Production Experiment Verification of Aluminum Alloy Bracket Fabricated by Semi-solid Rheo-Die Casting Process

반고체 레오 다이 캐스팅 공정으로 제작된 알루미늄 합금 브래킷의 수치 시뮬레이션 및 생산 실험 검증을 기반으로 한 게이팅 시스템 설계

International Journal of Metalcasting volume 16, pages878–893 (2022)Cite this article

Abstract

In this study a gating system including sprue, runner and overflows for semi-solid rheocasting of aluminum alloy was designed by means of numerical simulations with a commercial software. The effects of pouring temperature, mold temperature and injection speed on the filling process performance of semi-solid die casting were studied. Based on orthogonal test analysis, the optimal die casting process parameters were selected, which were metal pouring temperature 590 °C, mold temperature 260 °C and injection velocity 0.5 m/s. Semi-solid slurry preparation process of Swirled Enthalpy Equilibration Device (SEED) was used for die casting production experiment. Aluminum alloy semi-solid bracket components were successfully produced with the key die casting process parameters selected, which was consistent with the simulation result. The design of semi-solid gating system was further verified by observing and analyzing the microstructure of different zones of the casting. The characteristic parameters, particle size and shape factor of microstructure of the produced semi-solid casting showed that the semi-solid aluminum alloy components are of good quality.

이 연구에서 알루미늄 합금의 반고체 레오캐스팅을 위한 스프루, 러너 및 오버플로를 포함하는 게이팅 시스템은 상용 소프트웨어를 사용한 수치 시뮬레이션을 통해 설계되었습니다. 주입 온도, 금형 온도 및 사출 속도가 반고체 다이캐스팅의 충전 공정 성능에 미치는 영향을 연구했습니다. 직교 테스트 분석을 기반으로 금속 주입 온도 590°C, 금형 온도 260°C 및 사출 속도 0.5m/s인 최적의 다이 캐스팅 공정 매개변수가 선택되었습니다. Swirled Enthalpy Equilibration Device(SEED)의 반고체 슬러리 제조 공정을 다이캐스팅 생산 실험에 사용하였다. 알루미늄 합금 반고체 브래킷 구성 요소는 시뮬레이션 결과와 일치하는 주요 다이 캐스팅 공정 매개변수를 선택하여 성공적으로 생산되었습니다. 반고체 게이팅 시스템의 설계는 주조의 다른 영역의 미세 구조를 관찰하고 분석하여 추가로 검증되었습니다. 생산된 반고체 주조물의 특성 매개변수, 입자 크기 및 미세 구조의 형상 계수는 반고체 알루미늄 합금 부품의 품질이 양호함을 보여주었습니다.

Gating System Design Based on Numerical Simulation and Production Experiment Verification of Aluminum Alloy Bracket Fabricated by Semi-solid Rheo-Die Casting Process
Gating System Design Based on Numerical Simulation and Production Experiment Verification of Aluminum Alloy Bracket Fabricated by Semi-solid Rheo-Die Casting Process

References

  1. G. Li, H. Lu, X. Hu et al., Current progress in rheoforming of wrought aluminum alloys: a review. Met. Open Access Metall. J. 10(2), 238 (2020)CAS Google Scholar 
  2. G. Eisaabadi, A. Nouri, Effect of Sr on the microstructure of electromagnetically stirred semi-solid hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys. Int. J. Metalcast. 12, 292–297 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40962-017-0161-8CAS Article Google Scholar 
  3. C. Xghab, D. Qza, E. Spma et al., Blistering in semi-solid die casting of aluminium alloys and its avoidance. Acta Mater. 124, 446–455 (2017)Article Google Scholar 
  4. M. Modigell, J. Koke, Rheological modelling on semi-solid metal alloys and simulation of thixocasting processes. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 111(1–3), 53–58 (2001)CAS Article Google Scholar 
  5. A. Pola, M. Tocci, P. Kapranos, Microstructure and properties of semi-solid aluminum alloys: a literature review. Met. Open Access Metall. J. 8(3), 181 (2018)Google Scholar 
  6. M.C. Flemings, Behavior of metal alloys in the semisolid state. Metall. Trans. B 22, 269–293 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02651227Article Google Scholar 
  7. Q. Zhu, Semi-solid moulding: competition to cast and machine from forging in making automotive complex components. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 20, 1042–1047 (2010)Article Google Scholar 
  8. K. Prapasajchavet, Y. Harada, S. Kumai, Microstructure analysis of Al–5.5 at.%Mg alloy semi-solid slurry by Weck’s reagent. Int. J. Metalcast. 11(1), 123 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40962-016-0084-9Article Google Scholar 
  9. P. Das, S.K. Samanta, S. Tiwari, P. Dutta, Die filling behaviour of semi solid A356 Al alloy slurry during rheo pressure die casting. Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 68(6), 1215–1220 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12666-015-0706-6CAS Article Google Scholar 
  10. B. Zhou, S. Lu, K. Xu et al., Microstructure and simulation of semisolid aluminum alloy castings in the process of stirring integrated transfer-heat (SIT) with water cooling. Int. J. Metalcast. 14(2), 396–408 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40962-019-00357-6CAS Article Google Scholar 
  11. S. Ji, Z. Fan, Solidification behavior of Sn–15 wt Pct Pb alloy under a high shear rate and high intensity of turbulence during semisolid processing. Metall. Mater. Trans. A. 33(11), 3511–3520 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-002-0338-4Article Google Scholar 
  12. P. Kapranos, P.J. Ward, H.V. Atkinson, D.H. Kirkwood, Near net shaping by semi-solid metal processing. Mater. Des. 21, 387–394 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-3069(99)00077-1Article Google Scholar 
  13. H.V. Atkinson, Alloys for semi-solid processing. Solid State Phenom. 192–193, 16–27 (2013)Google Scholar 
  14. L. Rogal, Critical assessment: opportunities in developing semi-solid processing: aluminium, magnesium, and high-temperature alloys. Mater. Sci. Technol. Mst A Publ. Inst. Met. 33, 759–764 (2017)CAS Article Google Scholar 
  15. H. Guo, Rheo-diecasting process for semi-solid aluminum alloys. J. Wuhan Univ. Technol. Mater. Sci. Ed. 22(004), 590–595 (2007)CAS Article Google Scholar 
  16. T. Chucheep, J. Wannasin, R. Canyook, T. Rattanochaikul, S. Janudom, S. Wisutmethangoon, M.C. Flemings, Characterization of flow behavior of semi-solid slurries with low solid fractions. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 44(10), 4754–4763 (2013)CAS Article Google Scholar 
  17. M. Li, Y.D. Li, W.L. Yang et al., Effects of forming processes on microstructures and mechanical properties of A356 aluminum alloy prepared by self-inoculation method. Mater. Res. 22(3) (2019)
  18. P. Côté, M.E. Larouche, X.G. Chen et al., New developments with the SEED technology. Solid State Phenom. 192(3), 373–378 (2012)Article Google Scholar 
  19. I. Dumanić, S. Jozić, D. Bajić et al., Optimization of semi-solid high-pressure die casting process by computer simulation, Taguchi method and grey relational analysis. Inter Metalcast. 15, 108–118 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40962-020-00422-5Article Google Scholar 
  20. Y. Bai et al., Numerical simulation on the rheo-diecasting of the semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy. Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater. 16, 422 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1674-4799(09)60074-1CAS Article Google Scholar 
  21. B.C. Bhunia, Studies on die filling of A356 Al alloy and development of a steering knuckle component using rheo pressure die casting system. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 271, 293–311 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.04.014CAS Article Google Scholar 
  22. A. Guo, J. Zhao, C. Xu et al., Effects of pouring temperature and electromagnetic stirring on porosity and mechanical properties of A357 aluminum alloy rheo-diecasting. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-018-3310-1Article Google Scholar 
  23. C.G. Kang, S.M. Lee, B.M. Kim, A study of die design of semi-solid die casting according to gate shape and solid fraction. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 204(1–3), 8–21 (2008)CAS Article Google Scholar 
  24. Z. Liu, W. Mao, T. Wan et al., Study on semi-solid A380 aluminum alloy slurry prepared by water-cooling serpentine channel and its rheo-diecasting. Met. Mater. Int. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12540-020-00672-2Article Google Scholar 
  25. Z.Y. Liu, W.M. Mao, W.P. Wang et al., Investigation of rheo-diecasting mold filling of semi-solid A380 aluminum alloy slurry. Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater. 24(006), 691–700 (2017)CAS Article Google Scholar 
  26. M. Arif, M.Z. Omar, N. Muhamad et al., Microstructural evolution of solid-solution-treated Zn–22Al in the semisolid state. J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 29(008), 765–774 (2013)CAS Article Google Scholar 

Keywords

  • semi-solid rheo-die casting
  • gating system
  • process parameters
  • numerical simulation
  • microstructure
Figure 2. Schematic diagram for pilot-scale cooling-water circulation system (a) along with a real picture of the system (b).

Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Chlorine-Dynamics Modeling of In-Situ Chlorination Systems for Cooling Systems

Jongchan Yi 1, Jonghun Lee 1, Mohd Amiruddin Fikri 2,3, Byoung-In Sang 4 and Hyunook Kim 1,*

Abstract

염소화는 상대적인 효율성과 저렴한 비용으로 인해 발전소 냉각 시스템에서 생물학적 오염을 제어하는​​데 선호되는 방법입니다. 해안 지역에 발전소가 있는 경우 바닷물을 사용하여 현장에서 염소를 전기화학적으로 생성할 수 있습니다. 이를 현장 전기염소화라고 합니다. 이 접근 방식은 유해한 염소화 부산물이 적고 염소를 저장할 필요가 없다는 점을 포함하여 몇 가지 장점이 있습니다. 그럼에도 불구하고, 이 전기화학적 공정은 실제로는 아직 초기 단계에 있습니다. 이 연구에서는 파일럿 규모 냉각 시스템에서 염소 붕괴를 시뮬레이션하기 위해 병렬 1차 동역학을 적용했습니다. 붕괴가 취수관을 따라 발생하기 때문에 동역학은 전산유체역학(CFD) 코드에 통합되었으며, 이후에 파이프의 염소 거동을 시뮬레이션하는데 적용되었습니다. 실험과 시뮬레이션 데이터는 강한 난류가 형성되는 조건하에서도 파이프 벽을 따라 염소 농도가 점진적인 것으로 나타났습니다. 염소가 중간보다 파이프 표면을 따라 훨씬 더 집중적으로 남아 있다는 사실은 전기 염소화를 기반으로 하는 시스템의 전체 염소 요구량을 감소시킬 수 있었습니다. 현장 전기 염소화 방식의 냉각 시스템은 직접 주입 방식에 필요한 염소 사용량의 1/3만 소비했습니다. 따라서 현장 전기염소화는 해안 지역의 발전소에서 바이오파울링 제어를 위한 비용 효율적이고 환경 친화적인 접근 방식으로 사용될 수 있다고 결론지었습니다.

Chlorination is the preferred method to control biofouling in a power plant cooling system due to its comparative effectiveness and low cost. If a power plant is located in a coastal area, chlorine can be electrochemically generated in-situ using seawater, which is called in-situ electrochlorination; this approach has several advantages including fewer harmful chlorination byproducts and no need for chlorine storage. Nonetheless, this electrochemical process is still in its infancy in practice. In this study, a parallel first-order kinetics was applied to simulate chlorine decay in a pilot-scale cooling system. Since the decay occurs along the water-intake pipe, the kinetics was incorporated into computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, which were subsequently applied to simulate chlorine behavior in the pipe. The experiment and the simulation data indicated that chlorine concentrations along the pipe wall were incremental, even under the condition where a strong turbulent flow was formed. The fact that chlorine remained much more concentrated along the pipe surface than in the middle allowed for the reduction of the overall chlorine demand of the system based on the electro-chlorination. The cooling system, with an in-situ electro-chlorination, consumed only 1/3 of the chlorine dose demanded by the direct injection method. Therefore, it was concluded that in-situ electro-chlorination could serve as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach for biofouling control at power plants on coastal areas.

Keywords

computational fluid dynamics; power plant; cooling system; electro-chlorination; insitu chlorination

Figure 1. Electrodes and batch experiment set-up. (a) Two cylindrical electrodes used in this study. (b) Batch experiment set-up for kinetic tests.
Figure 1. Electrodes and batch experiment set-up. (a) Two cylindrical electrodes used in this study. (b) Batch experiment set-up for kinetic tests.
Figure 2. Schematic diagram for pilot-scale cooling-water circulation system (a) along with a real picture of the system (b).
Figure 2. Schematic diagram for pilot-scale cooling-water circulation system (a) along with a real picture of the system (b).
Figure 3. Free chlorine decay curves in seawater with different TOC and initial chlorine concentration. Each line represents the predicted concentration of chlorine under a given condition. (a) Artificial seawater solution with 1 mg L−1 of TOC; (b) artificial seawater solution with 2 mg L−1 of TOC; (c) artificial seawater solution with 3 mg L−1 of TOC; (d) West Sea water (1.3 mg L−1 of TOC).
Figure 3. Free chlorine decay curves in seawater with different TOC and initial chlorine concentration. Each line represents the predicted concentration of chlorine under a given condition. (a) Artificial seawater solution with 1 mg L−1 of TOC; (b) artificial seawater solution with 2 mg L−1 of TOC; (c) artificial seawater solution with 3 mg L−1 of TOC; (d) West Sea water (1.3 mg L−1 of TOC).
Figure 4. Correlation between model and experimental data in the chlorine kinetics using seawater.
Figure 4. Correlation between model and experimental data in the chlorine kinetics using seawater.
Figure 5. Free chlorine concentrations in West Sea water under different current conditions in an insitu electro-chlorination system.
Figure 5. Free chlorine concentrations in West Sea water under different current conditions in an insitu electro-chlorination system.
Figure 6. Free chlorine distribution along the sampling ports under different flow rates. Each dot represents experimental data, and each point on the black line is the expected chlorine concentration obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation with a parallel first-order decay model. The red-dotted line is the desirable concentration at the given flow rate: (a) 600 L min−1 of flow rate, (b) 700 L min−1 of flow rate, (c) 800 L min−1 of flow rate, (d) 900 L min−1 of flow rate.
Figure 6. Free chlorine distribution along the sampling ports under different flow rates. Each dot represents experimental data, and each point on the black line is the expected chlorine concentration obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation with a parallel first-order decay model. The red-dotted line is the desirable concentration at the given flow rate: (a) 600 L min−1 of flow rate, (b) 700 L min−1 of flow rate, (c) 800 L min−1 of flow rate, (d) 900 L min−1 of flow rate.
Figure 7. Fluid contour images from CFD simulation of the electro-chlorination experiment. Inlet flow rate is 800 L min−1. Outlet pressure was set to 10.8 kPa. (a) Chlorine concentration; (b) expanded view of electrode side in image (a); (c) velocity magnitude; (d) pressure.
Figure 7. Fluid contour images from CFD simulation of the electro-chlorination experiment. Inlet flow rate is 800 L min−1. Outlet pressure was set to 10.8 kPa. (a) Chlorine concentration; (b) expanded view of electrode side in image (a); (c) velocity magnitude; (d) pressure.
Figure 8. Chlorine concentration contour in the simulation of full-scale in-situ electro-chlorination with different cathode positions. The pipe diameter is 2 m and the flow rate is 14 m3 s−1. The figure shows 10 m of the pipeline. (a) The simulation result when the cathode is placed on the surface of the pipe wall. (b) The simulation result when the cathode is placed on the inside of the pipe with 100 mm of distance from the pipe wall.
Figure 8. Chlorine concentration contour in the simulation of full-scale in-situ electro-chlorination with different cathode positions. The pipe diameter is 2 m and the flow rate is 14 m3 s−1. The figure shows 10 m of the pipeline. (a) The simulation result when the cathode is placed on the surface of the pipe wall. (b) The simulation result when the cathode is placed on the inside of the pipe with 100 mm of distance from the pipe wall.
Figure 9. Comparison of in-situ electro-chlorination and direct chlorine injection in full-scale applications. (a) Estimated chlorine concentrations along the pipe surface. (b) Relative chlorine demands.
Figure 9. Comparison of in-situ electro-chlorination and direct chlorine injection in full-scale applications. (a) Estimated chlorine concentrations along the pipe surface. (b) Relative chlorine demands.

References

  1. Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K.C. Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: A review of existing literature. Environ. Res. Lett. 2012, 7, 045802.
  2. Pan, S.-Y.; Snyder, S.W.; Packman, A.I.; Lin, Y.J.; Chiang, P.-C. Cooling water use in thermoelectric power generation and its associated challenges for addressing water-energy nexus. Water-Energy Nexus 2018, 1, 26–41.
  3. Feeley, T.J., III; Skone, T.J.; Stiegel, G.J., Jr.; McNemar, A.; Nemeth, M.; Schimmoller, B.; Murphy, J.T.;
    Manfredo, L. Water: A critical resource in the thermoelectric power industry. Energy 2008, 33, 1–11.
  4. World Nuclear Association. World Nuclear Performance Report 2016; World Nuclear Association: London, UK, 2016.
  5. Pugh, S.; Hewitt, G.; Müller-Steinhagen, H. Fouling during the use of seawater as coolant—The development of a user guide. Heat Transf. Eng. 2005, 26, 35–43.
  6. Satpathy, K.K.; Mohanty, A.K.; Sahu, G.; Biswas, S.; Prasad, M.; Slvanayagam, M. Biofouling and its control in seawater cooled power plant cooling water system—A review. Nucl. Power 2010, 17, 191–242.
  7. Cristiani, P.; Perboni, G. Antifouling strategies and corrosion control in cooling circuits. Bioelectrochemistry 2014, 97, 120–126.
  8. Walker, M.E.; Safari, I.; Theregowda, R.B.; Hsieh, M.-K.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Dzombak, D.A.; Miller, D.C. Economic impact of condenser fouling in existing thermoelectric power plants. Energy 2012,44, 429–437.
  9. Yi, J.; Ahn, Y.; Hong, M.; Kim, G.-H.; Shabnam, N.; Jeon, B.; Sang, B.-I.; Kim, H. Comparison between OCl−-Injection and In Situ Electrochlorination in the Formation of Chlorate and Perchlorate in Seawater. Appl.Sci. 2019, 9, 229.
  10. Xue, Y.; Zhao, J.; Qiu, R.; Zheng, J.; Lin, C.; Ma, B.; Wang, P. In Situ glass antifouling using Pt nanoparticle coating for periodic electrolysis of seawater. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2015, 357, 60–68.
  11. Mahfouz, A.B.; Atilhan, S.; Batchelor, B.; Linke, P.; Abdel-Wahab, A.; El-Halwagi, M.M. Optimal scheduling of biocide dosing for seawater-cooled power and desalination plants. Clean Technol. Environ. Policy 2011, 13, 783–796.
  12. Rubio, D.; López-Galindo, C.; Casanueva, J.F.; Nebot, E. Monitoring and assessment of an industrial antifouling treatment. Seasonal effects and influence of water velocity in an open once-through seawater cooling system. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2014, 67, 378–387.
  13. European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Bureau, European Commission. Reference Document on the Application of Best Available Techniques to Industrial Cooling Systems December 2001; European Commission, Tech. Rep: Brussels, Belgium, 2001.
  14. Venkatesan R.; Murthy P. S. Macrofouling Control in Power Plants. In Springer Series on Biofilms; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2008.
  15. Kastl, G.; Fisher, I.; Jegatheesan, V. Evaluation of chlorine decay kinetics expressions for drinking water distribution systems modelling. J. Water Supply Res. Technol. AQUA 1999, 48, 219–226.
  16. Fisher, I.; Kastl, G.; Sathasivan, A.; Cook, D.; Seneverathne, L. General model of chlorine decay in blends of surface waters, desalinated water, and groundwaters. J. Environ. Eng. 2015, 141, 04015039.
  17. Fisher, I.; Kastl, G.; Sathasivan, A.; Jegatheesan, V. Suitability of chlorine bulk decay models for planning and management of water distribution systems. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 41, 1843–1882.
  18. Fisher, I.; Kastl, G.; Sathasivan, A. Evaluation of suitable chlorine bulk-decay models for water distribution systems. Water Res. 2011, 45, 4896–4908.
  19. Haas, C.N.; Karra, S. Kinetics of wastewater chlorine demand exertion. J. (Water Pollut. Control Fed.) 1984, 56, 170–173.
  20. Zeng, J.; Jiang, Z.; Chen, Q.; Zheng, P.; Huang, Y. The decay kinetics of residual chlorine in cooling seawater simulation experiments. Acta Oceanol. Sin. 2009, 28, 54–59.
  21. Saeed, S.; Prakash, S.; Deb, N.; Campbell, R.; Kolluru, V.; Febbo, E.; Dupont, J. Development of a sitespecific kinetic model for chlorine decay and the formation of chlorination by-products in seawater. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3, 772–792.
  22. Al Heboos, S.; Licskó, I. Application and comparison of two chlorine decay models for predicting bulk chlorine residuals. Period. Polytech. Civ. Eng. 2017, 61, 7–13.
  23. Shadloo, M.S.; Oger, G.; Le Touzé, D. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics method for fluid flows, towards industrial applications: Motivations, current state, and challenges. Comput. Fluids 2016, 136, 11–34.
  24. Wols, B.; Hofman, J.; Uijttewaal, W.; Rietveld, L.; Van Dijk, J. Evaluation of different disinfection calculation methods using CFD. Environ. Model. Softw. 2010, 25, 573–582.
  25. Angeloudis, A.; Stoesser, T.; Falconer, R.A. Predicting the disinfection efficiency range in chlorine contact tanks through a CFD-based approach. Water Res. 2014, 60, 118–129.
  26. Zhang, J.; Tejada-Martínez, A.E.; Zhang, Q. Developments in computational fluid dynamics-based modeling for disinfection technologies over the last two decades: A review. Environ. Model. Softw. 2014, 58,71–85.
  27. Lim, Y.H.; Deering, D.D. In Modeling Chlorine Residual in a Ground Water Supply Tank for a Small Community in Cold Conditions, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2017; American Society of Civil Engineers: Reston, Virginia, USA, 2017; pp. 124–138.
  28. Hernández-Cervantes, D.; Delgado-Galván, X.; Nava, J.L.; López-Jiménez, P.A.; Rosales, M.; Mora Rodríguez, J. Validation of a computational fluid dynamics model for a novel residence time distribution analysis in mixing at cross-junctions. Water 2018, 10, 733.
  29. Hua, F.; West, J.; Barker, R.; Forster, C. Modelling of chlorine decay in municipal water supplies. Water Res. 1999, 33, 2735–2746.
  30. Jonkergouw, P.M.; Khu, S.-T.; Savic, D.A.; Zhong, D.; Hou, X.Q.; Zhao, H.-B. A variable rate coefficient chlorine decay model. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 43, 408–414.
  31. Nejjari, F.; Puig, V.; Pérez, R.; Quevedo, J.; Cugueró, M.; Sanz, G.; Mirats, J. Chlorine decay model calibration and comparison: Application to a real water network. Procedia Eng. 2014, 70, 1221–1230.
  32. Kohpaei, A.J.; Sathasivan, A.; Aboutalebi, H. Effectiveness of parallel second order model over second and first order models. Desalin. Water Treat. 2011, 32, 107–114.
  33. Powell, J.C.; Hallam, N.B.; West, J.R.; Forster, C.F.; Simms, J. Factors which control bulk chlorine decay rates. Water Res. 2000, 34, 117–126.
  34. Clark, R.M.; Sivaganesan, M. Predicting chlorine residuals in drinking water: Second order model. J. Water Resour. Plan. Manag. 2002, 128, 152–161.
  35. Li, X.; Li, C.; Bayier, M.; Zhao, T.; Zhang, T.; Chen, X.; Mao, X. Desalinated seawater into pilot-scale drinking water distribution system: Chlorine decay and trihalomethanes formation. Desalin. Water Treat. 2016, 57,19149–19159.
  36. United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Chlorine, Total Residual (Spectrophotometric, DPD); EPA-NERL: 330.5; EPA: Cincinnati, OH, USA, 1978.
  37. Polman, H.; Verhaart, F.; Bruijs, M. Impact of biofouling in intake pipes on the hydraulics and efficiency of pumping capacity. Desalin. Water Treat. 2013, 51, 997–1003.
  38. Rajagopal, S.; Van der Velde, G.; Van der Gaag, M.; Jenner, H.A. How effective is intermittent chlorination to control adult mussel fouling in cooling water systems? Water Res. 2003, 37, 329–338.
  39. Bruijs, M.C.; Venhuis, L.P.; Daal, L. Global Experiences in Optimizing Biofouling Control through PulseChlorination®. 2017. Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318561645_Global_Experiences_in_Optimizing_Biofouling_Co ntrol_through_Pulse-ChlorinationR (accessed on 1 May 2020).
  40. Kim, H.; Hao, O.J.; McAvoy, T.J. Comparison between model-and pH/ORP-based process control for an AAA system. Tamkang J. Sci. Eng. 2000, 3, 165–172.
  41. Brdys, M.; Chang, T.; Duzinkiewicz, K. Intelligent Model Predictive Control of Chlorine Residuals in Water Distribution Systems, Bridging the Gap: Meeting the World’s Water and Environmental Resources Challenges. In Proceedings of the ASCE Water Resource Engineering and Water Resources Planning and Management, July 30–August 2, 2000; pp. 1–11
Fig 2(b) Observed velocity field for aspect ratio 0.25(Sukhodolov 2002)

고정 베드의 불침투성 토양에서 흐름 패턴의 수치 시뮬레이션

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW PATTERN IN SERIES OF IMPERMEABLE GROYNES IN FIXED BED

Kafle, Mukesh Raj1
1Asst. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Nepal
Email: mkafle@pcampus.edu.np

Abstract

This paper presents a numerical simulation of recirculating flow patterns in groyne fields. Moreover, it entails the concept determination of proper spacing of vertical unsubmerged and impermeable groynesin seriesto control the bank erosion. Flow pattern between the groynes varies along their space. The flow in groyne field may significantly affect the flow change, bed change, bank erosion and condition of habitat. In this regard, an assessment of flow along the space of groynes will yield important data needed to diversify the object of groyne installation. So, knowledge about determination of the proper spacing of groynes in groyne field is important. Space of vertical groynes was set from 1.5 to 10 times the length of groynes. The velocity field between groynes was simulated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model Nays 2D. Simulated velocity field was compared with existing experimentaldata for the same parameter, which agreed satisfactorily. Based on simulated results,the optimal spacing of vertical groynes to control the bank erosion was recommended.

이 논문은 groyne 필드에서 재순환 흐름 패턴의 수치 시뮬레이션을 제공합니다. 더욱이, 그것은 제방 침식을 제어하기 위해 수직 비침수 및 불침투성 그로이네신 시리즈의 적절한 간격의 개념 결정을 수반합니다. groynes 사이의 흐름 패턴은 공간에 따라 다릅니다. groyne field의 흐름은 흐름 변화, 하상 변화, 제방 침식 및 서식지 상태에 중대한 영향을 미칠 수 있습니다. 이와 관련하여, groyne 공간을 따른 흐름의 평가는 groyne 설치 대상을 다양화하는 데 필요한 중요한 데이터를 산출할 것입니다. 따라서, groyne field에서 groyne의 적절한 간격 결정에 대한 지식이 중요합니다. 수직 여백의 간격은 여아 길이의 1.5배에서 10배 사이로 설정하였다. groyne 사이의 속도장은 CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) 모델 Nays 2D를 사용하여 시뮬레이션되었습니다. 시뮬레이션된 속도장은 동일한 매개변수에 대해 기존 실험 데이터와 비교되었으며 만족스럽게 일치했습니다. 모의 결과를 바탕으로 제방 침식을 억제하기 위한 최적의 수직 제방 간격을 제안하였다.

  1. Introduction
    Spur dikes or groynes are used to protect river banks from erosion and also keep the channel
    navigable.Depending upon the flow characteristics, spur-dikes may be classified as submerged and unsubmerged. Also, based on the permeability, spur dikes are further classified as permeable and
    impermeable. Herein, un-submerged !impermeable spur dikes are dealt. These structures are built from the river bank into the stream flow and usually built in group. Construction of groyne against the flow causes significant changes in flow pattern in channel. Those changes may result in scour phenomenon around groynes which may lead structure instability and changes in river morphology. Moreover, in series of groynes, spacing of groynes leads different types of recirculating flow patterns.Therefore, investigating the characteristics of flow pattern around groynes have been a great interest in river engineering. Numerous researchers like Sukhodolov et al. (2002), Hao Zhang et al.(2009), Beheshti (2010), Duan (2009), Naji(2010), Karami(2011) made a variety of experiments in order to determine the flow pattern around groynes. Most of these researchers studied effect of single groyne, while using series of groynes is more effective in protection of rivers. Besides experimental studies, variety of CFD models have been developed for computing flow pattern around hydraulic structures; like Fluent, Flow 3D, Nays 2D, Nays CUBE and SSIIM. In this study, Nays 2D numerical modelling has been used to investigate flow and recirculating pattern around a series of groynes and streamlines including components of velocities.
  1. Flow pattern in groyne fields
    Under conditions where the groynes are not submerged, the groyne fields are not really part of the wetted cross section of a river. Because of that, the flow pattern in the groyne-field is not directly the result of the discharge in the main channel. Reducing the main stream velocity has no effect on the flow pattern itself, whereas lowering the water level does (Uijttewaal et al.2001). Moreover, the flow pattern inside a groyne field may change with the change of its geometry, location along the river (inner curve, outer curve, or straight part), and/ or the groynes orientation( Przedwojski et al.1995). However, there is an indirect effect of the discharge on the flow pattern in the groyne field. Because of the flow that is diverted from the main channel into the groyne fields, water flows into the groyne field with low velocity through the downstream half of the interfacial section between the groyne field and the main channel. This water flows back to the main channel through a small width of, just downstream the upstream groyne of the groyne field ( Termes et al.1991). Flow separates on a groyne head and forms a secondary flow represented by a large scale vortex with a vertical axis of rotation called primary gyre. Deflection of the flow inside the groyne field by banks and upstream groynes leads to the development of a secondary gyre with an opposite direction of rotation to the primary gyre. Location, mutual interactions, and energy exchange between gyres are the factors that create a specific recirculation pattern, and, consequently assuming correspondence with sedimentation processes, they define deposition patterns.
  2. Model Formulation
    The CFD model selected for this study is the publically available software NAYS 2D (iRIC 2.0), which is an analytical solver for calculation of unsteady two-dimensional plane flow and riverbed deformation using boundary-fitted coordinates within general curvilinear coordinates. A numerical channel of length 8.0m and width 0.9m was created with grid size of 0.01m im stream wise and 0.03m in cross stream directions. Groynes or spur dikes of length 0.15 and width 0.01m were chosen in series. Groyne field with various aspect ratio (b/x) 0.7, 0.25, 0.17, 0.125 and 0.10, where b=length of spur dike, x=spacing of two dikes. Discharge of 0.0175 m3 /s was applied. For boundary conditions, water surface at downstream and velocity at upstream were considered as uniform flow. Relaxation coefficient for water surface calculation was considered as 0.8. For the finite-difference method, the CIP method was applied to the advection terms in equations of motion. For the turbulent field calculation, Constant eddy viscosity, Zero-equation model and k-G models were applied and compared. The model!s accuracy in predicting the velocity magnitudes is evaluated using statistical parameters- mean absolute error (MAE), mean square error(MSE), and root mean square error (RMSE). The comparison of results shows the importance of selecting an appropriate turbulence model in simulating flow field around a spur dike. From the comparison, k-I model is found superior over zero energy model and eddy viscosity model. So, k-I model is chosen as appropriate turbulence closure model.
  3. Model!s Validation
    The capability of CFD model Nays 2D to simulate the velocity field and recirculation pattern in groyne field was compared with experimental data of laboratory experiments by Sukhodolov et al. (2002). The numerical simulation was validated for aspect ratio (R=b/x=0.7) and R=0.25. For aspect ratio R=0.7, one gyre system occupies the whole area of the groyne field. The areas with lower-than-average velocity values are clearly seen in the central part of the gyre and near its corners. Velocities increase towards the margins of the gyre. For aspect ratio R=0.25, two gyre velocity fields were observed in the groyne field. In the downstream part of the groyne field a large gyre, covering two-thirds of the area is clearly visible. The left part(upstream) contains second gyre rotating much more slowly and in the direction opposed to the primary gyre. The simulated and observed velocity field pattern and gyre found satisfactorily agreed. Now, after validation, the model was used for further analysis of velocity field for various aspect ratios.
Fig 2(b) Observed velocity field for aspect ratio 0.25(Sukhodolov 2002)
Fig 2(b) Observed velocity field for aspect ratio 0.25(Sukhodolov 2002)
  1. Results and Discussions
    The calibrated model was applied to five different cases of un-submerged and impermeable groyne fields with aspect ratios R=0.70,0.25,0.17,0.125 & 0.10 and flow pattern was numerically simulated. For aspect ratio R=0.7 i.e x/b=1.5, Fig 1(a) only one lateral primary gyre was formed inside the groyne field. The circulation pattern in this case is distinguished by the main flow that is deflected outside the groyne field. The developed primary gyre prevents the main flow from penetrating the groyne field. Therefore, this pattern is desirable for navigation purposes as a continuous deep channel is maintained along the face of the groyne field. Simulated velocity pattern satisfactorily agrees with the observed velocity field Fig 1(b) for the same aspect ratio by Sukhodolov (2002). The spacing of the groyne was further increased maintaining aspect ratio R= 0.25 i. e x/b=4 Fig 2(a) and flow pattern inside the groyne field was simulated. In this case, in the downstream part of the groyne field, a primary gyre occupying almost two-third area was formed. In addition, deflection of the flow inside the groyne field by banks and upstream groynes leads to the development of a secondary gyre with an opposite direction of rotation to the primary gyre covering almost one-third part of the groyne field. Likewise in the first case, the main current is maintained deflected outside the groyne field. Simulated velocity pattern satisfactorily agrees with the observed velocity field Fig 2(b) for the same aspect ratio by Sukhodolov (2002). The spacing of the groyne was further increased maintaining aspect ratio R=0.17 i.e x/b=6. In this case the flow pattern was similar to the aspect ratio R=0.25. The spacing of the groynes was further increased maintaining aspect ratio R=0.125 i. e x/b=8. In this case, similar to the previous scenarios two longitudinal gyres but with different positions are formed. The main current is directed in to the groyne field (Fig 3) creating a much more stronger eddy near the upstream groyne and greater turbulence along the upstream face and at the groyne lower head. As the spacing between groynes increased maintaining aspect ratio R=0.10 i. e x/b=10 (Fig 4), still primary and secondary gyres are generated. The formed gyres deflect the main flow thus preventing to enter in to the groyne field in upstream part. However, in the downstream of the primary gyre and just upstream of the second groyne, the flow attacks the bank directly. The resultant velocity profiles at the deflected region y/b=3 were plotted and how the spacing of second groyne affect the result was analyzed. Spacing of groynes makes little change in upstream resultant velocity. However, in the deflected region, its effect is significant. Higher value of spacing of groyne leads higher average deviation in resultant velocity. For aspect ratio R=0.7, the average deviation estimated as 0.02%. In the case of aspect ratio R=0.25, this value was reached to 1.57%. Further increment of spacing i. e decreasing the aspect ratio R=0.17, average deviation was found 3.82%. For the aspect ratio R=0.125, that value was estimated as 4.16%.
  2. Conclusions
    Geometry of the groyne fields; width and length of the groyne field mainly cause the specific flow patterns including number and shape of eddies or gyres. Eddies developed inside the groyne field deflects the main flow preventing it entering into the dead zone. An aspect ratio close to unity gives rise to a single eddy. A smaller aspect ratio (higher spacing between groynes) gives room to two stationary eddies, a large one called primary eddy, in the downstream part of the groyne field, and a smaller secondary eddy emerges near the upstream groyne. The extreme long groyne field -case of length to width ratio of larger thaneight shows penetration of main flow into the groyne field. The two eddies remain in a relatively stable position, while the main flow zone starts to penetrate into groyne field further downstream. In all cases, there is an eddy detaches from the upstream groyne tip that travels along the main channel groyne field interface and eventually merges with the primary eddy. The simulated results indicate that the spacing of groynes or spur dikes from the controlling of bank erosion point of view should be limited within six times the length of groyne.
Fig 3 Computed velocity field for aspect ratio 0.125
Fig 3 Computed velocity field for aspect ratio 0.125
Fig 4 Computed velocity field for aspect ratio 0.10
Fig 4 Computed velocity field for aspect ratio 0.10
Fig 5 Resultant velocity profiles at y/b=3
Fig 5 Resultant velocity profiles at y/b=3
Fig 5 Resultant velocity profiles at y/b=3
Fig 5 Resultant velocity profiles at y/b=3

References

  1. Holtz, K.P  Numerical simulation of recirculating flow at groynes.Å Computer Methods in Water Resources, Vol 2, No 2 (1991).
  2. Hossein, Bassar; Abdollah, Ardeshir; Hojat, Karami.  Numerical simulation of flow pattern around spur dikes series in rigid bed.Å 9th international congress on civil engineering, May 8- 10,2012, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT) , Isfahan, Iran (2012).
  3. Kang, J.G; Yeo, H.K; Kim,S.J An experimental study on a characteristics of flow around groyne area by install conditions.Å www.SciRP.org/journal/eng(2012).
  4. Shimizu,Y; Nelson,JIntroduction of Nays solver in iRIC.Åwww.i-ric.org(2012).
  5. Sukhodolov, A. Uijttewaal, W. S. J., and Engelhardt, C. On the correspondence between morphological and hydro dynamical patterns of groyne fields.Å Earth Surf. Processes Landforms, 27(3) (2002).
  6. Uijttewall, W.S.J; Lehman,D; VanMazijk,A.  Exchange process between a river and its groyne fields-model experiments.Å Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 127(11) (2001).
  7. Uijttewall, W.S.J Groyne field velocity patterns determined with particle tracking
    velocimetryÅ.28th IAHR congress, Graz, Austria (1999).
  8. Yossef, Mohamed  Flow details near groynes: Experimental investigations.Å Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 137 (2011).
Computational Fluid Dynamics, 온실

CFD 사용: 유압 구조 및 농업에서의 응용

USO DE CFD COMO HERRAMIENTA PARA LA MODELACIÓN Y  PREDICCIÓN NUMÉRICA DE LOS FLUIDOS: APLICACIONES EN  ESTRUCTURAS HIDRÁULICAS Y AGRICULTURA

Cruz Ernesto Aguilar-Rodriguez1*; Candido Ramirez-Ruiz2; Erick Dante Mattos Villarroel3 

1Tecnológico Nacional de México/ITS de Los Reyes. Carretera Los Reyes-Jacona, Col. Libertad. 60300.  Los Reyes de Salgado, Michoacán. México. 

ernesto.ar@losreyes.tecnm.mx – 3541013901 (*Autor de correspondencia) 

2Instituto de Ciencias Aplicadas y Tecnología, UNAM. Cto. Exterior S/N, C.U., Coyoacán, 04510, Ciudad  de México. México.  3Riego y Drenaje. Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua. Paseo Cuauhnáhuac 8532, Progreso,  Jiutepec, Morelos, C.P. 62550. México.

Abstract

공학에서 유체의 거동은 설명하기에 광범위하고 복잡한 과정이며, 유체역학은 유체의 거동을 지배하는 방정식을 통해 유체 역학 현상을 분석할 수 있는 과학 분야이지만 이러한 방정식에는 전체 솔루션이 없습니다. . 전산유체역학(Computational Fluid Dynamics, 이하 CFD)은 수치적 기법을 통해 방정식의 해에 접근할 수 있는 도구로, 신뢰할 수 있는 계산 모델을 얻기 위해서는 물리적 모델의 실험 데이터로 평가해야 합니다. 수력구조물에서 선형 및 미로형 여수로에서 시뮬레이션을 수행하고 배출 시트의 거동과 현재의 폭기 조건을 분석했습니다. 침강기에서 유체의 특성화를 수행하고 필요한 특성에 따라 사체적, 피스톤 또는 혼합의 분수를 수정하는 것이 가능합니다. 농업에서는 온실 환경을 특성화하고 환경에 대한 재료의 디자인, 방향 및 유형 간의 관계를 찾는 데 사용할 수 있습니다. 발견된 가장 중요한 결과 중 온실의 길이와 설계가 환기율에 미칠 수 있는 영향으로 온실의 길이는 높이의 6배 미만인 것이 권장됩니다.

키워드: Computational Fluid Dynamics, 온실,

Spillway, Settler 기사: COMEII-21048 소개 

CFD는 유체 운동 문제에 대한 수치적 솔루션을 얻어 수리학적 현상을 더 잘 이해할 수 있게 함으로써 공간 시각화를 가능하게 하는 수치 도구입니다. 예를 들어, 수력 공학에서 벤츄리(Xu, Gao, Zhao, & Wang, 2014) 워터 펌핑(ȘCHEAUA, 2016) 또는 개방 채널 적용( Wu et 알., 2000). 

문헌 검토는 실험 연구에서 검증된 배수로의 흐름 거동에 대한 수리학적 분석을 위한 CFD 도구의 효율성을 보여줍니다. 이 검토는 둑의 흐름 거동에 대한 수리학적 분석을 위한 CFD의 효율성을 보여줍니다. Crookston et al. (2012)는 미로 여수로에 대해 Flow 3D로 테스트를 수행했으며, 배출 계수의 결과는 3%에서 7%까지 다양한 오류로 실험적으로 얻은 결과로 허용 가능했으며 연구 결과 측면에 저압 영역이 있음을 발견했습니다. 익사 방식으로 작업할 때 위어의 벽. Zuhair(2013)는 수치 모델링 결과를 Mandali weir 원형의 실험 데이터와 비교했습니다.  

최근 연구에서는 다양한 난류 모델을 사용하여 CFD를 적용할 가능성이 있음을 보여주었습니다. 그리고 일부만이 음용수 처리를 위한 침적자의 사례 연구를 제시했으며, 다른 설계 변수 중에서 기하학적인 대안, 수온 변화 등을 제안했습니다. 따라서 기술 개발로 인해 설계 엔지니어가 유체 거동을 분석하는 데 CFD 도구를 점점 더 많이 사용하게 되었습니다. 

보호 농업에서 CFD는 온실 환경을 모델링하고 보조 냉방 또는 난방 시스템을 통해 온실의 미기후 관리를 위한 전략을 제안하는 데 사용되는 기술이었습니다(Aguilar Rodríguez et al., 2020).  

2D 및 3D CFD 모델을 사용한 본격적인 온실 시뮬레이션은 태양 복사 모델과 현열 및 잠열 교환 하위 모델의 통합을 통해 온실의 미기후 분포를 연구하는 데 사용되었습니다(Majdoubi, Boulard, Fatnassi, & Bouirden, 2009). 마찬가지로 이 모델을 사용하여 온실 설계(Sethi, 2009), 덮개 재료(Baxevanou, Fidaros, Bartzanas, & Kittas, 2018), 시간, 연중 계절( Tong, Christopher, Li, & Wang, 2013), 환기 유형 및 구성(Bartzanas, Boulard, & Kittas, 2004). 

CFD 거래 프로그램은 사용자 친화적인 플랫폼으로 설계되어 결과를 쉽게 관리하고 이해할 수 있습니다.  

Figura 1. Distribución de presiones y velocidades en un vertedor de pared delgada.
Figura 2. Perfiles de velocidad y presión en la cresta vertedora.
Figura 3. Condiciones de aireación en vertedor tipo laberinto. (A)lámina adherida a la pared del
vertedor, (B) aireado, (C) parcialmente aireado, (D) ahogado.
Figura 4. Realización de prueba de riego.
Figura 5. Efecto de la posición y dirección de los calefactores en un invernadero a 2 m del suelo.
Figura 5. Efecto de la posición y dirección de los calefactores en un invernadero a 2 m del suelo.
Figura 6. Indicadores ambientales para medir el confort ambiental de los cultivos.
Figura 6. Indicadores ambientales para medir el confort ambiental de los cultivos.
Figura 7. Líneas de corriente dentro del sedimentador experimental en estado estacionario  (Ramirez-Ruiz, 2019).
Figura 7. Líneas de corriente dentro del sedimentador experimental en estado estacionario (Ramirez-Ruiz, 2019).

Referencias Bibliográficas

Aguilar-Rodriguez, C.; Flores-Velazquez, J.; Ojeda-Bustamante, W.; Rojano, F.; Iñiguez-
Covarrubias, M. 2020. Valuation of the energyperformance of a greenhouse with

an electric heater using numerical simulations. Processes, 8, 600.

Aguilar-Rodriguez, C.; Flores-Velazquez, J.; Rojano, F.; Ojeda-Bustamante, W.; Iñiguez-
Covarrubias, M. 2020. Estimación del ciclo de cultivo de tomate (Solanum

lycopersicum L.) en invernadero, con base en grados días calor (GDC) simulados
con CFD. Tecnología y ciencias del agua, ISSN 2007-2422, 11(4), 27-57.
Al-Sammarraee, M., y Chan, A. (2009). Large-eddy simulations of particle sedimentation
in a longitudinal sedimentation basin of a water treatment plant. Part 2: The effects
of baffles. Chemical Engineering Journal, 152(2-3), 315-321.
doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2009.01.052.
Bartzanas, T.; Boulard, T.; Kittas, C. 2004. Effect of vent arrangement on windward
ventilation of a tunnel greenhouse. Biosystems Engineering, 88(4).
Baxevanou, C.; Fidaros, D.; Bartzanas, T.; Kittas, C. 2018. Yearly numerical evaluation of
greenhouse cover materials. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 149, 54–

  1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2017.12.006.
    Crookston, B. M., & Tullis, B. P. 2012. Labyrinth weirs: Nappe interference and local
    submergence. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 138(8), 757-765.
    Fernández, J. M. 2012. Técnicas numéricas en Ingeniería de Fluidos: Introducción a la
    Dinámica de Fluidos Computacional (CFD) por el Método de Volumen Finito;
    Reverté, Barcelona, pp. 98-294.
    Goula, A., Kostoglou, M., Karapantsios, T., y Zouboulis, A. (2008). The effect of influent
    temperature variations in a sedimentation tank for potable water treatment— A
    computational fluid dynamics study. Water Research, 42(13), 3405-3414.
    doi://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.05.002.
    Majdoubi, H.; Boulard, T.; Fatnassi, H.; Bouirden, L. 2009. Airflow and microclimate
    patterns in a one-hectare Canary type greenhouse: an experimental and CFD
    assisted study. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149(6-7), 1050-1062.
    Ramirez-Ruiz Candido (2019). Estudio hidrodinámico de sedimentadores de alta tasa en
    plantas potabilizadoras utilizando dinámica de fluidos computacional (CFD).
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Tesis de maestría.
    Sánchez, J. M. C., & Elsitdié, L. G. C. 2011. Consideraciones del mallado aplicadas al
    cálculo de flujos bifásicos con las técnicas de dinámica de fluidos computacional.
    J. Introd. Inv. UPCT., 4, 33-35.
    Sethi, V.P. 2009. On the selection of shape and orientation of a greenhouse: Thermal
    modeling and experimental validation, Sol. Energy, 83, 21–38.
    ȘCHEAUA, F. 2016. AGRICULTURAL FIELD IRRIGATION SOLUTION BASED ON
    VENTURI NOZZLE γ 2 g γ 2 g. JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL DESIGN AND
    ENGINEERING GRAPHICS, 2(1), 31–35.

Tong, G.; Christopher, D.; Li, T.; Wang, T. 2013. Passive solar energy utilization: a review
of cross-section building parameter selection for Chinese solar greenhouses.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 26, 540-548.

Xu, Y., Gao, L., Zhao, Y., & Wang, H. 2014. Wet gas overreading characteristics of a long-
throat Venturi at high pressure based on CFD. Flow Measurement and

Instrumentation, 40, 247–255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2014.09.004
Wu, W., Rodi, W y Wenka, T. 2000. 3D numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport
in open channels. ASCE Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. Vol 126 Num 1.
Zuhair al zubaidy, Riyadh. 2013. Numerical Simulation of Two-Phase Flow.
En:International Journal of Structural and Civil Engineering Research. Vol 2, No 3;
13p

What’s New – FLOW-3D 2022R1

FLOW-3D 제품의 새로운 2022R1 버전은 Flow Science가 FLOW-3D , FLOW-3D CAST 및 FLOW-3D HYDRO 에 대해 동일한 버전명을 채택 했음을 의미합니다. 2022R1은 FLOW-3D 제품을 위한 통합 코드 베이스로의 전환을 나타내며, 이를 통해 사용자는 최신 버전 개발이 준비되는 즉시 더 빠른 릴리스 버전을 만나실 수 있습니다.

2022R1 릴리스는 상세한 cutcell 표현이라고 하는 FAVOR™ 방법의 확장, 테마 솔버 기본값이 있는 시뮬레이션 템플릿 도입, 이동하는 액적/기포 소스, 새로운 축 펌프 모델, 능동 시뮬레이션 제어 기능에 대한 확장, 사용자는 두 개의 독립 변수를 기반으로 복잡한 속성 종속성을 지정하고 VOF-to-particle 개발과 같은 추가 수치 기능을 지정하여 분해되는 유체 영역의 질량 보존을 개선할 수 있습니다. 간소화된 GUI 개선 사항에는 재설계된 물리 대화 상자, 새로운 초기 조건 위젯, 더 쉽고 빠르고 오류 없는 시뮬레이션 설정을 위해 재설계된 출력 및 지오메트리 위젯이 포함됩니다.

상세한 Cutcell 표현 – FAVOR ™ 의 확장

FAVOR™ 방법은 일반 데카르트 그리드에서 면적 및 부피 분율을 사용하여 솔리드 형상을 구현하는 방법입니다. 이를 통해 FLOW-3D 는 구조화되지 않은 body-fitted mesh에 의존하지 않고 솔리드의 복잡한 형상과 주변의 유체 흐름을 효율적으로 시뮬레이션할 수 있습니다. 상당한 계산상의 이점에도 불구하고 FAVOR™ 방법의 한 가지 문제는 고체 표면을 따라 벽 전단 응력을 계산할 때는 문제가 발생할 수도 있었습니다. 그러나, 상세한 cutcell  표현이라고 하는 FAVOR™의 확장은 벽 전단 응력 계산을 크게 개선하여 솔리드 표면 근처의 유체 유동 해석에서 상당한 개선을 가져옵니다.

detailed cutcell 표현 의 검증뿐만 아니라 advanced numerics 에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오 .

정체점으로부터의 각도
상세한 컷셀 표현

Tabular Properties

점도 및 표면 장력과 같은 재료 속성은 온도, 밀도, 변형률 또는 오염 물질 농도와 같은 것을 나타내는 사용자 정의 스칼라 양과 같은 흐름 조건에 따라 달라질 수 있습니다. 이러한 속성을 기능적 형태에 맞추려면 특히 속성이 둘 이상의 독립 변수에 종속되는 경우 복잡한 곡선 맞춤이 필요할 수 있습니다. FLOW-3D 의 새로운 Tabular Properties 기능은  사용자가 최대 2개의 독립 변수를 사용하여 테이블 형식으로 유체 속성을 정의할 수 있습니다. 예를 들어, 표면 장력은 오염 물질 농도 및 온도에 대한 복잡한 비선형 종속성을 설명하기 위해 실험 데이터에서 표로 만들 수 있으며, 점도는 변형률 속도 및 온도에 대한 종속성을 나타내기 위해 실험 데이터에서 표로 만들 수 있습니다. 사용자는 표 속성 대화 상자에서 단일 변수 또는 두 개의 변수 종속성을 입력할 수 있습니다.

점도는 고체 함량(밀도)과 변형률의 함수로 정의됩니다. 이 예에서 조밀한 유체 영역은 시간이 0일 때 조밀한 침전된 유체 영역과 위쪽에 맑은 물이 있는 정지된 풀로 미끄러져 내려갑니다.

표 속성
이 대화 상자는 표 속성 기능을 사용하여 변형률 및 온도의 함수로 점도를 정의하는 방법을 보여줍니다. 세 가지 다른 온도에 대한 변형률의 함수로서의 점도에 대한 값이 대화 상자의 오른쪽에 표시되고 그래프로 표시됩니다.

Expanded Active Simulation Control

능동 시뮬레이션 제어(ASC) 는 Probe로 지정한 부분의 흐름 정보를 기반으로 시뮬레이션을 제어하는 ​​데 매우 유용합니다. 이번 릴리스에서 ASC는 일반 이력 데이터, 플럭스 표면 및 sampling volumes의 흐름 정보를 기반으로 추가 제어를 허용하도록 확장되었습니다.

포인트 프로브에 비해 플럭스 표면 및 샘플링 볼륨의 장점 중 하나는 포인트 기반이 아닌 표면 또는 볼륨에 대해 평균화된 정보를 제공할 수 있다는 것입니다. 어떤 상황에서는 표면 기반 및 볼륨 기반 정보가 시뮬레이션에서 관심 있는 동작을 더 잘 나타낼 수 있습니다.

이 새로운 기능을 통해 사용자는 다음을 수행할 수 있습니다.

  • 제어 볼륨의 온도가 임계값을 초과하거나 아래로 떨어지면 시뮬레이션을 종료합니다.
  • 샘플링 볼륨의 난류 에너지를 기반으로 노즐에서 충전 속도를 제어합니다.
  • 자속 평면의 평균 속도를 기반으로 출력 주파수를 제어합니다.
  • 샘플링 볼륨의 채우기 비율이 사용자가 지정한 값에 도달하면 시뮬레이션을 종료합니다.

이 예에서 극저온 탱크 공급 파이프의 펌프(진한 회색 직사각형)는 일정한 유속으로 추진제 탱크에서 액체 산소를 끌어옵니다. 액체 산소가 배출됨에 따라 얼리지의 압력이 지정된 값 아래로 떨어질 때 활성 시뮬레이션 제어에 의해 질량/운동량 소스(상단의 회색 막대)가 트리거됩니다. 얼리지 압력이 지정된 값 이상으로 상승하면 가압이 꺼집니다.

VOF to Particles

FLOW-3D 에서 복잡한 자유표면을 추적하는 VOF 방법의 정확성과 견고성은 유체 입자와 결합하여 향상되었습니다. VOF 입자라고 하는 새로운 입자 종류는 VOF 기능 대신 사용되어, 계산 영역에서 작은 유체 인대와 액적을 추적하여 유체 부피와 운동량을 더 잘 보존할 수 있습니다. 중력 제어 프로세스에서 더 높은 시간 단계 크기도 예상할 수 있습니다. VOF 유체는 특정 조건이 충족되면 특정 시간과 위치에서 자동으로 VOF 입자로 변환됩니다. 그런 다음 입자 모션은 Lagrangian 입자 모델을 사용하여 계산되고 입자는 유체에 다시 들어갈 때 VOF 표현으로 다시 변환됩니다.

입자-FLOW-3D 2022R1에 대한 VOF
입자에 대한 VOF

Axial Pump Model

FLOW-3D의 새로운 Axial Pump Model을 통해 사용자는 시뮬레이션에서 Axial Pump의 실제 효과를 구현할 수 있습니다. 펌프 동작과 관련하여 두 가지 옵션이 있습니다. 첫 번째 옵션은 유체가 지정된 속도로 이동하도록 펌프를 통한 체적 유량 또는 유속을 규정하는 것입니다. 이 옵션은 펌프에 작동 유량이 제공될 때 적합합니다. 두 번째 옵션은 펌프 성능 곡선을 기반으로 펌프 작동에 대한 보다 완전한 정의를 제공합니다. 이 경우 사용자는 펌프 성능 곡선의 선형 근사치를 정의하여 펌프를 통과하는 유량이 펌프 전체의 압력 강하에 따라 달라지도록 할 수 있습니다. 이 구성에서 펌프의 일반적인 동작은 다음과 같이 표시됩니다.

축 펌프 설정
GUI의 팬/임펠러 구성요소
축 펌프 설정
GUI의 축 펌프 구성 요소

Droplet/Bubble Source Model | 액적/기포 소스 모델

FLOW-3D 는 처음 개발된 이후 로 표면 장력 작용에 따라 진화하는 유체 모양을 시뮬레이션하기 위해 노즐 및 기타 오리피스 모양에서 분사되는 액적을 모델링하는 데 사용되었습니다. 그러나 기판에 대한 액적의 영향만 관심이 있기 때문에 노즐을 떠날 때 액적의 모양을 시뮬레이션할 필요가 없는 경우가 있습니다. 또한, 유체에서 기포의 이동을 모델링하는 것은 흥미로울 수 있지만 기포의 시작은 아닙니다. 새로운 액적/기포 소스 모델은 이와 같은 경우에 유용합니다.

이 예에서 액적 소스는 원형 패턴으로 이동하면서 액적을 10m/s의 속도로 다공성 매체로 아래쪽으로 토출하여 링 모양 디자인을 만듭니다.

방울/거품 설정
사용자 인터페이스에서 액적/기포 소스 설정

Simulation Templates

새로운 시뮬레이션 템플릿은 자유 표면이 있는 하나의 유체에 대해 비압축성 흐름 또는 2개의 유체 압축성 시뮬레이션과 같은 주어진 모델링 프레임워크를 기반으로 중요한 매개변수를 미리 로드합니다. 새로운 시뮬레이션이 생성되면 FLOW-3D 에서 가장 일반적으로 모델링된 사례를 다루는 6개의 템플릿이 포함된 대화 상자가 사용자에게 표시됩니다 . ‘없음’ 옵션을 사용하면 고급 사용자가 특수 수치 설정을 적용할 수 있도록 빈 슬레이트로 시작할 수 있습니다. 템플릿을 사용하면 모델 설정 프로세스를 신속하게 처리하고 사용자가 실수를 하거나 매개변수 정의를 잊어버리는 것을 방지할 수 있습니다.

시뮬레이션 템플릿
GUI의 새로운 시뮬레이션 템플릿

추가 솔버 기능

추가 솔버 기능에는 비뉴턴 유체에 대한 Herschel-Bulkley 모델 및 분해되기 쉬운 유체 영역에 대한 질량 보존을 개선하기 위한 기체-공동 변환, 다중 이벤트 동작 및 이벤트 옵션 지원을 포함한 확장된 질량-운동량 소스 프로브 이벤트가 포함됩니다. 동반된 공기의 부피 분율과 용질 농도에 대한 것입니다.

솔버 기능
Herschel-Bulkley 모델
솔버 기능
활성 시뮬레이션 질량 운동량 소스 이벤트

GUI 개선

WSIWYN 설계 접근 방식을 사용한 간소화된 GUI 개선에는 재설계된 물리 및 초기 조건 대화 상자, 더 쉽고 빠르며 오류 없는 시뮬레이션 설정을 위해 재설계된 출력 및 지오메트리 위젯이 포함됩니다.

초기 조건 위젯

초기 조건 위젯은 초기 유체 및 기체 영역 설정을 개선하여 더 쉽고 빠르게 만듭니다. 새로운 디자인에서는 전역, 영역 및 포인터 개체가 별도의 탭에 배치되어 설정을 훨씬 더 명확하게 볼 수 있습니다.

초기 조건
초기 조건 – 지역
초기 조건 - 정수압
초기 조건 – 정수압
초기 조건
초기 조건 – 포인터

출력 위젯

재설계된 출력 위젯을 통해 사용자는 시뮬레이션 결과 파일에서 어떤 출력을 사용할 수 있는지 정확히 확인할 수 있으며, 하나의 간결한 보기에서 다시 시작 및 선택한 데이터 출력을 명확히 알 수 있습니다.

출력 위젯
재설계된 공간 출력 위젯
출력 위젯
출력 위젯 – 지오메트리 데이터
출력 위젯
공간 데이터가 기록될 때 출력을 강제 실행하면 기록 및 공간 데이터 출력에 대한 동기화된 출력이 사용자에게 제공됩니다.

대화형 지오메트리 생성 및 편집

대화형 지오메트리 생성 및 편집 기능이 그 어느 때보다 향상되었으며 이제 다음이 포함됩니다.

  • 회전, 이동 및 크기 조정을 포함한 새로운 대화형 도구 선택이 가능합니다.
  • 작업을 클릭하고 수정할 지오메트리를 선택하여 회전, 이동 또는 크기 조정 모드를 시작합니다.
  • 위쪽 화살표 아이콘을 클릭하거나 ESC 키를 누르면 일반 선택 모드로 돌아갑니다.

Geometry Widget

기하학 위젯은 이제 다양한 속성 그룹을 결합하고 관련 항목을 함께 배치하는 WYSIWYN 디자인 접근 방식을 사용하여 더 쉽고 빠르게 탐색할 수 있습니다.

기하학 위젯
지오메트리 위젯

Easier Access to Help

이제 물리 대화 상자 내에서 클릭 한 번으로 관련 문서, 자습서 및 도움말 다이어그램에 액세스할 수 있습니다.

더 쉽게 도움을 받을 수 있습니다
물리학 대화상자

간소화된 물리 대화 상자

사용자가 시뮬레이션을 더 빠르게 설정하고 설정 오류를 줄일 수 있도록 많은 물리 대화 상자가 간소화되었습니다.

거품 및 상 변화
Bubble and phase change model
공기 유입
Air entrainment model
드리프트 플럭스
Drift flux model
Fig. 4. Meshed quarter aluminum model with HAZ regions and support steel plates.

Benchmark study on slamming response of flat-stiffened plates considering fluid-structure interaction

유체-구조 상호작용을 고려한 평판 보강판의 슬래밍 응답에 대한 벤치마크 연구

Dac DungTruongabBeom-SeonJangaCarl-ErikJansoncJonas W.RingsbergcYasuhiraYamadadKotaTakamotofYasumiKawamuraeHan-BaekJua
aResearch Institute of Marine Systems Engineering, Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
bDepartment of Engineering Mechanics, Nha Trang University, Nha Trang, Viet Nam
cDivision of Marine Technology, Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
dNational Maritime Research Institute, National Institute of Maritime, Port and Aviation Technology, Tokyo, Japan
eDepartment of Systems Design for Ocean-Space, Yokohama National University, Kanagawa, Japan
fDepartment of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

ABSTRACT

이 논문은 해양구조물의 평보강판의 슬래밍 반응에 대한 벤치마크 연구를 제시합니다. 목표는 유체-구조 상호작용(FSI) 시뮬레이션 방법론, 모델링 기술 및 슬래밍 압력 예측에 대한 기존 연구원의 경험을 비교하는 것이었습니다.

수치 FSI 시뮬레이션을 위해 가장 일반적인 상용 소프트웨어 패키지를 사용하는 3개의 연구 그룹(예: LS-Dyna ALE, LS-Dyna ICFD, ANSYS CFX 및 Star-CCM+/ABAQUS)이 이 연구에 참여했습니다.

공개 문헌에서 입수할 수 있는 경량 선박과 같은 바닥 구조의 평평한 강화 알루미늄 판에 대한 습식 낙하 시험 데이터는 FSI 모델링의 검증에 활용되었습니다. 형상 모델 및 재료 속성을 포함한 실험 조건의 요약은 시뮬레이션 전에 참가자에게 배포되었습니다.

충돌 속도와 강판의 강성이 슬래밍 응답에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위해 해양 설비에 사용되는 실제 치수를 갖는 평판 보강 강판에 대한 매개변수 연구를 수행했습니다. 보강판에 작용하는 전체 수직력에 대한 FE 시뮬레이션 결과와 이러한 힘에 대한 구조적 반응을 참가자로부터 획득하여 분석 및 비교하였다.

앞서 언급한 상용 FSI 소프트웨어 패키지를 사용하여 슬래밍 부하에 대한 신뢰할 수 있고 정확한 예측을 평가했습니다. 또한 FSI 시뮬레이션에서 관찰된 동일한 영구 처짐을 초래하는 등가 정적 슬래밍 압력을 보고하고 분류 표준 DNV에서 제안한 해석 모델 및 슬래밍 압력 계산을 위한 기존 실험 데이터와 비교했습니다.

연구 결과는 등가 하중 모델이 물 충돌 속도와 플레이트 강성에 의존한다는 것을 보여주었습니다. 즉, 등가정압계수는 충돌속도가 증가함에 따라 감소하고 충돌구조가 더 단단해지면 증가한다.

This paper presents a benchmark study on the slamming responses of offshore structures’ flat-stiffened plates. The objective was to compare the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation methodologies, modeling techniques, and established researchers’ experiences in predicting slamming pressure. Three research groups employing the most common commercial software packages for numerical FSI simulations (i.e. LS-Dyna ALE, LS-Dyna ICFD, ANSYS CFX, and Star-CCM+/ABAQUS) participated in this study. Wet drop test data on flat-stiffened aluminum plates of light-ship-like bottom structures available in the open literature was utilized for validation of the FSI modeling. A summary of the experimental conditions including the geometry model and material properties, was distributed to the participants prior to their simulations. A parametric study on flat-stiffened steel plates having actual scantlings used in marine installations was performed to investigate the effect of impact velocity and plate rigidity on slamming response. The FE simulation results for the total vertical forces acting on the stiffened plates and their structural responses to those forces, as obtained from the participants, were analyzed and compared. The reliable and accurate predictions of slamming loads using the aforementioned commercial FSI software packages were evaluated. Additionally, equivalent static slamming pressures resulting in the same permanent deflections, as observed from the FSI simulations, were reported and compared with analytical models proposed by the Classification Standards DNV and existing experimental data for calculation of the slamming pressure. The study results showed that the equivalent load model depends on the water impact velocity and plate rigidity; that is, the equivalent static pressure coefficient decreases with an increase in impact velocity, and increases when impacting structures become stiffer.

Fig. 4. Meshed quarter aluminum model with HAZ regions and support steel plates.
Fig. 4. Meshed quarter aluminum model with HAZ regions and support steel plates.
Fig. 6. (a) Boundary conditions of water hitting case and (b) water jets at end of the simulation.
Fig. 6. (a) Boundary conditions of water hitting case and (b) water jets at end of the simulation.
Fig. 7. Comparison of prediction and test results for deflection time history of (a) D1 and (b) D2 for Vi = 2.3 m/s.
Fig. 7. Comparison of prediction and test results for deflection time history of (a) D1 and (b) D2 for Vi = 2.3 m/s.
Fig. 8. Comparison of prediction and test results for maximum deflection with different impact velocities.
Fig. 8. Comparison of prediction and test results for maximum deflection with different impact velocities.
Fig. 16. Boundary conditions applied to present FSI simulations (Sym. denotes symmetric, and Cons. denotes constrained)
Fig. 16. Boundary conditions applied to present FSI simulations (Sym. denotes symmetric, and Cons. denotes constrained)
Fig. 24. Distribution of deflections at moment of maximum deflection in: (a) LS-Dyna ALE, (b) Star-CCM+/ABAQUS, (c) ANSYS CFD, and (d) LSDyna ICFD (unit: m).

Keywords

Benchmark studyEquivalent static pressureFlat-stiffened plateFluid-structure interactionPermanent deflectionSlamming pressure coefficient

References

[1] Von Karman TH. The impact on seaplane floats during landing. Washington, DC: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics; 1929. Technical note No.: 321.
[2] Wagner VH. Über Stoß- und Gleitvorgange ¨ an der Oberflache ¨ von Flüssigkeiten. Z Angew Math Mech 1932;12(4):193–215.
[3] Chuang SL. Experiments on flat-bottom slamming. J Ship Res 1966;10:10–7.
[4] Chuang SL. Investigation of impact of rigid and elastic bodies with water. Report for Department of the Navy. Washington, DC: United States Department of the
Navy; 1970. Report No.: 3248.
[5] Mori K. Response of the bottom plate of high-speed crafts under impulsive water pressure. J Soc Nav Archit Jpn 1977;142:297–305 [Japanese].
[6] Cheon JS, Jang BS, Yim KH, Lee HSD, Koo BY, Ju HB. A study on slamming pressure on a flat stiffened plate considering fluid–structure interaction. J Mar Sci
Technol 2016;21:309–24.
[7] Truong DD, Jang BS, Ju HB, Han SW. Prediction of slamming pressure considering fluid-structure interaction. Part I: Numerical simulations. Ships Offshore
Struct. https://doi.org/10.1080/17445302.2020.1816732.
[8] Truong DD, Jang BS, Ju HB, Han SW. Prediction of slamming pressure considering fluid-structure interaction. Part II: Derivation of empirical formulations. Mar
Struct. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marstruc.2019.102700.
[9] Greenhow M, Lin W. Numerical simulation of nonlinear free surface flows generated by wedge entry and wave maker motions. In: Proceedings of the 4th
international conference on numerical ship hydrodynamics, Washington, DC; 1985.
[10] Sun H, Faltinsen OM. Water impact of horizontal circular cylinders and cylindrical shells. Appl Ocean Res 2006;28(5):299–311.
[11] Gingold RA, Monaghan JJ. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics: theory and application to non-spherical stars. Royal Astronomical Society 1977;181:375–89.
[12] Shao S. Incompressible SPH simulation of water entry of a free-falling object. Int J Numer Methods Fluid 2009;59(1):91–115.
[13] Souli M, Ouahsine A, Lewin L. ALE formulation for fluid-structure interaction problems. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 2000;190(5):659–75.
[14] Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC). ICFD theory manual incompressible fluid solver in LS-DYNA. Livermore Software Technology Corporation;

[15] Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC). LS-DYNA theoretical manual. Livermore Software Technology Corporation; 2006.
[16] FLOW-3D user’s manual. 2018., version 12.0.
[17] Cd-adapco. STAR-CCM+ User’s manual. 2012., version 7.06.
[18] ANSYS fluent user’s guide. 2015.
[19] ANSYS CFX user’s guide. 2014.
[20] Abaqus user’s manual, version 6.13. SIMULIA; 2013.
[21] Luo HB, Hu J, Guedes Soares C. Numerical simulation of hydroelastic responses of flat stiffened panels under slamming loads. In: Proceedings of the 29th
international conference on ocean, offshore and arctic engineering (OMAE2010); 2010 [Shanghai, China].[22] Yamada Y, Takami T, Oka M. Numerical study on the slamming impact of wedge shaped obstacles considering fluid-structure interaction (FSI). In: Proceedings
of the 22nd international offshore and polar engineering conference (ISOPE2012); 2012 [Rhodes, Greece].
[23] Luo HB, Wang H, Guedes Soares C. Numerical and experimental study of hydrodynamic impact and elastic response of one free-drop wedge with stiffened
panels. Ocean Eng 2012;40:1–14.
[24] Sun H, Wang DY. Experimental and numerical analysis of hydrodynamic impact on stiffened side of three dimensional elastic stiffened plates. Adv Mech Eng
2018;10(4):1–23.
[25] Ma S, Mahfuz H. Finite element simulation of composite ship structures with fluid structure interaction. Ocean Eng 2012;52:52–9.
[26] LSTC. Turek & hron’s FSI benchmark problem. 2012.
[27] Califano A, Brinchmann K. Evaluation of loads during a free-fall lifeboat drop. In: Proceedings of the ASME 32nd international conference on ocean, offshore
and arctic engineering (OMAE2013); 2013 [Nantes, France].
[28] LSTC. 3D fluid elastic body interaction problem. 2014.
[29] Yamada Y, Takamoto K, Nakanishi T, Ma C, Komoriyama Y. Numerical study on the slamming impact of stiffened flat panel using ICFD method – effect of
structural rigidity on the slamming impact. In: Proceedings of the ASME 39th international conference on ocean, offshore and arctic engineering (OMAE2020);
2020 [Florida, USA].
[30] Nicolici S, Bilegan RM. Fluid structure interaction modeling of liquid sloshing phenomena in flexible tanks in flexible tanks. Nucl Eng Des 2013;258:51–6.
[31] DNV. DNV-RP-C205 environmental conditions and environmental loads. Det Norske Veritas; October 2010.
[32] Ahmed YM. Numerical simulation for the free surface flow around a complex ship hull form at different froude numbers. Alex Eng J 2011;50(3):229–35.
[33] Ghadimi P, Feizi Chekab MA, Dashtimanesh A. Numerical simulation of water entry of different arbitrary bow sections. J Nav Architect Mar Eng 2014;11:
117–29.
[34] Park BW, Cho S-R. Simple design formulae for predicting the residual damage of unstiffened and stiffened plates under explosive loadings. Int J Impact Eng
2006;32:1721–36.
[35] Truong DD, Shin HK, Cho S-R. Permanent set evolution of aluminium-alloy plates due to repeated impulsive pressure loadings induced by slamming. J Mar Sci
Technol 2018;23:580–95.
[36] Jones N. Structural impact. first ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 1989.
[37] Zha Y, Moan T. Ultimate strength of stiffened aluminium panels with predominantly torsional failure modes. Thin-Walled Struct 2001;39:631–48.
[38] Sensharma P, Collette M, Harrington J. Effect of welded properties on aluminum structures. Ship Structure Committee SSC-4 2010.
[39] ABS. Guide for slamming loads and strength assessment for vessels. 2011.
[40] Villavicencio R, Sutherland L, Guedes Soares C. Numerical simulation of transversely impacted, clamped circular aluminium plates. Ships Offshore Struct 2012;7(1):31–45.
[41] Material properties database. https://www.varmintal.com/aengr.htm, Assessed date: 16 May 2020.
[42] Ringsberg JW, Andri´c J, Heggelund SE, Homma N, Huang YT, Jang BS, et al. Report of the ISSC technical committee II.1 on quasi-static response. In:
Kaminski ML, Rigo P, editors. Proceedings of the 20th international ship and offshore structures congress (ISSC 2018), vol. 1. IOS Press BV; 2018. p. 226–31.
[43] Shin HK, Kim S-C, Cho S-R. Experimental investigations on slamming impacts by drop tests. J Soc Nav Archit Korea 2010;47(3):410–20 [Korean].
[44] Huera-Huarte FJ, Jeon D, Gharib M. Experimental investigation of water slamming loads on panels. Ocean Eng 2011;38:1347–55.

Fig. 8. Pressure distribution during the infiltration of preform with the 50 ¯m particles and 20 % starches: (a) 25 % filled, (b) 57 % filled, and (c) 99 % filled.

Experimental study and numerical simulation of infiltration of AlSi12 alloys into Si porous preforms with micro-computed tomography inspection characteristics

마이크로 컴퓨터 단층 촬영 검사 특성을 가진 Si 다공성 프리폼에 AlSi12 합금의 침투에 대한 실험적 연구 및 수치 시뮬레이션

Ruizhe LIU1 and Haidong ZHAO1
1National Engineering Research Center of Near-Net-Shape Forming for Metallic Materials, South China University of Technology,
Guangzhou 510640, China

Abstract

전분 함량(10, 20 및 30%)과 입자 크기(20, 50 및 90 m)가 다른 실리콘 입자 예비 성형체는 압축 성형 및 열처리를 통해 제작되었습니다. 프리폼의 기공 특성은 고해상도(³1 m) 3차원(3D) X선 마이크로 컴퓨터 단층 촬영(V-CT)으로 검사되었습니다. AlSi12 합금의 프리폼으로의 침투는 진공 보조 압력 침투 장치에서 800 °C 및 400 kPa의 조건에서 서로 다른 압력 적용 시간(3, 8 및 15초)으로 수행되었습니다. 고해상도(³500 nm) 수직 주사 백색광 간섭 프로파일로미터를 사용하여 복합 재료의 전면을 감지했습니다. Navier-Stokes 방정식을 기반으로 하는 ¯-CT 검사에서 실제 기공 형상을 고려하여 침투를 미시적으로 시뮬레이션했습니다. 그 결과 전분 함량과 입자크기가 증가할수록 복합재료의 표면적이 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 전분 함량과 비교하여 입자 크기는 전면 표면적에 더 많은 영향을 미칩니다. 시뮬레이션에서 침투가 진행됨에 따라 액체 AlSi12의 압력이 감소했습니다. 복합재의 잔류 기공은 침투와 함께 증가했습니다. 실험 및 시뮬레이션 결과에 따르면 침투 방향을 따라 더 큰 압력 강하가 복합 재료의 더 많은 잔류 기공을 유도합니다.

Silicon particle preforms with different starch contents (10, 20 and 30%) and particle sizes (20, 50 and 90 ¯m) were fabricated by compression mold forming and heat treatment. The pore characteristics of preforms were inspected with a high-resolution (³1 ¯m) three-dimensional (3D) X-ray micro-computed tomography (¯-CT). The infiltration of AlSi12 alloys into the preforms were carried out under the condition of 800 °C and 400 kPa with different pressure-applied times (3, 8 and 15 s) in a vacuum-assisted pressure infiltration apparatus. A highresolution (³500 nm) vertical scanning white light interfering profilometer was used to detect the front surfaces of composites. The infiltration was simulated at micro-scale by considering the actual pore geometry from the ¯- CT inspection based on the Navier-Stokes equation. The results demonstrated that as the starch content and particle size increased, the front surface area of composite increased. Compared with the starch content, the particle size has more influence on the front surface area. In the simulation, as the infiltration progressed, the pressure of liquid AlSi12 decreased. The residual pores of composites increased with infiltration. According to the experiment and simulation results, a larger pressure drop along the infiltration direction leads to more residual pores of composites.

Fig. 1. Size distributions of Si particles.
Fig. 1. Size distributions of Si particles.
Fig. 2. Schematic of different locations of composites.
Fig. 2. Schematic of different locations of composites.
Fig. 3. Three-dimensional geometry with the reconstruction technology, enmeshment and infiltration parameters of Si preforms: (a) geometry, and (b) meshes and flow direction.
Fig. 3. Three-dimensional geometry with the reconstruction technology, enmeshment and infiltration parameters of Si preforms: (a) geometry, and (b) meshes and flow direction.
Fig. 4. Number-based frequencies of effective pore radius and throat radius: (a) effective pore radius of preforms with the 50 ¯m particles, (b) effective throat radius of preforms with the 50 ¯m particles, (c) effective pore radius of preforms with the 20 % starches, and (d) effective throat radius of preforms with the 20 % starches.
Fig. 4. Number-based frequencies of effective pore radius and throat radius: (a) effective pore radius of preforms with the 50 ¯m particles, (b) effective throat radius of preforms with the 50 ¯m particles, (c) effective pore radius of preforms with the 20 % starches, and (d) effective throat radius of preforms with the 20 % starches.
Fig. 5. 3D topological morphologies of front surfaces of composites: (a) 50 ¯m-10 %, (b) 50 ¯m-20 %, (c) 50 ¯m-30 %, (d) 20 ¯m-20 %, and (e) 90 ¯m-20 %.
Fig. 5. 3D topological morphologies of front surfaces of composites: (a) 50 ¯m-10 %, (b) 50 ¯m-20 %, (c) 50 ¯m-30 %, (d) 20 ¯m-20 %, and (e) 90 ¯m-20 %.
Fig. 6. Schematic of capillary tube.
Fig. 6. Schematic of capillary tube.
Fig. 8. Pressure distribution during the infiltration of preform with the 50 ¯m particles and 20 % starches: (a) 25 % filled, (b) 57 % filled, and (c) 99 % filled.
Fig. 8. Pressure distribution during the infiltration of preform with the 50 ¯m particles and 20 % starches: (a) 25 % filled, (b) 57 % filled, and (c) 99 % filled.
Fig. 9. Pressure distributions of liquid AlSi12 during the infiltration of preforms: (a) different fill fractions, (b) different starch contents, and (c) different particle sizes.
Fig. 9. Pressure distributions of liquid AlSi12 during the infiltration of preforms: (a) different fill fractions, (b) different starch contents, and (c) different particle sizes.
Fig. 10. Metallographs of composites: (a) different locations of composite with the 20 ¯m particles and 20 % starches, and (b) different locations of composite with the 90 ¯m particles and 20 % starches.
Fig. 10. Metallographs of composites: (a) different locations of composite with the 20 ¯m particles and 20 % starches, and (b) different locations of composite with the 90 ¯m particles and 20 % starches.
Fig. 11. Area fractions of residual pores of composites: (a) 50 ¯m (different starch contents), and (b) 20 % (different particle sizes).
Fig. 11. Area fractions of residual pores of composites: (a) 50 ¯m (different starch contents), and (b) 20 % (different particle sizes).

References

1) V. G. Resmi, K. M. Sree Manu, V. Lakshmi, M.
Brahmakumar, T. P. D. Rajan, C. Pavithran and B. C.
Pai, J. Porous Mat., 22, 1445­1454 (2015).
2) C. García-Cordovilla, E. Louis and J. Narciso, Acta
Mater., 47, 4461­4479 (1999).
3) D. B. Miracle, Compos. Sci. Technol., 65, 2526­2540
(2005).
4) J. M. Chiou and D. D. L. Chung, J. Mater. Sci., 28,
1447­1470 (1993).
5) Q. G. Zhang and M. Y. Gu, J. Compos. Mater., 40, 471­
478 (2006).
6) C. M. Lawrence Wu and G. W. Han, Compos. Part AAppl. S., 37, 1858­1862 (2006).
7) X. Y. Cai, X. W. Yin, X. K. Ma, X. M. Fan, Y. Z. Cai,
J. P. Li, L. F. Cheng and L. T. Zhang, Ceram. Int., 42,
10144­10150 (2016).
8) J. M. Molina, E. Piñero, J. Narciso, C. GarcíaCordovilla and E. Louis, Curr. Opin. Solid St. M., 9,
202­210 (2005).
9) A. Léger, L. Weber and A. Mortensen, Acta Mater., 91,
57­69 (2015).
10) Y. Q. Ma, L. H. Qi, W. G. Zheng, J. M. Zhou and L. Y.
Ju, T. Nonferr. Metal. Soc., 23, 1915­1921 (2013).
11) J. T. Tian, E. Piñero, J. Narciso and E. Louis, Scripta
Mater., 53, 1483­1488 (2005).
12) J. Narciso, A. Alonso, A. Pamies, C. García-Cordovilla
and E. Louis, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 26A, 983­990
(1995).
13) J. Roger, M. Avenel and L. Lapuyade, J. Eur. Ceram.
Soc., 40, 1859­1868 (2020).
14) J. Roger, M. Avenel and L. Lapuyade, J. Eur. Ceram.
Soc., 40, 1869­1876 (2020).
15) R. Scardovelli and S. Zaleski, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.,
31, 567­603 (1999).
16) H. D. Zhao, I. Ohnaka and J. D. Zhu, Appl. Math.
Model., 32, 185­194 (2008).
17) Y. He, A. E. Bayly, A. Hassanpour, F. Muller, K. Wu
and D. M. Yang, Powder Technol., 338, 548­562
(2018).
18) K. D. Nikitin, K. M. Terekhov and Y. V. Vassilevski,
Appl. Math. Lett., 86, 236­242 (2018).
19) J. F. Xiao, X. Liu, Y. M. Luo, J. C. Cai and J. F. Xu,
Colloid. Surface. A, 591, 124572 (2020).
20) N. Birgle, R. Masson and L. Trenty, J. Comput. Phys.,
368, 210­235 (2018).
21) M. Chaaban, Y. Heider and B. Markert, Int. J. Heat
Fluid Fl., 83, 108566 (2020).
22) S. Zhang, M. J. Zhu, X. Zhao, D. G. Xiong, H. Wan,
S. X. Bai and X. D. Wang, Compos. Part A-Appl. S., 90,
71­81 (2016).
23) J. Roger, L. Guesnet, A. Marchais and Y. Le Petitcorps,
J. Alloy. Compd., 747, 484­494 (2018).
24) Q. Wan, H. D. Zhao and C. Zou, ISIJ Int., 54, 511­515
(2014).
25) F. Liu, H. D. Zhao, R. S. Yang and F. Z. Sun, Mater.
Today Commun., 19, 114­123 (2019).
26) D. Roussel, A. Lichtner, D. Jauffrès, J. Villanova, R. K.
Bordia and C. L. Martin, Scripta Mater., 113, 250­253
(2016).
27) M. Fukushima, T. Ohji, H. Hyuga, C. Matsunaga and Y.
Yoshizawa, J. Mater. Res., 32, 3286­3293 (2017).
28) M. Fukushima, H. Hyuga, C. Matsunaga and Y.
Yoshizawa, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 101, 3266­3270
(2018).
29) R. Z. Liu, H. D. Zhao, H. Long and B. Xie, Mater.
Charact., 137, 370­378 (2017).
30) B. Xie, H. D. Zhao, H. Long, J. L. Peng and R. Z. Liu,
Ceram. Int., 45, 23924­23933 (2019).
31) R. Z. Liu, H. D. Zhao and B. Xie, Transport Porous
Med., 131, 1053­1063 (2020).
32) Y. Li, H. W. Chen, F. Q. Wang, X. L. Xia and H. P. Tan,
Infrared Phys. Techn., 113, 103646 (2021).
33) P. Tahmasebi, M. Sahimi, A. H. Kohanpur and A.
Valocchi, J. Petrol. Sci. Eng., 155, 21­33 (2017).
34) B. Gharedaghloo, S. J. Berg and E. A. Sudicky, Adv.
Water Resour., 143, 103681 (2020).
35) A. Viswanath, M. V. Manu, S. Savithri and U. T. S.
Pillai, J. Mater. Process. Tech., 244, 320­330 (2017).
36) D. Silin and T. Patzek, Physica A, 371, 336­360 (2006).
37) W. Hui, Y. S. Wang, D. Z. Ren and H. Jin, J. Petrol. Sci.
Eng., 192, 107295 (2020).
38) H. Nakae and H. Katoh, J. Jpn. I. Met. Mater., 63,
1356­1362 (1999).

Effect of roughness on separation zone dimensions.

Experimental and numerical study of flow at a 90 degree lateral turnout with enhanced roughness coefficient and invert level changes

조도 계수 및 역전 수준 변화가 개선된 90도 측면 분출구에서의 유동에 대한 실험적 및 수치적 연구

Maryam BagheriSeyed M. Ali ZomorodianMasih ZolghadrH. Md. AzamathullaC. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad

Abstract

측면 분기기(흡입구)의 상류 측에서 흐름 분리는 분기기 입구에서 와류를 일으키는 중요한 문제입니다. 이는 흐름의 유효 폭, 출력 용량 및 효율성을 감소시킵니다. 따라서 분리지대의 크기를 파악하고 크기를 줄이기 위한 방안을 제시하는 것이 필수적이다. 본 연구에서는 분리 구역의 치수를 줄이기 위한 방법으로 7가지 유형의 거칠기 요소를 분기구 입구에 설치하고 4가지 다른 배출(총 84번의 실험을 수행)과 함께 3개의 서로 다른 베드 반전 레벨을 조사했습니다. 또한 3D CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) 모델을 사용하여 분리 영역의 흐름 패턴과 치수를 평가했습니다. 결과는 거칠기 계수를 향상시키면 분리 영역 치수를 최대 38%까지 줄일 수 있는 반면, 드롭 구현 효과는 사용된 거칠기 계수를 기반으로 이 영역을 다르게 축소할 수 있음을 보여주었습니다. 두 가지 방법을 결합하면 분리 영역 치수를 최대 63%까지 줄일 수 있습니다.

Flow separation at the upstream side of lateral turnouts (intakes) is a critical issue causing eddy currents at the turnout entrance. It reduces the effective width of flow, turnout capacity and efficiency. Therefore, it is essential to identify the dimensions of the separation zone and propose remedies to reduce its dimensions. Installation of 7 types of roughening elements at the turnout entrance and 3 different bed invert levels, with 4 different discharges (making a total of 84 experiments) were examined in this study as a method to reduce the dimensions of the separation zone. Additionally, a 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model was utilized to evaluate the flow pattern and dimensions of the separation zone. Results showed that enhancing the roughness coefficient can reduce the separation zone dimensions up to 38% while the drop implementation effect can scale down this area differently based on the roughness coefficient used. Combining both methods can reduce the separation zone dimensions up to 63%.

HIGHLIGHTS

Listen

  • Flow separation at the upstream side of lateral turnouts (intakes) is a critical issue causing eddy currents at the turnout entrance.
  • Installation of 7 types of roughening elements at the turnout entrance and 3 different bed level inverts were investigated.
  • Additionally, a 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model was utilized to evaluate the flow.
  • Combining both methods can reduce the separation zone dimensions by up to 63%.
Experimental and numerical study of flow at a 90 degree lateral turnout with enhanced roughness coefficient and invert level changes
Experimental and numerical study of flow at a 90 degree lateral turnout with enhanced roughness coefficient and invert level changes

Keywords

discharge ratioflow separation zoneintakethree dimensional simulation

INTRODUCTION

Listen

Turnouts or intakes are amongst the oldest and most widely used hydraulic structures in irrigation networks. Turnouts are also used in water distribution, transmission networks, power generation facilities, and waste water treatment plants etc. The flows that enter a turnout have a strong momentum in the direction of the main waterway and that is why flow separation occurs inside the turnout. The horizontal vortex formed in the separation area is a suitable place for accumulation and deposition of sediments. The separation zone is a vulnerable area for sedimentation and for reduction of effective flow due to a contracted flow region in the lateral channel. Sedimentaion in the entrance of the intake can gradually be transfered into the lateral channel and decrease the capacity of the higher order channels over time (Jalili et al. 2011). On the other hand, the existence of coarse-grained materials causes erosion and destruction of the waterway side walls and bottom. In addition, sedimentation creates conditions for vegetation to take root and damage the waterway cover, which causes water to leak from its perimeter. Therefore, it is important to investigate the pattern of the flow separation area in turnouts and provide solutions to reduce the dimensions of this area.

The three-dimensional flow structure at turnouts is quite complex. In an experimental study by Neary & Odgaard (1993) in a 90-degree water turnout it was found that the secondary currents and separation zone varies from the bed to the water surface. They also found that at a 90-degree water turnout, the bed roughness and discharge ratio play a critical role in flow structure. They asserted that an explanation of sediment behavior at a diversion entrance requires a comprehensive understanding of 3D flow patterns around the lateral-channel entrance. In addition, they suggested that there is a strong similarity between flow in a channel bend and a diversion channel, and that this similarity can rationalize the use of bend flow models for estimation of 3D flow structures in diversion channels.

Some of the distinctive characteristics of dividing flow in a turnout include a zone of separation immediately near the entrance of the lateral turnout (separation zone), a contracted flow region in the branch channel (contracted flow), and a stagnation point near the downstream corner of the junction (stagnation zone). In the region downstream of the junction, along the continuous far wall, separation due to flow expansion may occur (Ramamurthy et al. 2007), that is, a separation zone. This can both reduce the turnout efficiency and the effective width of flow while increasing the sediment deposition in the turnout entrance (Jalili et al. 2011). Installation of submerged vanes in the turnout entrance is a method which is already applied to reduce the size of flow separation zones. The separation zone draws sediments and floating materials into themselves. This reduces effective cross-section area and reduces transmission capacity. These results have also been obtained in past studies, including by Ramamurthy et al. (2007) and in Jalili et al. (2011). Submerged vanes (Iowa vanes) are designed in order to modify the near-bed flow pattern and bed-sediment motion in the transverse direction of the river. The vanes are installed vertically on the channel bed, at an angle of attack which is usually oriented at 10–25 degrees to the local primary flow direction. Vane height is typically 0.2–0.5 times the local water depth during design flow conditions and vane length is 2–3 times its height (Odgaard & Wang 1991). They are vortex-generating devices that generate secondary circulation, thereby redistributing sediment within the channel cross section. Several factors affect the flow separation zone such as the ratio of lateral turnout discharge to main channel discharge, angle of lateral channel with respect to the main channel flow direction and size of applied submerged vanes. Nakato et al. (1990) found that sediment management using submerged vanes in the turnout entrance to Station 3 of the Council Bluffs plant, located on the Missouri River, is applicable and efficient. The results show submerged vanes are an appropriate solution for reduction of sediment deposition in a turnout entrance. The flow was treated as 3D and tests results were obtained for the flow characteristics of dividing flows in a 90-degree sharp-edged, junction. The main and lateral channel were rectangular with the same dimensions (Ramamurthy et al., 2007).

Keshavarzi & Habibi (2005) carried out experiments on intake with angles of 45, 67, 79 and 90 degrees in different discharge ratios and reported the optimum angle for inlet flow with the lowest flow separation area to be about 55 degrees. The predicted flow characteristics were validated using experimental data. The results indicated that the width and length of the separation zone increases with the increase in the discharge ratio Qr (ratio of outflow per unit width in the turnout to inflow per unit width in the main channel).

Abbasi et al. (2004) performed experiments to investigate the dimensions of the flow separation zone at a lateral turnout entrance. They demonstrated that the length and width of the separation zone decreases with the increasing ratio of lateral turn-out discharge. They also found that with a reducing angle of lateral turnout, the length of the separation zone scales up and width of separation zone reduces. Then they compared their observations with results of Kasthuri & Pundarikanthan (1987) who conducted some experiments in an open-channel junction formed by channels of equal width and an angle of lateral 90 degree turnout, which showed the dimensions of the separation zone in their experiments to be smaller than in previous studies. Kasthuri & Pundarikanthan (1987) studied vortex and flow separation dimensions at the entrance of a 90 degree channel. Results showed that increasing the diversion discharge ratio can reduce the length and width of the vortex area. They also showed that the length and width of the vortex area remain constant at diversion ratios greater than 0.7. Karami Moghaddam & Keshavarzi (2007) analyzed the flow characteristics in turnouts with angles of 55 and 90 degrees. They reported that the dimensions of the separation zone decrease by increasing the discharge ratio and reducing the turnout angle with respect to the main channel. Studies about flow separation zone can be found in Jalili et al. (2011)Nikbin & Borghei (2011)Seyedian et al. (2008).

Jamshidi et al. (2016) measured the dimensions of a flow separation zone in the presence of submerged vanes with five arrangements (parallel, stagger, compound, piney and butterflies). Results showed that the ratio of the width to the length of the separation zone (shape index) was between 0.2 and 0.28 for all arrangements.

Karami et al. (2017) developed a 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code which was calibrated by measured data. They used the model to evaluate flow pattern, diversion ratio of discharge, strength of the secondary flow, and dimensions of the vortex inside the channel in various dikes and submerged vane installation scenarios. Results showed that the diversion ratio of discharge in the diversion channel is dependent on the width of the flow separation area in the main channel. A dike, perpendicular to the flow, doubles the ratio of diverted discharge and reduces the suspended sediment load compared with the base-line situation by creating outer arch conditions. In addition, increasing the longitudinal distance between vanes increases the velocity gradient between the vanes and leads to a more severe erosion of the bed near the vanes.Figure 1VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Laboratory channel dimensions.

Al-Zubaidy & Hilo (2021) used the Navier–Stokes equation to study the flow of incompressible fluids. Using the CFD software ANSYS Fluent 19.2, 3D flow patterns were simulated at a diversion channel. Their results showed good agreement using the comparison between the experimental and numerical results when the k-omega turbulence viscous model was employed. Simulation of the flow pattern was then done at the lateral channel junction using a variety of geometry designs. These improvements included changing the intake’s inclination angle and chamfering and rounding the inner corner of the intake mouth instead of the sharp edge. Flow parameters at the diversion including velocity streamlines, bed shear stress, and separation zone dimensions were computed in their study. The findings demonstrated that changing the 90° lateral intake geometry can improve the flow pattern and bed shear stress at the intake junction. Consequently, sedimentation and erosion problems are reduced. According to the conclusions of their study, a branching angle of 30° to 45° is the best configuration for increasing branching channel discharge, lowering branching channel sediment concentration.

The review of the literature shows that most of the studies deal with turnout angle, discharge ratio and implementation of vanes as techniques to reduce the area of the separation zone. This study examines the effect of roughness coefficient and drop implementation at the entrance of a 90-degree lateral turnout on the dimensions of the separation zone. As far as the authors are aware, these two variables have never been studied as a remedy to decrease the separation zone dimensions whilst enhancing turnout efficiency. Additionally, a three-dimensional numerical model is applied to simulate the flow pattern around the turnout. The numerical results are verified against experimental data.

METHOD

Experimental setup

Listen

The experiments were conducted in a 90 degree dividing flow laboratory channel. The main channel is 15 m long, 0.5 m wide and 0.4 m high and the branch channel is 3 m long, 0.35 m wide and 0.4 m high, as shown in Figure 1. The tests were carried out at 9.65 m from the beginning of the flume and were far enough from the inlet, so we were sure that the flow was fully developed. According to Kirkgöz & Ardiçlioğlu (1997) the length of the developing region would be approximantly 65 and 72 times the flow depth. In this study, the depth is 9 cm, which makes this condition.

Both the main and lateral channel had a slope of 0.0003 with side walls of concrete. A 100 hp pump discharged the water into a stilling basin at the entrance of the main flume. The discharge was measured using an ultrasonic discharge meter around the discharge pipe. Eighty-four experiments in total were carried out at range of 0.1<Fr<0.4 (Froude numbers in main channel and upstream of turnout). The depth of water in the main channel in the experiments was 9 cm, in which case the effect of surface tension can be considered; according to research by Zolghadr & Shafai Bejestan (2020) and Zolghadr et al. (2021), when the water depth is more than 6 cm, the effect of surface tension is reduced and can be ignored given that the separation phenomenon occurs in the boundary layer, the height of the roughness creates disturbances in growth and development of the boundary layer and, as a result, separation growth is also faced with disruption and its dimensions grow less compared to smooth surfaces. Similar conditions occur in case of drop implementation. A disturbance occurs in the growth of the boundary layer and as a result the separation zone dimensions decrease. In order to investigate the effect of roughness coefficient and drop implementation on the separation zone dimensions, four different discharges (16, 18, 21, 23 l/s) in subcritical conditions, seven Manning (Strickler) roughness coefficients (0.009, 0.011, 0.017, 0.023, 0.028, 0.030, 0.032) as shown in Figure 2 and three invert elevation differences between the main channel and lateral turnout invert (0, 5 and 10 cm) at the entrance of the turnout were considered. The Manning roughness coefficient values were selected based on available and feasible values for real conditions, so that 0.009 is equivalent to galvanized sheet roughness and selected for the baseline tests. 0.011 is for concrete with neat surface, 0.017 and 0.023 are for unfinished and gunite concrete respectively. 0.030 and 0.032 values are for concrete on irregular excavated rock (Chow 1959). The roughness coefficients were created by gluing sediment particles on a thin galvanized sheet which was installed at the upstream side of the lateral turnout. The values of roughness coefficients were calculated based on the Manning-Strickler formula. For this purpose, some uniformly graded sediment samples were prepared and the Manning roughness coefficient of each sample was determined with respect to the median size (D50) value pasted into the Manning-Strickler formula. Some KMnO4 was sifted in the main channel upstream to visualize and measure the dimensions of the separation zone. Consequently, when KMnO4 approached the lateral turnout a photo of the separation zone was taken from a top view. All the experiments were recorded and several photos were taken during the experiment after stablishment of steady flow conditions. The photos were then imported to AutoCAD to measure the separation zone dimensions. Because all the shooting was done with a high-definition camera and it was possible to zoom in, the results are very accurate.Figure 2VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Roughness plates.

The velocity values were also recorded by a one-dimensional velocity meter at 15 cm distance from the turnout entrance and in transverse direction (perpendicular to the flow direction).

The water level was also measured by depth gauges with a accuracy of 0.1 mm, and velocity in one direction with a single-dimensional KENEK LP 1100 with an accuracy of ±0.02 m/s (0–1 m/s), ± 0.04 m/s (1–2 m/s), ± 0.08 m/s (2–4 m/s), ±0.10 m/s (4–5 m/s).

Numerical simulation

ListenA FLOW-3D numerical model was utilized as a solver of the Navier-Stokes equation to simulate the three-dimensional flow field at the entrance of the turnout. The governing equations included continuity momentum equations. The continuity equation, regardless of the density of the fluid in the form of Cartesian coordinates x, y, and z, is as follows:

formula

(1)where uv, and w represent the velocity components in the x, y, and z directions, respectively; AxAy, and Az are the surface flow fractions in the xy, and z directions, respectively; VF denotes flow volume fraction; r is the density of the fluid; t is time; and Rsor refers to the source of the mass. Equations (2)–(4) show momentum equations in xy and z dimensions respectively :

formula

(2)

formula

(3)

formula

(4)where GxGy, and Gz are the accelerations caused by gravity in the xy, and z directions, respectively; and fxfy, and fz are the accelerations caused by viscosity in the xy, and z directions, respectively.

The turbulence models used in this study were the renormalized group (RNG) models. Evaluation of the concordance of the mentioned models with experimental studies showed that the RNG model provides more accurate results.

Two blocks of mesh were used to simulate the main channels and lateral turnout. The meshes were denser in the vicinity of the entrance of the turnout in order to increase the accuracy of computations. Boundary conditions for the main mesh block included inflow for the channel entrance (volumetric flow rate), outflow for the channel exit, ‘wall’ for the bed and the right boundary and ‘symmetry’ for the top (free surface) and left boundaries (turnout). The side wall roughness coefficient was given to the software as the Manning number in surface roughness of any component. Considering the restrictions in the available processor, a main mesh block with appropriate mesh size was defined to simulate the main flow field in the channel, while the nested mesh-block technique was utilized to create a very dense solution field near the roughness plate in order to provide accurate results around the plates and near the entrance of the lateral turnout. This technique reduced the number of required mesh elements by up to 60% in comparison with the method in which the mesh size of the main solution field was decreased to the required extent.

The numerical outputs are verified against experimental data. The hydraulic characteristics of the experiment are shown in Table 1.Table 1

Hydraulic conditions of the flow

Q(L/s)FrY1 (m)Q2/Q1
16 0.449 0.09 0.22 
18 0.335 0.09 0.61 
21 0.242 0.09 0.71 
23 0.180 0.09 1.04 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Experimental results

Listen

During the experiments, the dimensions of the separation zone were recorded with an HD camera. Some photos were imported to AutoCad software. Then, the separation zones dimensions were measured and compared in different scenarios.

At the beginning, the flow pattern in the separation zone for four different hydraulic conditions was studied for seven different Manning roughness coefficients from 0.009 to 0.032. To compare the obtained results, roughness of 0.009 was considered as the base line. The percentage of reduction in separation zone area in different roughness coefficients is shown in Figure 3. According to this figure, by increasing the roughness of the turnout side wall, the separation zone area ratio reduces (ratio of separation zone area to turnout area). In other words, in any desired Froud number, the highest dimensions of the separation zone area are related to the lowest roughness coefficients. In Figure 3, ‘A’ is the area of the separation zone and ‘Ai’ represents the total area of the turnout.Figure 3VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Effect of roughness on separation zone dimensions.Figure 4VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Effect of roughness on separation zone dimensions.

It should be mentioned that the separation zone dimensions change with depth, so that the area is larger at the surface than near the bed. This study measured the dimensions of this area at the surface. Figure 4 show exactly where the roughness elements were located.Figure 5VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Comparison of separation zone for n=0.023 and n=0.032.

Figure 5 shows images of the separation zone at n=0.023 and n=0.032 as examples, and show that the separation area at n=0.032 is smaller than that of n=0.023.

The difference between the effect of the two 0.032 and 0.030 roughnesses is minor. In other words, the dimensions of the separation zone decreased by increasing roughness up to 0.030 and then remained with negligable changes.

In the next step, the effect of intake invert relative to the main stream (drop) on the dimensions of the separation zone was investigated. To do this, three different invert levels were considered: (1) without drop; (2) a 5 cm drop between the main canal and intake canal; and (3) a 10 cm drop between the main canal and intake canal. The without drop mode was considered as the control state. Figure 6 shows the effect of drop implementation on separation zone dimensions. Tables 2 and 3 show the reduced percentage of separation zone areas in 5 and 10 cm drop compared to no drop conditions as the base line. It was found that the best results were obtained when a 10 cm drop was implemented.Table 2

Decrease percentage of separation zone area in 5 cm drop

Frn=0.011n=0.017n=0.023n=0.028n=0.030n=0.032
0.08 10.56 11.06 25.27 33.03 35.57 36.5 
0.121 7.66 11.14 11.88 15.93 34.59 36.25 
0.353 1.38 2.63 8.17 14.39 31.20 31.29 
0.362 11.54 19.56 25.73 37.89 38.31 

Table 3

Decrease percentage of separation zone area in 10 cm drop

Frn=0.011n=0.017n=0.023n=0.028n=0.030n=0.032
0.047 4.30 8.75 23.47 31.22 34.96 35.13 
0.119 11.01 13.16 15.02 21.48 39.45 40.68 
0.348 3.89 5.71 9.82 16.09 29 30.96 
0.354 2.84 10.44 18.42 25.45 35.68 35.76 

Figure 6VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Effect of drop implementation on separation zone dimensions.

The combined effect of drop and roughness is shown in Figure 7. According to this figure, by installing a drop structure at the entrance of the intake, the dimensions of the separation zone scales down in any desired roughness coefficient. Results indicated that by increasing the roughness coefficient or drop implementation individually, the separation zone area decreases up to 38 and 25% respectively. However, employing both techniques simultaneously can reduce the separation zone area up to 63% (Table 4). The reason for the reduction of the dimensions of the separation zone area by drop implementation can be attributed to the increase of discharge ratio. This reduces the dimensions of the separation zone area.Table 4

Reduction in percentage of combined effect of roughness and 10 cm drop

Qin=0.011n=0.017n=0.023n=0.028n=0.030n=0.032
16 32.3 35.07 37.2 45.7 58.01 59.1 
18 44.5 34.15 36.18 48.13 54.2 56.18 
21 43.18 32.33 42.30 37.79 57.16 63.2 
23 40.56 34.5 34.09 46.25 50.12 57.2 

Figure 7VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Combined effect of roughness and drop on separation zone dimensions.

This method increases the discharge ratio (ratio of turnout to main channel discharge). The results are compatible with the literature. Some other researchers reported that increasing the discharge ratio can scale down the separation zone dimensions (Karami Moghaddam & Keshavarzi 2007Ramamurthy et al. 2007). However, these researchers employed other methods to enhance the discharge ratio. Drop implementation is simple and applicable in practice, since there is normally an elevation difference between the main and lateral canal in irrigation networks to ensure gravity flow occurance.

Table 4 depicts the decrease in percentage of the separation zone compared to base line conditions in different arrangements of the combined tests.Figure 8VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Velocity profiles for various roughness coefficients along turnout width.

A comparison between the proposed methods introduced in this paper and traditional methods such as installation of submerged vanes, and changing the inlet geometry (angle, radius) was performed. Figure 8 shows the comparison of the results. The comparison shows that the new techniques can be highly influential and still practical. In this research, with no change in structural geometry (enhancement of roughness coefficient) or minor changes with respect to drop implementation, the dimensions of the separation zone are decreased noticeably. The velocity values were also recorded by a one-dimensional velocity meter at 15 cm distance from the turnout entrance and in a transverse direction (perpendicular to the flow direction). The results are shown in Figure 9.Figure 9VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Effect of roughness on separation zone dimensions in numerical study.

Numerical results

Listen

This study examined the flow patterns around the entrance of a diversion channel due to various wall roughnesses in the diversion channel. Results indicated that increasing the discharge ratio in the main channel and diversion channel reduces the area of the separation zone in the diversion channel.Figure 10VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Comparision of the vortex area (software output) for three roughnesses (0.009, 0.023 and 0.032).A laboratory and numerical error rate of 0.2605 was calculated from the following formula,

formula

where Uexp is the experimental result, Unum is the numerical result, and N is the number of data.

Figure 9 shows the effect of roughness on separation zone dimensions in numerical study. Figure 10 compares the vortex area (software output) for three roughnesses, 0.009, 0.023 and 0.032 and Figure 11 shows the flow lines (tecplot output) that indicate the effect of roughness on flow in the separation zone. Numerical analysis shows that by increasing the roughness coefficient, the dimensions of the separation zone area decrease, as shown in Figure 10 where the separation zone area at n=0.032 is less than the separation zone area at n=0.009.Figure 11VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Comparison of vortex area in 3D mode (tecplot output) with two roughnesses (a) 0.009 and (b) 0.032.Figure 12VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Velocity vector for flow condition Q1/422 l/s, near surface.

The velocities intensified moving midway toward the turnout showing that the effective area is scaled down. The velocity values were almost equal to zero near the side walls as expected. As shown in Figure 12 the approach vortex area velocity decreases. Experimental and numerical measured velocity at x=0.15 m of the diversion channel compared in Figure 13 shows that away from the separation zone area, the velocity increases. All longitudinal velocity contours near the vortex area are distinctly different between different roughnesses. The separation zone is larger at less roughness both in length and width.Figure 13VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Exprimental and numerical measured velocity.

CONCLUSION

Listen

This study introduces practical and feasible methods for enhancing turnout efficiency by reducing the separation zone dimensions. Increasing the roughness coefficient and implementation of inlet drop were considered as remedies for reduction of separation zone dimensions. A data set has been compiled that fully describes the complex, 3D flow conditions present in a 90 degree turnout channel for selected flow conditions. The aim of this numerical model was to compare the results of a laboratory model in the area of the separation zone and velocity. Results showed that enhancing roughness coefficient reduce the separation zone dimensions up to 38% while the drop implementation effect can scale down this area differently based on roughness coefficient used. Combining both methods can reduce the separation zone dimensions up to 63%. Further research is proposed to investigate the effect of roughness and drop implementation on sedimentation pattern at lateral turnouts. The dimensions of the separation zone decreases with the increase of the non-dimensional parameter, due to the reduction ratio of turnout discharge increasing in all the experiments.

This method increases the discharge ratio (ratio of turnout to main channel discharge). The results are compatible with the literature. Other researchers have reported that intensifying the discharge ratio can scale down the separation zone dimensions (Karami Moghaddam & Keshavarzi 2007Ramamurthy et al. 2007). However, they employed other methods to enhance the discharge ratio. Employing both techniques simultaneously can decrease the separation zone dimensions up to 63%. A comparison between the new methods introduced in this paper and traditional methods such as installation of submerged vanes, and changing the inlet geometry (angle, radius) was performed. The comparison shows that the new techniques can be highly influential and still practical. The numerical and laboratory models are in good agreement and show that the method used in this study has been effective in reducing the separation area. This method is simple, economical and can prevent sediment deposition in the intake canal. Results show that CFD prediction of the fluid through the separation zone at the canal intake can be predicted reasonably well and the RNG model offers the best results in terms of predictability.

DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT

Listen

All relevant data are included in the paper or its Supplementary Information.

REFERENCES

Abbasi A., Ghodsian M., Habibi M. & Salehi Neishabouri S. A. 2004 Experimental investigation on dimensions of flow separation zone at lateral intakeentrance. Research & Construction; Pajouhesh va Sazandegi 62, 38–44. (In Persian).Google Scholar Al-Zubaidy R. & Hilo A. 2021 Numerical investigation of flow behavior at the lateral intake using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Materials Today: Proceedings. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.11.172.Google Scholar Chow V. T. 1959 Open Channel Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill, New York.Jalili H., Hosseinzadeh Dalir A. & Farsadizadeh D. 2011 Effect of intake geometry on the sediment transport and lateral flow pattern. Iranian Water Research Journal 5 (9), 1–10. (In Persian).Google Scholar Jamshidi A., Farsadizadeh D. & Hosseinzadeh Dalir A. 2016 Variations of flow separation zone at lateral intake entrance using submerged vanes. Journal of Civil Engineering Urban 6 (3), 54–63. Journal homepage. Available from: www.ojceu.ir/main.Google Scholar Karami Moghaddam K. & Keshavarzi A. 2007 Investigation of flow structure in lateral intakes of 55° and 90° with rounded entrance edge. In: 03 National Congress on Civil Engineering University of Tabriz. Available from: https://civilica.com/doc/16317. (In Persian).Google Scholar Karami H., Farzin S., Sadrabadi M. T. & Moazeni H. 2017 Simulation of flow pattern at rectangular lateral intake with different dike and submerged vane scenarios. Journal of Water Science and Engineering 10 (3), 246–255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wse.2017.10.001.Google ScholarCrossref  Kasthuri B. & Pundarikanthan N. V. 1987 Discussion on separation zone at open- channel junction. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 113 (4), 543–548.Google ScholarCrossref  Keshavarzi A. & Habibi L. 2005 Optimizing water intake angle by flow separation analysis. Journal of Irrigation and Drain 54, 543–552. https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.207.Google ScholarCrossref  Kirkgöz M. S. & Ardiçlioğlu M. 1997 Velocity profiles of developing and developed open channel flow. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 1099–1105. 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1997)123:12(1099).Google Scholar Nakato T., Kennedy J. F. & Bauerly D. 1990 Pumpstation intake-shoaling control with submerge vanes. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1990)116:1(119).Google Scholar Neary V. S. & Odgaard J. A. 1993 Three-dimensional flow structure at open channel diversions. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. ASCE 119 (11), 1224–1230. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1993)119:11(1223).Google ScholarCrossref  Nikbin S. & Borghei S. M. 2011 Experimental investigation of submerged vanes effect on dimensions of flow separation zone at a 90° openchannel junction. In: 06rd National Congress on Civil Engineering University of Semnan. (In Persian). Available from: https://civilica.com/doc/120494.Google Scholar Odgaard J. A. & Wang Y. 1991 Sediment management with submerged vanes, I: theory. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 117 (3), 267–283.Google ScholarCrossref  Ramamurthy A. S., Junying Q. & Diep V. 2007 Numerical and experimental study of dividing open-channel flows. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. See: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2007)133:10(1135).Google Scholar Seyedian S., Karami Moghaddam K. & Shafai Begestan M. 2008 Determining the optimal radius in lateral intakes of 55° and 90° using variation of flow velocity. In: 07th Iranian Hydraulic Conference. Power & Water University of Technology (PWUT). (In Persian). Available from: https://civilica.com/doc/56251.Google Scholar Zolghadr M. & Shafai Bejestan M. 2020 Six legged concrete (SLC) elements as scour countermeasures at wing wall bridge abutments. International Journal of River Basin Management. doi: 10.1080/15715124.2020.1726357.Google Scholar Zolghadr M., Zomorodian S. M. A., Shabani R. & Azamatulla H.Md. 2021 Migration of sand mining pit in rivers: an experimental, numerical and case study. Measurement. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2020.108944.Google Scholar © 2022 The AuthorsThis is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits copying and redistribution for non-commercial purposes with no derivatives, provided the original work is properly cited (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Fluid Thermodynamic Simulation of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in Laser Wire Deposition

Fluid Thermodynamic Simulation of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in Laser Wire Deposition

Xiang WangLin-Jie ZhangJie Ning, and Suck-Joo Na
Published Online:8 Apr 2022https://doi.org/10.1089/3dp.2021.0159

Abstract

A 3D numerical model of heat transfer and fluid flow of molten pool in the process of laser wire deposition was presented by computational fluid dynamics technique. The simulation results of the deposition morphology were also compared with the experimental results under the condition of liquid bridge transfer mode. Moreover, they showed a good agreement. Considering the effect of recoil pressure, the morphology of the deposit metal obtained by the simulation was similar to the experiment result. Molten metal at the wire tip was peeled off and flowed into the molten pool, and then spread to both sides of the deposition layer under the recoil pressure. In addition, the results of simulation and high-speed charge-coupled device presented that a wedge transition zone, with a length of ∼6 mm, was formed behind the keyhole in the liquid bridge transfer process, where the height of deposited metal decreased gradually. After solidification, metal in the transition zone retained the original melt morphology, resulting in a decrease in the height of the tail of the deposition layer.

Keywords

LWD, CFD, liquid bridge transfer, fluid dynamics, wedge transition zone

Fluid Thermodynamic Simulation of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in Laser Wire Deposition
Fluid Thermodynamic Simulation of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in Laser Wire Deposition
Fluid Thermodynamic Simulation of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in Laser Wire Deposition
Fluid Thermodynamic Simulation of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in Laser Wire Deposition

References

1. Matthews MJ, Guss G, Khairallah SA, et al. Denudation of metal powder layers in laser powder bed fusion processes. Acta Mater 2016;114:33–42. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

2. Ge WJ, Han SW, Fang YC, et al. Mechanism of surface morphology in electron beam melting of Ti6Al4V based on computational flow patterns. Appl Surf Sci 2017;419:150–158. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

3. Bai XW, Colegrove P, Ding JL, et al. Numerical analyswas of heat transfer and fluid flow in multilayer deposition of PAW-based wire and arc additive manufacturing. Int J Heat Mass Transf 2018;124:504–516. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

4. Torkamany MJ, Kaplan AFH, Ghaini FM. Wire deposition by a laser-induced boiling front. Opt Laser Technol 2015;69:104–112. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

5. Yu Y, Huang W, Wang G. Investigation of melting dynamics of filler wire during wire feed laser welding. J Mec Sci Technol 2013;27:1097–1108. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

6. Ma G, Li L, Chen Y. Effects of beam confgurations on wire melting and transfer behaviors in dual beam laser welding with fller wire. Opt Laser Technol 2017;91:138–148. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

7. Abioye TE, Folkes J, Clare AT. A parametric study of Inconel 625 wire laser deposition. J Mater Process Tech 2013;213:2145–2151. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

8. Wei S, Wang G, Shin YC, et al. Comprehensive modeling of transport phenomena in laser hot-wire deposition process. Int J Heat Mass Transf 2018;125:1356–1368. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

9. Gu H, Li L. Computational fluid dynamic simulation of gravity and pressure effects in laser metal deposition for potential additive manufacturing in space. Int J Heat Mass Transf 2019;140:51–65. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

10. Hu R, Luo M, Liu T, et al. Thermal fluid dynamics of liquid bridge transfer in laser wire deposition 3D printing. Sci Technolf Weld Join 2019;24:1–11. Google Scholar

11. Chatterjee D, Chakraborty S. A hybrid lattice Boltzmann model for solid–liquid phase transition in presence of fluid flow. Phys Lett A 2006;351:359–367. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

12. Wu L, Cheon J, Kiran DV, et al. CFD simulations of GMA welding of horizontal fillet joints based on coordinate rotation of arc models. J Mater Process Tech 2016;231:221–238. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

13. Gerhard W, Boyer RR, Collings EW. Materials Properties Handbook: Titanium Alloys. ASM International: Almere, The Netherlands, 1994. Google Scholar

14. Colegrove P, Simiand PE, Varughese A, et al. Evaluation of a drilling model approach to represent laser spot microwelding. In: ASM Proceedings of the international conference: trends in welding research; 2009. Google Scholar

15. Boivineau M, Cagran C, Doytier D, et al. Thermophysical properties of solid and liquid Ti-6Al-4V (TA6V) alloy. Int J Thermophys 2006;27:507–529. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

16. Shejndlin AE, Kenisarin MM, Chekhovskoj VY. Melting point of yttrium oxide. AN SSSR 1974;216:582–584. Google Scholar

17. Cho JH, Na SJ. Teflection and Fresnel absorption of laser beam in keyhole. J Phys D Appl Phys 2006;39:5372–5378. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

18. Han SW, Ahn J, Na SJ. A study on ray tracing method for CFD simulations of laser keyhole welding: Progressive search method. Weld World 2016;60:247–258. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

19. Allmen MV. Laser-Beam Interactions with Materials. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg, 1995. Google Scholar

20. Dobson PJ. Absorption and scattering of light by small particles. Phys Bull 1984;35:104. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

21. Greses J, Hilton PA, Barlow CY. Plume attenuation under high power Nd:yttritium aluminum garnet laser welding. J Laser Appl 2004;16:9–15. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

22. Shcheglov PY, Uspenskiy SA, Gumenyuk AV, et al. Plume attenuation of laser radiation during high power fiber laser welding. Laser Phys Lett 2011;8:475–480. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

23. Yang P, Liou KN. Effective refractive index for determining ray propagation in an absorbing dielectric particle. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2009;110:300–306. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

24. Barber PW. Absorption and scattering of light by small particles. J Colloid Interface Sci 1984;98:290–291. Google Scholar

25. Hu ZR, Chen X, Yang G, et al. Metal transfer in wire feeding-based electron beam 3D printing: Modes, dynamics, and transition criterion. Int J Heat Mass Transf 2018;126:877–887. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

26. David SA, Babu SS, Vitek JM. Welding: Solidification and microstructure. JOM 2013;55:14–20. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

27. Zhong ML, Liu W. Laser surface cladding: The state of the art and challenges. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part C J Mech Eng Sci 2010;224:1041–1060. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

28. Kobryn PA, Semiatin S. Microstructure and texture evolution during solidification processing of Ti-6Al-4V. J Mater Process Technol 2003;135:330–339. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

29. Debroy T, David S. Physical processes in fusion welding. Rev Mod Phys 1995;67:85–112. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

30. Lee YS, Nordin M, Babu SS, et al. Effect of fluid convection on dendrite arm spacing in laser deposition. Metall Trans B 2014;45:1520–1528. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

31. Rappaz M, David SA, Vitek JM, et al. Development of microstructures in Fe15Ni15Cr single crystal electron beam welds. Metall Trans A 1989;20:1125–1138. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

Figure 6. Circular section of the viscosity and shear-rate clouds.

Simulation and Visual Tester Verification of Solid Propellant Slurry Vacuum Plate Casting

Wu Yue,Li Zhuo,Lu RongFirst published: 26 February 2020 https://doi.org/10.1002/prep.201900411Citations: 3

Abstract

Using an improved Carreau constitutive model, a numerical simulation of the casting process of a type of solid propellant slurry vacuum plate casting was carried out using the Flow3D software. Through the flow process in the orifice flow channel and the combustion chamber, the flow velocity of the slurry passing through the plate flow channel was quantitatively analyzed, and the viscosity, shear rate, and leveling characteristics of the slurry in the combustion chamber were qualitatively analyzed and predicted. The pouring time, pouring quality, and flow state predicted by the numerical simulation were verified using a visual tester consisting of a vacuum plate casting system in which a pouring experiment was carried out. Studies have shown that HTPB three-component propellant slurry is a typical yielding pseudoplastic fluid. When the slurry flows through the flower plate and the airfoil, the fluid shear rate reaches its maximum value and the viscosity of the slurry decreases. The visual pouring platform was built and the experiment was controlled according to the numerically-calculated parameters, ensuring the same casting speed. The comparison between the predicted casting quality and the one obtained in the verification test resulted in an error less than 10 %. Moreover, the error between the simulated casting completion time and the process verification test result was also no more than 10 %. Last, the flow state of the slurry during the simulation was consistent with the one during the experimental test. The overall leveling of the slurry in the combustion chamber was adequate and no relatively large holes and flaws developed during the pouring process.

개선된 Carreau 구성 모델을 사용하여 FLOW-3D 소프트웨어를 사용하여 고체 추진제 슬러리 진공판 유형의 Casting Process에 대한 수치 시뮬레이션을 수행했습니다. 오리피스 유로와 연소실에서의 유동과정을 통해 판 유로를 통과하는 슬러리의 유속을 정량적으로 분석하고, 연소실에서 슬러리의 점도, 전단율, 레벨링 특성을 정성적으로 분석하하고, 예측하였습니다.

타설시간, 타설품질, 수치해석으로 예측된 ​​유동상태는 타설실험을 수행한 진공판주조시스템으로 구성된 비주얼 테스터를 이용하여 검증하였습니다.

연구에 따르면 HTPB 3성분 추진제 슬러리는 전형적인 생성 가소성 유체입니다. 슬러리가 플라워 플레이트와 에어포일을 통과할 때 유체 전단율이 최대값에 도달하고 슬러리의 점도가 감소합니다.

시각적 주입 플랫폼이 구축되었고 동일한 주조 속도를 보장하기 위해 수치적으로 계산된 매개변수에 따라 실험이 제어되었습니다. 예측된 casting 품질과 검증 테스트에서 얻은 품질을 비교한 결과 10 % 미만의 오류가 발생했습니다.

또한 모의 casting 완료시간과 공정검증시험 결과의 오차도 10 % 이하로 나타났습니다.

마지막으로 시뮬레이션 중 슬러리의 흐름 상태는 실험 테스트 시와 일치하였다. 연소실에서 슬러리의 전체 레벨링은 적절했으며 주입 과정에서 상대적으로 큰 구멍과 결함이 발생하지 않았습니다.

Figure 1. The equipment used in the vacuum flower-plate pouring process.
Figure 1. The equipment used in the vacuum flower-plate pouring process.
Figure 2. Calculation model.
Figure 2. Calculation model.
Figure 3. Grid block division unit.
Figure 3. Grid block division unit.
Figure 4. Circular section of the speed cloud.
Figure 4. Circular section of the speed cloud.
Figure 5. Viscosity and shear rate distribution cloud pattern flowing through the plate holes.
Figure 5. Viscosity and shear rate distribution cloud pattern flowing through the plate holes.
Figure 6. Circular section of the viscosity and shear-rate clouds.
Figure 6. Circular section of the viscosity and shear-rate clouds.
Figure 7. Volume fraction cloud chart at different time.
Figure 7. Volume fraction cloud chart at different time.
Figure 8. Experimental program.
Figure 8. Experimental program.
Figure 9. Emulation experimental device.
Figure 9. Emulation experimental device.
Figure 10. Visualization of the flow state of the pulp inside the tester.
Figure 10. Visualization of the flow state of the pulp inside the tester.

References

[1] B. M. Bandgar, V. N. Krishnamurthy, T. Mukundan, K. C. Sharma,
Mathematical Modeling of Rheological Properties of HydroxylTerminated Polybutadiene Binder and Dioctyl Adipate Plasticizer, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2002, 85, 1002–1007.
[2] B. Thiyyarkandy, M. Jain, G. S. Dombe, M. Mehilal, P. P. Singh, B.
Bhattacharya, Numerical Studies on Flow Behavior of Composite Propellant Slurry during Vacuum Casting, J.Aerosp.Technol.
Manage. 2012, 4, 197–203.
[3] T. Shimada, H. Habu, Y. Seike, S. Ooya, H. Miyachi, M. Ishikawa,
X-Ray Visualization Measurement of Slurry Flow in Solid Propellant Casting, Flow Meas. Instrum. 2007, 18, 235–240.
[4] Y. Damianou, G. C. Georgiou, On Poiseuille Flows of a Bingham
Plastic with Pressure-Dependent Rheological Parameters, J.
Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 2017, 250, 1–7.
[5] S. Sadasivan, S. K. Arumugam, M. Aggarwal, Numerical Simulation of Diffuser of a Gas Turbine using the Actuator Disc
Model, J.Appl. Fluid Mech. 2019, 12, 77–84.
[6] M. Acosta, V. L. Wiesner, C. J. Martinez, R. W. Trice, J. P. Youngblood, Effect of Polyvinylpyrrolidone Additions on the Rheology of Aqueous, Highly Loaded Alumina Suspensions, J. Am.
Ceram. Soc. 2013, 96, 1372–1382.
[7] Y. Wu, Numerical Simulation and Experiment Study of Flower
Plate Pouring System for Solid Propellant, Chin. J. Expl. Propell.
2017, 41, 506–511.
[8] T. M. G. Chu, J. W. Halloran, High-Temperature Flow Behavior
of Ceramic Suspensions, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 2004, 83, 2189–
2195.
[9] T. Kaully, A. Siegmann, D. Shacham, Rheology of Highly Filled
Natural CaCO3 Composites. I. Effects of Solid Loading and Particle Size Distribution on Capillary Rheometry, Polym. Compos.
2007, 28, 512–523.
[10] M. M. Rueda, M.-C. Auscher, R. Fulchiron, T. Périé, G. Martin, P.
Sonntag, P. Cassagnau, Rheology and Applications of Highly
Filled Polymers: A Review of Current Understanding, Prog. Polym. Sci. 2017, 66, 22–53.
[11] F. Soltani, Ü. Yilmazer, Slip Velocity and Slip Layer Thickness in
Flow of Concentrated Suspensions, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1998,
70, 515–522.

[12] E. Landsem, T. L. Jensen, F. K. Hansen. E. Unneberg, T. E. Kristensen, Neutral Polymeric Bonding Agents (NPBA) and Their
Use in Smokeless Composite Rocket Propellants Based on
HMX-GAP-BuNENA. Propellants, Explos., Pyrotech.. 2012, 37,
581–589.
[13] J. Mewis, N. J. Wagner, Colloidal Suspension Rheology, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
[14] D. M. Kalyon, An Overview of the Rheological Behavior and
Characterization of Energetic Formulations: Ramifications on
Safety and Product Quality, J. Energ. Mater. 2006, 24, 213–245.
[15] H. Ohshima, Effective Viscosity of a Concentrated Suspension
of Uncharged Spherical Soft Particles, Langmuir 2010, 26,
6287–6294.

Figure 8: Instantaneous flow structures extracted using the Q-criterion (Qcriterion=1200) and colored by the magnitude of flow velocity.

Hybrid modeling on 3D hydraulic features of a step-pool unit

Chendi Zhang1
, Yuncheng Xu1,2, Marwan A Hassan3
, Mengzhen Xu1
, Pukang He1
1State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. 2
College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100081, China.
5 3Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, 1984 West Mall, Vancouver BC, V6T1Z2, Canada.
Correspondence to: Chendi Zhang (chendinorthwest@163.com) and Mengzhen Xu (mzxu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn)

Abstract

스텝 풀 시스템은 계류의 일반적인 기반이며 전 세계의 하천 복원 프로젝트에 활용되었습니다. 스텝 풀 장치는 스텝 풀 기능의 형태학적 진화 및 안정성과 밀접하게 상호 작용하는 것으로 보고된 매우 균일하지 않은 수력 특성을 나타냅니다.

그러나 스텝 풀 형태에 대한 3차원 수리학의 자세한 정보는 측정의 어려움으로 인해 부족했습니다. 이러한 지식 격차를 메우기 위해 SfM(Structure from Motion) 및 CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) 기술을 기반으로 하이브리드 모델을 구축했습니다. 이 모델은 CFD 시뮬레이션을 위한 입력으로 6가지 유속의 자연석으로 만든 인공 스텝 풀 장치가 있는 침대 표면의 3D 재구성을 사용했습니다.

하이브리드 모델은 스텝 풀 장치에 대한 3D 흐름 구조의 고해상도 시각화를 제공하는 데 성공했습니다. 결과는 계단 아래의 흐름 영역의 분할, 즉 수면에서의 통합 점프, 침대 근처의 줄무늬 후류 및 그 사이의 고속 제트를 보여줍니다.

수영장에서 난류 에너지의 매우 불균일한 분포가 밝혀졌으며 비슷한 용량을 가진 두 개의 에너지 소산기가 수영장에 공존하는 것으로 나타났습니다. 흐름 증가에 따른 풀 세굴 개발은 점프 및 후류 와류의 확장으로 이어지지만 이러한 증가는 스텝 풀 실패에 대한 임계 조건에 가까운 높은 흐름에서 점프에 대해 멈춥니다.

음의 경사면에서 발달된 곡물 20 클러스터와 같은 미세 지반은 국부 수력학에 상당한 영향을 주지만 이러한 영향은 수영장 바닥에서 억제됩니다. 스텝 스톤의 항력은 가장 높은 흐름이 사용되기 전에 배출과 함께 증가하는 반면 양력은 더 큰 크기와 더 넓은 범위를 갖습니다. 우리의 결과는 계단 풀 형태의 복잡한 흐름 특성을 조사할 때 물리적 및 수치적 모델링을 결합한 하이브리드 모델 접근 방식의 가능성과 큰 잠재력을 강조합니다.

Step-pool systems are common bedforms in mountain streams and have been utilized in river restoration projects around the world. Step-pool units exhibit highly non-uniform hydraulic characteristics which have been reported to closely 10 interact with the morphological evolution and stability of step-pool features. However, detailed information of the threedimensional hydraulics for step-pool morphology has been scarce due to the difficulty of measurement. To fill in this knowledge gap, we established a hybrid model based on the technologies of Structure from Motion (SfM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The model used 3D reconstructions of bed surfaces with an artificial step-pool unit built by natural stones at six flow rates as inputs for CFD simulations. The hybrid model succeeded in providing high-resolution visualization 15 of 3D flow structures for the step-pool unit. The results illustrate the segmentation of flow regimes below the step, i.e., the integral jump at the water surface, streaky wake vortexes near the bed, and high-speed jets in between. The highly non-uniform distribution of turbulence energy in the pool has been revealed and two energy dissipaters with comparable capacity are found to co-exist in the pool. Pool scour development under flow increase leads to the expansion of the jump and wake vortexes but this increase stops for the jump at high flows close to the critical condition for step-pool failure. The micro-bedforms as grain 20 clusters developed on the negative slope affect the local hydraulics significantly but this influence is suppressed at pool bottom. The drag forces on the step stones increase with discharge before the highest flow is used while the lift force has a larger magnitude and wider varying range. Our results highlight the feasibility and great potential of the hybrid model approach combining physical and numerical modeling in investigating the complex flow characteristics of step-pool morphology.

Figure 1: Workflow of the hybrid modeling. SfM-MVS refers to the technology of Structure from Motion with Multi View Stereo. DSM is short for digital surface model. RNG-VOF is short for Renormalized Group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model coupled with Volume of Fluid method.
Figure 1: Workflow of the hybrid modeling. SfM-MVS refers to the technology of Structure from Motion with Multi View Stereo. DSM is short for digital surface model. RNG-VOF is short for Renormalized Group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model coupled with Volume of Fluid method.
Figure 2: Flume experiment settings in Zhang et al., (2020): (a) the artificially built-up step-pool model using natural stones, with stone number labelled; (b) the unsteady hydrograph of the run of CIFR (continually-increasing-flow-rate) T2 used in this study.
Figure 2: Flume experiment settings in Zhang et al., (2020): (a) the artificially built-up step-pool model using natural stones, with stone number labelled; (b) the unsteady hydrograph of the run of CIFR (continually-increasing-flow-rate) T2 used in this study.
Figure 3: Setup of the CFD model: (a) three-dimensional digital surface model (DSM) of the step-pool unit by structure from motion with multi view stereo (SfM-MVS) method as the input to the 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling; (b) extruded bed 160 surface model connected to the extra downstream component (in purple blue) and rectangular columns to fill leaks (in green), with the boundary conditions shown on mesh planes; (c) recognized geometry with mesh grids of two mesh blocks shown where MS is short for mesh size; (d) sampling volumes to capture the flow forces acting on each step stone at X, Y, and Z directions; and (e) an example for the simulated 3D flow over the step-pool unit colored by velocity magnitude at the discharge of 49.9 L/s. The abbreviations for boundary conditions in (b) are: V for specified velocity; C for continuative; P for specific pressure; and W for wall 165 condition. The contraction section in Figure (e) refers to the edge between the jet and jump at water surface.
Figure 3: Setup of the CFD model: (a) three-dimensional digital surface model (DSM) of the step-pool unit by structure from motion with multi view stereo (SfM-MVS) method as the input to the 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling; (b) extruded bed 160 surface model connected to the extra downstream component (in purple blue) and rectangular columns to fill leaks (in green), with the boundary conditions shown on mesh planes; (c) recognized geometry with mesh grids of two mesh blocks shown where MS is short for mesh size; (d) sampling volumes to capture the flow forces acting on each step stone at X, Y, and Z directions; and (e) an example for the simulated 3D flow over the step-pool unit colored by velocity magnitude at the discharge of 49.9 L/s. The abbreviations for boundary conditions in (b) are: V for specified velocity; C for continuative; P for specific pressure; and W for wall 165 condition. The contraction section in Figure (e) refers to the edge between the jet and jump at water surface.
Figure 4: Distribution of time-averaged velocity magnitude (VM_mean) and vectors in three longitudinal sections. The section at Y = 0 cm goes across the keystone while the other two (Y = -18 and 13.5 cm) are located at the step stones beside the keystone with 265 lower top elevations. Q refers to the discharge at the inlet of the computational domain. The spacing for X, Y, and Z axes are all 10 cm in the plots.
Figure 4: Distribution of time-averaged velocity magnitude (VM_mean) and vectors in three longitudinal sections. The section at Y = 0 cm goes across the keystone while the other two (Y = -18 and 13.5 cm) are located at the step stones beside the keystone with lower top elevations. Q refers to the discharge at the inlet of the computational domain. The spacing for X, Y, and Z axes are all 10 cm in the plots.
Figure 5: Distribution of time-averaged flow velocity at five cross sections which are set according to the reference section (x0). The reference cross section x0 is located at the downstream end of the keystone (KS). The five sections are located at 18 cm and 6 cm upstream of the reference section (x0-18 and x0-6), and 2 cm, 15 cm and 40 cm downstream of the reference section (x0+2, x0+15, x0+40). The spacing for X, Y, and Z axes are all 10 cm in the plots.
Figure 5: Distribution of time-averaged flow velocity at five cross sections which are set according to the reference section (x0). The reference cross section x0 is located at the downstream end of the keystone (KS). The five sections are located at 18 cm and 6 cm upstream of the reference section (x0-18 and x0-6), and 2 cm, 15 cm and 40 cm downstream of the reference section (x0+2, x0+15, x0+40). The spacing for X, Y, and Z axes are all 10 cm in the plots.
Figure 6: Distribution of the time-averaged turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) at the five cross sections same with Figure 3.
Figure 6: Distribution of the time-averaged turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) at the five cross sections same with Figure 3.
Figure 7: Boxplots for the distributions of the mass-averaged flow kinetic energy (KE, panels a-f), turbulence kinetic energy (TKE, panels g-l), and turbulent dissipation (εT, panels m-r) in the pool for all the six tested discharges (the plots at the same discharge are in the same row). The mass-averaged values were calculated every 2 cm in the streamwise direction. The flow direction is from left to right in all the plots. The general locations of the contraction section for all the flow rates are marked by the dashed lines, except for Q = 5 L/s when the jump is located too close to the step. The longitudinal distance taken up by negative slope in the pool for the inspected range is shown by shaded area in each plot.
Figure 7: Boxplots for the distributions of the mass-averaged flow kinetic energy (KE, panels a-f), turbulence kinetic energy (TKE, panels g-l), and turbulent dissipation (εT, panels m-r) in the pool for all the six tested discharges (the plots at the same discharge are in the same row). The mass-averaged values were calculated every 2 cm in the streamwise direction. The flow direction is from left to right in all the plots. The general locations of the contraction section for all the flow rates are marked by the dashed lines, except for Q = 5 L/s when the jump is located too close to the step. The longitudinal distance taken up by negative slope in the pool for the inspected range is shown by shaded area in each plot.
Figure 8: Instantaneous flow structures extracted using the Q-criterion (Qcriterion=1200) and colored by the magnitude of flow velocity.
Figure 8: Instantaneous flow structures extracted using the Q-criterion (Qcriterion=1200) and colored by the magnitude of flow velocity.
Figure 9: Time-averaged dynamic pressure (DP_mean) on the bed surface in the step-pool model under the two highest discharges, with the step numbers marked. The negative values in the plots result from the setting of standard atmospheric pressure = 0 Pa, whose absolute value is 1.013×105 Pa.
Figure 9: Time-averaged dynamic pressure (DP_mean) on the bed surface in the step-pool model under the two highest discharges, with the step numbers marked. The negative values in the plots result from the setting of standard atmospheric pressure = 0 Pa, whose absolute value is 1.013×105 Pa.
Figure 10: Time-averaged shear stress (SS_mean) on bed surface in the step-pool model, with the step numbers marked. The standard atmospheric pressure is set as 0 Pa.
Figure 10: Time-averaged shear stress (SS_mean) on bed surface in the step-pool model, with the step numbers marked. The standard atmospheric pressure is set as 0 Pa.
Figure 11: Variation of fluid force components and magnitude of resultant flow force acting on step stones with flow rate. The stone 4 is the keystone. Stone numbers are consistent with those in Fig. 9-10. The upper limit of the sampling volumes for flow force calculation is higher than water surface while the lower limit is set at 3 cm lower than the keystone crest.
Figure 11: Variation of fluid force components and magnitude of resultant flow force acting on step stones with flow rate. The stone 4 is the keystone. Stone numbers are consistent with those in Fig. 9-10. The upper limit of the sampling volumes for flow force calculation is higher than water surface while the lower limit is set at 3 cm lower than the keystone crest.
Figure 12: Variation of drag (CD) and lift (CL) coefficient of the step stones along with flow rate. Stone numbers are consistent with those in Fig. 8-9. KS is short for keystone. The negative values of CD correspond to the drag forces towards the upstream while the negative values of CL correspond to lift forces pointing downwards.
Figure 12: Variation of drag (CD) and lift (CL) coefficient of the step stones along with flow rate. Stone numbers are consistent with those in Fig. 8-9. KS is short for keystone. The negative values of CD correspond to the drag forces towards the upstream while the negative values of CL correspond to lift forces pointing downwards.
Figure 13: Longitudinal distributions of section-averaged and -integral turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) for the jump and wake vortexes at the largest three discharges. The flow direction is from left to right in all the plots. The general locations of the contraction sections under the three flow rates are marked by dashed lines in figures (d) to (f).
Figure 13: Longitudinal distributions of section-averaged and -integral turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) for the jump and wake vortexes at the largest three discharges. The flow direction is from left to right in all the plots. The general locations of the contraction sections under the three flow rates are marked by dashed lines in figures (d) to (f).
Figure A1: Water surface profiles of the simulations with different mesh sizes at the discharge of 43.6 L/s at the longitudinal sections at: (a) Y = 24.5 cm (left boundary); (b) Y = 0.3 cm (middle section); (c) Y = -24.5 cm (right boundary). MS is short for mesh size. The flow direction is from left to right in each plot.
Figure A1: Water surface profiles of the simulations with different mesh sizes at the discharge of 43.6 L/s at the longitudinal sections at: (a) Y = 24.5 cm (left boundary); (b) Y = 0.3 cm (middle section); (c) Y = -24.5 cm (right boundary). MS is short for mesh size. The flow direction is from left to right in each plot.
Figure A2: Contours of velocity magnitude in the longitudinal section at Y = 0 cm at different mesh sizes (MSs) under the flow condition with the discharge of 43.6 L/s: (a) 0.50 cm; (b) 0.375 cm; (c) 0.30 cm; (d) 0.27 cm; (e) 0.25 cm; (f) 0.24 cm. The flow direction is from left to right.
Figure A2: Contours of velocity magnitude in the longitudinal section at Y = 0 cm at different mesh sizes (MSs) under the flow condition with the discharge of 43.6 L/s: (a) 0.50 cm; (b) 0.375 cm; (c) 0.30 cm; (d) 0.27 cm; (e) 0.25 cm; (f) 0.24 cm. The flow direction is from left to right.
Figure A3: Measurements of water surfaces (orange lines) used in model verification: (a) water surface profiles from both sides of the flume; (b) upstream edge of the jump regime from top view. KS refers to keystone in figure (b).
Figure A3: Measurements of water surfaces (orange lines) used in model verification: (a) water surface profiles from both sides of the flume; (b) upstream edge of the jump regime from top view. KS refers to keystone in figure (b).
Figure A15. Figure (a) shows the locations of the cross sections and target coarse grains at Q = 49.9 L/s. Figures (b) to (e) show the distribution of velocity magnitude (VM_mean) in the four chosen cross sections: (a) x0+8.0; (b) x0+14.0; (c) x0+21.5; (d) x0+42.5. G1 to G6 refer to 6 protruding grains in the micro-bedforms in the pool.
Figure A15. Figure (a) shows the locations of the cross sections and target coarse grains at Q = 49.9 L/s. Figures (b) to (e) show the distribution of velocity magnitude (VM_mean) in the four chosen cross sections: (a) x0+8.0; (b) x0+14.0; (c) x0+21.5; (d) x0+42.5. G1 to G6 refer to 6 protruding grains in the micro-bedforms in the pool.
Figure A16. The distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the same cross sections as in figure S15: (a) x0+8.0; (b) x0+14.0; (c) x0+21.5; (d) x0+42.5.
Figure A16. The distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the same cross sections as in figure S15: (a) x0+8.0; (b) x0+14.0; (c) x0+21.5; (d) x0+42.5.

References

720 Aberle, J. and Smart, G. M: The influence of roughness structure on flow resistance on steep slopes, J. Hydraul. Res., 41(3),
259-269, https://doi.org/10.1080/00221680309499971, 2003.
Abrahams, A. D., Li, G., and Atkinson, J. F.: Step-pool streams: Adjustment to maximum flow resistance. Water Resour. Res.,
31(10), 2593-2602, https://doi.org/10.1029/95WR01957, 1995.
Adrian, R. J.: Twenty years of particle image velocimetry. Exp. Fluids, 39(2), 159-169, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-005-
725 0991-7 2005.
Chanson, H.: Hydraulic design of stepped spillways and downstream energy dissipators. Dam Eng., 11(4), 205-242, 2001.
Chartrand, S. M., Jellinek, M., Whiting, P. J., and Stamm, J.: Geometric scaling of step-pools in mountain streams:
Observations and implications, Geomorphology, 129(1-2), 141-151, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.01.020,
2011.
730 Chen, Y., DiBiase, R. A., McCarroll, N., and Liu, X.: Quantifying flow resistance in mountain streams using computational
fluid dynamics modeling over structure‐from‐motion photogrammetry‐derived microtopography, Earth Surf. Proc.
Land., 44(10), 1973-1987, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4624, 2019.
Church, M. and Zimmermann, A.: Form and stability of step‐pool channels: Research progress, Water Resour. Res., 43(3),
W03415, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006WR005037, 2007.
735 Cignoni, P., Callieri, M., Corsini, M., Dellepiane, M., Ganovelli, F., and Ranzuglia, G.: Meshlab: an open-source mesh
processing tool, in: Eurographics Italian chapter conference, Salerno, Italy, 2-4 July 2008, 129-136, 2008.

Comiti, F., Andreoli, A., and Lenzi, M. A.: Morphological effects of local scouring in step-pool streams, Earth Surf. Proc.
Land., 30(12), 1567-1581, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1217, 2005.
Comiti, F., Cadol, D., and Wohl, E.: Flow regimes, bed morphology, and flow resistance in self‐formed step-pool
740 channels, Water Resour. Res., 45(4), 546-550, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008WR007259, 2009.
Dudunake, T., Tonina, D., Reeder, W. J., and Monsalve, A.: Local and reach‐scale hyporheic flow response from boulder ‐
induced geomorphic changes, Water Resour. Res., 56, e2020WR027719, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020WR027719, 2020.
Flow Science.: Flow-3D Version 11.2 User Manual, Flow Science, Inc., Los Alamos, 2016.
Gibson, S., Heath, R., Abraham, D., and Schoellhamer, D.: Visualization and analysis of temporal trends of sand infiltration
745 into a gravel bed, Water Resour. Res., 47(12), W12601, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011WR010486, 2011.
Hassan, M. A., Tonina, D., Beckie, R. D., and Kinnear, M.: The effects of discharge and slope on hyporheic flow in step‐pool
morphologies, Hydrol. Process., 29(3), 419-433, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10155, 2015.
Hirt, C. W. and Nichols, B. D.: Volume of Fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries. J. Comput. Phys., 39,
201-225, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9991(81)90145-5, 1981.
750 Javernick L., Brasington J., and Caruso B.: Modeling the topography of shallow braided rivers using structure-from-motion
photogrammetry, Geomorphology, 213(4), 166-182, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.01.006, 2014.
Lai, Y. G., Smith, D. L., Bandrowski, D. J., Xu, Y., Woodley, C. M., and Schnell, K.: Development of a CFD model and
procedure for flows through in-stream structures, J. Appl. Water Eng. Res., 1-15,
https://doi.org/10.1080/23249676.2021.1964388, 2021.
755 Lenzi, M. A.: Step-pool evolution in the Rio Cordon, northeastern Italy, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 26(9), 991-1008,
https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.239, 2001.
Lenzi, M. A.: Stream bed stabilization using boulder check dams that mimic step-pool morphology features in Northern
Italy, Geomorphology, 45(3-4), 243-260, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-555X(01)00157-X, 2002.
Lenzi, M. A., Marion, A., and Comiti, F.: Local scouring at grade‐control structures in alluvial mountain rivers, Water Resour.
760 Res., 39(7), 1176, https://doi:10.1029/2002WR001815, 2003.
Li, W., Wang Z., Li, Z., Zhang, C., and Lv, L.: Study on hydraulic characteristics of step-pool system, Adv. Water Sci., 25(3),
374-382, https://doi.org/10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2014.03.012, 2014. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Maas, H. G., Gruen, A., and Papantoniou, D.: Particle tracking velocimetry in three-dimensional flows, Exp. Fluids, 15(2),
133-146. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00223406, 1993.

765 Montgomery, D. R. and Buffington, J. M.: Channel-reach morphology in mountain drainage basins, Geol. Soc. Am. Bul., 109(5), 596-611, https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1997)109<0596:CRMIMD>2.3.CO;2, 1997. Morgan J. A., Brogan D. J., and Nelson P. A.: Application of structure-from-motion photogrammetry in laboratory flumes, Geomorphology, 276(1), 125-143, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.10.021, 2017. Recking, A., Leduc, P., Liébault, F., and Church, M.: A field investigation of the influence of sediment supply on step-pool 770 morphology and stability. Geomorphology, 139, 53-66, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.09.024, 2012. Roth, M. S., Jähnel, C., Stamm, J., and Schneider, L. K.: Turbulent eddy identification of a meander and vertical-slot fishways in numerical models applying the IPOS-framework, J. Ecohydraulics, 1-20, https://doi.org/10.1080/24705357.2020.1869916, 2020. Saletti, M. and Hassan, M. A.: Width variations control the development of grain structuring in steep step‐pool dominated 775 streams: insight from flume experiments, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 45(6), 1430-1440, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4815, 2020. Smith, D. P., Kortman, S. R., Caudillo, A. M., Kwan‐Davis, R. L., Wandke, J. J., Klein, J. W., Gennaro, M. C. S., Bogdan, M. A., and Vannerus, P. A.: Controls on large boulder mobility in an ‘auto-naturalized’ constructed step-pool river: San Clemente Reroute and Dam Removal Project, Carmel River, California, USA, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 45(9), 1990-2003, 780 https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4860, 2020. Thappeta, S. K., Bhallamudi, S. M., Fiener, P., and Narasimhan, B.: Resistance in Steep Open Channels due to Randomly Distributed Macroroughness Elements at Large Froude Numbers, J. Hydraul. Eng., 22(12), 04017052, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001587, 2017. Thappeta, S. K., Bhallamudi, S. M., Chandra, V., Fiener, P., and Baki, A. B. M.: Energy loss in steep open channels with step785 pools, Water, 13(1), 72, https://doi.org/10.3390/w13010072, 2021. Turowski, J. M., Yager, E. M., Badoux, A., Rickenmann, D., and Molnar, P.: The impact of exceptional events on erosion, bedload transport and channel stability in a step-pool channel, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 34(12), 1661-1673, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1855, 2009. Vallé, B. L. and Pasternack, G. B.: Air concentrations of submerged and unsubmerged hydraulic jumps in a bedrock step‐pool 790 channel, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 111(F3), F03016. https://doi:10.1029/2004JF000140, 2006. Waldon, M. G.: Estimation of average stream velocity, J. Hydraul. Eng., 130(11), 1119-1122. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2004)130:11(1119), 2004. Wang, Z., Melching, C., Duan, X., and Yu, G.: Ecological and hydraulic studies of step-pool systems, J. Hydraul. Eng., 135(9), 705-717, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2009)135:9(705), 2009

795 Wang, Z., Qi, L., and Wang, X.: A prototype experiment of debris flow control with energy dissipation structures, Nat. Hazards, 60(3), 971-989, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-9878-5, 2012. Weichert, R. B.: Bed Morphology and Stability in Steep Open Channels, Ph.D. Dissertation, No. 16316. ETH Zurich, Switzerland, 247pp., 2005. Wilcox, A. C., Wohl, E. E., Comiti, F., and Mao, L.: Hydraulics, morphology, and energy dissipation in an alpine step‐pool 800 channel, Water Resour. Res., 47(7), W07514, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010WR010192, 2011. Wohl, E. E. and Thompson, D. M.: Velocity characteristics along a small step–pool channel. Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 25(4), 353-367, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9837(200004)25:4<353::AID-ESP59>3.0.CO;2-5, 2000. Wu, S. and Rajaratnam, N.: Impinging jet and surface flow regimes at drop. J. Hydraul. Res., 36(1), 69-74, https://doi.org/10.1080/00221689809498378, 1998. 805 Xu, Y. and Liu, X.: 3D computational modeling of stream flow resistance due to large woody debris, in: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics, St. Louis, USA, 11-14, Jul, 2346-2353, 2016. Xu, Y. and Liu, X.: Effects of different in-stream structure representations in computational fluid dynamics models—Taking engineered log jams (ELJ) as an example, Water, 9(2), 110, https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020110, 2017. Zeng, Y. X., Ismail, H., and Liu, X.: Flow Decomposition Method Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics for Rock Weir 810 Head-Discharge Relationship. J. Irrig. Drain. Eng., 147(8), 04021030, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943- 4774.0001584, 2021. Zhang, C., Wang, Z., and Li, Z.: A physically-based model of individual step-pool stability in mountain streams, in: Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on River Sedimentation, Stuttgart, Germany, 801-809, 2016. Zhang, C., Xu, M., Hassan, M. A., Chartrand, S. M., and Wang, Z.: Experimental study on the stability and failure of individual 815 step-pool, Geomorphology, 311, 51-62, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2018.03.023, 2018. Zhang, C., Xu, M., Hassan, M. A., Chartrand, S. M., Wang, Z., and Ma, Z.: Experiment on morphological and hydraulic adjustments of step‐pool unit to flow increase, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 45(2), 280-294, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4722, 2020. Zimmermann A., E.: Flow resistance in steep streams: An experimental study, Water Resour. Res., 46, W09536, 820 https://doi.org/10.1029/2009WR007913, 2010. Zimmermann A. E., Salleti M., Zhang C., Hassan M. A.: Step-pool Channel Features, in: Treatise on Geomorphology (2nd Edition), vol. 9, Fluvial Geomorphology, edited by: Shroder, J. (Editor in Chief), Wohl, E. (Ed.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-818234-5.00004-3, 2020.

그림 1 하천횡단구조물 하류부 횡단구조물 파괴

유입조건에 따른압력변이로 인한하천횡단구조물 하류물받이공 및 바닥보호공설계인자 도출최종보고서

주관연구기관 / 홍익대학교 산학협력단
공동연구기관 / 한국건설기술연구원
공동연구기관 / 주식회사 지티이

연구의 목적 및 내용

하천횡단구조물이 하천설계기준(2009)대로 설계되었음에도 불구하고, 하류부에서 물받이공 및 바닥보호공의 피해가 발생하여, 구조물 본체에 대한 안전성이 현저하 게 낮아지고 있는 실정이다. 하천설계기준이 상류부의 수리특성을 반영하였다고 하나 하류부의 수리특성인 유속의 변동 성분 또는 압력의 변동성분까지 고려하고 있지는 않다. 현재 많은 선행연구에서 이러한 난류적 특성이 구조물에 미치는 영 향에 대해 제시하고 있는 실정이며, 국내 하천에서의 피해 또한 이와 관련이 있다 고 판단된다. 이에 본 연구에서는 난류성분 특히 압력의 변동성분이 물받이공과 바닥보호공에 미치는 영향을 정량적으로 분석하여, 하천 횡단구조물의 치수 안전 성 증대에 기여하고자 한다. 물받이공과 바닥보호공에 미치는 압력의 변동성분 (pressure fluctuation) 영향을 분석하기 위해 크게 3가지로 연구내용을 분류하였 다. 첫 번째는 압력의 변동으로 순간적인 음압구배(adversed pressure gradient) 가 발생할 경우 바닥보호공의 사석 및 블록이 이탈하는 것이다. 이를 확인하기 위 해 정밀한 압력 측정장치를 통해 압력변이를 측정하여, 사석의 이탈 가능성을 검 토할 것이며, 최종적으로 이탈에 대한 한계조건을 도출할 것이다. 두 번째는 압력 의 변동이 물받이공의 진동을 유발시켜 이를 지지하고 있는 지반에 다짐효과를 가 져와 물받이공과 지반사이에 공극이 발생하는 경우이다. 이러한 공극으로 물받이 공은 자중 및 물의 압력을 받게 되어, 결국 휨에 의한 파괴가 발생할 가능성이 있 게 된다. 본 연구에서는 실험을 통하여 압력의 변동과 물받이공의 진동을 동시에 측정하여, 진동이 발생하지 않을 최소 두께를 제시할 것이다. 세 번째는 압력변이 로 인한 물받이공의 진동이 피로파괴로 연결되는 경우이다. 이 현상 또한 수리실 험을 통해 압력변이-피로파괴의 관계를 정량적으로 분석하여, 한계 조건을 제시할 것이다. 본 연구는 국내 보 및 낙차공에서 발생하는 다양한 Jet의 특성을 수리실 험으로 재현해야 하며, 이를 위해 평면 Jet 분사기(plane Jet injector)를 고안/ 제작하여, 효율적인 수리실험을 수행할 것이다. 또한 3차원 수치해석을 통해 실제 스케일에 적용함으로써 연구결과의 활용도 및 적용성을 높이고자 한다.

Keywords

압력변이, 물받이공, 바닥보호공, 난류, 진동

 그림 1 하천횡단구조물 하류부 횡단구조물 파괴
그림 1 하천횡단구조물 하류부 횡단구조물 파괴
그림 2. 시간에 따른 압력의 변동 양상 및 정의
그림 2. 시간에 따른 압력의 변동 양상 및 정의
 그림 3. 하천횡단구조물 하류부 도수현상시 발생하는 압력변이 분포도, Fr=8.0 상태이며, 바닥(slab)에 양압과 음압이 지속적으로 작용한다. (Fiorotto & Rinaldo, 2010)
그림 3. 하천횡단구조물 하류부 도수현상시 발생하는 압력변이 분포도, Fr=8.0 상태이며, 바닥(slab)에 양압과 음압이 지속적으로 작용한다. (Fiorotto & Rinaldo, 2010)
 그림 4. 파괴 개념
그림 4. 파괴 개념
그림 6. PIV 측정 원리(www.photonics.com)
그림 6. PIV 측정 원리(www.photonics.com)
그림 7. LED회로판 및 BIV기법 기본개념
그림 7. LED회로판 및 BIV기법 기본개념
그림 8. BIV측정기법을 적용한 순간이미지 (Lin et al., 2012)
그림 8. BIV측정기법을 적용한 순간이미지 (Lin et al., 2012)
그림 9. 감세공의 분류
그림 9. 감세공의 분류
그림 17 수리실헐 수로시설: (a) 전체수로전경, (b) Weir 보를 포함한 측면도, (c) 도수조건 실험전경
그림 17 수리실헐 수로시설: (a) 전체수로전경, (b) Weir 보를 포함한 측면도, (c) 도수조건 실험전경
그림 18 수리실험 개요도
그림 18 수리실험 개요도
그림 127 난류모형별 압력 Data (측정위치는 그림 125 참조)
그림 127 난류모형별 압력 Data (측정위치는 그림 125 참조)
그림 128 RNG 모형을 이용한 수치모의 결과
그림 128 RNG 모형을 이용한 수치모의 결과
그림 129 LES 모형을 이용한 수치모의 결과
그림 129 LES 모형을 이용한 수치모의 결과
그림 130 압력 Data의 필터링
그림 130 압력 Data의 필터링
그림 134 Case 1의 흐름특성 분포도 및 그래프
그림 134 Case 1의 흐름특성 분포도 및 그래프

참고문헌

국토기술연구센터 (1998) 하상유지공의 구조설계 지침.

감사원 (2013) 감사원 결과보고서- 4대강살리기 사업 주요시설물 품질 밑 수질관리 실태.

국토해양부 (2009) 전국 하천횡단 구조물 설치현황 및 어도 실태조사 보고서. 국토해양부 (2010). 낙동강 살리기 사업 24공구(성주칠곡지구) 실시설계보고서.

국토해양부 (2012) 보도자료-준공대비 점검결과, 4대강 보 안전 재확인.

국토해양부 (2012) 국가 및 지방하천 종합정비 마스터플랜.

국토교통성 (2008) 하천사방기술기준.

농림부 (1996). 농업생산기반정비사업계획 설계기준. 류권규(역자) (2009). 난류의 수치모의(원저자 : 梶島岳夫, 1999).

류권규, 마리안 머스테, 로버트 에테마, 윤병만 (2006). “난류 중 부유사의 속도 지체 측정.” 한국수자원학회논문집, 제39권, 제2호, pp.99-108.

배재현, 이경훈, 신종근, 양용수, 이주희 (2011). “입자영상유속계를 이용한 은어의 유영능력 측정.” 제47권, 제4호, pp.411-418.

우효섭 (2001). 하천수리학. 청문각.

한국수자원학회 (2009). 하천설계기준해설.

한국건설기술연구원 (2014) 입자영상유속계(PIV)를 이용한 하천구조물 주변 유동해석 기법 개발

한국건설기술연구원 (2017) 보와 하상유지공의 안전성 확보를 위한 물받이와 바닥보호공의 성능평가
기법에 대한 원천기술개발

국토기술연구센터 (1998) 하상유지공의 구조설계 지침.

감사원 (2013) 감사원 결과보고서- 4대강살리기 사업 주요시설물 품질 밑 수질관리 실태. 국토해양부 (2009) 전국 하천횡단 구조물 설치현황 및 어도 실태조사 보고서.

국토해양부 (2012) 보도자료-준공대비 점검결과, 4대강 보 안전 재확인. 국토해양부 (2012) 국가 및 지방하천 종합정비 마스터플랜.

국토교통성 (2008) 하천사방기술기준.

농림부 (1996). 농업생산기반정비사업계획 설계기

류권규(역자) (2009). 난류의 수치모의(원저자 : 梶島岳夫, 1999).
류권규, 마리안 머스테, 로버트 에테마, 윤병만 (2006). “난류 중 부유사의 속도 지체 측정.” 한국수자원학회논문집, 제39권, 제2호, pp.99-108.
배재현, 이경훈, 신종근, 양용수, 이주희 (2011). “입자영상유속계를 이용한 은어의 유영능력 측정.” 제47권, 제4호, pp.411-418.
우효섭 (2001). 하천수리학. 청문각. 한국수자원학회 (2009). 하천설계기준해설. 한국건설기술연구원 (2014) 입자영상유속계(PIV)를 이용한 하천구조물 주변 유동해석 기법 개발
한국건설기술연구원 (2017) 보와 하상유지공의 안전성 확보를 위한 물받이와 바닥보호공의 성능평가
기법에 대한 원천기술개발

Adrian, R. J., Meinhart, C. D., & Tomkins, C. D. (2000). Vortex organization in the outer
region of the turbulent boundary layer. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 422, 1-54.
Anderson, T. W., & Darling, D. A. (1954). A test of goodness of fit. Journal of the American
statistical association, 49(268), 765-769.
Altman, E. I. (1968). Financial ratios, discriminant analysis and the prediction of corporate
bankruptcy. The journal of finance, 23(4), 589-609.
Barjastehmaleki, S., Fiorotto, V., & Caroni, E. (2016). Spillway stilling basins lining design
via Taylor hypothesis. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 142(6), 04016010.
Beheshti, M. R., Khosrojerdi, A., & Borghei, S. M. (2013). Experimental study of air-water
turbulent flow structures on stepped spillways. International Journal of Physical Sciences,
8(25), 1362-1370.
Bligh, W. G. (1910). Dams, barrages and weirs on porous foundations. Engineering News, 64(26),
708-710.
Bowers, C. E., &Tsai, F. Y. (1969). Fluctuating pressure in spillway stilling basins. Journal
of the Hydraulics Division, 95(6), 2071-2080.
Brater, E. F., King, H. W., Lindell, J. E., & Wei, C. Y. (1976). Handbook of hydraulics for
the solution of hydraulic engineering problems (Vol. 7). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Castillo, L. G., Carrillo, J. M., & Sordo-Ward, Á. (2014). Simulation of overflow nappe
impingement jets. Journal of Hydroinformatics, 16(4), 922-940

Lin, C., Hsieh, S. C., Lin, I. J., Chang, K. A., & Raikar, R. V. (2012). Flow property and
self-similarity in steady hydraulic jumps. Experiments in Fluids, 53(5), 1591-1616

Chanson, H. (1999). The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: An Introduction. Physical Modelling
of Hydraulics.
Chow, V. T. (1959). Open-Channel Hydraulics, McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc., New York.
Christensen, B. A. (1984). “Analysis of Partially Filled Circular Storm Sewers.” J. of
Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 110, No. 8.
El-Ragaby, A., El-Salakawy, E., and Benmokrane, B., “Fatigue Life Evaluation of Concrete
Bridge Deck Slabs Reinforced with Glass FRP Composite Bars,” Journal of Composites for
Construction, ASCE, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2007, pp. 258-268. (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)
1090-0268(2007)11:3(258),
Fiorotto, V., & Rinaldo, A. (1992). Turbulent pressure fluctuations under hydraulic jumps.
Journal of Hydraulic Research, 30(4), 499-520.
Flow Science (2015). FLOW-3D User Manual(Release 11.1.0), Los Alamos, New Mexico.
González-Betancourt, M. (2016). Uplift force and momenta on a slab subjected to hydraulic
jump. Dyna, 83(199), 124-133.
Grinstein, L., & Lipsey, S. I. (2001). Encyclopedia of mathematics education. Routledge.
Grubbs, F. E., & Beck, G. (1972). Extension of sample sizes and percentage points for
significance tests of outlying observations. Technometrics, 14(4), 847-854.
Gylltoft K. (1983): Fracture mechanics models for fatigue in concrete structures. Doctoral
thesis / Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, 25D, Luleå, 210 pp.
Herlina, H. and Jirka, G. H. (2008). “Experiments on gas transfer near the air-water
interface in a grid-stirred tank.” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 594, pp.183-208.
IACWD (Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data). (1982). Guidelines for determining flood
flow frequency. Bulletin 17B.
JIRKA, G. H. (2008). Experiments on gas transfer at the air–water interface induced by
oscillating grid turbulence. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 594, 183-208.
Kadota, A., Suzuki, K., Rummel, A. C., Weitbrecht, V., & Jirka, G. H. (2007). Shallow flow
visualization around a single groyne. In Proc. of 7th International Symposium of Particle
Image Velocimetry (CD-ROM).
Kazemi, F., Khodashenas, S. R., & Sarkardeh, H. (2016). Experimental study of pressure
fluctuation in stilling basins. International Journal of Civil Engineering, 14(1), 13-21.
Klowak, C., Memon, A., and Mufti, A., “Static and fatigue investigation of second generation
steel-free bridge decks,” Cement & Concrete Composites, ScienceDirect, Elsevier, Vol. 28, No.

10, 2006, pp. 890-897. (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2006.07.019),
Koca, K., Noss, C., Anlanger, C., Brand, A., & Lorke, A. (2017). Performance of the Vectrino
Profiler at the sediment–water interface. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 55(4), 573-581.
Kolmogorov, A. (1933). Sulla determinazione empirica di una lgge di distribuzione. Inst. Ital.
Attuari, Giorn., 4, 83-91.
Leon, A., & Alnahit, A. (2016). A Remotely Controlled Siphon System for Dynamic Water Storage
Management.
Lin, C., Hsieh, S., Chang, K. and Raikar, R. (2012). “Flow property and self-similarity in
steady hydraulic jumps.” Experiments in Fluid, 53, pp. 1591-1616.
Lopardo, R., Fattor, C. A., Casado, J. M. and Lopardo, M. C. (2004). “Aspects of vibration
and fatigue of materials related to coherent structures of macroturbulent flows”
International Conference on Hydraulic of Dams and River Structures.
Lopardo, R. A., & Romagnoli, M. (2009). Pressure and velocity fluctuations in stilling basins.
In Advances in Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering (pp. 2093-2098). Springer, Berlin,
Heidelberg.
Sanchez, P. A., Ramirez, G. E., Vergara, R., & Minguillo, F. (1973). Performance of
Sulfur-Coated Urea Under Intermittently Flooded Rice Culture in Peru 1. Soil Science Society
of America Journal, 37(5), 789-792.
Matsui, S., Tokai, D., Higashiyama, H., and Mizukoshi, M., “Fatigue Durability of Fiber
Reinforced Concrete Decks Under Running Wheel Load,” Proceedings 3rd International Conference
on Concrete Under Severe Conditions, Ed. N. Banthia, Vancouver, Canada, 2001, pp. 982-991.,
Mohammadi, S. F., Galgoul, N. S., Starossek, U., & Videiro, P. M. (2016). An efficient time
domain fatigue analysis and its comparison to spectral fatigue assessment for an offshore
jacket structure. Marine Structures, 49, 97-115.
Pothof, I. (2011). Co-current air-water flow in downward sloping pipes. Stichting Deltares
Pothof, I. W. M., & Clemens, F. H. L. R. (2011). Experimental study of air–water flow in
downward sloping pipes. International journal of multiphase flow, 37(3), 278-292.
Ryu, Y., Chang, K. A., & Lim, H. J. (2005). Use of bubble image velocimetry for measurement of
plunging wave impinging on structure and associated greenwater. Measurement Science and
Technology, 16(10), 1945.
Sanjou, M., & Nezu, I. (2009). Turbulence structure and coherent motion in meandering compound
open-channel flows. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 47(5), 598-610.
Sargison, J. E., & Percy, A. (2009). Hydraulics of broad-crested weirs with varying side
slopes. Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering, 135(1), 115-118.

Sobani, A. (2014). Pressure fluctuations on the slabs of stilling basins under hydraulic jump.
Song, Y., Chang, K, Ryu, Y. and Kwon, S. (2013). “ Experimental study on flow kinematics and
impact pressure in liquid sloshing.”, Experiments in Fluid, 54, pp. 1592.
Stagonas, D., Lara, J. L., Losada, I. J., Higuera, P., Jaime, F. F., & Muller, G. (2014).
Large scale measurements of wave loads and mapping of impact pressure distribution at the
underside of wave recurves. In Proceedings of the HYDRALAB IV Joint User Meeting.
Toso, J. W., & Bowers, C. E. (1988). Extreme pressures in hydraulic-jump stilling basins.
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 114(8), 829-843.
Youn, S. G. and Chang, S. P., “Behavior of Composite Bridge Decks Subjected to Static and
Fatigue Loading,” Structural Journal, ACI Technical paper, Title No. 95-S23, 1998, pp.
249-258. (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14359/543),

Flow-3D 모형을 이용한 인공어초 설치 지반의 입경에 따른 세굴 특성 분석

Flow-3D 모형을 이용한 인공어초 설치 지반의 입경에 따른 세굴 특성 분석

Abstract

해저 지반에 설치되는 인공어초는 유속 및 수심이 동일한 경우라도 지반 조건에 따라 세굴 패턴이 크게 차이나는 경우가 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 모래, 실트 및 점토 등과 같이 다양한 해저 지반에 설치하는 인공어초의 지반공학적 안정성을 평가하고자 Flow-3D를 이용하여 세굴 해석을 수행하였다. 수치해석 결과 지반 입경이 작을수록 인공어초 주변에서 발생하는 세굴량이 커지며, 평형상태에 도달하는 시간이 더 오래 걸리는 결과를 보였다. 반면 입경이 커질수록 세굴량이 작아지며, 세굴된 지반 입자가 인공어초 후면부에 퇴적되는 결과를 보였다. 또한 최대 세굴심도와 입경은 비선형적인 관계를 나타내었다. 특히 세립토에서 최대 세굴심도가 크게 증가하였다.

Artificial reef-installed seabeds may have significantly different scouring patterns depending on the ground conditions, such as the soil particle size, even though the flow velocity and water depth are similar. In this study, the scour characteristics of the ground were determined using Flow-3D to evaluate the geotechnical stability of artificial reefs installed on various seabeds, such as sand, silt, and clay. The analysis results indicated that the smaller the particle size of the soil, the larger the amount of scour that occurs around the artificial reef and the longer it takes to reach an equilibrium state. However, eroded soil particles were deposited on the rear part of the artificial reef as the soil particle size increased. The maximum scour depth and average particle size showed a non-linear relationship. In particular, the maximum scour depth increased significantly in fine-grained soils.

Keywords

인공어초 , Flow-3D, 지반 입경 , 세굴 , 최대 세굴심도 , Artificial Reef , Flow-3D , Soil Particle Size , Scour , Maximum Scour Depth

図3 He ガスストリッパー装置の図と全景.

RIKEN RIBF의 He-Gas 스트리퍼 및 회전 디스크 스트리퍼

He Gas Stripper and Rotating Disk Stripper at the RIKEN RIBF

理研 RI ビームファクトリーにおける He ガスと回転ディスクストリッパー

今尾 浩士 *・長谷部 裕雄 *

서론

우라늄 빔 등 중원소 빔의 대강도화는 다양한 단수명 원자핵을 생성·이용하고 우주에서의 원소 합성을 이해하기 위한 필수 과제이다. 중이온의 가속에 있어서는, 복수의 가속기를 이용하여, 고에너지까지 캐스케이드상으로 가속해 가지만, 효율적인 가속을 위해 도중의 하전 변환 과정은 필수 과정이라고 할 수 있다.

리켄 RI 빔팩토리(RIBF) 1)에서는 가장 무거운 우라늄 등의 가속에 있어서, 2회의 하전 변환을 실시하고 있다.

그러나 기존에 사용해 온 고정형 탄소막 스트리퍼 2)의 내구성은 대강화의 원리적 병목이며, 미국 FRIB 계획 3) 등을 포함한 차세대 RI 생성 시설의 공통 문제에서도 있었다. RIBF는 가스 4-7)과 회전형 디스크 8, 9)를 사용하여 고강도 우라늄을 견딜 수있는 스트리퍼를 개발했다.

RIBF에서 238U 빔의 가속도를 그림 1에 나타내었다. 28 GHz의 초전도 ECR 이온 소스 (10, 11)로 생성 및 선별 된 238U35 +는 입사기 RILAC2와 4 개의 링 사이클로트론 (RRC, fRC, IRC, SRC)을 사용하여 345 MeV / u까지 가속된다.

스트리퍼는 RRC 가속 후 11 MeV / u와 fRC 가속 후 51 MeV / u에서 두 번 사용된다. 첫 번째 단계는 He 가스 스트리퍼를 사용하며 U35 +에서 U64 +로 변환한다. 두 번째 단계는 회전 흑연 시트 디스크 스트리퍼이며 U64 +에서 U86 +로 변환한다.

중이온 스트리퍼는 총 열 부하, 파워 손실이라는 의미에서는 전혀 작지만, 특히 큰 것은 단위 길이 에너지 손실 dE/dx이며, 이에 특유의 어려움이 있다. 우라늄의 dE / dx는 특히 크고, 수 MeV / u-50 MeV / u 정도까지의 스트리퍼는 dE / dx가 크고 두께가 고체로서는 얇아지기 때문에 어렵다.

우리의 11 MeV / u에서의 목표 강도 10 pA는 dE / dx로 정규화 된 경우, 예를 들어 400 MeV의 양성자 빔이라면 500 mA라고 불리우는 강도에 해당한다. 또한 우라늄의 국부적 인 에너지 손실로 인한 비선형 피해도보고되었으며 상황은 더욱 심각하다.

예를 들어 제1 스트리퍼로 탄소막을 사용했을 경우, 1 µm 정도 이하의 박막을 사용하지 않을 수 없고, 취약성, 불균일성과의 싸움으로, 열 제거도 어렵다. 실제로 RIBF 초기에 사용 된 고정형 탄소막 2)에서는 우라늄 빔 20pnA 정도의 조사 강도에서도 사용 가능 시간은 반일 정도였다. 그런 다음 두 번째 스트리퍼에서도 비슷한 상황이 발생했다.

현재 사용하고 있는 He 가스 스트리퍼와 회전형 그라파이트 디스크 스트리퍼는 당시의 약 100배의 강도라도 사용 시간을 거의 신경쓸 필요가 없을 정도의 내구성을 가지고 있다.

본 논문에서는 He 가스 스트리퍼와 회전형 스트리퍼에 대해 개요와 고출력 표적으로서의 측면을 중심으로 설명한다.

図1 He ガスと回転ディスクストリッパーを用いた現在の RIBF ウラン加速スキーム.
図1 He ガスと回転ディスクストリッパーを用いた現在の RIBF ウラン加速スキーム.
図2 様々な厚さの He ガスによる11 MeV/u 238U の荷電分布.
図2 様々な厚さの He ガスによる11 MeV/u 238U の荷電分布.
図3 He ガスストリッパー装置の図と全景.
図3 He ガスストリッパー装置の図と全景.
図4 かく乱板の写真(上)と位置依存性(下).
図4 かく乱板の写真(上)と位置依存性(下).
図5 オリフィスから噴出する He のマッハ数の CFD 計算 (Solidworks flow simulation).
図5 オリフィスから噴出する He のマッハ数の CFD 計算 (Solidworks flow simulation).
図6 238U ビームによる He ガス温度上昇の実験値と計算値 の比較.実験値は輸送条件の異なる幾つかの RUN の データをプロットしている.
図6 238U ビームによる He ガス温度上昇の実験値と計算値 の比較.実験値は輸送条件の異なる幾つかの RUN の データをプロットしている.
図7 マクロパルスの長さと周期を変えた時のΔt の変化 (上)とマクロパルスの構造(下).
図7 マクロパルスの長さと周期を変えた時のΔt の変化 (上)とマクロパルスの構造(下).
図8 ガスジェットカーテン法コンセプト.
図8 ガスジェットカーテン法コンセプト.
図9 シール効果とガス置換効果(上)とオリフィスの大口径 化(下).
図9 シール効果とガス置換効果(上)とオリフィスの大口径 化(下).
図10 2 次元ラバール式ノズルによるガスジェットカーテ ンの計算例(Solidworks flow simulation).図はマッハ 数のプロットである.
図10 2 次元ラバール式ノズルによるガスジェットカーテ ンの計算例(Solidworks flow simulation).図はマッハ 数のプロットである.
図11 4 枚目の Be ディスク.左使用前,右使用後.
図11 4 枚目の Be ディスク.左使用前,右使用後.
図12 40 mg/cm2 グラッシーカーボンディスク
図12 40 mg/cm2 グラッシーカーボンディスク
図13 GS ディスク.左使用前,右使用後.
図13 GS ディスク.左使用前,右使用後.
図14 GTF ディスク.左使用前,右使用後.
図14 GTF ディスク.左使用前,右使用後.
図15 U ビーム照射中の GTF ディスク
図15 U ビーム照射中の GTF ディスク
図16 アクセスドア用ガラス. 左変色したガラス,右新品のガラス
図16 アクセスドア用ガラス. 左変色したガラス,右新品のガラス

References

1) Y. Yano: Nucl. Instrum. Methods 261, 1009 (2007).
2) ACF-Metals Arizona Carbon Foil Co. Inc.: http://www.
techexpo.com/firms/acf-metl.html
3) J. Wei et al.: “Progress towards the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams,” in Proceedings of 2013 North American
Particle Accelerator Conference (NA-PAC’13), Pasadena,
CA, U.S.A., September 2013, pp. 1453–1457.
4) H. Kuboki, H. Okuno, S. Yokouchi, H. Hasebe, T. Kishida,
N. Fukunishi, O. Kamigaito, A. Goto, M. Kase and Y.
Yano: Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 13, 093501
(2010).
5) H. Okuno, N. Fukunishi, A. Goto, H. Hasebe, H. Imao, O.
Kamigaito, M. Kase, H. Kuboki, Y. Yano, S. Yokouchi and
A. Hershcovitch: Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 14,
033503 (2011).
6) H. Imao, H. Okuno, H. Kuboki, S. Yokouchi, N. Fukunishi,
O. Kamigaito, H. Hasebe, T. Watanabe, Y. Watanabe, M.
Kase and Y. Yano: Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams
15, 123501 (2012).
7) H. Imao et al.: “R&D of Helium Gas Stripper for Intense
Uranium Beams,” in Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference on Cyclotrons and their Applications
(CYC2013), Vancouver, BC, Canada, September 2013, pp.
265–268.
8) H. Hasebe, H. Okuno, A. Tatami, M. Tachibana, M. Murakami, H. Kuboki, H. Imao, N. Fukunishi, M. Kase and O.
Kamigaito: AIP Conf. Proc. 1962, 030004 (2018).
9) H. Hasebe, H. Okuno, A. Tatami, M. Tachibana, M. Murakami, H. Imao, N. Fukunishi, M. Kase and O. Kamigaito:
EPJ Web of Conferences 229, 01004 (2020).
10) T. Nakagawa, M. Kidera, Y. Higurashi, J. Ohonishi, A.
Goto and Y. Yano: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A327 (2008).
11) Y. Higurashi, J. Ohnishi, K. Ozeki, M. Kidera and T. Nakagawa: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02A953 (2014).
12) 小山亮,内山暁仁,今尾浩士,渡邉環:RIBF にお
けるシステム統合のためのガスストリッパー制御の
更新,PASJ2019, FRPH003 (2019).
13) H. Imao et al.: “Development of gas stripper at RIBF,” in
Proceedings of the 9th International Particle Accelerator
Conference (IPAC2018), Vancouver, BC, Canada, April
2018, pp. 41–46.
14) A. Akashio, K. Tanaka, H. Imao and Y. Uwamino: EPJ
Web of Conferences 153, 01022 (2017).
15) H. Imao et al.: “Charge Stripper Ring for Cyclotron
Cascade,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-first International Conference on Cyclotrons and their Applications
(CYC2016), Zurich, Switzerland, September 2016, pp.
155–159.
16) H. Imao: JINST 15, P12036 (2020).
17) H. Kuboki, H. Okuno, A. Hershcovitch, T. Dantsuka, H.
Hasebe, K. Ikegami, H. Imao, O. Kamigaito, M. Kase,
T. Maie, T. Nakagawa and Y. Yano: J. Radioanal. Nucl.
Chem. 299, 1029 (2014).
18) N. Ikoma, Y. Miyake, M. Takahashi, H. Okuno, S. Namba,
K. Takahashi, T. Sasaki and T. Kikuchi: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 91, 053503 (2020).
19) H. Ryuto, H. Hasebe, N. Fukunishi, S. Yokouchi, A. Goto,
M. Kase and Y. Yano: Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res.
A 569, 697 (2006).
20) H. Hasebe, H. Okuno, H. Kuboki, H. Imao, N. Fukunishi, M.
Kase and O. Kamigaito: J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 305,
825 (2015).
21) Crystal Optics Inc.: http://www.crystal-opt.co.jp.
22) TANKEN SEAL SEIKO Co., LTD.: http://www.tanken
seal.co.jp.
23) Kaneka Corporation: http://www.elecdiv.kaneka.co.jp.
24) H. Hasebe, H. Okuno, H. Imao, N. Fukunishi, M. Kase and
O. Kamigaito: Proceedings of the 16th annual meeting of
PASJ, p. 9 (2019).
25) A. Tatami, Y. Kawashima, M. Murakami, K. Murashima
and M. Tachibana: Proceedings of the 14th annual meeting of PASJ, p. 159 (2017).

Figure 3.10: Snapshots of Temperature Profile for Single Track in Keyhole Regime (P = 250W and V = 0.5m/s) at the Preheating Temperature of 100 °C

Multiscale Process Modeling of Residual Deformation and Defect Formation for Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing

Qian Chen, PhD
University of Pittsburgh, 2021

레이저 분말 베드 퓨전(L-PBF) 적층 제조(AM)는 우수한 기계적 특성으로 그물 모양에 가까운 복잡한 부품을 생산할 수 있습니다. 그러나 빌드 실패 및 다공성과 같은 결함으로 이어지는 원치 않는 잔류 응력 및 왜곡이 L-PBF의 광범위한 적용을 방해하고 있습니다.

L-PBF의 잠재력을 최대한 실현하기 위해 잔류 변형, 용융 풀 및 다공성 형성을 예측하는 다중 규모 모델링 방법론이 개발되었습니다. L-PBF의 잔류 변형 및 응력을 부품 규모에서 예측하기 위해 고유 변형 ​​방법을 기반으로 하는 다중 규모 프로세스 모델링 프레임워크가 제안됩니다.

고유한 변형 벡터는 마이크로 스케일에서 충실도가 높은 상세한 다층 프로세스 시뮬레이션에서 추출됩니다. 균일하지만 이방성인 변형은 잔류 왜곡 및 응력을 예측하기 위해 준 정적 평형 유한 요소 분석(FEA)에서 레이어별로 L-PBF 부품에 적용됩니다.

부품 규모에서의 잔류 변형 및 응력 예측 외에도 분말 규모의 다중물리 모델링을 수행하여 공정 매개변수, 예열 온도 및 스패터링 입자에 의해 유도된 용융 풀 변동 및 결함 형성을 연구합니다. 이러한 요인과 관련된 용융 풀 역학 및 다공성 형성 메커니즘은 시뮬레이션 및 실험을 통해 밝혀졌습니다.

제안된 부품 규모 잔류 응력 및 왜곡 모델을 기반으로 경로 계획 방법은 큰 잔류 변형 및 건물 파손을 방지하기 위해 주어진 형상에 대한 레이저 스캐닝 경로를 조정하기 위해 개발되었습니다.

연속 및 아일랜드 스캐닝 전략을 위한 기울기 기반 경로 계획이 공식화되고 공식화된 컴플라이언스 및 스트레스 최소화 문제에 대한 전체 감도 분석이 수행됩니다. 이 제안된 경로 계획 방법의 타당성과 효율성은 AconityONE L-PBF 시스템을 사용하여 실험적으로 입증되었습니다.

또한 기계 학습을 활용한 데이터 기반 프레임워크를 개발하여 L-PBF에 대한 부품 규모의 열 이력을 예측합니다. 본 연구에서는 실시간 열 이력 예측을 위해 CNN(Convolutional Neural Network)과 RNN(Recurrent Neural Network)을 포함하는 순차적 기계 학습 모델을 제안합니다.

유한 요소 해석과 비교하여 100배의 예측 속도 향상이 달성되어 실제 제작 프로세스보다 빠른 예측이 가능하고 실시간 온도 프로파일을 사용할 수 있습니다.

Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) is capable of producing complex parts near net shape with good mechanical properties. However, undesired residual stress and distortion that lead to build failure and defects such as porosity are preventing broader applications of L-PBF. To realize the full potential of L-PBF, a multiscale modeling methodology is developed to predict residual deformation, melt pool, and porosity formation. To predict the residual deformation and stress in L-PBF at part-scale, a multiscale process modeling framework based on inherent strain method is proposed.

Inherent strain vectors are extracted from detailed multi-layer process simulation with high fidelity at micro-scale. Uniform but anisotropic strains are then applied to L-PBF part in a layer-by-layer fashion in a quasi-static equilibrium finite element analysis (FEA) to predict residual distortion and stress. Besides residual distortion and stress prediction at part scale, multiphysics modeling at powder scale is performed to study the melt pool variation and defect formation induced by process parameters, preheating temperature and spattering particles. Melt pool dynamics and porosity formation mechanisms associated with these factors are revealed through simulation and experiments.

Based on the proposed part-scale residual stress and distortion model, path planning method is developed to tailor the laser scanning path for a given geometry to prevent large residual deformation and building failures. Gradient based path planning for continuous and island scanning strategy is formulated and full sensitivity analysis for the formulated compliance- and stress-minimization problem is performed.

The feasibility and effectiveness of this proposed path planning method is demonstrated experimentally using the AconityONE L-PBF system. In addition, a data-driven framework utilizing machine learning is developed to predict the thermal history at part-scale for L-PBF.

In this work, a sequential machine learning model including convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN), long shortterm memory unit, is proposed for real-time thermal history prediction. A 100x prediction speed improvement is achieved compared to the finite element analysis which makes the prediction faster than real fabrication process and real-time temperature profile available.

Figure 1.1: Schematic Overview of Metal Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process [2]
Figure 1.1: Schematic Overview of Metal Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process [2]
Figure 1.2: Commercial Powder Bed Fusion Systems
Figure 1.2: Commercial Powder Bed Fusion Systems
Figure 1.3: Commercial Metal Components Fabricated by Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing: (a) GE Fuel Nozzle; (b) Stryker Hip Biomedical Implant.
Figure 1.3: Commercial Metal Components Fabricated by Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing: (a) GE Fuel Nozzle; (b) Stryker Hip Biomedical Implant.
Figure 2.1: Proposed Multiscale Process Simulation Framework
Figure 2.1: Proposed Multiscale Process Simulation Framework
Figure 2.2: (a) Experimental Setup for In-situ Thermocouple Measurement in the EOS M290 Build Chamber; (b) Themocouple Locations on the Bottom Side of the Substrate.
Figure 2.2: (a) Experimental Setup for In-situ Thermocouple Measurement in the EOS M290 Build Chamber; (b) Themocouple Locations on the Bottom Side of the Substrate.
Figure 2.3: (a) Finite Element Model for Single Layer Thermal Analysis; (b) Deposition Layer
Figure 2.3: (a) Finite Element Model for Single Layer Thermal Analysis; (b) Deposition Layer
Figure 2.4: Core-skin layer: (a) Surface Morphology; (b) Scanning Strategy; (c) Transient Temperature Distribution and Temperature History at (d) Point 1; (e) Point 2 and (f) Point 3
Figure 2.4: Core-skin layer: (a) Surface Morphology; (b) Scanning Strategy; (c) Transient Temperature Distribution and Temperature History at (d) Point 1; (e) Point 2 and (f) Point 3
Figure 2.5: (a) Scanning Orientation of Each Layer; (b) Finite Element Model for Micro-scale Representative Volume
Figure 2.5: (a) Scanning Orientation of Each Layer; (b) Finite Element Model for Micro-scale Representative Volume
Figure 2.6: Bottom Layer (a) Thermal History; (b) Plastic Strain and (c) Elastic Strain Evolution History
Figure 2.6: Bottom Layer (a) Thermal History; (b) Plastic Strain and (c) Elastic Strain Evolution History
Figure 2.7: Bottom Layer Inherent Strain under Default Process Parameters along Horizontal Scanning Path
Figure 2.7: Bottom Layer Inherent Strain under Default Process Parameters along Horizontal Scanning Path
Figure 2.8: Snapshots of the Element Activation Process
Figure 2.8: Snapshots of the Element Activation Process
Figure 2.9: Double Cantilever Beam Structure Built by the EOS M290 DMLM Process (a) Before and (b) After Cutting off; (c) Faro Laser ScanArm V3 for Distortion Measurement
Figure 2.9: Double Cantilever Beam Structure Built by the EOS M290 DMLM Process (a) Before and (b) After Cutting off; (c) Faro Laser ScanArm V3 for Distortion Measurement
Figure 2.10: Square Canonical Structure Built by the EOS M290 DMLM Process
Figure 2.10: Square Canonical Structure Built by the EOS M290 DMLM Process
Figure 2.11: Finite Element Mesh for the Square Canonical and Snapshots of Element Activation Process
Figure 2.11: Finite Element Mesh for the Square Canonical and Snapshots of Element Activation Process
Figure 2.12: Simulated Distortion Field for the Double Cantilever Beam before Cutting off the Supports: (a) Inherent Strain Method; (b) Simufact Additive 3.1
Figure 2.12: Simulated Distortion Field for the Double Cantilever Beam before Cutting off the Supports: (a) Inherent Strain Method; (b) Simufact Additive 3.1
Figure 3.10: Snapshots of Temperature Profile for Single Track in Keyhole Regime (P = 250W and V = 0.5m/s) at the Preheating Temperature of 100 °C
Figure 3.10: Snapshots of Temperature Profile for Single Track in Keyhole Regime (P = 250W and V = 0.5m/s) at the Preheating Temperature of 100 °C
s) at the Preheating Temperature of 500 °C
s) at the Preheating Temperature of 500 °C
Figure 3.15: Melt Pool Cross Section Comparison Between Simulation and Experiment for Single Track
Figure 3.15: Melt Pool Cross Section Comparison Between Simulation and Experiment for Single Track

Bibliography

[1] I. Astm, ASTM52900-15 Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing—General
Principles—Terminology, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA 3(4) (2015) 5.
[2] W.E. King, A.T. Anderson, R.M. Ferencz, N.E. Hodge, C. Kamath, S.A. Khairallah, A.M.
Rubenchik, Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational,
and materials challenges, Applied Physics Reviews 2(4) (2015) 041304.
[3] W. Yan, Y. Lu, K. Jones, Z. Yang, J. Fox, P. Witherell, G. Wagner, W.K. Liu, Data-driven
characterization of thermal models for powder-bed-fusion additive manufacturing, Additive
Manufacturing (2020) 101503.
[4] K. Dai, L. Shaw, Thermal and stress modeling of multi-material laser processing, Acta
Materialia 49(20) (2001) 4171-4181.
[5] K. Dai, L. Shaw, Distortion minimization of laser-processed components through control of
laser scanning patterns, Rapid Prototyping Journal 8(5) (2002) 270-276.
[6] S.S. Bo Cheng, Kevin Chou, Stress and deformation evaluations of scanning strategy effect in
selective laser melting, Additive Manufacturing (2017).
[7] C. Fu, Y. Guo, Three-dimensional temperature gradient mechanism in selective laser melting
of Ti-6Al-4V, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 136(6) (2014) 061004.
[8] P. Prabhakar, W.J. Sames, R. Dehoff, S.S. Babu, Computational modeling of residual stress
formation during the electron beam melting process for Inconel 718, Additive Manufacturing 7
(2015) 83-91.
[9] A. Hussein, L. Hao, C. Yan, R. Everson, Finite element simulation of the temperature and
stress fields in single layers built without-support in selective laser melting, Materials & Design
(1980-2015) 52 (2013) 638-647.
[10] P.Z. Qingcheng Yang, Lin Cheng, Zheng Min, Minking Chyu, Albert C. To, articleFinite
element modeling and validation of thermomechanicalbehavior of Ti-6Al-4V in directed energy
deposition additivemanufacturing, Additive Manufacturing (2016).
[11] E.R. Denlinger, J. Irwin, P. Michaleris, Thermomechanical Modeling of Additive
Manufacturing Large Parts, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 136(6) (2014)
061007.
[12] E.R. Denlinger, M. Gouge, J. Irwin, P. Michaleris, Thermomechanical model development
and in situ experimental validation of the Laser Powder-Bed Fusion process, Additive
Manufacturing 16 (2017) 73-80.
[13] V.J. Erik R Denlinger, G.V. Srinivasan, Tahany EI-Wardany, Pan Michaleris, Thermal
modeling of Inconel 718 processed with powder bed fusionand experimental validation using in
situ measurements, Additive Manufacturing 11 (2016) 7-15.
[14] N. Patil, D. Pal, H.K. Rafi, K. Zeng, A. Moreland, A. Hicks, D. Beeler, B. Stucker, A
Generalized Feed Forward Dynamic Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Derefinement Finite Element
Framework for Metal Laser Sintering—Part I: Formulation and Algorithm Development, Journal
of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 137(4) (2015) 041001.
[15] D. Pal, N. Patil, K.H. Kutty, K. Zeng, A. Moreland, A. Hicks, D. Beeler, B. Stucker, A
Generalized Feed-Forward Dynamic Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Derefinement FiniteElement Framework for Metal Laser Sintering—Part II: Nonlinear Thermal Simulations and
Validations, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 138(6) (2016) 061003.
[16] N. Keller, V. Ploshikhin, New method for fast predictions of residual stress and distortion of
AM parts, Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, Texas, 2014, pp. 1229-1237.
[17] S.A. Khairallah, A.T. Anderson, A. Rubenchik, W.E. King, Laser powder-bed fusion additive
manufacturing: Physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and
denudation zones, Acta Materialia 108 (2016) 36-45.
[18] M.J. Matthews, G. Guss, S.A. Khairallah, A.M. Rubenchik, P.J. Depond, W.E. King,
Denudation of metal powder layers in laser powder bed fusion processes, Acta Materialia 114
(2016) 33-42.
[19] A.A. Martin, N.P. Calta, S.A. Khairallah, J. Wang, P.J. Depond, A.Y. Fong, V. Thampy, G.M.
Guss, A.M. Kiss, K.H. Stone, Dynamics of pore formation during laser powder bed fusion additive
manufacturing, Nature communications 10(1) (2019) 1987.
[20] R. Shi, S.A. Khairallah, T.T. Roehling, T.W. Heo, J.T. McKeown, M.J. Matthews,
Microstructural control in metal laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing using laser beam
shaping strategy, Acta Materialia (2019).
[21] S.A. Khairallah, A.A. Martin, J.R. Lee, G. Guss, N.P. Calta, J.A. Hammons, M.H. Nielsen,
K. Chaput, E. Schwalbach, M.N. Shah, Controlling interdependent meso-nanosecond dynamics
and defect generation in metal 3D printing, Science 368(6491) (2020) 660-665.
[22] W. Yan, W. Ge, Y. Qian, S. Lin, B. Zhou, W.K. Liu, F. Lin, G.J. Wagner, Multi-physics
modeling of single/multiple-track defect mechanisms in electron beam selective melting, Acta
Materialia 134 (2017) 324-333.
[23] S. Shrestha, Y. Kevin Chou, A Numerical Study on the Keyhole Formation During Laser
Powder Bed Fusion Process, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 141(10) (2019).
[24] S. Shrestha, B. Cheng, K. Chou, An Investigation into Melt Pool Effective Thermal
Conductivity for Thermal Modeling of Powder-Bed Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing.
[25] D. Rosenthal, Mathematical theory of heat distribution during welding and cutting, Welding
journal 20 (1941) 220-234.
[26] P. Promoppatum, S.-C. Yao, P.C. Pistorius, A.D. Rollett, A comprehensive comparison of the
analytical and numerical prediction of the thermal history and solidification microstructure of
Inconel 718 products made by laser powder-bed fusion, Engineering 3(5) (2017) 685-694.
[27] M. Tang, P.C. Pistorius, J.L. Beuth, Prediction of lack-of-fusion porosity for powder bed
fusion, Additive Manufacturing 14 (2017) 39-48.
[28] T. Moran, P. Li, D. Warner, N. Phan, Utility of superposition-based finite element approach
for part-scale thermal simulation in additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing 21 (2018)
215-219.
[29] Y. Yang, M. Knol, F. van Keulen, C. Ayas, A semi-analytical thermal modelling approach
for selective laser melting, Additive Manufacturing 21 (2018) 284-297.
[30] B. Cheng, S. Shrestha, K. Chou, Stress and deformation evaluations of scanning strategy
effect in selective laser melting, Additive Manufacturing 12 (2016) 240-251.
[31] L.H. Ahmed Hussein, Chunze Yan, Richard Everson, Finite element simulation of the
temperature and stress fields in single layers built without-support in selective laser melting,
Materials and Design 52 (2013) 638-647.
[32] H. Peng, D.B. Go, R. Billo, S. Gong, M.R. Shankar, B.A. Gatrell, J. Budzinski, P. Ostiguy,
R. Attardo, C. Tomonto, Part-scale model for fast prediction of thermal distortion in DMLS
additive manufacturing; Part 2: a quasi-static thermo-mechanical model, Austin, Texas (2016).
[33] M.F. Zaeh, G. Branner, Investigations on residual stresses and deformations in selective laser
melting, Production Engineering 4(1) (2010) 35-45.
[34] C. Li, C. Fu, Y. Guo, F. Fang, A multiscale modeling approach for fast prediction of part
distortion in selective laser melting, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 229 (2016) 703-
712.
[35] C. Li, Z. Liu, X. Fang, Y. Guo, On the Simulation Scalability of Predicting Residual Stress
and Distortion in Selective Laser Melting, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering
140(4) (2018) 041013.
[36] S. Afazov, W.A. Denmark, B.L. Toralles, A. Holloway, A. Yaghi, Distortion Prediction and
Compensation in Selective Laser Melting, Additive Manufacturing 17 (2017) 15-22.
[37] Y. Lee, W. Zhang, Modeling of heat transfer, fluid flow and solidification microstructure of
nickel-base superalloy fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, Additive Manufacturing 12 (2016)
178-188.
[38] L. Scime, J. Beuth, A multi-scale convolutional neural network for autonomous anomaly
detection and classification in a laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process, Additive
Manufacturing 24 (2018) 273-286.
[39] L. Scime, J. Beuth, Using machine learning to identify in-situ melt pool signatures indicative
of flaw formation in a laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process, Additive
Manufacturing 25 (2019) 151-165.
[40] X. Xie, J. Bennett, S. Saha, Y. Lu, J. Cao, W.K. Liu, Z. Gan, Mechanistic data-driven
prediction of as-built mechanical properties in metal additive manufacturing, npj Computational
Materials 7(1) (2021) 1-12.
[41] C. Wang, X. Tan, S. Tor, C. Lim, Machine learning in additive manufacturing: State-of-theart and perspectives, Additive Manufacturing (2020) 101538.
[42] J. Li, R. Jin, Z.Y. Hang, Integration of physically-based and data-driven approaches for
thermal field prediction in additive manufacturing, Materials & Design 139 (2018) 473-485.
[43] M. Mozaffar, A. Paul, R. Al-Bahrani, S. Wolff, A. Choudhary, A. Agrawal, K. Ehmann, J.
Cao, Data-driven prediction of the high-dimensional thermal history in directed energy deposition
processes via recurrent neural networks, Manufacturing letters 18 (2018) 35-39.
[44] A. Paul, M. Mozaffar, Z. Yang, W.-k. Liao, A. Choudhary, J. Cao, A. Agrawal, A real-time
iterative machine learning approach for temperature profile prediction in additive manufacturing
processes, 2019 IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics (DSAA),
IEEE, 2019, pp. 541-550.
[45] S. Clijsters, T. Craeghs, J.-P. Kruth, A priori process parameter adjustment for SLM process
optimization, Innovative developments on virtual and physical prototyping, Taylor & Francis
Group., 2012, pp. 553-560.
[46] R. Mertens, S. Clijsters, K. Kempen, J.-P. Kruth, Optimization of scan strategies in selective
laser melting of aluminum parts with downfacing areas, Journal of Manufacturing Science and
Engineering 136(6) (2014) 061012.
[47] J.-P. Kruth, J. Deckers, E. Yasa, R. Wauthlé, Assessing and comparing influencing factors of
residual stresses in selective laser melting using a novel analysis method, Proceedings of the
institution of mechanical engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture 226(6) (2012)
980-991.
[48] Y. Lu, S. Wu, Y. Gan, T. Huang, C. Yang, L. Junjie, J. Lin, Study on the microstructure,
mechanical property and residual stress of SLM Inconel-718 alloy manufactured by differing
island scanning strategy, Optics & Laser Technology 75 (2015) 197-206.
[49] E. Foroozmehr, R. Kovacevic, Effect of path planning on the laser powder deposition process:
thermal and structural evaluation, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing
Technology 51(5-8) (2010) 659-669.
[50] L.H. Ahmed Hussein, Chunze Yan, Richard Everson, Finite element simulation of the
temperature and stress fields in single layers built without-support in selective laser melting,
Materials and Design (2013).
[51] J.-P. Kruth, M. Badrossamay, E. Yasa, J. Deckers, L. Thijs, J. Van Humbeeck, Part and
material properties in selective laser melting of metals, Proceedings of the 16th international
symposium on electromachining, 2010, pp. 1-12.
[52] L. Thijs, K. Kempen, J.-P. Kruth, J. Van Humbeeck, Fine-structured aluminium products with
controllable texture by selective laser melting of pre-alloyed AlSi10Mg powder, Acta Materialia
61(5) (2013) 1809-1819.
[53] D. Ding, Z.S. Pan, D. Cuiuri, H. Li, A tool-path generation strategy for wire and arc additive
manufacturing, The international journal of advanced manufacturing technology 73(1-4) (2014)
173-183.
[54] B.E. Carroll, T.A. Palmer, A.M. Beese, Anisotropic tensile behavior of Ti–6Al–4V
components fabricated with directed energy deposition additive manufacturing, Acta Materialia
87 (2015) 309-320.
[55] D. Ding, Z. Pan, D. Cuiuri, H. Li, A practical path planning methodology for wire and arc
additive manufacturing of thin-walled structures, Robotics and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing 34 (2015) 8-19.
[56] D. Ding, Z. Pan, D. Cuiuri, H. Li, S. van Duin, N. Larkin, Bead modelling and implementation
of adaptive MAT path in wire and arc additive manufacturing, Robotics and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing 39 (2016) 32-42.
[57] R. Ponche, O. Kerbrat, P. Mognol, J.-Y. Hascoet, A novel methodology of design for Additive
Manufacturing applied to Additive Laser Manufacturing process, Robotics and ComputerIntegrated Manufacturing 30(4) (2014) 389-398.
[58] D.E. Smith, R. Hoglund, Continuous fiber angle topology optimization for polymer fused
fillament fabrication, Annu. Int. Solid Free. Fabr. Symp. Austin, TX, 2016.
[59] J. Liu, J. Liu, H. Yu, H. Yu, Concurrent deposition path planning and structural topology
optimization for additive manufacturing, Rapid Prototyping Journal 23(5) (2017) 930-942.
[60] Q. Xia, T. Shi, Optimization of composite structures with continuous spatial variation of fiber
angle through Shepard interpolation, Composite Structures 182 (2017) 273-282.
[61] C. Kiyono, E. Silva, J. Reddy, A novel fiber optimization method based on normal distribution
function with continuously varying fiber path, Composite Structures 160 (2017) 503-515.
[62] C.J. Brampton, K.C. Wu, H.A. Kim, New optimization method for steered fiber composites
using the level set method, Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization 52(3) (2015) 493-505.
[63] J. Liu, A.C. To, Deposition path planning-integrated structural topology optimization for 3D
additive manufacturing subject to self-support constraint, Computer-Aided Design 91 (2017) 27-
45.
[64] H. Shen, J. Fu, Z. Chen, Y. Fan, Generation of offset surface for tool path in NC machining
through level set methods, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
46(9-12) (2010) 1043-1047.
[65] C. Zhuang, Z. Xiong, H. Ding, High speed machining tool path generation for pockets using
level sets, International Journal of Production Research 48(19) (2010) 5749-5766.
[66] K.C. Mills, Recommended values of thermophysical properties for selected commercial
alloys, Woodhead Publishing2002.
[67] S.S. Sih, J.W. Barlow, The prediction of the emissivity and thermal conductivity of powder
beds, Particulate Science and Technology 22(4) (2004) 427-440.
[68] L. Dong, A. Makradi, S. Ahzi, Y. Remond, Three-dimensional transient finite element
analysis of the selective laser sintering process, Journal of materials processing technology 209(2)
(2009) 700-706.
[69] J.J. Beaman, J.W. Barlow, D.L. Bourell, R.H. Crawford, H.L. Marcus, K.P. McAlea, Solid
freeform fabrication: a new direction in manufacturing, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell,
MA 2061 (1997) 25-49.
[70] G. Bugeda Miguel Cervera, G. Lombera, Numerical prediction of temperature and density
distributions in selective laser sintering processes, Rapid Prototyping Journal 5(1) (1999) 21-26.
[71] T. Mukherjee, W. Zhang, T. DebRoy, An improved prediction of residual stresses and
distortion in additive manufacturing, Computational Materials Science 126 (2017) 360-372.
[72] A.J. Dunbar, E.R. Denlinger, M.F. Gouge, P. Michaleris, Experimental validation of finite
element modeling for laser powderbed fusion deformation, Additive Manufacturing 12 (2016)
108-120.
[73] J. Goldak, A. Chakravarti, M. Bibby, A new finite element model for welding heat sources,
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 15(2) (1984) 299-305.
[74] J. Liu, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, W. Xiong, A. To, Quantitative Texture Prediction of Epitaxial
Columnar Grains in Alloy 718 Processed by Additive Manufacturing, Proceedings of the 9th
International Symposium on Superalloy 718 & Derivatives: Energy, Aerospace, and Industrial
Applications, Springer, 2018, pp. 749-755.
[75] J. Irwin, P. Michaleris, A line heat input model for additive manufacturing, Journal of
Manufacturing Science and Engineering 138(11) (2016) 111004.
[76] M. Gouge, J. Heigel, P. Michaleris, T. Palmer, Modeling forced convection in the thermal
simulation of laser cladding processes, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing
Technology 79 (2015).
[77] J. Heigel, P. Michaleris, E. Reutzel, Thermo-mechanical model development and validation
of directed energy deposition additive manufacturing of Ti–6Al–4V, Additive manufacturing 5
(2015) 9-19.
[78] E.R. Denlinger, J.C. Heigel, P. Michaleris, Residual stress and distortion modeling of electron
beam direct manufacturing Ti-6Al-4V, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers,
Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture 229(10) (2015) 1803-1813.
[79] X. Liang, Q. Chen, L. Cheng, Q. Yang, A. To, A modified inherent strain method for fast
prediction of residual deformation in additive manufacturing of metal parts, 2017 Solid Freeform
Fabrication Symposium Proceedings, Austin, Texas, 2017.
[80] X. Liang, L. Cheng, Q. Chen, Q. Yang, A. To, A Modified Method for Estimating Inherent
Strains from Detailed Process Simulation for Fast Residual Distortion Prediction of Single-Walled
Structures Fabricated by Directed Energy Deposition, Additive Manufacturing 23 (2018) 471-486.
[81] L. Sochalski-Kolbus, E.A. Payzant, P.A. Cornwell, T.R. Watkins, S.S. Babu, R.R. Dehoff,
M. Lorenz, O. Ovchinnikova, C. Duty, Comparison of residual stresses in Inconel 718 simple parts
made by electron beam melting and direct laser metal sintering, Metallurgical and Materials
Transactions A 46(3) (2015) 1419-1432.
[82] P. Mercelis, J.-P. Kruth, Residual stresses in selective laser sintering and selective laser
melting, Rapid Prototyping Journal 12(5) (2006) 254-265.
[83] N. Hodge, R. Ferencz, J. Solberg, Implementation of a thermomechanical model for the
simulation of selective laser melting, Computational Mechanics 54(1) (2014) 33-51.
[84] A.S. Wu, D.W. Brown, M. Kumar, G.F. Gallegos, W.E. King, An experimental investigation
into additive manufacturing-induced residual stresses in 316L stainless steel, Metallurgical and
Materials Transactions A 45(13) (2014) 6260-6270.
[85] C. Li, J. liu, Y. Guo, Efficient predictive model of part distortion and residual stress in
selective laser melting, Solid Freeform Fabrication 2016, 2017.
[86] Y. Zhao, Y. Koizumi, K. Aoyagi, D. Wei, K. Yamanaka, A. Chiba, Molten pool behavior and
effect of fluid flow on solidification conditions in selective electron beam melting (SEBM) of a
biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloy, Additive Manufacturing 26 (2019) 202-214.
[87] J.-H. Cho, S.-J. Na, Implementation of real-time multiple reflection and Fresnel absorption of
laser beam in keyhole, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 39(24) (2006) 5372.
[88] Q. Guo, C. Zhao, M. Qu, L. Xiong, L.I. Escano, S.M.H. Hojjatzadeh, N.D. Parab, K. Fezzaa,
W. Everhart, T. Sun, In-situ characterization and quantification of melt pool variation under
constant input energy density in laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing process, Additive
Manufacturing (2019).
[89] E. Assuncao, S. Williams, D. Yapp, Interaction time and beam diameter effects on the
conduction mode limit, Optics and Lasers in Engineering 50(6) (2012) 823-828.
[90] R. Cunningham, C. Zhao, N. Parab, C. Kantzos, J. Pauza, K. Fezzaa, T. Sun, A.D. Rollett,
Keyhole threshold and morphology in laser melting revealed by ultrahigh-speed x-ray imaging,
Science 363(6429) (2019) 849-852.
[91] W. Tan, N.S. Bailey, Y.C. Shin, Investigation of keyhole plume and molten pool based on a
three-dimensional dynamic model with sharp interface formulation, Journal of Physics D: Applied
Physics 46(5) (2013) 055501.
[92] W. Tan, Y.C. Shin, Analysis of multi-phase interaction and its effects on keyhole dynamics
with a multi-physics numerical model, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 47(34) (2014)
345501.
[93] R. Fabbro, K. Chouf, Keyhole modeling during laser welding, Journal of applied Physics
87(9) (2000) 4075-4083.
[94] Q. Guo, C. Zhao, M. Qu, L. Xiong, S.M.H. Hojjatzadeh, L.I. Escano, N.D. Parab, K. Fezzaa,
T. Sun, L. Chen, In-situ full-field mapping of melt flow dynamics in laser metal additive
manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing 31 (2020) 100939.
[95] Y. Ueda, K. Fukuda, K. Nakacho, S. Endo, A new measuring method of residual stresses with
the aid of finite element method and reliability of estimated values, Journal of the Society of Naval
Architects of Japan 1975(138) (1975) 499-507.
[96] M.R. Hill, D.V. Nelson, The inherent strain method for residual stress determination and its
application to a long welded joint, ASME-PUBLICATIONS-PVP 318 (1995) 343-352.
[97] H. Murakawa, Y. Luo, Y. Ueda, Prediction of welding deformation and residual stress by
elastic FEM based on inherent strain, Journal of the society of Naval Architects of Japan 1996(180)
(1996) 739-751.
[98] M. Yuan, Y. Ueda, Prediction of residual stresses in welded T-and I-joints using inherent
strains, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Transactions of the ASME 118(2)
(1996) 229-234.
[99] L. Zhang, P. Michaleris, P. Marugabandhu, Evaluation of applied plastic strain methods for
welding distortion prediction, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 129(6) (2007)
1000-1010.
[100] M. Bugatti, Q. Semeraro, Limitations of the Inherent Strain Method in Simulating Powder
Bed Fusion Processes, Additive Manufacturing 23 (2018) 329-346.
[101] L. Cheng, X. Liang, J. Bai, Q. Chen, J. Lemon, A. To, On Utilizing Topology Optimization
to Design Support Structure to Prevent Residual Stress Induced Build Failure in Laser Powder Bed
Metal Additive Manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing (2019).
[102] Q. Chen, X. Liang, D. Hayduke, J. Liu, L. Cheng, J. Oskin, R. Whitmore, A.C. To, An
inherent strain based multiscale modeling framework for simulating part-scale residual
deformation for direct metal laser sintering, Additive Manufacturing 28 (2019) 406-418.
[103] S. Osher, J.A. Sethian, Fronts propagating with curvature-dependent speed: algorithms based
on Hamilton-Jacobi formulations, Journal of computational physics 79(1) (1988) 12-49.
[104] M.Y. Wang, X. Wang, D. Guo, A level set method for structural topology optimization,
Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering 192(1) (2003) 227-246.
[105] G. Allaire, F. Jouve, A.-M. Toader, Structural optimization using sensitivity analysis and a
level-set method, Journal of computational physics 194(1) (2004) 363-393.
[106] Y. Wang, Z. Luo, Z. Kang, N. Zhang, A multi-material level set-based topology and shape
optimization method, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 283 (2015)
1570-1586.
[107] P. Dunning, C. Brampton, H. Kim, Simultaneous optimisation of structural topology and
material grading using level set method, Materials Science and Technology 31(8) (2015) 884-894.
[108] P. Liu, Y. Luo, Z. Kang, Multi-material topology optimization considering interface
behavior via XFEM and level set method, Computer methods in applied mechanics and
engineering 308 (2016) 113-133.
[109] J. Liu, Q. Chen, Y. Zheng, R. Ahmad, J. Tang, Y. Ma, Level set-based heterogeneous object
modeling and optimization, Computer-Aided Design (2019).
[110] J. Liu, Q. Chen, X. Liang, A.C. To, Manufacturing cost constrained topology optimization
for additive manufacturing, Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering 14(2) (2019) 213-221.
[111] Z. Kang, Y. Wang, Integrated topology optimization with embedded movable holes based
on combined description by material density and level sets, Computer methods in applied
mechanics and engineering 255 (2013) 1-13.
[112] P.D. Dunning, H. Alicia Kim, A new hole insertion method for level set based structural
topology optimization, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 93(1) (2013)
118-134.
[113] J.A. Sethian, A fast marching level set method for monotonically advancing fronts,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93(4) (1996) 1591-1595.
[114] J.A. Sethian, Level set methods and fast marching methods: evolving interfaces in
computational geometry, fluid mechanics, computer vision, and materials science, Cambridge
university press1999.
[115] C. Le, J. Norato, T. Bruns, C. Ha, D. Tortorelli, Stress-based topology optimization for
continua, Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization 41(4) (2010) 605-620.
[116] A. Takezawa, G.H. Yoon, S.H. Jeong, M. Kobashi, M. Kitamura, Structural topology
optimization with strength and heat conduction constraints, Computer Methods in Applied
Mechanics and Engineering 276 (2014) 341-361.
[117] S. Hochreiter, J. Schmidhuber, Long short-term memory, Neural computation 9(8) (1997)
1735-1780.
[118] A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, G.E. Hinton, Imagenet classification with deep convolutional
neural networks, Advances in neural information processing systems 25 (2012) 1097-1105.
[119] K. Simonyan, A. Zisserman, Very deep convolutional networks for large-scale image
recognition, arXiv preprint arXiv:1409.1556 (2014).
[120] K. He, X. Zhang, S. Ren, J. Sun, Deep residual learning for image recognition, Proceedings
of the IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition, 2016, pp. 770-778.
[121] O. Russakovsky, J. Deng, H. Su, J. Krause, S. Satheesh, S. Ma, Z. Huang, A. Karpathy, A.
Khosla, M. Bernstein, Imagenet large scale visual recognition challenge, International journal of
computer vision 115(3) (2015) 211-252.
[122] S. Ren, K. He, R. Girshick, J. Sun, Faster r-cnn: Towards real-time object detection with
region proposal networks, Advances in neural information processing systems 28 (2015) 91-99.
[123] E.J. Schwalbach, S.P. Donegan, M.G. Chapman, K.J. Chaput, M.A. Groeber, A discrete
source model of powder bed fusion additive manufacturing thermal history, Additive
Manufacturing 25 (2019) 485-498.
[124] D.G. Duffy, Green’s functions with applications, Chapman and Hall/CRC2015.
[125] J. Martínez-Frutos, D. Herrero-Pérez, Efficient matrix-free GPU implementation of fixed
grid finite element analysis, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 104 (2015) 61-71.
[126] F. Dugast, P. Apostolou, A. Fernandez, W. Dong, Q. Chen, S. Strayer, R. Wicker, A.C. To,
Part-scale thermal process modeling for laser powder bed fusion with matrix-free method and GPU
computing, Additive Manufacturing 37 (2021) 101732.
[127] A. Vaswani, N. Shazeer, N. Parmar, J. Uszkoreit, L. Jones, A.N. Gomez, Ł. Kaiser, I.
Polosukhin, Attention is all you need, Advances in neural information processing systems, 2017,
pp. 5998-6008.
[128] J. Devlin, M.-W. Chang, K. Lee, K. Toutanova, Bert: Pre-training of deep bidirectional
transformers for language understanding, arXiv preprint arXiv:1810.04805 (2018).

Figure 3 Simulation PTC pipes enhanced with copper foam and nanoparticles in FLOW-3D software.

다공성 미디어 및 나노유체에 의해 강화된 수집기로 태양광 CCHP 시스템의 최적화

Optimization of Solar CCHP Systems with Collector Enhanced by Porous Media and Nanofluid


Navid Tonekaboni,1Mahdi Feizbahr,2 Nima Tonekaboni,1Guang-Jun Jiang,3,4 and Hong-Xia Chen3,4

Abstract

태양열 집열기의 낮은 효율은 CCHP(Solar Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power) 사이클의 문제점 중 하나로 언급될 수 있습니다. 태양계를 개선하기 위해 나노유체와 다공성 매체가 태양열 집열기에 사용됩니다.

다공성 매질과 나노입자를 사용하는 장점 중 하나는 동일한 조건에서 더 많은 에너지를 흡수할 수 있다는 것입니다. 이 연구에서는 평균 일사량이 1b인 따뜻하고 건조한 지역의 600 m2 건물의 전기, 냉방 및 난방을 생성하기 위해 다공성 매질과 나노유체를 사용하여 태양열 냉난방 복합 발전(SCCHP) 시스템을 최적화했습니다.

본 논문에서는 침전물이 형성되지 않는 lb = 820 w/m2(이란) 정도까지 다공성 물질에서 나노유체의 최적량을 계산하였다. 이 연구에서 태양열 집열기는 구리 다공성 매체(95% 다공성)와 CuO 및 Al2O3 나노 유체로 향상되었습니다.

나노유체의 0.1%-0.6%가 작동 유체로 물에 추가되었습니다. 나노유체의 0.5%가 태양열 집열기 및 SCCHP 시스템에서 가장 높은 에너지 및 엑서지 효율 향상으로 이어지는 것으로 밝혀졌습니다.

본 연구에서 포물선형 집열기(PTC)의 최대 에너지 및 엑서지 효율은 각각 74.19% 및 32.6%입니다. 그림 1은 태양 CCHP의 주기를 정확하게 설명하기 위한 그래픽 초록으로 언급될 수 있습니다.

The low efficiency of solar collectors can be mentioned as one of the problems in solar combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) cycles. For improving solar systems, nanofluid and porous media are used in solar collectors. One of the advantages of using porous media and nanoparticles is to absorb more energy under the same conditions. In this research, a solar combined cooling, heating, and power (SCCHP) system has been optimized by porous media and nanofluid for generating electricity, cooling, and heating of a 600 m2 building in a warm and dry region with average solar radiation of Ib = 820 w/m2 in Iran. In this paper, the optimal amount of nanofluid in porous materials has been calculated to the extent that no sediment is formed. In this study, solar collectors were enhanced with copper porous media (95% porosity) and CuO and Al2O3 nanofluids. 0.1%–0.6% of the nanofluids were added to water as working fluids; it is found that 0.5% of the nanofluids lead to the highest energy and exergy efficiency enhancement in solar collectors and SCCHP systems. Maximum energy and exergy efficiency of parabolic thermal collector (PTC) riches in this study are 74.19% and 32.6%, respectively. Figure 1 can be mentioned as a graphical abstract for accurately describing the cycle of solar CCHP.

1. Introduction

Due to the increase in energy consumption, the use of clean energy is one of the important goals of human societies. In the last four decades, the use of cogeneration cycles has increased significantly due to high efficiency. Among clean energy, the use of solar energy has become more popular due to its greater availability [1]. Low efficiency of energy production, transmission, and distribution system makes a new system to generate simultaneously electricity, heating, and cooling as an essential solution to be widely used. The low efficiency of the electricity generation, transmission, and distribution system makes the CCHP system a basic solution to eliminate waste of energy. CCHP system consists of a prime mover (PM), a power generator, a heat recovery system (produce extra heating/cooling/power), and thermal energy storage (TES) [2]. Solar combined cooling, heating, and power (SCCHP) has been started three decades ago. SCCHP is a system that receives its propulsive force from solar energy; in this cycle, solar collectors play the role of propulsive for generating power in this system [3].

Increasing the rate of energy consumption in the whole world because of the low efficiency of energy production, transmission, and distribution system causes a new cogeneration system to generate electricity, heating, and cooling energy as an essential solution to be widely used. Building energy utilization fundamentally includes power required for lighting, home electrical appliances, warming and cooling of building inside, and boiling water. Domestic usage contributes to an average of 35% of the world’s total energy consumption [4].

Due to the availability of solar energy in all areas, solar collectors can be used to obtain the propulsive power required for the CCHP cycle. Solar energy is the main source of energy in renewable applications. For selecting a suitable area to use solar collectors, annual sunshine hours, the number of sunny days, minus temperature and frosty days, and the windy status of the region are essentially considered [5]. Iran, with an average of more than 300 sunny days, is one of the suitable countries to use solar energy. Due to the fact that most of the solar radiation is in the southern regions of Iran, also the concentration of cities is low in these areas, and transmission lines are far apart, one of the best options is to use CCHP cycles based on solar collectors [6]. One of the major problems of solar collectors is their low efficiency [7]. Low efficiency increases the area of collectors, which increases the initial cost of solar systems and of course increases the initial payback period. To increase the efficiency of solar collectors and improve their performance, porous materials and nanofluids are used to increase their workability.

There are two ways to increase the efficiency of solar collectors and mechanical and fluid improvement. In the first method, using porous materials or helical filaments inside the collector pipes causes turbulence of the flow and increases heat transfer. In the second method, using nanofluids or salt and other materials increases the heat transfer of water. The use of porous materials has grown up immensely over the past twenty years. Porous materials, especially copper porous foam, are widely used in solar collectors. Due to the high contact surface area, porous media are appropriate candidates for solar collectors [8]. A number of researchers investigated Solar System performance in accordance with energy and exergy analyses. Zhai et al. [9] reviewed the performance of a small solar-powered system in which the energy efficiency was 44.7% and the electrical efficiency was 16.9%.

Abbasi et al. [10] proposed an innovative multiobjective optimization to optimize the design of a cogeneration system. Results showed the CCHP system based on an internal diesel combustion engine was the applicable alternative at all regions with different climates. The diesel engine can supply the electrical requirement of 31.0% and heating demand of 3.8% for building.

Jiang et al. [11] combined the experiment and simulation together to analyze the performance of a cogeneration system. Moreover, some research focused on CCHP systems using solar energy. It integrated sustainable and renewable technologies in the CCHP, like PV, Stirling engine, and parabolic trough collector (PTC) [21215].

Wang et al. [16] optimized a cogeneration solar cooling system with a Rankine cycle and ejector to reach the maximum total system efficiency of 55.9%. Jing et al. analyzed a big-scale building with the SCCHP system and auxiliary heaters to produced electrical, cooling, and heating power. The maximum energy efficiency reported in their work is 46.6% [17]. Various optimization methods have been used to improve the cogeneration system, minimum system size, and performance, such as genetic algorithm [1819].

Hirasawa et al. [20] investigated the effect of using porous media to reduce thermal waste in solar systems. They used the high-porosity metal foam on top of the flat plate solar collector and observed that thermal waste decreased by 7% due to natural heat transfer. Many researchers study the efficiency improvement of the solar collector by changing the collector’s shapes or working fluids. However, the most effective method is the use of nanofluids in the solar collector as working fluid [21]. In the experimental study done by Jouybari et al. [22], the efficiency enhancement up to 8.1% was achieved by adding nanofluid in a flat plate collector. In this research, by adding porous materials to the solar collector, collector efficiency increased up to 92% in a low flow regime. Subramani et al. [23] analyzed the thermal performance of the parabolic solar collector with Al2O3 nanofluid. They conducted their experiments with Reynolds number range 2401 to 7202 and mass flow rate 0.0083 to 0.05 kg/s. The maximum efficiency improvement in this experiment was 56% at 0.05 kg/s mass flow rate.

Shojaeizadeh et al. [24] investigated the analysis of the second law of thermodynamic on the flat plate solar collector using Al2O3/water nanofluid. Their research showed that energy efficiency rose up to 1.9% and the exergy efficiency increased by a maximum of 0.72% compared to pure water. Tiwari et al. [25] researched on the thermal performance of solar flat plate collectors for working fluid water with different nanofluids. The result showed that using 1.5% (optimum) particle volume fraction of Al2O3 nanofluid as an absorbing medium causes the thermal efficiency to enhance up to 31.64%.

The effect of porous media and nanofluids on solar collectors has already been investigated in the literature but the SCCHP system with a collector embedded by both porous media and nanofluid for enhancing the ratio of nanoparticle in nanofluid for preventing sedimentation was not discussed. In this research, the amount of energy and exergy of the solar CCHP cycles with parabolic solar collectors in both base and improved modes with a porous material (copper foam with 95% porosity) and nanofluid with different ratios of nanoparticles was calculated. In the first step, it is planned to design a CCHP system based on the required load, and, in the next step, it will analyze the energy and exergy of the system in a basic and optimize mode. In the optimize mode, enhanced solar collectors with porous material and nanofluid in different ratios (0.1%–0.7%) were used to optimize the ratio of nanofluids to prevent sedimentation.

2. Cycle Description

CCHP is one of the methods to enhance energy efficiency and reduce energy loss and costs. The SCCHP system used a solar collector as a prime mover of the cogeneration system and assisted the boiler to generate vapor for the turbine. Hot water flows from the expander to the absorption chiller in summer or to the radiator or fan coil in winter. Finally, before the hot water wants to flow back to the storage tank, it flows inside a heat exchanger for generating domestic hot water [26].

For designing of solar cogeneration system and its analysis, it is necessary to calculate the electrical, heating (heating load is the load required for the production of warm water and space heating), and cooling load required for the case study considered in a residential building with an area of 600 m2 in the warm region of Iran (Zahedan). In Table 1, the average of the required loads is shown for the different months of a year (average of electrical, heating, and cooling load calculated with CARRIER software).Table 1 The average amount of electric charges, heating load, and cooling load used in the different months of the year in the city of Zahedan for a residential building with 600 m2.

According to Table 1, the maximum magnitude of heating, cooling, and electrical loads is used to calculate the cogeneration system. The maximum electric load is 96 kW, the maximum amount of heating load is 62 kW, and the maximum cooling load is 118 kW. Since the calculated loads are average, all loads increased up to 10% for the confidence coefficient. With the obtained values, the solar collector area and other cogeneration system components are calculated. The cogeneration cycle is capable of producing 105 kW electric power, 140 kW cooling capacity, and 100 kW heating power.

2.1. System Analysis Equations

An analysis is done by considering the following assumptions:(1)The system operates under steady-state conditions(2)The system is designed for the warm region of Iran (Zahedan) with average solar radiation Ib = 820 w/m2(3)The pressure drops in heat exchangers, separators, storage tanks, and pipes are ignored(4)The pressure drop is negligible in all processes and no expectable chemical reactions occurred in the processes(5)Potential, kinetic, and chemical exergy are not considered due to their insignificance(6)Pumps have been discontinued due to insignificance throughout the process(7)All components are assumed adiabatic

Schematic shape of the cogeneration cycle is shown in Figure 1 and all data are given in Table 2.

Figure 1 Schematic shape of the cogeneration cycle.Table 2 Temperature and humidity of different points of system.

Based on the first law of thermodynamic, energy analysis is based on the following steps.

First of all, the estimated solar radiation energy on collector has been calculated:where α is the heat transfer enhancement coefficient based on porous materials added to the collector’s pipes. The coefficient α is increased by the porosity percentage, the type of porous material (in this case, copper with a porosity percentage of 95), and the flow of fluid to the collector equation.

Collector efficiency is going to be calculated by the following equation [9]:

Total energy received by the collector is given by [9]

Also, the auxiliary boiler heat load is [2]

Energy consumed from vapor to expander is calculated by [2]

The power output form by the screw expander [9]:

The efficiency of the expander is 80% in this case [11].

In this step, cooling and heating loads were calculated and then, the required heating load to reach sanitary hot water will be calculated as follows:

First step: calculating the cooling load with the following equation [9]:

Second step: calculating heating loads [9]:

Then, calculating the required loud for sanitary hot water will be [9]

According to the above-mentioned equations, efficiency is [9]

In the third step, calculated exergy analysis as follows.

First, the received exergy collector from the sun is calculated [9]:

In the previous equation, f is the constant of air dilution.

The received exergy from the collector is [9]

In the case of using natural gas in an auxiliary heater, the gas exergy is calculated from the following equation [12]:

Delivering exergy from vapor to expander is calculated with the following equation [9]:

In the fourth step, the exergy in cooling and heating is calculated by the following equation:

Cooling exergy in summer is calculated [9]:

Heating exergy in winter is calculated [9]:

In the last step based on thermodynamic second law, exergy efficiency has been calculated from the following equation and the above-mentioned calculated loads [9]:

3. Porous Media

The porous medium that filled the test section is copper foam with a porosity of 95%. The foams are determined in Figure 2 and also detailed thermophysical parameters and dimensions are shown in Table 3.

Figure 2 Copper foam with a porosity of 95%.Table 3 Thermophysical parameters and dimensions of copper foam.

In solar collectors, copper porous materials are suitable for use at low temperatures and have an easier and faster manufacturing process than ceramic porous materials. Due to the high coefficient conductivity of copper, the use of copper metallic foam to increase heat transfer is certainly more efficient in solar collectors.

Porous media and nanofluid in solar collector’s pipes were simulated in FLOW-3D software using the finite-difference method [27]. Nanoparticles Al2O3 and CUO are mostly used in solar collector enhancement. In this research, different concentrations of nanofluid are added to the parabolic solar collectors with porous materials (copper foam with porosity of 95%) to achieve maximum heat transfer in the porous materials before sedimentation. After analyzing PTC pipes with the nanofluid flow in FLOW-3D software, for energy and exergy efficiency analysis, Carrier software results were used as EES software input. Simulation PTC with porous media inside collector pipe and nanofluids sedimentation is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 Simulation PTC pipes enhanced with copper foam and nanoparticles in FLOW-3D software.

3.1. Nano Fluid

In this research, copper and silver nanofluids (Al2O3, CuO) have been added with percentages of 0.1%–0.7% as the working fluids. The nanoparticle properties are given in Table 4. Also, system constant parameters are presented in Table 4, which are available as default input in the EES software.Table 4 Properties of the nanoparticles [9].

System constant parameters for input in the software are shown in Table 5.Table 5 System constant parameters.

The thermal properties of the nanofluid can be obtained from equations (18)–(21). The basic fluid properties are indicated by the index (bf) and the properties of the nanoparticle silver with the index (np).

The density of the mixture is shown in the following equation [28]:where ρ is density and ϕ is the nanoparticles volume fraction.

The specific heat capacity is calculated from the following equation [29]:

The thermal conductivity of the nanofluid is calculated from the following equation [29]:

The parameter β is the ratio of the nanolayer thickness to the original particle radius and, usually, this parameter is taken equal to 0.1 for the calculated thermal conductivity of the nanofluids.

The mixture viscosity is calculated as follows [30]:

In all equations, instead of water properties, working fluids with nanofluid are used. All of the above equations and parameters are entered in the EES software for calculating the energy and exergy of solar collectors and the SCCHP cycle. All calculation repeats for both nanofluids with different concentrations of nanofluid in the solar collector’s pipe.

4. Results and Discussion

In the present study, relations were written according to Wang et al. [16] and the system analysis was performed to ensure the correctness of the code. The energy and exergy charts are plotted based on the main values of the paper and are shown in Figures 4 and 5. The error rate in this simulation is 1.07%.

Figure 4 Verification charts of energy analysis results.

Figure 5 Verification charts of exergy analysis results.

We may also investigate the application of machine learning paradigms [3141] and various hybrid, advanced optimization approaches that are enhanced in terms of exploration and intensification [4255], and intelligent model studies [5661] as well, for example, methods such as particle swarm optimizer (PSO) [6062], differential search (DS) [63], ant colony optimizer (ACO) [616465], Harris hawks optimizer (HHO) [66], grey wolf optimizer (GWO) [5367], differential evolution (DE) [6869], and other fusion and boosted systems [4146485054557071].

At the first step, the collector is modified with porous copper foam material. 14 cases have been considered for the analysis of the SCCHP system (Table 6). It should be noted that the adding of porous media causes an additional pressure drop inside the collector [922263072]. All fourteen cases use copper foam with a porosity of 95 percent. To simulate the effect of porous materials and nanofluids, the first solar PTC pipes have been simulated in the FLOW-3D software and then porous media (copper foam with porosity of 95%) and fluid flow with nanoparticles (AL2O3 and CUO) are generated in the software. After analyzing PTC pipes in FLOW-3D software, for analyzing energy and exergy efficiency, software outputs were used as EES software input for optimization ratio of sedimentation and calculating energy and exergy analyses.Table 6 Collectors with different percentages of nanofluids and porous media.

In this research, an enhanced solar collector with both porous media and Nanofluid is investigated. In the present study, 0.1–0.5% CuO and Al2O3 concentration were added to the collector fully filled by porous media to achieve maximum energy and exergy efficiencies of solar CCHP systems. All steps of the investigation are shown in Table 6.

Energy and exergy analyses of parabolic solar collectors and SCCHP systems are shown in Figures 6 and 7.

Figure 6 Energy and exergy efficiencies of the PTC with porous media and nanofluid.

Figure 7 Energy and exergy efficiency of the SCCHP.

Results show that the highest energy and exergy efficiencies are 74.19% and 32.6%, respectively, that is achieved in Step 12 (parabolic collectors with filled porous media and 0.5% Al2O3). In the second step, the maximum energy efficiency of SCCHP systems with fourteen steps of simulation are shown in Figure 7.

In the second step, where 0.1, −0.6% of the nanofluids were added, it is found that 0.5% leads to the highest energy and exergy efficiency enhancement in solar collectors and SCCHP systems. Using concentrations more than 0.5% leads to sediment in the solar collector’s pipe and a decrease of porosity in the pipe [73]. According to Figure 7, maximum energy and exergy efficiencies of SCCHP are achieved in Step 12. In this step energy efficiency is 54.49% and exergy efficiency is 18.29%. In steps 13 and 14, with increasing concentration of CUO and Al2O3 nanofluid solution in porous materials, decreasing of energy and exergy efficiency of PTC and SCCHP system at the same time happened. This decrease in efficiency is due to the formation of sediment in the porous material. Calculations and simulations have shown that porous materials more than 0.5% nanofluids inside the collector pipe cause sediment and disturb the porosity of porous materials and pressure drop and reduce the coefficient of performance of the cogeneration system. Most experience showed that CUO and AL2O3 nanofluids with less than 0.6% percent solution are used in the investigation on the solar collectors at low temperatures and discharges [74]. One of the important points of this research is that the best ratio of nanofluids in the solar collector with a low temperature is 0.5% (AL2O3 and CUO); with this replacement, the cost of solar collectors and SCCHP cycle is reduced.

5. Conclusion and Future Directions

In the present study, ways for increasing the efficiency of solar collectors in order to enhance the efficiency of the SCCHP cycle are examined. The research is aimed at adding both porous materials and nanofluids for estimating the best ratio of nanofluid for enhanced solar collector and protecting sedimentation in porous media. By adding porous materials (copper foam with porosity of 95%) and 0.5% nanofluids together, high efficiency in solar parabolic collectors can be achieved. The novelty in this research is the addition of both nanofluids and porous materials and calculating the best ratio for preventing sedimentation and pressure drop in solar collector’s pipe. In this study, it was observed that, by adding 0.5% of AL2O3 nanofluid in working fluids, the energy efficiency of PTC rises to 74.19% and exergy efficiency is grown up to 32.6%. In SCCHP cycle, energy efficiency is 54.49% and exergy efficiency is 18.29%.

In this research, parabolic solar collectors fully filled by porous media (copper foam with a porosity of 95) are investigated. In the next step, parabolic solar collectors in the SCCHP cycle were simultaneously filled by porous media and different percentages of Al2O3 and CuO nanofluid. At this step, values of 0.1% to 0.6% of each nanofluid were added to the working fluid, and the efficiency of the energy and exergy of the collectors and the SCCHP cycle were determined. In this case, nanofluid and the porous media were used together in the solar collector and maximum efficiency achieved. 0.5% of both nanofluids were used to achieve the biggest efficiency enhancement.

In the present study, as expected, the highest efficiency is for the parabolic solar collector fully filled by porous material (copper foam with a porosity of 95%) and 0.5% Al2O3. Results of the present study are as follows:(1)The average enhancement of collectors’ efficiency using porous media and nanofluids is 28%.(2)Solutions with 0.1 to 0.5% of nanofluids (CuO and Al2O3) are used to prevent collectors from sediment occurrence in porous media.(3)Collector of solar cogeneration cycles that is enhanced by both porous media and nanofluid has higher efficiency, and the stability of output temperature is more as well.(4)By using 0.6% of the nanofluids in the enhanced parabolic solar collectors with copper porous materials, sedimentation occurs and makes a high-pressure drop in the solar collector’s pipe which causes decrease in energy efficiency.(5)Average enhancement of SCCHP cycle efficiency is enhanced by both porous media and nanofluid 13%.

Nomenclature

:Solar radiation
a:Heat transfer augmentation coefficient
A:Solar collector area
Bf:Basic fluid
:Specific heat capacity of the nanofluid
F:Constant of air dilution
:Thermal conductivity of the nanofluid
:Thermal conductivity of the basic fluid
:Viscosity of the nanofluid
:Viscosity of the basic fluid
:Collector efficiency
:Collector energy receives
:Auxiliary boiler heat
:Expander energy
:Gas energy
:Screw expander work
:Cooling load, in kilowatts
:Heating load, in kilowatts
:Solar radiation energy on collector, in Joule
:Sanitary hot water load
Np:Nanoparticle
:Energy efficiency
:Heat exchanger efficiency
:Sun exergy
:Collector exergy
:Natural gas exergy
:Expander exergy
:Cooling exergy
:Heating exergy
:Exergy efficiency
:Steam mass flow rate
:Hot water mass flow rate
:Specific heat capacity of water
:Power output form by the screw expander
Tam:Average ambient temperature
:Density of the mixture.

Greek symbols

ρ:Density
ϕ:Nanoparticles volume fraction
β:Ratio of the nanolayer thickness.

Abbreviations

CCHP:Combined cooling, heating, and power
EES:Engineering equation solver.

Data Availability

For this study, data were generated by CARRIER software for the average electrical, heating, and cooling load of a residential building with 600 m2 in the city of Zahedan, Iran.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Contract no. 71761030 and Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia under Contract no. 2019LH07003.

References

  1. A. Fudholi and K. Sopian, “Review on solar collector for agricultural produce,” International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems (IJPEDS), vol. 9, no. 1, p. 414, 2018.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  2. G. Yang and X. Zhai, “Optimization and performance analysis of solar hybrid CCHP systems under different operation strategies,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 133, pp. 327–340, 2018.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  3. J. Wang, Z. Han, and Z. Guan, “Hybrid solar-assisted combined cooling, heating, and power systems: a review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 133, p. 110256, 2020.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  4. Y. Tian and C. Y. Zhao, “A review of solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,” Applied Energy, vol. 104, pp. 538–553, 2013.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  5. J. M. Hassan, Q. J. Abdul-Ghafour, and M. F. Mohammed, “CFD simulation of enhancement techniques in flat plate solar water collectors,” Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 751–761, 2017.View at: Google Scholar
  6. M. Jahangiri, O. Nematollahi, A. Haghani, H. A. Raiesi, and A. Alidadi Shamsabadi, “An optimization of energy cost of clean hybrid solar-wind power plants in Iran,” International Journal of Green Energy, vol. 16, no. 15, pp. 1422–1435, 2019.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. I. H. Yılmaz and A. Mwesigye, “Modeling, simulation and performance analysis of parabolic trough solar collectors: a comprehensive review,” Applied Energy, vol. 225, pp. 135–174, 2018.View at: Google Scholar
  8. F. Wang, J. Tan, and Z. Wang, “Heat transfer analysis of porous media receiver with different transport and thermophysical models using mixture as feeding gas,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 83, pp. 159–166, 2014.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. H. Zhai, Y. J. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. Z. Wang, “Energy and exergy analyses on a novel hybrid solar heating, cooling and power generation system for remote areas,” Applied Energy, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 1395–1404, 2009.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  10. M. H. Abbasi, H. Sayyaadi, and M. Tahmasbzadebaie, “A methodology to obtain the foremost type and optimal size of the prime mover of a CCHP system for a large-scale residential application,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 135, pp. 389–405, 2018.View at: Google Scholar
  11. R. Jiang, F. G. F. Qin, X. Yang, S. Huang, and B. Chen, “Performance analysis of a liquid absorption dehumidifier driven by jacket-cooling water of a diesel engine in a CCHP system,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 163, pp. 70–78, 2018.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  12. F. A. Boyaghchi and M. Chavoshi, “Monthly assessments of exergetic, economic and environmental criteria and optimization of a solar micro-CCHP based on DORC,” Solar Energy, vol. 166, pp. 351–370, 2018.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  13. F. A. Boyaghchi and M. Chavoshi, “Multi-criteria optimization of a micro solar-geothermal CCHP system applying water/CuO nanofluid based on exergy, exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental concepts,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 112, pp. 660–675, 2017.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  14. B. Su, W. Han, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, W. Qu, and H. Jin, “Performance optimization of a solar assisted CCHP based on biogas reforming,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 171, pp. 604–617, 2018.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  15. F. A. Al-Sulaiman, F. Hamdullahpur, and I. Dincer, “Performance assessment of a novel system using parabolic trough solar collectors for combined cooling, heating, and power production,” Renewable Energy, vol. 48, pp. 161–172, 2012.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  16. J. Wang, Y. Dai, L. Gao, and S. Ma, “A new combined cooling, heating and power system driven by solar energy,” Renewable Energy, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 2780–2788, 2009.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  17. Y.-Y. Jing, H. Bai, J.-J. Wang, and L. Liu, “Life cycle assessment of a solar combined cooling heating and power system in different operation strategies,” Applied Energy, vol. 92, pp. 843–853, 2012.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  18. J.-J. Wang, Y.-Y. Jing, and C.-F. Zhang, “Optimization of capacity and operation for CCHP system by genetic algorithm,” Applied Energy, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 1325–1335, 2010.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  19. L. Ali, “LDA–GA–SVM: improved hepatocellular carcinoma prediction through dimensionality reduction and genetically optimized support vector machine,” Neural Computing and Applications, vol. 87, pp. 1–10, 2020.View at: Google Scholar
  20. S. Hirasawa, R. Tsubota, T. Kawanami, and K. Shirai, “Reduction of heat loss from solar thermal collector by diminishing natural convection with high-porosity porous medium,” Solar Energy, vol. 97, pp. 305–313, 2013.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  21. E. Bellos, C. Tzivanidis, and Z. Said, “A systematic parametric thermal analysis of nanofluid-based parabolic trough solar collectors,” Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, vol. 39, p. 100714, 2020.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  22. H. J. Jouybari, S. Saedodin, A. Zamzamian, M. E. Nimvari, and S. Wongwises, “Effects of porous material and nanoparticles on the thermal performance of a flat plate solar collector: an experimental study,” Renewable Energy, vol. 114, pp. 1407–1418, 2017.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  23. J. Subramani, P. K. Nagarajan, S. Wongwises, S. A. El-Agouz, and R. Sathyamurthy, “Experimental study on the thermal performance and heat transfer characteristics of solar parabolic trough collector using Al2O3 nanofluids,” Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 1149–1159, 2018.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  24. E. Shojaeizadeh, F. Veysi, and A. Kamandi, “Exergy efficiency investigation and optimization of an Al2O3-water nanofluid based Flat-plate solar collector,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 101, pp. 12–23, 2015.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  25. A. K. Tiwari, P. Ghosh, and J. Sarkar, “Solar water heating using nanofluids–a comprehensive overview and environmental impact analysis,” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 221–224, 2013.View at: Google Scholar
  26. D. R. Rajendran, E. Ganapathy Sundaram, P. Jawahar, V. Sivakumar, O. Mahian, and E. Bellos, “Review on influencing parameters in the performance of concentrated solar power collector based on materials, heat transfer fluids and design,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 33–51, 2020.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  27. M. Feizbahr, C. Kok Keong, F. Rostami, and M. Shahrokhi, “Wave energy dissipation using perforated and non perforated piles,” International Journal of Engineering, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 212–219, 2018.View at: Google Scholar
  28. K. Khanafer and K. Vafai, “A critical synthesis of thermophysical characteristics of nanofluids,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 54, no. 19-20, pp. 4410–4428, 2011.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  29. K. Farhana, K. Kadirgama, M. M. Rahman et al., “Improvement in the performance of solar collectors with nanofluids – a state-of-the-art review,” Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects, vol. 18, p. 100276, 2019.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  30. M. Turkyilmazoglu, “Condensation of laminar film over curved vertical walls using single and two-phase nanofluid models,” European Journal of Mechanics-B/Fluids, vol. 65, pp. 184–191, 2017.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  31. X. Zhang, J. Wang, T. Wang, R. Jiang, J. Xu, and L. Zhao, “Robust feature learning for adversarial defense via hierarchical feature alignment,” Information Sciences, vol. 2020, 2020.View at: Google Scholar
  32. X. Zhang, T. Wang, W. Luo, and P. Huang, “Multi-level fusion and attention-guided CNN for image dehazing,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 1, 2020.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  33. X. Zhang, M. Fan, D. Wang, P. Zhou, and D. Tao, “Top-k feature selection framework using robust 0-1 integer programming,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, vol. 1, pp. 1–15, 2020.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  34. X. Zhang, D. Wang, Z. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Robust low-rank tensor recovery with rectification and alignment,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 238–255, 2019.View at: Google Scholar
  35. X. Zhang, R. Jiang, T. Wang, and J. Wang, “Recursive neural network for video deblurring,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 1, 2020.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  36. X. Zhang, T. Wang, J. Wang, G. Tang, and L. Zhao, “Pyramid channel-based feature attention network for image dehazing,” Computer Vision and Image Understanding, vol. 1, 2020.View at: Google Scholar
  37. M. Mirmozaffari, “Machine learning algorithms based on an optimization model,” 2020.View at: Google Scholar
  38. M. Mirmozaffari, M. Yazdani, A. Boskabadi, H. Ahady Dolatsara, K. Kabirifar, and N. Amiri Golilarz, “A novel machine learning approach combined with optimization models for eco-efficiency evaluation,” Applied Sciences, vol. 10, no. 15, p. 5210, 2020.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  39. M. Vosoogha and A. Addeh, “An intelligent power prediction method for wind energy generation based on optimized fuzzy system,” Computational Research Progress in Applied Science & Engineering (CRPASE), vol. 5, pp. 34–43, 2019.View at: Google Scholar
  40. A. Javadi, N. Mikaeilvand, and H. Hosseinzdeh, “Presenting a new method to solve partial differential equations using a group search optimizer method (GSO),” Computational Research Progress in Applied Science and Engineering, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 22–26, 2018.View at: Google Scholar
  41. F. J. Golrokh, Gohar Azeem, and A. Hasan, “Eco-efficiency evaluation in cement industries: DEA malmquist productivity index using optimization models,” ENG Transactions, vol. 1, pp. 1–8, 2020.View at: Google Scholar
  42. H. Yu, “Dynamic Gaussian bare-bones fruit fly optimizers with abandonment mechanism: method and analysis,” Engineering with Computers, vol. 1, pp. 1–29, 2020.View at: Google Scholar
  43. C. Yu, “SGOA: annealing-behaved grasshopper optimizer for global tasks,” Engineering with Computers, vol. 1, pp. 1–28, 2021.View at: Google Scholar
  44. W. Shan, Z. Qiao, A. A. Heidari, H. Chen, H. Turabieh, and Y. Teng, “Double adaptive weights for stabilization of moth flame optimizer: balance analysis, engineering cases, and medical diagnosis,” Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. 1, p. 106728, 2020.View at: Google Scholar
  45. J. Tu, H. Chen, J. Liu et al., “Evolutionary biogeography-based whale optimization methods with communication structure: towards measuring the balance,” Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. 212, p. 106642, 2021.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  46. Y. Zhang, “Towards augmented kernel extreme learning models for bankruptcy prediction: algorithmic behavior and comprehensive analysis,” Neurocomputing, vol. 1, 2020.View at: Google Scholar
  47. Y. Zhang, R. Liu, X. Wang, H. Chen, and C. Li, “Boosted binary Harris hawks optimizer and feature selection,” Engineering with Computers, vol. 1, pp. 1–30, 2020.View at: Google Scholar
  48. H.-L. Chen, G. Wang, C. Ma, Z.-N. Cai, W.-B. Liu, and S.-J. Wang, “An efficient hybrid kernel extreme learning machine approach for early diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease,” Neurocomputing, vol. 184, pp. 131–144, 2016.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  49. L. Hu, G. Hong, J. Ma, X. Wang, and H. Chen, “An efficient machine learning approach for diagnosis of paraquat-poisoned patients,” Computers in Biology and Medicine, vol. 59, pp. 116–124, 2015.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  50. L. Shen, H. Chen, Z. Yu et al., “Evolving support vector machines using fruit fly optimization for medical data classification,” Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. 96, pp. 61–75, 2016.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  51. J. Xia, H. Chen, Q. Li et al., “Ultrasound-based differentiation of malignant and benign thyroid Nodules: an extreme learning machine approach,” Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, vol. 147, pp. 37–49, 2017.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  52. C. Li, L. Hou, B. Y. Sharma et al., “Developing a new intelligent system for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion,” Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, vol. 153, pp. 211–225, 2018.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  53. X. Zhao, X. Zhang, Z. Cai et al., “Chaos enhanced grey wolf optimization wrapped ELM for diagnosis of paraquat-poisoned patients,” Computational Biology and Chemistry, vol. 78, pp. 481–490, 2019.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  54. M. Wang and H. Chen, “Chaotic multi-swarm whale optimizer boosted support vector machine for medical diagnosis,” Applied Soft Computing Journal, vol. 88, 2020.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  55. X. Xu and H.-L. Chen, “Adaptive computational chemotaxis based on field in bacterial foraging optimization,” Soft Computing, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 797–807, 2014.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  56. R. U. Khan, X. Zhang, R. Kumar, A. Sharif, N. A. Golilarz, and M. Alazab, “An adaptive multi-layer botnet detection technique using machine learning classifiers,” Applied Sciences, vol. 9, no. 11, p. 2375, 2019.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  57. A. Addeh, A. Khormali, and N. A. Golilarz, “Control chart pattern recognition using RBF neural network with new training algorithm and practical features,” ISA Transactions, vol. 79, pp. 202–216, 2018.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  58. N. Amiri Golilarz, H. Gao, R. Kumar, L. Ali, Y. Fu, and C. Li, “Adaptive wavelet based MRI brain image de-noising,” Frontiers in Neuroscience, vol. 14, p. 728, 2020.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  59. N. A. Golilarz, H. Gao, and H. Demirel, “Satellite image de-noising with Harris hawks meta heuristic optimization algorithm and improved adaptive generalized Gaussian distribution threshold function,” IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 57459–57468, 2019.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  60. M. Eisazadeh and J. Rezapour, “Multi-objective optimization of the composite sheets using PSO algorithm,” 2017.View at: Google Scholar
  61. I. Bargegol, M. Nikookar, R. V. Nezafat, E. J. Lashkami, and A. M. Roshandeh, “Timing optimization of signalized intersections using shockwave theory by genetic algorithm,” Computational Research Progress in Applied Science & Engineering, vol. 1, pp. 160–167, 2015.View at: Google Scholar
  62. B. Bai, Z. Guo, C. Zhou, W. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “Application of adaptive reliability importance sampling-based extended domain PSO on single mode failure in reliability engineering,” Information Sciences, vol. 546, pp. 42–59, 2021.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  63. J. Liu, C. Wu, G. Wu, and X. Wang, “A novel differential search algorithm and applications for structure design,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 268, pp. 246–269, 2015.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  64. X. Zhao, D. Li, B. Yang, C. Ma, Y. Zhu, and H. Chen, “Feature selection based on improved ant colony optimization for online detection of foreign fiber in cotton,” Applied Soft Computing, vol. 24, pp. 585–596, 2014.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  65. D. Zhao, “Chaotic random spare ant colony optimization for multi-threshold image segmentation of 2D Kapur entropy,” Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. 24, p. 106510, 2020.View at: Google Scholar
  66. H. Chen, A. A. Heidari, H. Chen, M. Wang, Z. Pan, and A. H. Gandomi, “Multi-population differential evolution-assisted Harris hawks optimization: framework and case studies,” Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 111, pp. 175–198, 2020.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  67. J. Hu, H. Chen, A. A. Heidari et al., “Orthogonal learning covariance matrix for defects of grey wolf optimizer: insights, balance, diversity, and feature selection,” Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. 213, p. 106684, 2021.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  68. G. Sun, B. Yang, Z. Yang, and G. Xu, “An adaptive differential evolution with combined strategy for global numerical optimization,” Soft Computing, vol. 24, pp. 1–20, 2019.View at: Google Scholar
  69. G. Sun, C. Li, and L. Deng, “An adaptive regeneration framework based on search space adjustment for differential evolution,” Neural Computing and Applications, vol. 24, pp. 1–17, 2021.View at: Google Scholar
  70. A. Addeh and M. Iri, “Brain tumor type classification using deep features of MRI images and optimized RBFNN,” ENG Transactions, vol. 2, pp. 1–7, 2021.View at: Google Scholar
  71. F. J. Golrokh and A. Hasan, “A comparison of machine learning clustering algorithms based on the DEA optimization approach for pharmaceutical companies in developing countries,” Soft Computing, vol. 1, pp. 1–8, 2020.View at: Google Scholar
  72. H. Tyagi, P. Phelan, and R. Prasher, “Predicted efficiency of a low-temperature nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector,” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, vol. 131, no. 4, 2009.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  73. S. Rashidi, M. Bovand, and J. A. Esfahani, “Heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop penalty in porous solar heat exchangers: a sensitivity analysis,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 103, pp. 726–738, 2015.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  74. N. Akram, R. Sadri, S. N. Kazi et al., “A comprehensive review on nanofluid operated solar flat plate collectors,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 1309–1343, 2020.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
Energy and exergy analysis of an enhanced solar CCHP system with a collector embedded by porous media and nano fluid

Energy and exergy analysis of an enhanced solar CCHP system with a collector embedded by porous media and nano fluid

Year 2021, Volume 7, Issue 6, 1489 – 1505, 02.09.2021

N. TONEKABONI  H. SALARIAN  M. Eshagh NIMVARI  J. KHALEGHINIA https://doi.org/10.18186/thermal.990897

Abstract

The low efficiency of Collectors that absorb energy can be mentioned as one of the drawbacks in solar cogeneration cycles. In the present study, solar systems have been improved by adding porous media and Nanofluid to collectors. One advantage of using porous media and nanomaterials is to absorb more energy while the surface area is reduced. In this study, first, solar collectors are enhanced using 90% porosity copper in solar combined cooling, heating and power systems (SCCHP). Second, different percentages of CuO and Al2O3 nano-fluids are added to a flat plate and parabolic collectors to enhance thermal properties. Simulations are performed in different modes (simple parabolic collectors, simple flat plate collectors, improved flat plate collectors, parabolic collectors with porous media, and flat plate and parabolic collectors with different density of CuO and Al2O3 nanofluids). A case study is investigated for warm and dry regions with mean solar radiation Ib = 820 w / m2 in Iran. The maximum energy and exergy efficiencies are 60.12% and 18.84%, respectively, that is related to enhanced parabolic solar collectors with porous media and nanofluids. Adding porous media and nano-fluids increases an average 14.4% collector energy efficiency and 8.08% collector exergy efficiency.

Keywords

Exergy analysisSolar cogeneration systemPorous mediaNanofluid

References

  • [1] Center TU. Annual report on China building energy efficiency. China Construction Industry Press (In Chinese). 2016.
  • [2] Tonekaboni N, Salarian H, Fatahian E, Fatahian H. Energy and exergy economic analysis of cogeneration cycle of homemade CCHP with PVT collector. Canadian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 2015;3:224-233.
  • [3] Hassan JM, Abdul-Ghafour QJ, Mohammed MF. CFD simulation of enhancement techniques in flat plate solar water collectors. Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences 2017;20:751-761.
  • [4] Sopian K, Daud WR, Othman MY, Yatim B. Thermal performance of the double-pass solar collector with and without porous media. Renewable Energy 1999;18:557-564. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-1481(99)00007-5
  • [5] Feizbahr M, Kok Keong C, Rostami F, Shahrokhi M. Wave energy dissipation using perforated and non perforated piles. International Journal of Engineering 2018;31:212-219. https://doi.org/10.5829/ije.2018.31.02b.04
  • [6] Tian Y, Zhao CY. A review of solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications. Applied Energy 2013;104:538-553. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.11.051
  • [7] Wang F, Tan J, Wang Z. Heat transfer analysis of porous media receiver with different transport and thermophysical models using mixture as feeding gas. Energy Conversion and Management 2014;83:159-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.03.068
  • [8] Korti AI. Numerical 3-D heat flow simulations on double-pass solar collector with and without porous media. Journal of Thermal Engineering 2015;1:10-23. https://doi.org/10.18186/jte.86295
  • [9] Sharma N, Diaz G. Performance model of a novel evacuated-tube solar collector based on minichannels. Solar Energy 2011;85:881-890. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2011.02.001
  • [10] Tyagi VV, Kaushik SC, Tyagi SK. Advancement in solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) hybrid collector technology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2012;16:1383-1398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.12.013
  • [11] Zhai H, Dai YJ, Wu JY, Wang RZ. Energy and exergy analyses on a novel hybrid solar heating, cooling and power generation system for remote areas. Applied Energy 2009;86:1395-1404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.11.020
  • [12] Wang J, Dai Y, Gao L, Ma S. A new combined cooling, heating and power system driven by solar energy. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2780-2788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2009.06.010
  • [13] Jing YY, Bai H, Wang JJ, Liu L. Life cycle assessment of a solar combined cooling heating and power system in different operation strategies. Applied Energy 2012;92:843-853. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.08.046
  • [14] Temir G, Bilge D. Thermoeconomic analysis of a trigeneration system. applied thermal engineering. Applied Thermal Engineering 2004;24:2689-2699. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2004.03.014
  • [15] Wang JJ, Jing YY, Zhang CF. Optimization of capacity and operation for CCHP system by genetic algorithm. Applied Energy 2010;87:1325-1335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.08.005
  • [16] Kleinstreuer C, Chiang H. Analysis of a porous-medium solar collector. Heat Transfer Engineering 1990;11:45-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/01457639008939728
  • [17] Mbaye M, Bilgen E. Natural convection and conduction in porous wall, solar collector systems without vents. Jornal of Solar Energy Engineering 1992;114:40-46. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2929980
  • [18] Hirasawa S, Tsubota R, Kawanami T, Shirai K. Reduction of heat loss from solar thermal collector by diminishing natural convection with high-porosity porous medium. Solar Energy 2013;97:305-313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2013.08.035
  • [19] Jouybari HJ, Saedodin S, Zamzamian A, Nimvari ME, Wongwises S. Effects of porous material and nanoparticles on the thermal performance of a flat plate solar collector: an experimental study. Renewable Energy 2017;114:1407-1418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2017.07.008
  • [20] Subramani J, Nagarajan PK, Wongwises S, El‐Agouz SA, Sathyamurthy R. Experimental study on the thermal performance and heat transfer characteristics of solar parabolic trough collector using Al2O3 nanofluids. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 2018;37:1149-1159. https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.12767
  • [21] Yousefi T, Veysi F, Shojaeizadeh E, Zinadini S. An experimental investigation on the effect of Al2O3–H2O nanofluid on the efficiency of flat-plate solar collectors. Renewable Energy 2012;39:293-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2011.08.056
  • [22] Tyagi H, Phelan P, Prasher R. Predicted efficiency of a low-temperature nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 2009;131:041004. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3197562
  • [23] Shojaeizadeh E, Veysi F, Kamandi A. Exergy efficiency investigation and optimization of an Al2O3–water nanofluid based Flat-plate solar collector. Energy and Buildings 2015;101:12-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.04.048
  • [24] Tiwari AK, Ghosh P, Sarkar J. Solar water heating using nanofluids–a comprehensive overview and environmental impact analysis. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering 2013;3:221-224. [25] Akram N, Sadri R, Kazi SN, Zubir MN, Ridha M, Ahmed W, et al. A comprehensive review on nanofluid operated solar flat plate collectors. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 2020;139:1309-1343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08514-z
  • [26] Lemington N. Study of solar driven adsorption cooling potential in Indonesia. Journal of Thermal Engineering 2017;3:1044-1051. https://doi.org/10.18186/thermal.290257
  • [27] Tong Y, Lee H, Kang W, Cho H. Energy and exergy comparison of a flat-plate solar collector using water, Al2O3 nanofluid, and CuO nanofluid. Applied Thermal Engineering 2019;159:113959. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2019.113959
  • [28] Khanafer K, Vafai K. A critical synthesis of thermophysical characteristics of nanofluids. International Journal of Heat And Mass Transfer 2011;54:4410-4428. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2011.04.048
  • [29] Farhana K, Kadirgama K, Rahman MM, Ramasamy D, Noor MM, Najafi G, et al. Improvement in the performance of solar collectors with nanofluids—A state-of-the-art review. Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects 2019;18:100276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoso.2019.100276
  • [30] Turkyilmazoglu M. Condensation of laminar film over curved vertical walls using single and two-phase nanofluid models. European Journal of Mechanics-B/Fluids 2017;65:184-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euromechflu.2017.04.007
  • [31] Chen CC, Huang PC. Numerical study of heat transfer enhancement for a novel flat-plate solar water collector using metal-foam blocks. International Journal of Heat And Mass Transfer 2012;55:6734-6756. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.06.082
  • [32] Huang PC, Chen CC, Hwang HY. Thermal enhancement in a flat-plate solar water collector by flow pulsation and metal-foam blocks. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 2013;61:696-720. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2013.02.037
  • [33] Hajipour M, Dehkordi AM. Mixed-convection flow of Al2O3–H O nanofluid in a channel partially filled with porous metal foam: experimental and numerical study. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 2014;53:49-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2013.11.002
  • [34] Rashidi S, Bovand M, Esfahani JA. Heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop penalty in porous solar heat exchangers: a sensitivity analysis. Energy Conversion and Management 2015;103:726-738. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2015.07.019
  • [35] Manikandan GK, Iniyan S, Goic R. Enhancing the optical and thermal efficiency of a parabolic trough collector–A review. Applied Energy 2019;235:1524-1540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.11.048

Details

Primary LanguageEnglish
SubjectsEngineering
Journal SectionArticles
AuthorsN. TONEKABONI  This is me
Islamic Azad University Nour Branch
0000-0002-1563-4407
IranH. SALARIAN  This is me (Primary Author)
Islamic Azad University Nour Branch
0000-0002-2161-0276
IranM. Eshagh NIMVARI  This is me
Amol University of Special Modern Technologies
0000-0002-7401-315X
IranJ. KHALEGHINIA  This is me
Islamic Azad University Nour Branch
0000-0001-5357-193X
Iran
Publication DateSeptember 2, 2021
Application DateDecember 28, 2020
Acceptance DateMay 9, 2020
Published in IssueYear 2021, Volume 7, Issue 6
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the experimental Rijke tube

RIJKE 튜브 내부의 열음향 장에 대한 새로운 조사

A novel investigation of the thermoacoustic field inside a Rijke tube

B. EntezamW. Van Moorhem and J. MajdalaniPublished Online:22 Aug 2012 https://doi.org/10.2514/6.1998-2582

Abstract

이 논문에서는 Rijke 튜브 내부의 시간 종속 유동장의 실험 연구 및 계산 시뮬레이션에서 진행한 결과를 제시하고 해석합니다. 기존의 추측과 스케일링 분석을 기반으로 한 이론적 논의가 진행됩니다. 주요 결과에는 열 구동 진동에서 중요한 역할을 하는 것으로 보이는 유사성 매개변수가 포함됩니다. 이 매개변수는 열 섭동을 속도, 압력 및 특성 길이의 제곱과 관련시킵니다. 열 진동을 압력 및 속도 진동의 결합된 효과에 기인하는 간단한 이론은 계산, 실험 및 스케일링 고려 사항을 통해 논의됩니다. 이전의 분석 이론은 열 진동을 속도 또는 압력 진동에 연결했기 때문에 현재 분석 모델은 기존 추측에 동의하고 조정합니다. Rayleigh 기준에 따라 열원은 Rijke-tube 하단에서 1/4의 임계 거리에 위치해야 공명이 발생합니다. 이 관찰은 결합이 최대화되는 임계점이 음향 속도와 압력의 곱인 음향 강도가 가장 큰 공간 위치에 해당하기 때문에 제안된 해석을 확인합니다. 수치 시뮬레이션은 Rijke 튜브 내부의 압력 진동이 열 입력이 증가함에 따라 기하급수적으로 증가한다는 것을 보여줍니다. 충분히 작은 열 입력으로 음향 싱크가 소스를 초과하고 음향 감쇠가 발생합니다. 열 입력이 임계 임계값 이상으로 증가하면 음향 싱크가 불충분해져서 ​​내부 에너지 축적으로 인해 빠른 음향 증폭이 발생합니다.

In this paper, results proceeding from experimental studies and computational simulations of the time-dependent flowfield inside a Rijke tube are presented and interpreted. A theoretical discussion based on existing speculations and scaling analyses is carried out. The main results include a similarity parameter that appears to play an important role in the heat driven oscillations. This parameter relates heat perturbations to velocity, pressure, and the square of a characteristic length. A simple theory that attributes heat oscillations to the combined effects of pressure and velocity oscillations is discussed via computational, experimental, and scaling considerations. Since previous analytical theories link heat oscillations to either velocity or pressure oscillations, the current analytical model agrees with and reconciles between existing speculations. In compliance with the Rayleigh criterion, it is found that the heat source must be positioned at a critical distance of 1/4 from the Rijke-tube lower end for resonance to occur. This observation confirms our proposed interpretation since the critical point where coupling is maximized corresponds to a spatial location where the acoustic intensity, product of both acoustic velocities and pressures, is largest. Numerical simulations show that pressure oscillations inside the Rijke tube grow exponentially with increasing heat input With a sufficiently small heat input, the acoustic sinks exceed the sources and acoustic damping takes place. When the heat input is augmented beyond a critical threshold, acoustic sinks become insufficient causing rapid acoustic amplification by virtue of internal energy accumulation.

Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the experimental Rijke tube
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the experimental Rijke tube
A novel investigation of the thermoacoustic field inside a Rijke tube
A novel investigation of the thermoacoustic field inside a Rijke tube

References

‘Entezam, B., Majdalani, J., and Van Moorhem, W. K.,
“Modeling of a Rijke-Tube Pulse Combustor Using
Computational Fluid Dynamics,” AIAA Paper 97-2718,
Seattle, WA, July 1997.

2George, W., and Reethof, G., “On the Fragility of
Acoustically Agglomerated Submicron Fly Ash
Particles,” Journal of Vibration, Acoustics, Stress, and
Reliability in Design, Vol. 108, July 1986, pp. 322-329.
3Tiwary R., and Reethof, G., “Hydrodynamic
Interaction of Spherical Aerosol Particles in a High
Intensity Acoustic Field,” Journal of Sound and
Vibration, Vol. 108, 1986, pp. 33-49.
4Reethof, G., “Acoustic Agglomeration of Power Plant
Fly Ash for Environmental and Hot Gas Clean-up,”
Transaction of the ASME, Vol. 110, Oct., 1988, pp.
552-557.
5
Song, L., Reethof, G., and Koopmann, G. H., “An
Improved Simulation Model of Acoustic
Agglomeration,” NCA Vol. 5, 89-WA, American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, Winter Annual
Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec., 10-15, 1989.
6Reethof, G., Koopmann, G. H., and Dorchak, T.,
“Acoustic Agglomeration for Paniculate Control at
High Temperature and high Pressure – Some Recent
results,” NCA Vol. 4, 89-WA, American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, Winter Annual Meeting, San
Francisco, CA, Dec., 10-15, 1989.
7Richards , G. A., and Bedick, R. C, “Application of
Acoustics in Advanced Energy Systems,” NCA Vol. 3,
89-WA, American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
Winter Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec., 10-
15, 1989.
8Yavuzkurt, S., Ha, M. Y., Reethof, G., and Koopmann,
G., “Effect of Acoustic Field on the Combustion of
Coal Particles in a Rat Flame Burner,” Proceedings of
the Ist
Annual Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Pittsburgh,
PA, Sep., 1984, pp. 53-58.
^rice, E. W., “Review of Combustion Instability
Characteristics of Solid Propellants,” Advances in
Tactical Rocket Propulsion, AGARD Conference
Proceedings, No. 1, Part 2, Chap. 5, Technivision
Services, Maidenhead, England, 1968, pp. 141-194.
10Zinn, B.T., “State of the Art and Research Needs of
Pulsating Combustion,” NCA Vol. 19, 84-WA,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1984.
“Rayleigh, J.W.S., The Theory of Sound, Vol. 1 and 2,
Dover Publications, New York, 1945, pp. 231-235.
12Zinn, B.T., Miller, N., Carvalho, J.A. Jr., and Daniel.
B. R., “Pulsating Combustion of Coal in a Rijke Type
Combustor,” Proceedings of the 19th International
Symposium on Combustion, 1982, pp. 1197-1203.
13Evans, R.E., and Putnam, A.A., “Rijke Tube
Apparatus,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 360,
1966.
14Feldman, K. T., “Review of the Literature on Rijke
Thermoacoustic Phenomena, ” Journal of Sound and
Vibration, Vol. 7, 1968, pp. 83-89.
15Carvalho, J.R., Ferreira, C., Bressan, C., and Ferreira,
G., “Definition of Heater Location to Drive Maximum
Amplitude Acoustic Oscillations hi a Rijke Tube,”
Combustion and Flame, Vol. 76, 1989, pp. 17-27.
16Raun, R.L., Beckstead, M. W., Finlinson, J. C. , and
Brooks, K. P., “A Review of Rijke Tubes, Rijke
Burners and Related Devices,” Progress in Energy and
Combustion Science, Vol. 19, 1993, pp. 313-364.
17Chu, B. T., “Stability of Systems Containing a HeatSource-The Rayleigh Criterion, “NACA Research
Memorandum 56D27, 1956.
18Zinn, B. T., Daniel, B. R., and Shesdari, T.S.,
“Application of Pulsating Combustion in the Burning of
Solid Fuels,” Proceedings of the Symposium on Pulse
Combustion Technology for Heating Applications,
Argonne National Laboratory, 1979, pp. 239-248.
19Feldman, K.T., “Review of the Literature on
Soundhauss Thermoacoustic Phenomena ” Journal of
Sound and Vibration, Vol. 7, 1968, pp. 71-82.
20Flow Science Incorporated, Los Alamos, New
Mexico.

Fig. 2. Schematic indication of the separate parts comprising the rotary kiln model, together with the energy fluxes from Eq. (1).

화염 모델링, 열 전달 및 클링커 화학을 포함한 시멘트 가마에 대한 CFD 예측

E Mastorakos Massias 1C.D Tsakiroglou D.A Goussis V.N Burganos A.C Payatakes 2

Abstract

실제 작동 조건에서 석탄 연소 회전 시멘트 가마의 클링커 형성은 방사선에 대한 Monte Carlo 방법, 가마 벽의 에너지 방정식에 대한 유한 체적 코드 및 클링커에 대한 화학 반응을 포함한 에너지 보존 방정식 및 종에 대한 새로운 코드. 기상의 온도 장, 벽으로의 복사 열유속, 가마 및 클링커 온도에 대한 예측 간의 반복적인 절차는 내부 벽 온도의 분포를 명시적으로 예측하는 데 사용됩니다. 여기에는 열 흐름 계산이 포함됩니다. 수갑. 가스와 가마 벽 사이의 주요 열 전달 모드는 복사에 의한 것이며 내화물을 통해 환경으로 손실되는 열은 입력 열의 약 10%이고 추가로 40%는 장입 가열 및 클링커 형성. 예측은 실제 규모의 시멘트 가마에서 경험과 제한된 측정을 기반으로 한 경향과 일치합니다.

키워드

산업용 CFD, 로타리 가마, 클링커 형성, 복사 열전달, Industrial CFD, Rotary kilns, Clinker formation, Radiative heat transfer

1 . 소개

시멘트 산업은 에너지의 주요 소비자이며, 미국에서 산업 사용자의 총 화석 연료 소비량의 약 1.4%를 차지하며 [1] 일반적인 비에너지 사용량은 제조된 클링커 1kg당 약 3.2MJ [2] 입니다. CaCO 3  →  CaO  +  CO 2 반응이 일어나기 때문입니다., 클링커 형성의 첫 번째 단계는 높은 흡열성입니다. 시멘트 가마에서 에너지를 절약하기 위한 현재의 경향은 일반적으로 길이가 약 100m이고 직경이 약 5m인 회전 실린더인 가마를 떠나는 배기 가스로부터 에너지를 보다 효율적으로 회수하는 것과 저열량 연료의 사용에 중점을 둡니다. 값. 2-5초 정도의 화염 체류 시간을 허용하고 2200K의 높은 온도에 도달하는 회전 가마의 특성은 또한 시멘트 가마를 유기 폐기물 및 용제에 대한 상업용 소각로에 대한 경쟁력 있는 대안으로 만듭니다 [3]. 클링커의 형성이 이러한 2차 액체 연료의 사용으로 인한 화염의 변화로부터 어떤 식으로든 영향을 받지 않도록 하고, 대기 중으로 방출되는 오염 물질의 양에 대한 현재 및 미래 제한을 준수할 수 있도록, 화염 구조의 세부 사항과 화염에서 고체 충전물로의 열 전달을 더 잘 이해할 필요가 있습니다.

최근 시멘트 가마 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 에서 유동장 및 석탄 연소의 이론적 모델링복사 열 전달을 포함한 전산 유체 역학(CFD) 코드를 사용하여 달성되었습니다. 이러한 결과는 시멘트 가마에 대한 최초의 결과였으며 화염 길이, 산소 소비 등과 관련하여 실험적으로 관찰된 경향을 재현했기 때문에 그러한 코드가 수용 가능한 정확도로 대규모 산업용 용광로에 사용될 수 있음을 보여주었습니다. 킬른과 클링커는 포함하지 않았고, 벽온도의 경계조건은 가스온도와 용액영역의 열유속에 영향을 미치므로 계산에 필요한 경계조건은 예측하지 않고 실험적 측정에 기초하였다. 기상에 대한 CFD 솔루션은 앞으로의 주요 단계이지만 회전 가마를 포괄적으로 모델링하는 데만으로는 충분하지 않습니다.

내화물의 열 전달과 전하에 대한 세부 사항은 다양한 저자 8 , 9 , 10 , 11에 의해 조사되었습니다 . 충전물(보통 잘 혼합된 것으로 가정)은 노출된 표면에 직접 복사되는 열 외에도 전도에 의해 가마 벽에서 가열됩니다. 가장 완전한 이론적 노력에서, 가마 벽 (내화물)에 대한 3 차원 열전도 방정식을 해결하고, 두 개 또는 세 개의 인접하는 영역으로 한정 한 좌표 축 방향에서 어느 방사선 방사선 열전달 영역 모델과 결합 [ 10] 또는 자세히 해결 [11]. 그러나 클링커 형성 중에 일어나는 화학 반응은 고려되지 않았고 기체 상이 균일한 온도로 고정되어 필요한 수준의 정확도로 처리되지 않았습니다.

최종적으로 연소에 의해 방출되는 에너지(일부)를 받는 고체 전하가 화학 반응을 거쳐 최종 제품인 클링커를 형성합니다. 이것들은 [12]에 설명된 주요 특징에 대한 단순화된 모델과 함께 시멘트 화학 문헌에서 광범위한 조사의 주제였습니다 . 그 작업에서, 고체 온도 및 조성의 축 방향 전개를 설명하는 odes가 공식화되고 해결되었지만, 전하에 대한 열유속 및 따라서 클링커 형성 속도를 결정하는 가스 및 벽 온도는 1차원으로 근사되었습니다. 자세한 화염 계산이 없는 모델.

화염, 벽 및 장입물에 대한 위의 이론적 모델 중 어느 것도 회전식 가마 작동을 위한 진정한 예측 도구로 충분하지 않다는 것이 분명합니다. 국부 가스 온도(CFD 계산 결과 중 하나)는 벽 온도에 크게 의존합니다. 클링커 형성은 에너지를 흡수하므로 지역 가스 및 벽 온도에 따라 달라지며 둘 다 화염에 의존합니다. 벽은 화염에서 클링커로의 순 열 전달에서 “중개자” 역할을 하며, 내화재 두께에 따라 환경으로 피할 수 없는 열 손실이 발생합니다. 이러한 상호 의존성은 가마의 거동에 중요하며 개별 프로세스를 개별적으로 계산하는 데 중점을 두었기 때문에 문헌에서 발견된 수학적 모델로는 다루기 어렵습니다.

본 논문에서 우리는 위에 설명된 유형의 세 가지 개별 모델을 결합하여 수행되는 회전식 시멘트 가마에서 발생하는 대부분의 공정에 대한 포괄적인 모듈식 모델을 제시합니다. 우리 작업은 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 에서와 같이 석탄 연소를 위한 다차원 CFD 코드로 기체 상태를 처리합니다 . 10 , 11 에서와 같이 가마 벽의 3차원 열전도 방정식을 풉니다 . 9 , 12 와 유사한 모델로 잘 혼합된 전하 온도 및 조성을 해결합니다.. 3개의 모듈(화염, 벽, 전하)은 내화물에 입사하는 열유속의 축 분포에 대해 수렴이 달성될 때까지 반복적으로 계산됩니다. 충전 온도 및 구성. 따라서 이전 작업에 비해 현재의 주요 이점은 완전성에 있습니다. 이는 가스-킬른-클링커 시스템의 다양한 부분에서 에너지 흐름의 정량화를 통해 킬른 작동에 대한 더 나은 이해를 가능하게 하고 여기에서 사용된 방법을 건조 및 소각과 같은 다른 회전 킬른 응용 분야에 적용할 수 있게 합니다.

이 문서의 특정 목적은 회전식 시멘트 가마에 대한 포괄적인 모델을 제시하고 화염에서 클링커로의 에너지 플럭스와 가마에서 열 손실을 정량화하는 것입니다. 이 문서의 나머지 부분은 다음과 같이 구성됩니다. 2장 에서는 다양한 모델과 해법을 제시하고 3장 에서는 그 결과를 제시하고 논의한다 . 여기에는 본격적인 회전식 시멘트 가마의 제한된 측정값과의 비교가 포함됩니다. 이 논문은 가장 중요한 결론의 요약으로 끝납니다.

2 . 모델 공식화

2.1 . 개요

Fig. 1 은 시멘트 로터리 킬른의 단면을 보여준다. 가마의 회전은 전하의 움직임을 유도하여 후자를 대략적으로 잘 혼합되도록 합니다 [10] , 여기에서 채택할 가정입니다. 우리는 이 코팅을 클링커와 유사한 물리적 특성의 고체 재료로 모델링하여 가마 내화물에 부착된 클링커의 존재를 허용할 것입니다. 우리는 이 층의 두께가 가마를 따라 균일하다고 가정합니다. 이것은 아마도 지나치게 단순화한 것일 수 있지만 관련 데이터를 사용할 수 없습니다. 모델 설명을 진행하기 전에 그림 2 에 개략적으로 표시된 회전식 가마의 다양한 에너지 흐름을 이해하는 것이 중요합니다 .

석탄 연소에 의해 방출되는 에너지(단위 시간당)( 석탄 )는 배기 가스(Δ 가스 )와 함께 가마 밖으로 흘러 가마 벽에 직접 복사( rad ) 및 대류( conv )됩니다. 공급 및 배기 덕트( rad,1  + rad,2 ) 에 대한 축 방향의 복사에 의해 작은 부분이 손실됩니다 . 전하 가마 시스템은 복사( rad ) 및 대류( conv )에 의해 가스로부터 에너지(Δ cl )를 흡수 하고 주변으로 열을 잃습니다( Q 손실 ). 전체 에너지 균형에서 개별 항의 계산, 즉(1a)큐석탄=ΔH가스-Q라드-Q전환-Q일, 1-Q일, 2,(1b)큐라드+Q전환=ΔH클+Q손실여기에서 다음 섹션에 설명된 대로 가스, 가마 및 클링커에 대한 이산화 에너지를 국부적으로 해결함으로써 수행됩니다.

2.2 . CFD 코드

가스 운동량, 종 농도 및 에너지의 Favre 평균 방정식은 표준 k – ε 모델을 사용하여 방사 모듈(RAD-3D)과 함께 상업적으로 이용 가능한 축대칭 CFD 코드(FLOW-3D)에 의해 해결됩니다. [13] . 기하학이 실제로 3차원이고 벽 온도의 각도 분포가 존재하지만 합리적인 시간과 현재 워크스테이션에서 완전한 3으로 솔루션을 얻을 수 있도록 기체상을 축대칭으로 취급합니다. -D를 요구하는 해상도로 계산하려면 슈퍼컴퓨터에 의존해야 합니다. FLOW-3D에서 사용되는 다양한 하위 모델의 일부 기능과 벽 경계 조건에 대한 특수 처리는 다음과 같습니다.

2.2.1 . 석탄 연소

Rossin-Rammler 크기 분포(45μm 평균 직경, 1.3 지수 [6] )를 따르는 석탄 입자 는 CPU 시간을 줄이기 위해 솔루션 영역(즉, 확률적 구성 요소 없이)에서 결정론적으로 추적되었지만 분산을 과소 평가하는 단점이 있습니다 . 14] . 입자는 2-반응 모델에 따라 휘발되도록 허용되었고 휘발성 연소는 무한히 빠른 것으로 간주되었습니다. 석탄 연소에 대한 설명의 세부 사항은 FLOW-3D에서 석탄 휘발 및 열분해의 “표준” 상수 집합이 합리적인 결과를 제공하고 Ref. [5] .

2.2.2 . 복사와 대류

가스의 복사 강도는 RAD-3D 모듈을 사용하여 80,000개의 입자로 Monte-Carlo 방법으로 계산되었습니다. 가마는 반경 방향으로 7개, 축 방향으로 19개(크기가 0.1  ×  1.0 m와 0.2  ×  5.0 m 사이)로 불균일한 구역으로 나뉘었으며 각 구역 에서 방사선 강도가 균일하다고 가정했습니다. 방사선 모듈의 출력은 내부적으로 FLOW-3D에 대한 유체 계산에 인터페이스되고 외부적으로 벽 및 클링커에 대한 코드에 인터페이스되었습니다( 섹션 2.3 섹션 2.4 참조). 방사선 패키지의 이산화된 구역은 CFD 그리드의 셀보다 훨씬 커야 하므로 구역에 온도 평균이 형성될 수 있는 많은 셀이 포함될 수 있다는 점을 이해하는 것이 중요합니다. 상대적으로 조잡한 복사 구역의 분해능과 Monte-Carlo 방법의 통계적 특성은 구역의 복사 열유속이 더 미세한 구역화 및 더 많은 입자로 몇 번의 실행에 의해 결정된 바와 같이 최대 약 10%까지 부정확할 수 있음을 의미합니다. 또한 경계면에 입사하는 열유속은 영역 크기보다 미세한 분해능으로 결정할 수 없으므로 복사 열유속은 벽에 인접한 19개 영역 각각의 중심에서만 계산됩니다. 0.15m -1 의 흡수 계수는 Ref.[11] . 엄밀히 말하면, 흡수 계수는 국부적 가스 조성과 온도의 함수이므로 균일하지 않아야 합니다. 그러나 가스 조성은 가마의 일부만 차지하는 화염 내에서만 변 하므로( 3절 참조 ) 균일한 흡수 계수를 가정하는 것이 합리적입니다. 또한, 현재 버전의 소프트웨어는 FLOW-3D의 반복 프로세스 동안 이 요소의 자동 재조정을 허용하지 않습니다. 여기서 로컬 가스 특성이 계산되므로 일정하고 균일한 흡수 계수가 필요합니다.

최종적으로, 벽에서 대류 열전달이 플로우 3D 패키지에서 표준 출력 표준 “벽 기능”제형에 혼입 난류 경계층에 대한 식에 기초하고,의 속도 경계 조건과 유사한 K – ε 모델. FLOW-3D 및 RAD-3D에서 입력으로 사용하고 출력으로 계산된 다양한 양은 그림 3에 개략적으로 표시 됩니다.

2.2.3 . 그리드

반경 방향 47개, 축 방향 155개 노드를 갖는 불균일한 격자를 사용하였으며 격자 독립성 연구를 수행한 결과 충분하다고 판단하였다. 유사한 크기의 그리드도 Refs에서 적절한 것으로 밝혀졌습니다. 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 . 매우 높은 축 방향 및 소용돌이 속도로 인해 석탄 버너 유정에 가까운 지역을 해결하기 위해 특별한 주의를 기울였습니다. HP 715/100MHz 워크스테이션에서 이 그리드의 일반적인 CPU 시간은 10시간이었습니다.

2.2.4 . 경계 조건

벽 온도에 대한 경계 조건은 기체상 및 복사 솔버 모두에 필요하다는 것을 인식하는 것이 중요합니다. 아래에서는 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 을 규정하기 보다는 축대칭 그리드에 대한 이 온도 분포를 예측하는 대략적인 방법을 설명합니다 .

내벽 온도 w ( in , x , ϕ ) 의 각도 분포 가 알려져 있다고 가정합니다 . 그런 다음 전체 3차원 문제를 “동등한” 축대칭 문제로 줄이기 위해 가상의 내벽 온도 RAD ( x )는(2)2πε에티4라드(x) = ε클∫0ㄷ티4클(엑스)디ϕ + ε에∫ㄷ2π티4에(아르 자형~에, x, ϕ)디ϕ”효과적인” 경계 조건으로 사용할 수 있습니다. RAD ( x )는 방위각으로 평균화된 “복사 가중” 온도입니다. 필요한 경계 조건으로 이 온도를 사용하는 것은 복사가 열 전달을 지배한다는 기대에 의해 동기가 부여됩니다(후반부 확인, 섹션 3.4 ). 따라서 전체 3차원 문제와 이 “유효한” 축대칭 문제에서 가스에서 가마로의 전체 에너지 흐름은 거의 동일할 것으로 예상됩니다.  의 사용 (2) 축대칭 코드로 기체상 및 복사장을 계산할 수 있으므로 엔지니어링 워크스테이션을 사용하여 문제를 다루기 쉽습니다.

고려되는 가마의 규모와 온도에서 가스는 광학적으로 두꺼운 것으로 간주될 수 있습니다. 솔루션(나중에 제시됨)은 평균 경로 길이(즉, “광자”의 모든 에너지가 흡수되기 전의 평균 길이)가 약 3.2m임을 보여주며, 이는 가마 내경 4.1m보다 작습니다. 이것은 내벽에 입사하는 복사 플럭스가 국부적 벽과 가스 온도에 강하게 의존하고 더 먼 축 또는 방위각 위치에서 벽의 온도에 약하게만 의존함을 의미합니다. 이것은 기체상에 사용된 축대칭 근사에 대한 신뢰를 줍니다. 그것은 또한 Refs의 “구역 방법”을 의미합니다. 8 , 9 , 10표면에 입사하는 방사선이 1-2 구역 길이보다 더 먼 축 위치와 무관한 것으로 간주되는 경우에는 충분했을 것입니다.

2.3 . 가마 온도

내부 소성로 표면 온도 w ( in , x , ϕ )는 Eq. 에서 필요합니다 (2) 및 가마 벽 에너지 방정식의 솔루션 결과의 일부입니다. 각속도 ω로 회전하는 좌표계 에서 후자는 [10] 이 됩니다 .(3)ω∂(ϱ에씨피티에)∂ϕ=1아르 자형∂∂아르 자형에게에아르 자형∂티에∂아르 자형+1아르 자형2∂∂ϕ에게에∂티에∂ϕ+∂∂엑스에게에∂티에∂엑스경계 조건에 따라(3a)r=R~에,Θ<ϕ⩽2π:에게∂티에∂아르 자형=q라드(x)+q전환(엑스),(3b)r=R~에, 0 <ϕ⩽Θ:에게∂티에∂아르 자형=qw–cl(x, ϕ) = hw–cl티클(x)-T에(아르 자형~에, x, ϕ),(3c)r=R밖, 0 <ϕ⩽2π:.케이∂티에∂아르 자형=h쉿티쉿-T∞+ ε쉿티4쉿-T4∞.

전도도, 밀도 및 비열용량에 대한 값은 실제 가마에 사용되는 내화물 재료에 대한 제조업체 정보에서 가져옵니다 [15] . 외부 쉘 온도 sh = w ( out , x , ϕ )는 x 및 ϕ 에 따라 달라질 수 있습니다 .

위 방정식에 대한 몇 가지 의견이 있습니다. 에서는 식. (3a) 에서 열유속의 방위각 의존성이 제거되었습니다. 이전에 언급했듯이 흐름은 광학적으로 두꺼운 것으로 간주됩니다. 즉, 화염이 너무 방사되고 너무 넓기 때문에 벽면 요소가 화염을 가로질러 반대쪽 벽을 “보지” 않습니다. 따라서 rad ( x , ϕ ) 의 계산은 다른 각도 위치로부터의 복사를 포함할 필요 없이 가스 ( r , x ) 및 로컬 w ( in , x , ϕ )를 기반으로 할 수 있습니다. 여기부터 qrad ( x )는 Eq. 의 방위각 평균 온도를 기반으로 하는 축대칭 RAD-3D 솔루션에서 가져옵니다 (2) , 결과적인 rad ( x )는 어떤 의미에서 방위각으로 평균된 열유속입니다. 식 따라서 (3a) 는 우리가 이 열유속을 모든 ϕ 에 등분포한다는 것을 의미합니다 . Eq 에서 rad 의 각도 변화를 무시한다는 점에 유의하십시오 . (3a) 는 Refs. [10] 또는 [11] 이 우선되어야 합니다.

소성로와 장입물 사이의 열전달 계수 w-cl 은 소성로의 에너지 흐름과 온도를 정확하게 예측하는 데 중요하지만 잘 알려져 있지 않습니다. 500 W / m의 전형적인 값  K는 여기에 제시된 결과 사용되고있다 [8] . 계산된 w ( r , x , ϕ ) 및 RAD ( x) 이 계수의 선택에 따라 달라지지만 예측은 질적으로 변하지 않습니다. 껍질에서 대기로의 열 전달은 복사와 별도로 강제 및 자연 대류를 통해 발생합니다. 자연 대류에 대한 열전달 계수는 Ref. [11] , 현재 조건에서 약 5 W/m 2 K의 일반적인 값 을 사용합니다. 그러나 쉘에 불어오는 외부 팬은 과열을 피하기 위해 산업에서 종종 사용되며 이러한 효과는 총 sh =30 W/m 2 K 를 사용하여 여기에서 모델링 되었습니다. 방사율에는 다음 값이 사용되었습니다. ε w = ε cl = 0.9 및 ε sh = 0.8.

식 (3) 은 가마의 방사형 기울기가 훨씬 더 가파르기 때문에 방위각 및 축 전도를 무시한 후 명시적 유한 체적 방법으로 해결되었습니다. 방사형으로 50개 노드와 축 방향으로 19개 노드가 있는 균일하지 않은 그리드가 사용되었으며 회전으로 인한 화염에 주기적으로 노출되는 표면으로 인해 발생하는 빠른 온도 변화를 따르기 위해 내부 표면에서 적절한 방사형 분해능이 사용되었습니다. 동일한 이유로 사용 된 작은 단계(Δ ϕ = π /100)는 가마의 큰 열 관성과 함께 가마 벽 온도가 수렴되도록 하기 위해 2시간 정도의 CPU 시간이 필요했습니다.

2.4 . 수갑

가마에 대한 모델의 마지막 부분은 클링커 온도 및 조성 보존 방정식에 관한 것으로, 축 방향 기울기만 고려하고 전도는 무시합니다.(4)씨피V클디(ϱ클티클)디엑스=−엘wclㄷㅏ클∫0ㄷ큐w–cl(x, ϕ)디ϕ +엘gclㅏ클큐라드(x)+q전환(엑스)−∑나Nsp아르 자형나시간0, 나는에프+씨피티,(5)V클디(ϱ클와이나)디엑스=r나,(6)V클디ϱ클디엑스=−r무엇2,여기서 cl 은 속도 cl 로 흐르는 전하가 덮는 단면적 이며 둘 다 일정하다고 가정하고 gcl =2 in sin( Θ /2) 전하로 덮인 섹터의 현( 그림 1 ) , WCL = Θ 에서는 , SP 화학 종의 수와 r에 난을 (kg / m의 형성 속도 순 3 종의) I를 . 전하의 밀도는 Eq를 감소시킵니다 (6) CO 2 에 대한 질량 손실로 인한하소하는 동안 초기 값은 총 질량 유량이 ϱ cl cl cl 과 같도록 선택되었습니다 . 참고 ρ (CL)이 있다 하지 전하 느슨하게 포장 된 입자로 이루어지는 것으로 생각 될 수있는 바와 같이, 충전 재료 밀도하지만 벌크 밀도. 우리는 또한 전하의 실제 입상 흐름 패턴을 조사하는 것보다 적은 것은 모델의 신뢰성에 크게 추가되지 않는 임시 설명 [10] 이라고 믿기 때문에 전하의 전도를 무시 합니다. 전하는 CaCO 3 , CaO, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 로 구성된 것으로 가정합니다.2 O 3 , C2S, C3S, C3A 및 C4AF로, 마지막 4종은 클링커화 중에 형성된 복합 염에 대해 시멘트 화학자가 사용하는 특수 표기법으로 표시됩니다. 다음과 같은 화학 반응을 가정합니다 [12] .

(나)CaCO3→높은+무엇2k = 108특급(−175728/RT)
(Ⅱ)높은+2SiO2→C2Sk = 107특급(−240000/RT)
(Ⅲ)높은+C2S→C3Sk = 109특급(−420000/RT)
(IV)3높은+로2그만큼3→C3Ak = 108특급(−310000/RT)
(V)4높은+로2그만큼3+철2그만큼3→Q4AFk = 108특급(−330000/RT)

상기 시행 착오에 의해 선택되는 아 레니 우스 식에 사용되는 사전 지수 인자 및 활성화 온도는 카코에 대한 활성화 에너지를 제외하고, 가마의 출구에서의 전하의 예상 조성물을 얻었다 (3) 에서 촬영 한 분해 참조 [16] . 우리는 이러한 반응이 임시 모델임을 강조합니다. 실제로 고체상의 화학반응은 다양한 종의 결정들 사이의 계면에서 일어나며 확산이 제한적 이지만 [17] , 클링커 화학에 대한 상세한 처리는 본 연구의 범위를 벗어난다.

클링커 형성의 마지막 단계로 간주되는 반응 (III)은 고온에서 액상이 존재할 때만 발생합니다. 클링커의 용융은 액체 분획 fus 에 대해서도 해결함으로써 모델링되었습니다 .(7)엘소란V클디(ϱ클와이소란)디엑스=RHS의식(4)만약 T의 CL이 융해 온도와 같거나보다 커진다 T의 FUS 와 T의 FUS 의 = 1560 K. 상한 Y의 FUS = 0.3 수행 하였다 [17] 상기 식을. (7) 무시되었다.

상미분 방정식, , Gear 방식과 통합되었습니다. 가마 온도에 대한 유한 체적 코드( 2.3절 )와 클링커에 대한 코드는 반복적으로 해결되었으며( 그림 4 ), 이는 벽 클링커 열유속 w–cl ( x , ϕ ).

2.5 . 최종 커플링

전체 문제(가스, 가마, 장입)는 반복 방식으로 해결되었습니다. RAD 의 균일한 분포에서 시작 하여 기체상은 rad ( x ) 및 conv ( x ) 의 축 분포를 제공하도록 해결되었습니다 . 이것들은 다음에서 사용되었습니다., 그 솔루션의 새로운 추정 결과 RAD ( X 통해) 식. (2) . 그런 다음 FLOW3D-RAD3D 실행이 6차 다항식 피팅의 계수 형태로 프로그램에 도입된 새로운 경계 조건으로 반복되었습니다. 의 연속 추정치 사이에 0.5 미만의 밑에 이완 인자 RAD ( X)는 벽 온도에 대한 복사 열유속의 민감도가 크기 때문에 필요한 것으로 밝혀졌습니다. 일반적으로 HP 715 워크스테이션에서 10일 정도의 총 CPU 시간에 해당하는 내벽 온도(연속 반복이 40K 이상 변하지 않을 때 정의됨)의 수렴을 달성하기 위해 이러한 단계 사이에 약 10번의 반복이 필요했습니다. . 그림 5 는 균일한 값(1600K)에서 시작하여 최종 프로파일까지 RAD ( x ) 의 수렴 이력을 보여줍니다 .

2.6 . 가마 조건

사용된 일부 매개변수에 대한 작동 조건 및 값은 표 1 표 2 표 3에 나와 있습니다. 이 값은 시멘트 회전 가마의 전형입니다.

표 1 . 공기 및 석탄 입자 입구 조건

수송소용돌이중고등 학년석탄
m (kg/s)2.2531.7592.91045.9304.0
 (m/s)77.136.576.112.7336.5
V (m/s)−20.7063.900
W (m/s)00112.800
 (케이)3183833181273383

표 2 . 클링커 조성(질량 분율)

밀가루가마 입구가마 출구
m (kg/s)50.37439.81532.775
 (케이)11001785
CACO 30.79470.402180
높은00.338010.0229
그런가 20.14340.181430
알 2 O 30.03490.04420
철 2 O 30.02700.034160
C2S000.1808
C3S000.5981
C3A000.0731
Q4AF000.1242
소성 인자00.61.0

소성 계수 카코의 비율을 3 의 CaO로 변환 된 FARINE있다.

표 3 . 재료 속성 및 기타 매개변수

ω (래드/초)0.5
V의 CL (m / s)0.035
 (K)300
sh (W/m 2 K)30
w–cl (W/m 2 K)500
ε w , ε cl0.9
ε 0.8
C의 P (클링커) (킬로 / kg K)1.5
ϱ cl (kg/m 3 )1200
fus (kJ/kg)418.4
p (벽) (kJ/kg K)1.5
ϱ w (kg/m 3 )1600–3000
k는 w (W / m K)0.6–3.0
석탄 열 방출(kJ/kg)25475

3 . 결과 및 토론

이 섹션에서는 먼저 화염 구조에 대한 정보와 함께 예측된 공기역학적 패턴의 세부사항을 제시합니다. 소성로 내화물의 온도 분포와 클링커 조성의 변화를 설명합니다. 이 섹션은 가마의 전체 에너지 균형과 가능한 모델 개선에 대한 논의로 끝납니다.

3.1 . 화염 구조

그림 6 은 명확성을 위해 방사상 좌표가 과장된 온도의 등고선 플롯을 보여줍니다. 석탄은 주입 지점에서 약 1m 지점에서 약간 축에서 벗어나 점화되며 최대 화염 온도(약 2400K)는 경험에 따라 약 40m 하류에서 도달합니다 [15] . 완전한 입자 소진에 대한 가장 긴 시간은 버너에서 45m에 해당하는 약 1.4초였습니다. 방사형 온도 프로파일( 그림 7 ) 은 온도의 상당한 불균일성이 있음을 보여주지만 출구 프로파일이 본질적으로 평평해짐에 따라 하류에서 감소합니다. 또한 벽에 인접한 가스가 더 차가운 열 경계층이 존재한다는 것이 분명합니다.석탄 노즐에서 최대 30m까지 벽보다 이것은 이 영역에서 대류에 의한 열 전달이 음(즉, 기체 쪽으로)임을 의미하며, 3.4절 에서 더 자세히 논의된 지점 입니다.

버너 출구 바로 하류에 길이가 약 1 버너 직경인 재순환 구역이 있는데( 그림 8 ), 여기에서 화염이 더 하류에서 발화하기 때문에 소용돌이 안정화 화염 [7] 에서와 같이 화염 안정화에 기여하지 않습니다 . 그러나 액체 연료를 사용할 때는 중요할 수 있으므로 버너에 가까운 그리드의 세부 사항을 강조해야 합니다. 버너에서 처음 몇 미터는 매우 높은 전단력과 높은 난류 에너지 생산을 포함하며 이것이 그리드 미세 조정을 강조하는 또 다른 이유입니다. 휘발성 물질 연소 영역( x =10m, r =1m) 에서 k 및 ε 의 일반적인 예측 값 은 24.3 및 142m 2 /s입니다.3 , 각각. 대규모 난류 시간은 171ms이고 Kolmogorov 시간 규모는 1.1ms입니다. 휘발성 물질의 연소는 0.1ms(일반적인 탄화수소 연료) 정도의 시간 규모에서 발생하며, 이는 가마의 소규모 난류 시간보다 10배 더 짧습니다. 따라서 이 흐름에서 연소에 대한 유한 속도 동역학을 포함할 필요는 없으며 “혼합 연소” 근사가 합리적입니다.

3.2 . 가마 온도 분포

중심선에서 계산된 가스 온도, 온도 RAD ( x ) 및 클링커 온도는 그림 9 에서 비교됩니다 . 최고 가스 온도는 25~40m 사이에 위치하며 내화 내부 표면 온도도 최고점입니다. 클링커는 놀랍게도 가마에서 나오기 전 마지막 몇 미터 동안 벽보다 뜨겁 습니다. 복사에 의해 내화물에 입사하는 열유속은 대류에 의한 것보다 1-2 배 더 높으며( 그림 10 ) 가마의 처음 10m에 대한 총 열 전달 은 가스를  합니다. 이 관찰의 중요성은 나중에 논의됩니다.

대류로 인한 에너지 플럭스는 화염에서 가마까지의 전체 에너지 플럭스의 매우 작은 부분인 것으로 밝혀졌습니다( 그림 10 ). 여기서 예측된 대류의 작은 기여는 Ref. [11] . 그 작업에서 대류 열 전달 계산에 사용된 가스 온도는 가마 단면의 평균이었고 따라서 축 근처에 있는 화염의 기여로 인해 벽 부근의 온도보다 훨씬 높았습니다. . 여기에서 우리는 온도와 가스 속도 및 난류 운동 에너지의 국부적 값을 기반으로 하는 보다 정확한 열전달 계수를 사용했기 때문에 보다 정확한 결과를 기대합니다.

예측된 벽 온도는 모든 방향에서 불균일합니다. Fig. 11 은 가마가 회전함에 따라 화염에 노출되었을 때 벽이 가스에 의해 연속적으로 가열되고 클링커에 열을 공급하여 냉각되는 것을 보여준다. 이것은 약 100K의 일반적인 각도 온도 변화를 갖는 대부분의 가마 길이에 해당됩니다. 대조적으로 버너에 가까우면 벽 은 (0 < ϕ < π /2) 동안 클링커에서 열을 얻고 다음으로 열을  습니다. 노출될 때의 가스( π /2 < ϕ < 2 π ). 벽과 클링커 온도가 같으면서 방위각 변화가 없는 경우가 발생할 수 있습니다( 그림 11 ,        x = 17.5m). 이 온도 변화가 작은 것으로 간주될 수 있지만 벽에서 클링커까지의 열유속을 계산하는 위치에 있으려면 전체 3차원 내벽 온도 분포를 계산해야 합니다(0  < ϕ 범위에서 발생 < π /2).   

그림 12 는 ϕ에 독립적인 외부(쉘) 온도와 함께 고체의 큰 비열로 인해 각도 방향의 변화 영역이 벽으로 약 1cm만 확장됨을 보여줍니다( 그림 12b) .. 벽 온도 방사 분포는 가스 온도, 입사 방사선 및 내화 재료의 특성이 변하기 때문에 축 방향 거리에 따라 달라집니다. 정확한 예측을 위해서는 내화물에 부착된 클링커 코팅의 두께에 대한 정확한 지식이 필요합니다. 여기에서 우리는 이 코팅을 클링커와 유사한 물성을 가진 균일한 두께의 재료로 취급했습니다. 그러나 이 코팅층의 실제 물리적 특성과 두께 분포에 관한 실험 데이터를 사용하여 예측의 신뢰성이 향상될 것입니다.

마지막으로, 그림 13 은 외부 쉘 온도가 화염 영역에서 최고조에 달하고 대략적으로 실험 경향을 따른다는 것을 보여줍니다 [15] . 외부 가마 외피는 다양한 강철 두께, 방사율(외피 착색으로 인한) 및 열 전달 계수(송풍기 간격으로 인한)를 갖고 가마는 가변 내화 두께(에 의한 침식으로 인해)를 갖기 때문에 정확한 비교는 의미가 없습니다. 클링커), 여기에 사용된 가정과 반대입니다. 전체 규모 가마는 또한 차등 코팅 및 내화 침식으로 인한 최대 ±100K의 쉘 온도 각도 변동을 보여줍니다 [15] . 따라서 우리는 그림 13 의 일치 가 실제 가마의 복잡성을 고려할 때 예상할 수 있는 만큼 우수 하다고 믿습니다 .

이 섹션에 제시된 예측은 가마 내부의 열 전달 경로에 대한 다음 그림을 뒷받침합니다. 대부분의 가마 길이에서 장입물은 화염으로부터의 복사와 벽으로부터의 열 전도에 의해 가열되고 있습니다. 장입물이 내화물보다 더 차갑기 때문입니다. 가마가 회전함에 따라 내화물은 화염에 노출될 때 열을 얻고 이를 클링커에 공급합니다( 그림 11 ). 벽의 이 “재생” 작용은 Refs. 9 , 10 및 현재 결과에서 재현되었습니다. 그러나 버너 근처에서 반대 에너지 흐름이 발생합니다( 그림 11 , 작은 x). 여기의 가스는 아직 충분히 뜨겁지 않아 내화물이나 장입물에 에너지를 공급하지 않습니다. 이 영역에서 벽은 다가오는 전하에 의해 열을 얻으므로 고체가 없을 때보다 더 뜨겁게 유지됩니다. 벽과 전하가 대류와 복사에 의해 가스에 열을 공급합니다. 우리는 이것을 “음의 재생” 작용으로 식별할 수 있으며 가마의 더 높은 온도 영역( x  >  15m) 에서 클링커에 의해 흡수된 에너지에 의해 유지됩니다 . 전반적으로 클링커는 x  >  15 m 에서 열을 흡수 하고 0  < x < 15 m 에서 일부를 가스로 되돌려 줍니다.   

이 상호 작용은 간단하지 않으며 쉽게 예상할 수 없습니다. 이는 예를 들어 고체를 액체 연료로 대체하여 화염을 수정하면 열유속 분포를 변경하여 최종 클링커 온도에 중대한 영향을 미칠 수 있음을 의미합니다. 현재의 포괄적인 모델이 제공하는 세부 사항은 가마에서 이러한 변화를 평가하는 데 도움이 될 것입니다.

3.3 . 클링커 온도 및 조성

클링커 온도( 그림 9 )는 가장 높은 화염 온도에 도달하는 축 방향 위치에서 거의 최고조에 달하며 클링커는 약 1780K에서 킬른에 존재하며 이는 시멘트 킬른에서 실험 측정값에 가까운 값입니다 [15] . 초기 및 최종 클링커 조성은 표 2 에 나와 있으며 실제 가마에서 작동 값에 가깝습니다 [15] . 다양한 클링커 성분의 축방향 분포( 그림 14 )는 완전한 하소를 위해 고체 유입구에서 약 25m, C2S, C3A 및 C4AF 생성을 위해 추가로 10m가 소요됨을 보여줍니다. 첫 번째 액체상은 x 에서 발견됩니다.=50m이고 액화는 경험과 일치하는 예측인 매우 직후에 완료됩니다 [17] . 클링커화 반응(R-III)은 모델에서 액체가 나타날 때 시작되는 것으로 가정되었으며, 그림 14 에서 클링커화에는 나머지 길이의 거의 전체가 완료되어야 한다는 것이 분명 합니다. 예측은 전체적으로 시멘트 가마 운영의 경험과 일치하며 여기에 사용된 화학적 및 물리적 매개변수가 현실적인 값을 가지고 있음을 의미합니다.

3.4 . 글로벌 에너지 균형

전지구적 에너지 균형은 기체상(FLOW-3D 및 RAD-3D에 의한)과 소성로 장입 시스템에 대한 솔루션에서 쉽게 계산할 수 있으며 표 4 에 나와 있습니다. CFD 코드는 방사 모듈과 함께 에너지를 약 2%까지 절약합니다. 작은 것으로 간주되는 이 오류는 주로 RAD-3D의 영역 이산화와 Monte-Carlo 계산의 유한한 입자 수로 인해 발생하는 오류에 기인하며 CPU 시간을 희생하여 개선할 수 있습니다. 소성로-클링커 계산의 정확도는 더 나쁩니다. 소성로-클링커 시스템에 입력되는 에너지의 약 10% 오류( rad  + conv )입니다. 이는 수렴된 솔루션이 식 (3) , 그리고 보다 정확한 암시적 솔버에 의해 개선될 수 있습니다.

표 4 . CFD 그리드 및 가마-클링커 조합에 대한 글로벌 에너지 균형

가스(MW)
라드 , 1−2.47
라드 , 2−2.72
큐 라드−57.12
전환0.04
석탄101.2
Δ 가스41.25
균형2.32
가마 클링커
큐 라드57.12
전환−0.04
손실−10.45
Δ H의 CL40.99
균형5.64

에너지 흐름의 정의는 그림 2 를 참조하십시오 .

시멘트 회전식 가마의 에너지 사용에 관한 몇 가지 흥미로운 결론은 표 4 의 결과를 통해 얻을 수 있습니다 . 연소에 의해 방출되는 에너지의 약 40%는 전하 가열 및 클링커 형성에 필요하고 약 10%는 내화물을 통해 대기로 손실됩니다. 나머지의 대부분은 본질적으로 배기 가스와 함께 소성로 밖으로 흐릅니다. 이 중 일부는 소성로 외부의 예비 하소기 및 사이클론에서 회수됩니다. 내부 가마 벽과 장입 온도를 자세히 다루는 여기에 제시된 포괄적인 모델에 의존하지 않고는 국지적 가스 온도를 정확하게 예측하고 이에 따라 향후 연구에서 오염 물질 형성을 예측하는 것이 불가능하다는 것이 분명합니다.

3.5 . 논의

여기에 제시된 회전식 시멘트 가마 작동에 대한 포괄적인 모델의 결과는 합리적이며 실험적으로 관찰된 경향을 재현합니다. 이전 모델링 작업에 비해 이 작업의 주요 이점은 가마에서 발생하는 대부분의 물리적 프로세스를 포함한다는 점입니다. 특히, 가스 온도와 클링커로의 열유속 및 이에 따른 클링커 형성을 결정하는 데 가장 중요한 양인 내벽 온도는 실험 데이터를 사용하여 규정된 것이 아니라 예측되었습니다. 이 특정 기능은 현재 모델을 진정한 예측형으로 만듭니다.

우리는 전체 3차원 문제를 공기역학에 대한 “동등한” 축대칭 문제로 줄이는 방법을 포함했습니다( 식 (2) ). 이를 통해 현재 워크스테이션에서 솔루션을 얻을 수 있습니다. 모델의 모듈식 특성, 즉 공기역학, 복사, 가마 및 장입에 대한 별도의 코드는 해당 모듈만 수정하면 다른 회전 가마 응용 프로그램(예: 소각 및 건조)에도 사용할 수 있음을 의미합니다. 예를 들어, 고형 폐기물의 소각은 현재 코드로 모델링할 수 있지만 적절한 화학.

실험 데이터와의 상세한 비교는 이용 가능한 측정이 거의 없고 현지 시멘트 회사에서 제공한 경험적 데이터로 제한되어 매우 어렵습니다 [15] . 비교는 앞서 지적한 바와 같이 출구 클링커 조성과 온도가 산업적 경험( 표 2 ) 이내 이고, 배기 가스 조성은 공장 굴뚝에서 측정된 값에 가깝고(“가짜 공기” 희석을 허용한 후), 가마 외피 온도는 측정 범위 내에 있습니다( 그림 13 ). 이 동의는 모델이 프로세스의 정확한 표현임을 시사합니다.

더 높은 정확도의 예측을 달성하려면 모델의 다양한 부분에서 개선이 필요합니다. 내화물의 정확한 두께(즉, 내화물과 부착된 클링커)를 설정해야 합니다. 이는 가마 벽을 통해 주변으로 열 손실이 발생하여 외부 쉘 온도에 영향을 미치기 때문입니다. 새 내화물이 있는 가마에서 쉘 온도 측정과 자세한 비교가 이루어져야 합니다(불균일한 코팅 두께가 방지되도록). 벽 재료의 물리적 특성(열용량, 밀도, 전도도)의 적절한 값을 사용해야 합니다. 가장 큰 불확실성은 클링커 코팅의 가정된 특성에 관한 것입니다. 내벽 표면의 방사율과 가스의 흡수 계수를 더 자세히 조사해야 합니다. 가마에 입사하는 복사 열유속에 영향을 미치므로 벽 온도에 영향을 줄 수 있습니다. 클링커의 온도는 사용된 비열 용량에 따라 달라지므로 정확한 평가에 각별한 주의가 필요합니다. 화염의 국지적 온도와 종 구성에 대한 지식은 CFD 코드를 검증하는 데 매우 유용할 것이지만 그러한 적대적인 환경에서 측정은 분명히 달성하기 매우 어렵습니다. 마지막으로 클링커 화학 및 전하 이동은 개선할 수 있는 영역입니다. 그러한 적대적인 환경에서의 측정은 분명히 달성하기 매우 어렵습니다. 마지막으로 클링커 화학 및 전하 이동은 개선할 수 있는 영역입니다. 그러한 적대적인 환경에서의 측정은 분명히 달성하기 매우 어렵습니다. 마지막으로 클링커 화학 및 전하 이동은 개선할 수 있는 영역입니다.

이러한 모든 잠재적 개선과 모델과 관련된 불확실성에도 불구하고 가마의 모든 에너지 경로가 적절한 세부 사항으로 모델링되었기 때문에 전체 동작은 최소한 질적으로 정확합니다. 클링커 출구 구성, 쉘 온도 및 배기 가스 구성과 같은 중요한 양은 허용 가능한 정확도로 예측됩니다. 이 모델은 버너, 연료 유형, 품질 및 수량, 예비 하소 수준( 표 2 ) 또는 고형물 유량 등의 변경과 같은 많은 상황에서 산업계에 매우 유용할 것으로 예상됩니다 . 소성로 운영자는 최종 클링커 구성이 여전히 허용 가능하고 현재의 포괄적인 모델이 이 방향에 도움이 될 수 있는지 확인해야 합니다.

4 . 결론

실제 작동 조건에서 석탄 연소 회전 시멘트 가마의 클링커 형성은 석탄 화염과 가마 사이의 열 교환, 가마와 역류 고체 사이의 열 교환, 고형물을 최종 제품(클링커)으로 변환합니다. 방사선에 대한 Monte-Carlo 방법을 포함하는 축대칭 CFD 코드(상용 패키지 FLOW-3D)가 기상에 사용되었습니다. 가마 벽의 온도는 유한 체적 열전도 코드로 계산되었으며 클링커에 대한 종 및 에너지 보존 방정식도 공식화 및 해결되었습니다. 기체 온도 필드에 대한 예측 사이의 반복적인 절차, 벽에 대한 복사 열 유속, 가마 및 클링커 온도는 실험에서 이러한 정보를 사용한 이전 모델링 노력과 달리 내벽 온도 분포를 명시적으로 계산하는 데 사용되었습니다. 접선 좌표에 대한 통합은 CFD 코드에 필요한 경계 조건으로 사용되는 “유효” 내벽 온도의 축 분포를 초래했습니다. 이 절차를 통해 클링커로의 열 흐름 계산이 가능하고 축대칭 CFD 코드로 3차원 문제를 대략적으로 처리할 수 있습니다. CFD 코드에 필요한 경계 조건으로 사용됩니다. 이 절차를 통해 클링커로의 열 흐름 계산이 가능하고 축대칭 CFD 코드로 3차원 문제를 대략적으로 처리할 수 있습니다. CFD 코드에 필요한 경계 조건으로 사용됩니다. 이 절차를 통해 클링커로의 열 흐름 계산이 가능하고 축대칭 CFD 코드로 3차원 문제를 대략적으로 처리할 수 있습니다.

결과는 복사가 가스와 가마 벽 사이의 대부분의 열 전달을 설명하는 반면 내화물을 통한 환경으로의 열 손실은 입력 열의 약 10%를 설명한다는 것을 보여줍니다. 화학 반응과 충전물의 가열은 연소 에너지의 약 40%를 흡수합니다. 따라서 이러한 사항을 반드시 고려해야 합니다. 예측은 실제 규모의 시멘트 가마에서 얻은 경험과 측정값을 기반으로 한 경향과 일치합니다.

감사의 말

이 작업은 과학 및 기술을 위한 그리스 사무국 프로젝트 EPET-II/649의 자금 지원을 받았습니다. Mr.P에게 진심으로 감사드립니다. 시멘트 가마에 관한 지침 및 데이터는 그리스 TITAN SA의 Panagiotopoulos에게 문의하십시오.

References
1 S.R. Turns, An Introduction to Combustion, Concepts and Applications, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996
Google Scholar
2 V. Johansen, T.V. Kouznetsova, Clinker formation and new processes, Presented at the Ninth International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, India, 1992; also RAMBOLL Bulletin No. 42, 1993
Google Scholar
3 Basel Convention, UNEP Document No. 93-7758, 1993
Google Scholar
4 N.C Markatos
Mathematical modelling of single and two-phase flow problems in the process industries
Revue de l’Institut Français du Pétrole, 48 (1993), p. 631
View PDFCrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar
5 T. Avgeropoulos, J.P. Glekas, C. Papadopoulos, Numerical simulation of the combustion aerodynamics inside a rotary cement kiln, in: Pilavachi (Ed.), Energy Efficiency in Process Technology, Elsevier, London, 1993, p. 767
Google Scholar
6 F.C. Lockwood, B. Shen, T. Lowes, Numerical study of petroleum coke fired cement kiln flames, Presented at the Third International Conference on Combustion Technologies for a Clean Environment, Lisbon, 1995
Google Scholar
7 F.C. Lockwood, B. Shen, Performance predictions of pulverised-coal flames of power station furnace and cement kiln types, Twenty-Fifth Symposium International on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, 1994 p. 503
Google Scholar
8 P.V Barr, J.K Brimacombe, A.P Watkinson
A heat-transfer model for the rotary kiln: Part II, development of the cross-section model
Metallurgical Transactions B, 20B (1989), p. 403
View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar
9 V Frisch, R Jeschar
Possibilities for optimizing the burning process in rotary cement kilns
Zement-Kalk-Gips, 36 (1983), p. 549
View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar
10 A.A Boateng, P.V Barr
A thermal model for the rotary kiln including heat transfer within the bed
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 39 (1996), p. 2131
ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar
11 M.G. Carvahlo, T. Farias, A. Martius, A three-dimensional modelling of the radiative heat transfer in a cement kiln, in: Carvahlo et al. (Eds.), Combustion Technologies for a Clean Environment, Gordon and Breach, London, 1995, p. 146
Google Scholar
12 H.A Spang
A dynamic model of a cement kiln
Automatica, 8 (1972), p. 309
ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar
13 CFDS, FLOW-3D Users Manual, AEA Harwell, UK
Google Scholar
14 E Mastorakos, J.J McGuirk, A.M.K.P Taylor
The origin of turbulence acquired by heavy particles in a round, turbulent jet
Part. Part. Syst. Charact., 7 (1990), p. 203
View PDFCrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar
15 P. Panagiotopoulos, TITAN S.A. Cement Company, Personal communication, 1996
Google Scholar
16 M.S Murthy, B.R Harish, K.S Rajanandam, K.Y Ajoy Pavan Kumar
Investigation on the kinetics of thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate
Chem. Eng. Sci., 49 (1996), p. 2198
Google Scholar
17 V. Johansen, Cement production and chemistry, Presented at the Symposium on Cement Manufacturing and Chemistry, Anaheim, November 1989; also RAMBOLL Bulletin No. 41, 1993
Google Scholar
1 Also at Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Patras, Greece.

2 Also at Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Greece.

Figure 2. (a) Scanning electron microscopy images of Ti6Al4V powder particles and (b) simulated powder bed using discrete element modelling

Laser Powder Bed에서 Laser Drilling에 의한 Keyhole 형성 Ti6Al4V 생체 의학 합금의 융합: 메조스코픽 전산유체역학 시뮬레이션 대 경험적 검증을 사용한 수학적 모델링

Keyhole Formation by Laser Drilling in Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Ti6Al4V Biomedical Alloy: Mesoscopic Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation versus Mathematical Modelling Using Empirical Validation

Asif Ur Rehman 1,2,3,*
,† , Muhammad Arif Mahmood 4,*
,† , Fatih Pitir 1
, Metin Uymaz Salamci 2,3
,
Andrei C. Popescu 4 and Ion N. Mihailescu 4

Abstract

LPBF(Laser Powder Bed fusion) 공정에서 작동 조건은 열 분포를 기반으로 레이저 유도 키홀 영역을 결정하는 데 필수적입니다. 얕은 구멍과 깊은 구멍으로 분류되는 이러한 영역은 LPBF 프로세스에서 확률과 결함 형성 강도를 제어합니다.

LPBF 프로세스의 핵심 구멍을 연구하고 제어하기 위해 수학적 및 CFD(전산 유체 역학) 모델이 제공됩니다. CFD의 경우 이산 요소 모델링 기법을 사용한 유체 체적 방법이 사용되었으며, 분말 베드 보이드 및 표면에 의한 레이저 빔 흡수를 포함하여 수학적 모델이 개발되었습니다.

동적 용융 풀 거동을 자세히 살펴봅니다. 실험적, CFD 시뮬레이션 및 분석적 컴퓨팅 결과 간에 정량적 비교가 수행되어 좋은 일치를 얻습니다.

LPBF에서 레이저 조사 영역 주변의 온도는 높은 내열성과 분말 입자 사이의 공기로 인해 분말층 주변에 비해 급격히 상승하여 레이저 횡방향 열파의 이동이 느려집니다. LPBF에서 키홀은 에너지 밀도에 의해 제어되는 얕고 깊은 키홀 모드로 분류될 수 있습니다. 에너지 밀도를 높이면 얕은 키홀 구멍 모드가 깊은 키홀 구멍 모드로 바뀝니다.

깊은 키홀 구멍의 에너지 밀도는 다중 반사와 키홀 구멍 내의 2차 반사 빔의 집중으로 인해 더 높아져 재료가 빠르게 기화됩니다.

깊은 키홀 구멍 모드에서는 온도 분포가 높기 때문에 액체 재료가 기화 온도에 가까우므로 얕은 키홀 구멍보다 구멍이 형성될 확률이 훨씬 높습니다. 온도가 급격히 상승하면 재료 밀도가 급격히 떨어지므로 비열과 융해 잠열로 인해 유체 부피가 증가합니다.

그 대가로 표면 장력을 낮추고 용융 풀 균일성에 영향을 미칩니다.

In the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process, the operating conditions are essential in determining laser-induced keyhole regimes based on the thermal distribution. These regimes, classified into shallow and deep keyholes, control the probability and defects formation intensity in the LPBF process. To study and control the keyhole in the LPBF process, mathematical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are presented. For CFD, the volume of fluid method with the discrete element modeling technique was used, while a mathematical model was developed by including the laser beam absorption by the powder bed voids and surface. The dynamic melt pool behavior is explored in detail. Quantitative comparisons are made among experimental, CFD simulation and analytical computing results leading to a good correspondence. In LPBF, the temperature around the laser irradiation zone rises rapidly compared to the surroundings in the powder layer due to the high thermal resistance and the air between the powder particles, resulting in a slow travel of laser transverse heat waves. In LPBF, the keyhole can be classified into shallow and deep keyhole mode, controlled by the energy density. Increasing the energy density, the shallow keyhole mode transforms into the deep keyhole mode. The energy density in a deep keyhole is higher due to the multiple reflections and concentrations of secondary reflected beams within the keyhole, causing the material to vaporize quickly. Due to an elevated temperature distribution in deep keyhole mode, the probability of pores forming is much higher than in a shallow keyhole as the liquid material is close to the vaporization temperature. When the temperature increases rapidly, the material density drops quickly, thus, raising the fluid volume due to the specific heat and fusion latent heat. In return, this lowers the surface tension and affects the melt pool uniformity.

Keywords: laser powder bed fusion; computational fluid dynamics; analytical modelling; shallow
and deep keyhole modes; experimental correlation

Figure 1. Powder bed schematic with voids.
Figure 1. Powder bed schematic with voids.
Figure 2. (a) Scanning electron microscopy images of Ti6Al4V powder particles and (b) simulated powder bed using discrete element modelling
Figure 2. (a) Scanning electron microscopy images of Ti6Al4V powder particles and (b) simulated powder bed using discrete element modelling
Figure 3. Temperature field contour formation at various time intervals (a) 0.695 ms, (b) 0.795 ms, (c) 0.995 ms and (d) 1.3 ms.
Figure 3. Temperature field contour formation at various time intervals (a) 0.695 ms, (b) 0.795 ms, (c) 0.995 ms and (d) 1.3 ms.
Figure 4. Detailed view of shallow depth melt mode with temperature field at 0.695 ms
Figure 4. Detailed view of shallow depth melt mode with temperature field at 0.695 ms
Figure 5. Melt flow stream traces formation at various time intervals (a) 0.695 ms, (b) 0.795 ms, (c) 0.995 ms and (d) 1.3 ms
Figure 5. Melt flow stream traces formation at various time intervals (a) 0.695 ms, (b) 0.795 ms, (c) 0.995 ms and (d) 1.3 ms
Figure 6. Density evolution of the melt pool at various time intervals (a) 0.695 ms, (b) 0.795 ms, (c) 0.995 ms and (d) 1.3 ms.
Figure 6. Density evolution of the melt pool at various time intervals (a) 0.695 ms, (b) 0.795 ms, (c) 0.995 ms and (d) 1.3 ms.
Figure 7. Un-melted and melted regions at different time intervals (a) 0.695 ms, (b) 0.795 ms, (c) 0.995 ms and (d) 1.3 ms
Figure 7. Un-melted and melted regions at different time intervals (a) 0.695 ms, (b) 0.795 ms, (c) 0.995 ms and (d) 1.3 ms
Figure 8. Transformation from shallow depth melt flow to deep keyhole formation when laser power increased from (a) 170 W to (b) 200 W
Figure 8. Transformation from shallow depth melt flow to deep keyhole formation when laser power increased from (a) 170 W to (b) 200 W
Figure 9. Stream traces and laser beam multiple reflections in deep keyhole melt flow mode
Figure 9. Stream traces and laser beam multiple reflections in deep keyhole melt flow mode
Figure 10. A comparison between analytical and CFD simulation results for peak thermal distribution value in the deep keyhole formation
Figure 10. A comparison between analytical and CFD simulation results for peak thermal distribution value in the deep keyhole formation
Figure 11. A comparison among experiments [49], CFD and analytical simulations for deep keyhole top width and bottom width
Figure 11. A comparison among experiments [49], CFD and analytical simulations for deep keyhole top width and bottom width

References

  1. Kok, Y.; Tan, X.P.; Wang, P.; Nai, M.L.S.; Loh, N.H.; Liu, E.; Tor, S.B. Anisotropy and heterogeneity of microstructure and
    mechanical properties in metal additive manufacturing: A critical review. Mater. Des. 2018, 139, 565–586. [CrossRef]
  2. Ansari, P.; Salamci, M.U. On the selective laser melting based additive manufacturing of AlSi10Mg: The process parameter
    investigation through multiphysics simulation and experimental validation. J. Alloys Compd. 2022, 890, 161873. [CrossRef]
  3. Guo, N.; Leu, M.C. Additive manufacturing: Technology, applications and research needs. Front. Mech. Eng. 2013, 8, 215–243.
    [CrossRef]
  4. Mohsin Raza, M.; Lo, Y.L. Experimental investigation into microstructure, mechanical properties, and cracking mechanism of
    IN713LC processed by laser powder bed fusion. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 2021, 819, 141527. [CrossRef]
  5. Dezfoli, A.R.A.; Lo, Y.L.; Raza, M.M. Prediction of Epitaxial Grain Growth in Single-Track Laser Melting of IN718 Using Integrated
    Finite Element and Cellular Automaton Approach. Materials 2021, 14, 5202. [CrossRef]
  6. Tiwari, S.K.; Pande, S.; Agrawal, S.; Bobade, S.M. Selection of selective laser sintering materials for different applications. Rapid
    Prototyp. J. 2015, 21, 630–648. [CrossRef]
  7. Liu, F.H. Synthesis of bioceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering by rapid prototyping technique. J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.
    2012, 64, 704–710. [CrossRef]
  8. Ur Rehman, A.; Sglavo, V.M. 3D printing of geopolymer-based concrete for building applications. Rapid Prototyp. J. 2020, 26,
    1783–1788. [CrossRef]
  9. Ur Rehman, A.; Sglavo, V.M. 3D printing of Portland cement-containing bodies. Rapid Prototyp. J. 2021. ahead of print. [CrossRef]
  10. Popovich, A.; Sufiiarov, V. Metal Powder Additive Manufacturing. In New Trends in 3D Printing; InTech: Rijeka, Croatia, 2016.
  11. Jia, T.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, J.K.; He, Y.L. Dynamic simulation of granular packing of fine cohesive particles with different size
    distributions. Powder Technol. 2012, 218, 76–85. [CrossRef]
  12. Ansari, P.; Ur Rehman, A.; Pitir, F.; Veziroglu, S.; Mishra, Y.K.; Aktas, O.C.; Salamci, M.U. Selective Laser Melting of 316L
    Austenitic Stainless Steel: Detailed Process Understanding Using Multiphysics Simulation and Experimentation. Metals 2021,
    11, 1076. [CrossRef]
  13. Ur Rehman, A.; Tingting, L.; Liao, W. 4D Printing; Printing Ceramics from Metals with Selective Oxidation. Patent No.
    W0/2019/052128, 21 March 2019.
  14. Ullah, A.; Wu, H.; Ur Rehman, A.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, T.; Zhang, K. Influence of laser parameters and Ti content on the surface
    morphology of L-PBF fabricated Titania. Rapid Prototyp. J. 2021, 27, 71–80. [CrossRef]
  15. Ur Rehman, A. Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Materials and Combinations with New Laser Strategies. Master’s Thesis,
    Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China, 2017.
  16. Wong, K.V.; Hernandez, A. A Review of Additive Manufacturing. ISRN Mech. Eng. 2012, 2012, 1–10. [CrossRef]
  17. Körner, C. Additive manufacturing of metallic components by selective electron beam melting—A review. Int. Mater. Rev. 2016,
    61, 361–377. [CrossRef]
  18. Fayazfar, H.; Salarian, M.; Rogalsky, A.; Sarker, D.; Russo, P.; Paserin, V.; Toyserkani, E. A critical review of powder-based additive
    manufacturing of ferrous alloys: Process parameters, microstructure and mechanical properties. Mater. Des. 2018, 144, 98–128.
    [CrossRef]
  19. Everton, S.K.; Hirsch, M.; Stavroulakis, P.I.; Leach, R.K.; Clare, A.T. Review of in-situ process monitoring and in-situ metrology
    for metal additive manufacturing. Mater. Des. 2016, 95, 431–445. [CrossRef]
  20. Sing, S.L.; An, J.; Yeong, W.Y.; Wiria, F.E. Laser and electron-beam powder-bed additive manufacturing of metallic implants: A
    review on processes, materials and designs. J. Orthop. Res. 2016, 34, 369–385. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Olakanmi, E.O.; Cochrane, R.F.; Dalgarno, K.W. A review on selective laser sintering/melting (SLS/SLM) of aluminium alloy
    powders: Processing, microstructure, and properties. Prog. Mater. Sci. 2015, 74, 401–477. [CrossRef]
  22. Mahmood, M.A.; Popescu, A.C.; Hapenciuc, C.L.; Ristoscu, C.; Visan, A.I.; Oane, M.; Mihailescu, I.N. Estimation of clad geometry
    and corresponding residual stress distribution in laser melting deposition: Analytical modeling and experimental correlations.
    Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 2020, 111, 77–91. [CrossRef]
  23. Mahmood, M.A.; Popescu, A.C.; Oane, M.; Ristoscu, C.; Chioibasu, D.; Mihai, S.; Mihailescu, I.N. Three-jet powder flow
    and laser–powder interaction in laser melting deposition: Modelling versus experimental correlations. Metals 2020, 10, 1113.
    [CrossRef]
  24. King, W.; Anderson, A.T.; Ferencz, R.M.; Hodge, N.E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S.A. Overview of modelling and simulation of
    metal powder bed fusion process at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Mater. Sci. Technol. 2015, 31, 957–968. [CrossRef]
  1. Gong, H.; Rafi, K.; Gu, H.; Starr, T.; Stucker, B. Analysis of defect generation in Ti-6Al-4V parts made using powder bed fusion
    additive manufacturing processes. Addit. Manuf. 2014, 1, 87–98. [CrossRef]
  2. Frazier, W.E. Metal additive manufacturing: A review. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 2014, 23, 1917–1928. [CrossRef]
  3. Panwisawas, C.; Qiu, C.L.; Sovani, Y.; Brooks, J.W.; Attallah, M.M.; Basoalto, H.C. On the role of thermal fluid dynamics into the
    evolution of porosity during selective laser melting. Scr. Mater. 2015, 105, 14–17. [CrossRef]
  4. Yan, W.; Ge, W.; Qian, Y.; Lin, S.; Zhou, B.; Liu, W.K.; Lin, F.; Wagner, G.J. Multi-physics modeling of single/multiple-track defect
    mechanisms in electron beam selective melting. Acta Mater. 2017, 134, 324–333. [CrossRef]
  5. Qian, Y.; Yan, W.; Lin, F. Parametric study and surface morphology analysis of electron beam selective melting. Rapid Prototyp. J.
    2018, 24, 1586–1598. [CrossRef]
  6. Panwisawas, C.; Perumal, B.; Ward, R.M.; Turner, N.; Turner, R.P.; Brooks, J.W.; Basoalto, H.C. Keyhole formation and thermal
    fluid flow-induced porosity during laser fusion welding in titanium alloys: Experimental and modelling. Acta Mater. 2017, 126,
    251–263. [CrossRef]
  7. King, W.E.; Barth, H.D.; Castillo, V.M.; Gallegos, G.F.; Gibbs, J.W.; Hahn, D.E.; Kamath, C.; Rubenchik, A.M. Observation of
    keyhole-mode laser melting in laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 2014, 214, 2915–2925.
    [CrossRef]
  8. Panwisawas, C.; Sovani, Y.; Turner, R.P.; Brooks, J.W.; Basoalto, H.C.; Choquet, I. Modelling of thermal fluid dynamics for fusion
    welding. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 2018, 252, 176–182. [CrossRef]
  9. Martin, A.A.; Calta, N.P.; Hammons, J.A.; Khairallah, S.A.; Nielsen, M.H.; Shuttlesworth, R.M.; Sinclair, N.; Matthews, M.J.;
    Jeffries, J.R.; Willey, T.M.; et al. Ultrafast dynamics of laser-metal interactions in additive manufacturing alloys captured by in situ
    X-ray imaging. Mater. Today Adv. 2019, 1, 100002. [CrossRef]
  10. Cunningham, R.; Zhao, C.; Parab, N.; Kantzos, C.; Pauza, J.; Fezzaa, K.; Sun, T.; Rollett, A.D. Keyhole threshold and morphology
    in laser melting revealed by ultrahigh-speed x-ray imaging. Science 2019, 363, 849–852. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Tang, C.; Tan, J.L.; Wong, C.H. A numerical investigation on the physical mechanisms of single track defects in selective laser
    melting. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 2018, 126, 957–968. [CrossRef]
  12. Mirkoohi, E.; Ning, J.; Bocchini, P.; Fergani, O.; Chiang, K.-N.; Liang, S. Thermal Modeling of Temperature Distribution in Metal
    Additive Manufacturing Considering Effects of Build Layers, Latent Heat, and Temperature-Sensitivity of Material Properties. J.
    Manuf. Mater. Process. 2018, 2, 63. [CrossRef]
  13. Oane, M.; Sporea, D. Temperature profiles modeling in IR optical components during high power laser irradiation. Infrared Phys.
    Technol. 2001, 42, 31–40. [CrossRef]
  14. Cleary, P.W.; Sawley, M.L. DEM modelling of industrial granular flows: 3D case studies and the effect of particle shape on hopper
    discharge. Appl. Math. Model. 2002, 26, 89–111. [CrossRef]
  15. Parteli, E.J.R.; Pöschel, T. Particle-based simulation of powder application in additive manufacturing. Powder Technol. 2016, 288,
    96–102. [CrossRef]
  16. Cao, L. Numerical simulation of the impact of laying powder on selective laser melting single-pass formation. Int. J. Heat Mass
    Transf. 2019, 141, 1036–1048. [CrossRef]
  17. Tian, Y.; Yang, L.; Zhao, D.; Huang, Y.; Pan, J. Numerical analysis of powder bed generation and single track forming for selective
    laser melting of SS316L stainless steel. J. Manuf. Process. 2020, 58, 964–974. [CrossRef]
  18. Lee, Y.S.; Zhang, W. Modeling of heat transfer, fluid flow and solidification microstructure of nickel-base superalloy fabricated by
    laser powder bed fusion. Addit. Manuf. 2016, 12, 178–188. [CrossRef]
  19. Tang, M.; Pistorius, P.C.; Beuth, J.L. Prediction of lack-of-fusion porosity for powder bed fusion. Addit. Manuf. 2017, 14, 39–48.
    [CrossRef]
  20. Promoppatum, P.; Yao, S.C.; Pistorius, P.C.; Rollett, A.D. A Comprehensive Comparison of the Analytical and Numerical
    Prediction of the Thermal History and Solidification Microstructure of Inconel 718 Products Made by Laser Powder-Bed Fusion.
    Engineering 2017, 3, 685–694. [CrossRef]
  21. Rosenthal, D. Mathematical Theory of Heat Distribution During Welding and Cutting. Weld. J. 1941, 20, 220–234.
  22. Chen, Q.; Zhao, Y.Y.; Strayer, S.; Zhao, Y.Y.; Aoyagi, K.; Koizumi, Y.; Chiba, A.; Xiong, W.; To, A.C. Elucidating the Effect
    of Preheating Temperature on Melt Pool Morphology Variation in Inconel 718 Laser Powder Bed Fusion via Simulation and
    Experiment. Available online: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214860420310149#bb8 (accessed on 30
    April 2021).
  23. Ur Rehman, A.; Pitir, F.; Salamci, M.U. Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) of In718 and the Impact of Pre-Heating at 500 and
    1000 ◦C: Operando Study. Materials 2021, 14, 6683. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Ur Rehman, A.; Pitir, F.; Salamci, M.U. Full-Field Mapping and Flow Quantification of Melt Pool Dynamics in Laser Powder Bed
    Fusion of SS316L. Materials 2021, 14, 6264. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Gong, H.; Gu, H.; Zeng, K.; Dilip, J.J.S.; Pal, D.; Stucker, B.; Christiansen, D.; Beuth, J.; Lewandowski, J.J. Melt Pool Characterization
    for Selective Laser Melting of Ti-6Al-4V Pre-alloyed Powder. In Proceedings of the International Solid Freeform Fabrication
    Symposium, Austin, TX, USA, 10–12 August 2014; 2014; pp. 256–267.
  26. Song, B.; Dong, S.; Liao, H.; Coddet, C. Process parameter selection for selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V based on temperature
    distribution simulation and experimental sintering. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 2012, 61, 967–974. [CrossRef]
  27. Guo, Q.; Zhao, C.; Qu, M.; Xiong, L.; Hojjatzadeh, S.M.H.; Escano, L.I.; Parab, N.D.; Fezzaa, K.; Sun, T.; Chen, L. In-situ full-field
  28. mapping of melt flow dynamics in laser metal additive manufacturing. Addit. Manuf. 2020, 31, 100939. [CrossRef]
  29. Messler, J.R.W. Principles of Welding: Processes, Physics, Chemistry, and Metallurgy; John Wiley & Sons: New York, NY, USA, 2008;
  30. ISBN 9783527617494.
  31. Khairallah, S.A.; Anderson, A.T.; Rubenchik, A.M.; King, W.E. Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Physics of
  32. complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones. Acta Mater. 2016, 108, 36–45. [CrossRef]
  33. Ur Rehman, A.; Mahmood, M.A.; Pitir, F.; Salamci, M.U.; Popescu, A.C.; Mihailescu, I.N. Mesoscopic Computational Fluid
  34. Dynamics Modelling for the Laser-Melting Deposition of AISI 304 Stainless Steel Single Tracks with Experimental Correlation: A
  35. Novel Study. Metals 2021, 11, 1569. [CrossRef]
  36. Paul, A.; Debroy, T. Free surface flow and heat transfer in conduction mode laser welding. Metall. Trans. B 1988, 19, 851–858.
  37. [CrossRef]
  38. Aucott, L.; Dong, H.; Mirihanage, W.; Atwood, R.; Kidess, A.; Gao, S.; Wen, S.; Marsden, J.; Feng, S.; Tong, M.; et al. Revealing
  39. internal flow behaviour in arc welding and additive manufacturing of metals. Nat. Commun. 2018, 9, 5414. [CrossRef]
  40. Abderrazak, K.; Bannour, S.; Mhiri, H.; Lepalec, G.; Autric, M. Numerical and experimental study of molten pool formation
  41. during continuous laser welding of AZ91 magnesium alloy. Comput. Mater. Sci. 2009, 44, 858–866. [CrossRef]
  42. Bayat, M.; Thanki, A.; Mohanty, S.; Witvrouw, A.; Yang, S.; Thorborg, J.; Tiedje, N.S.; Hattel, J.H. Keyhole-induced porosities in
  43. Laser-based Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) of Ti6Al4V: High-fidelity modelling and experimental validation. Addit. Manuf. 2019,
  44. 30, 100835. [CrossRef]
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Hydrodynamic Performance of a Sloping Floating Breakwater with and Without Chain-Net

Chain-Net이 있거나 없는 경사 부유식 방파제의 유체역학적 성능에 대한 실험 및 수치적 조사

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Hydrodynamic Performance of a Sloping Floating Breakwater with and Without Chain-Net

Keywords

  • Sloping floating breakwater
  • Chain net
  • Anchorage system
  • Hydrodynamic performance

Abstract

두 개의 부유체 사이에 간격이 있는 경사진 부유식 방파제(FB)에 대한 새로운 연구가 제안되었습니다. 구조물의 기울기는 파동 에너지 소산을 유발할 수 있습니다. 경사진 구조물의 문제는 파도가 넘친다는 것입니다. 이 문제를 해결하기 위해 두 플로터 사이의 간격을 고려합니다. 

오버 토핑이 발생하면 마루를 통과하는 물이 두 플로터 사이의 틈으로 쏟아지며 결과적으로 파도 에너지가 감쇠됩니다. 체인 네트가 모델에 추가되고 전송 계수에 대한 영향이 연구됩니다. 또한, 구조물의 유체역학적 성능에 대한 자유도의 영향을 조사하기 위해 말뚝으로 고정된(1 자유도) 계류 라인으로 고정된(3도의 자유도) 두 가지 고정 시스템에서 자유 모델을 연구했습니다.

게다가, 실험은 5개의 다른 파도 주기와 4개의 다른 파도 높이를 가진 규칙파에서 수행됩니다. 실험 결과, 경사형 부유식 방파제가 직사각형 상자형보다 최대 15% 성능이 우수한 것으로 나타났다. 말뚝에 의해 고정된 FB에 대한 투과계수는 단파에서 케이블에 의해 고정된 FB보다 최대값으로 약 14% 낮고 장파에서 약 4-10% 더 높다. 흘수가 증가함에 따라 전송 계수는 감소하지만 건현은 허용 비율의 초과를 제한하기 위한 최소 요구 사항을 충족해야 합니다. 

체인 그물이 있는 모델은 없는 모델에 비해 전달 계수가 최대 14% 감소하여 더 나은 성능을 나타냅니다. 실험 결과, 경사형 부유식 방파제가 직사각형 상자형보다 최대 15% 성능이 우수한 것으로 나타났다. 말뚝에 의해 고정된 FB에 대한 투과계수는 단파에서 케이블에 의해 고정된 FB보다 최대값으로 약 14% 낮고 장파에서 약 4-10% 더 높다. 흘수가 증가함에 따라 전송 계수는 감소하지만 건현은 허용 비율의 초과를 제한하기 위한 최소 요구 사항을 충족해야 합니다. 

체인 그물이 있는 모델은 없는 모델에 비해 전달 계수가 최대 14% 감소하여 더 나은 성능을 나타냅니다. 실험 결과, 경사형 부유식 방파제가 직사각형 상자형보다 최대 15% 성능이 우수한 것으로 나타났다. 말뚝에 의해 고정된 FB에 대한 투과계수는 단파에서 케이블에 의해 고정된 FB보다 최대값으로 약 14% 낮고 장파에서 약 4-10% 더 높다. 흘수가 증가함에 따라 전송 계수는 감소하지만 건현은 허용 비율의 초과를 제한하기 위한 최소 요구 사항을 충족해야 합니다.

체인 그물이 있는 모델은 없는 모델에 비해 전달 계수가 최대 14% 감소하여 더 나은 성능을 나타냅니다. 말뚝에 의해 고정된 FB에 대한 투과계수는 단파에서 케이블에 의해 고정된 FB보다 최대값으로 약 14% 낮고 장파에서 약 4-10% 더 높다. 흘수가 증가함에 따라 전송 계수는 감소하지만 건현은 허용 비율의 초과를 제한하기 위한 최소 요구 사항을 충족해야 합니다. 

체인 그물이 있는 모델은 없는 모델에 비해 전달 계수가 최대 14% 감소하여 더 나은 성능을 나타냅니다. 말뚝에 의해 고정된 FB에 대한 투과계수는 단파에서 케이블에 의해 고정된 FB보다 최대값으로 약 14% 낮고 장파에서 약 4-10% 더 높다. 

흘수가 증가함에 따라 전송 계수는 감소하지만 건현은 허용 비율의 초과를 제한하기 위한 최소 요구 사항을 충족해야 합니다. 체인 그물이 있는 모델은 없는 모델에 비해 전달 계수가 최대 14% 감소하여 더 나은 성능을 나타냅니다.

A novel study of sloping floating breakwater (FB) that has a gap between two floaters is proposed. The slope of a structure can cause wave energy dissipation. A problem with sloping structures is wave overtopping. To solve this problem, a gap is considered between the two floaters. If overtopping occurs, water passing the crest will pour into the gap between the two floaters, as a result wave energy will be attenuated. A chain net is added to the model and its effect on the transmission coefficient is studied. Furthermore, in order to investigate the effects of the degree of freedom on the hydrodynamic performance of the structure, the model is studied in the two anchorage systems which are anchored by pile (1 degree of freedom) and anchored by mooring lines (3 degree of freedom). Moreover, the experiments are performed under regular waves with five different wave periods and four different wave heights. The results of the experiments show a sloping floating breakwater that has a better performance than that of rectangular box type by 15% as maximum value. The transmission coefficients for the FB anchored by pile are lower about 14% as maximum value than that of the FB anchored by cable in shorter waves and are higher about 4–10% in longer waves. With increasing the draft, the transmission coefficient decreases but the freeboard should meet the minimum requirements to restrict overtopping in the allowable rate. The model with a chain net exhibits a better performance as compared with the model without it by a maximum 14% reduction in the transmission coefficients.

  • Fig. 1extended data figure 1
  • Fig. 2extended data figure 2
  • Fig. 3extended data figure 3
  • Fig. 4extended data figure 4
  • Fig. 5extended data figure 5
  • Fig. 6extended data figure 6
  • Fig. 7extended data figure 7
  • Fig. 8extended data figure 8
  • Fig. 9extended data figure 9
  • Fig. 10extended data figure 10
  • Fig. 11extended data figure 11
  • Fig. 12extended data figure 12
  • Fig. 13extended data figure 13
  • Fig. 14extended data figure 14
  • Fig. 15extended data figure 15
  • Fig. 16extended data figure 16
  • Fig. 17extended data figure 17
  • Fig. 18extended data figure 18
  • Fig. 19extended data figure 19
  • Fig. 20extended data figure 20
  • Fig. 21extended data figure 21
  • Fig. 22extended data figure 22
  • Fig. 23extended data figure 23
  • Fig.24extended data figure 24
  • Fig. 25extended data figure 25
  • Fig. 26extended data figure 26
  • Fig. 27extended data figure 27

References

  1. Abul-Azm AG, Gesraha MR (2000) Approximation to the hydrodynamics of floating pontoons under oblique waves. Ocean Eng 27:365–384Article Google Scholar 
  2. Biesheuvel AC (2013) Effectiveness of floating breakwaters. Delf University of Technology, DissertaionGoogle Scholar 
  3. Chen Zh, Wang Y, Dong H, Zheng B (2012) Time-domain hydrodynamic analysis of pontoon-plate floating breakwater. J Water Sci Eng 5(3):291–303Google Scholar 
  4. Daneshfaraz R, Kaya B (2008) solution of the propagation of the waves in open channels by the transfer matrix method. J Ocean Eng 35:1075–1079Article Google Scholar 
  5. Daneshfaraz R, Sadeghfam S, Tahni A (2020) exprimental investigation of screen as energy dissipators in the movable-Bed channel. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Civil Eng 44:1237–1246Article Google Scholar 
  6. Deng Zh, Wang L, Zhao X, Huang Zh (2019) Hydrodynamic performance of a T-shaped floating breakwater. J Appl Ocean Res 82:325–336Article Google Scholar 
  7. Dong GH, Zheng YN, Li YC, Teng B, Guan CT, Lin DF (2008) Experiments on wave transmission coefficients of floating breakwaters. Ocean Eng 35:931–938Article Google Scholar 
  8. Duan WY, Xu SP, Xu QL et al (2017) Performance of an F-type floating break water: a numerical and experimental study. Proc I MechE Part M 231(2):583–599Google Scholar 
  9. Gesraha MR (2006) Analysis of π shaped floating breakwater in oblique waves: I. Impervious rigid wave boards. Appl Ocean Res 28:327–338Article Google Scholar 
  10. He F, Huang Zh, Wing-Keung Law A (2013) An experimental study of a floating breakwater with asymmetric pneumatic chambers for wave energy extraction. J Appl Energy 106:222–231Article Google Scholar 
  11. Ikeno M, Shimoda N, Iwata K (1988) A new type of breakwater utilizing air compressibility. In: Proceedings of the 21st Coastal Engineering Conference, ASCE. pp 2426–2339
  12. Ji Ch, Cheng Y, Cui J, Yuan Zh, Gaidai O (2018) Hydrodynamic performance of floating breakwaters in long wave regime: an experimental study. J Ocean Eng 152:154–166Article Google Scholar 
  13. Koutandos E, Prinos P, Gironella X (2005) Floating breakwaters under regular and irregular wave forcing: reflection and transmission characteristics. J Hydraul Res 43(2):174–188Article Google Scholar 
  14. Liu Zh, Wang Y, Wang W, Hua X (2019) Numerical modeling and optimization of a winged box-type floating breakwater by Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. J Ocean Eng 188:106246Article Google Scholar 
  15. LotfollahiYaghin MA, Mojtahedi A, Aminfar MH (2012) Physical model studies and system identification of hydrodynamics around a vertical square-section cylinder in irregular sea waves. J Ocean Eng 55:10–22Article Google Scholar 
  16. Mansard E, Funke E (1980) The measurement of the incident and reflected spectra using the least squares method. In: Proceedings of the 17th Coastal Engineering Conference ASCE, Sydney. pp 154–172
  17. Mojtahedi A, ShokatianBeiragh M, Farajpour I, Mohammadian M (2020) Investigation on hydrodynamic performance of an enviromentally friendly pile breakwater. J Ocean Eng 217:107942Article Google Scholar 
  18. Noroozi B, Bazargan J, Safarzadeh A (2021) Introducing the T-shaped weir: a new nonlinear weir. Water Supply. https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2021.144Article Google Scholar 
  19. Pena E, Ferreras J, Sanchez-Tembleque F (2011) Experimental study on wave transmission coefficient, mooring lines and module connector forces with different designs of floating breakwaters. J Ocean Eng 38:1150–1160Article Google Scholar 
  20. Safarzadeh A, Zaji AH, Bonakdari H (2017) Comparative Assessment of the Hybrid Genetic Algorithm-Artificial neural network and genetic programming methods for the predicition of longitudinal velocity field around a single straight groyne. Appl Soft Comput 60:213–228Article Google Scholar 
  21. Tang HJ, Huang CC, Chen WM (2011) Dynamics of dual pontoon floating structure for cage aquaculture in a two-dimensional numerical wave tank. J Fluid Struct 27:918–936Article Google Scholar 
  22. U.S. Army coastal engineering research center (1984) Shore protection manual. U.S. Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar 
  23. Williams AN, Lee HS, Huang Z (2000) Floating pontoon breakwaters. Ocean Eng 27:221–240Article Google Scholar 
  24. Yang Zh, Xie M, Gao Zh, Xu T, Guo W, Ji X, Yuan Ch (2018) Experimental investigation on hydrodynamic effectiveness of a water ballast type floating breakwater. J Ocean Eng 167:77–94Article Google Scholar 
  25. Zhang X, Ma Sh, Duan W (2018) A new L type floating breakwater derived from vortex dissipation simulation. J Ocean Eng 164:455–464Article Google Scholar 
Hydraulic Analysis of Submerged Spillway Flows and Performance Evaluation of Chute Aerator Using CFD Modeling: A Case Study of Mangla Dam Spillway

CFD 모델링을 이용한 침수 배수로 흐름의 수리학적 해석 및 슈트 폭기장치 성능 평가: Mangla Dam 배수로 사례 연구

Hydraulic Analysis of Submerged Spillway Flows and Performance Evaluation of Chute Aerator Using CFD Modeling: A Case Study of Mangla Dam Spillway

Muhammad Kaleem SarwarZohaib NisarGhulam NabiFaraz ul HaqIjaz AhmadMuhammad Masood & Noor Muhammad Khan 

Abstract

대용량 배출구가 있는 수중 여수로는 일반적으로 홍수 처리 및 침전물 세척의 이중 기능을 수행하기 위해 댐 정상 아래에 제공됩니다. 이 방수로를 통과하는 홍수 물은 난류 거동을 나타냅니다. 

게다가 이러한 난류의 수력학적 분석은 어려운 작업입니다. 

따라서 본 연구는 파키스탄 Mangla Dam에 건설된 수중 여수로의 수리학적 거동을 수치해석을 통해 조사하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 또한 다양한 작동 조건에서 화기의 유압 성능을 평가했습니다. 

Mangla Spillway의 흐름을 수치적으로 모델링하는 데 전산 유체 역학 코드 FLOW 3D가 사용되었습니다. 레이놀즈 평균 Navier-Stokes 방정식은 난류 흐름을 수치적으로 모델링하기 위해 FLOW 3D에서 사용됩니다. 

연구 결과에 따르면 개발된 모델은 최대 6%의 허용 오차로 흐름 매개변수를 계산하므로 수중 여수로 흐름을 시뮬레이션할 수 있습니다. 

또한, 여수로 슈트 베드 주변 모델에 의해 계산된 공기 농도는 폭기 장치에 램프를 설치한 후 6% 이상으로 상승한 3%로 개발된 모델도 침수형 폭기 장치의 성능을 평가할 수 있음을 보여주었습니다.

Submerged spillways with large capacity outlets are generally provided below the dam crest to perform the dual functions of flood disposal and sediment flushing. Flood water passing through these spillways exhibits turbulent behavior. Moreover; hydraulic analysis of such turbulent flows is a challenging task. Therefore, the present study aims to use numerical simulations to examine the hydraulic behavior of submerged spillways constructed at Mangla Dam, Pakistan. Besides, the hydraulic performance of aerator was also evaluated at different operating conditions. Computational fluid dynamics code FLOW 3D was used to numerically model the flows of Mangla Spillway. Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations are used in FLOW 3D to numerically model the turbulent flows. The study results indicated that the developed model can simulate the submerged spillway flows as it computed the flow parameters with an acceptable error of up to 6%. Moreover, air concentration computed by model near spillway chute bed was 3% which raised to more than 6% after the installation of ramp on aerator which showed that developed model is also capable of evaluating the performance of submerged spillway aerator.

Keywords

  • Aerator
  • CFD
  • FLOW 3D
  • Froude number
  • Submerged spillway
  • Fig. 1extended data figure 1Fig. 2extended data figure 2Fig. 3extended data figure 3Fig. 4extended data figure 4Fig. 5extended data figure 5Fig. 6extended data figure 6Fig. 7extended data figure 7Fig. 8

References

  1. Aydin MC (2018) Aeration efficiency of bottom-inlet aerators for spillways. ISH J Hydraul Eng 24(3):330–336. https://doi.org/10.1080/09715010.2017.1381576Article Google Scholar 
  2. Bennett P, Chesterton J, Neeve D, Ucuncu M, Wearing M, Jones SEL (2018) Use of CFD for modelling spillway performance. Dams Reserv 28(2):62–72. https://doi.org/10.1680/jdare.18.00001Article Google Scholar 
  3. Bhosekar VV, Jothiprakash V, Deolalikar PB (2012) Orifice Spillway Aerator: Hydraulic Design. J Hydraul Eng 138(6):563–572. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000548Article Google Scholar 
  4. Chanel PG, Doering JC (2008) Assessment of spillway modeling using computational fluid dynamics. Can J Civ Eng 35(12):1481–1485. https://doi.org/10.1139/L08-094Article Google Scholar 
  5. Flow Sciences, Inc. (2013) FLOW 3D user manual version 10.1.
  6. Gadge PP, Jothiprakash V, Bhosekar VV (2018) Hydraulic investigation and design of roof profile of an orifice spillway using experimental and numerical models. J Appl Water Eng Res 6(2):85–94. https://doi.org/10.1080/23249676.2016.1214627Article Google Scholar 
  7. Gadge PP, Jothiprakash V, Bhosekar VV (2019) Hydraulic design considerations for orifice spillways. ISH J Hydraul Eng 25(1):12–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/09715010.2018.1423579Article Google Scholar 
  8. Gu S, Ren L, Wang X, Xie H, Huang Y, Wei J, Shao S (2017) SPHysics simulation of experimental spillway hydraulics. Water 9(12):973. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120973Article Google Scholar 
  9. Gurav NV (2015) Physical and Numerical Modeling of an Orifice Spillway. Int J Mech Prod Eng 3(10):71–75Google Scholar 
  10. Hirt CW, Nichols BD (1981) Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries. J Comput Phys 39(1):201–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9991(81)90145-5Article MATH Google Scholar 
  11. Ho DKH, Riddette KM (2010) Application of computational fluid dynamics to evaluate hydraulic performance of spillways in Australia. Aust J Civ Eng 6(1):81–104. https://doi.org/10.1080/14488353.2010.11463946Article Google Scholar 
  12. Jothiprakash V, Bhosekar VV, Deolalikar PB (2015) Flow characteristics of orifice spillway aerator: numerical model studies. ISH J Hydraul Eng 21(2):216–230. https://doi.org/10.1080/09715010.2015.1007093Article Google Scholar 
  13. Kumcu SY (2017) Investigation of flow over spillway modeling and comparison between experimental data and CFD analysis. KSCE J Civ Eng 21(3):994–1003. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-016-1257-zArticle Google Scholar 
  14. Lian J, Qi C, Liu F, Gou W, Pan S, Ouyang Q (2017) Air entrainment and air demand in the spillway tunnel at the Jinping-I Dam. Appl Sci 7(9):930. https://doi.org/10.3390/app7090930Article Google Scholar 
  15. Luo M, Khayyer A, Lin P (2021) Particle methods in ocean and coastal engineering. Appl Ocean Res 114:102734Article Google Scholar 
  16. Moreira A, Leroy A, Violeau D, Taveira-Pinto F (2019) Dam spillways and the SPH method: two case studies in Portugal. J Appl Water Eng Res 7(3):228–245. https://doi.org/10.1080/23249676.2019.1611496Article Google Scholar 
  17. Moreira AB, Leroy A, Violeau D, Taveira-Pinto FA (2020) Overview of large-scale smoothed particle hydrodynamics modeling of dam hydraulics. J Hydraul Eng 146(2):03119001. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001658Article Google Scholar 
  18. O’Connor J, Rogers BD (2021) A fluid–structure interaction model for free-surface flows and flexible structures using smoothed particle hydrodynamics on a GPU. J Fluids Struct. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2021.103312Article Google Scholar 
  19. Sarwar MK, Bhatti MT, Khan NM (2016) Evaluation of air vents and ramp angles on the performance of orifice spillway aerators. J Eng Appl Sci 35(1):85–93Google Scholar 
  20. Sarwar MK, Ahmad I, Chaudary ZA, Mughal H-U-R (2020) Experimental and numerical studies on orifice spillway aerator of Bunji Dam. J Chin Inst Eng 43(1):27–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/02533839.2019.1676652Article Google Scholar 
  21. Saunders K, Prakash M, Cleary PW, Cordell M (2014) Application of smoothed particle hydrodynamics for modelling gated spillway flows. Appl Math Model 38(17–18):4308–4322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.05.008Article MATH Google Scholar 
  22. Savage BM, Johnson MC (2001) Flow over ogee spillway: physical and numerical model case study. J Hydraul Eng 127(8):640–649. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2001)127:8(640)Article Google Scholar 
  23. Shadloo MS, Oger G, le Touzé D (2016) Smoothed particle hydrodynamics method for fluid flows, towards industrial applications: Motivations, current state, and challenges. Comput Fluids. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compfluid.2016.05.029MathSciNet Article MATH Google Scholar 
  24. Shao Z, Jahangir Z, MuhammadYasir Q, Atta-ur-Rahman, Mahmood S (2020) Identification of potential sites for a multi-purpose dam using a dam suitability stream model. Water 12(11):3249. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113249Article Google Scholar 
  25. Shimizu Y, Khayyer A, Gotoh H, Nagashima K (2020) An enhanced multiphase ISPH-based method for accurate modeling of oil spill. Coast Eng J 62(4):625–646. https://doi.org/10.1080/21664250.2020.1815362Article Google Scholar 
  26. Teng P, Yang J (2016) CFD modeling of two-phase flow of a spillway chute aerator of large width. J Appl Water Eng Res 4(2):163–177. https://doi.org/10.1080/23249676.2015.1124030Article Google Scholar 
  27. Teng P, Yang J, Pfister M (2016) Studies of two-phase flow at a chute aerator with experiments and CFD modelling. Model Simul Eng 2016:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4729128Article Google Scholar 
  28. Wapda (2004) Mangla dam raising project-sectional physical model study report of main spillway: Wapda model study cell, Gujrawala, Pakistan
  29. Yang J, Andreasson P, Teng P, Xie Q (2019) The past and present of discharge capacity modeling for spillways—a Swedish perspective. Fluids 4(1):10. https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4010010Article Google Scholar 
  30. Yang J, Teng P, Xie Q, Li S (2020) Understanding water flows and air venting features of spillway—a case study. Water 12(8):2106. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082106Article Google Scholar 
  31. Ye T, Pan D, Huang C, Liu M (2019) Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) for complex fluid flows: recent developments in methodology and applications. Phys Fluids 31(1):011301Article Google Scholar 
  32. Zhan X, Qin H, Liu Y, Yao L, Xie W, Liu G, Zhou J (2020) Variational Bayesian neural network for ensemble flood forecasting. Water 12(10):2740. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102740Article Google Scholar 

Download references

Fig. 6. Configuration of Johnson (1958) hydraulic experiment.

전체 수심 범위에서 선박 파고에 대한 방정식

Equation for ship wave crests in the entire range of water depths

Byeong Wook Lee a
, Changhoon Lee b,
*a Coastal Development and Ocean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, 385 Haeyang-ro, Busan, 49111, Republic of Korea
b Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05006, Republic of Korea

ABSTRACT

An equation for ship wave crests y/x in the entire range of water depths is developed using the linear dispersion relation. In deep water, the developed equation is reduced to the equation of Kelvin (1906). The locations of ship wave crests in the x – and y -directions are obtained using a dimensionless constant C. The wave ray angle θc at the cusp locus is determined using the condition that θc is maximal at the cusp locus and the cusp locus angle is determined as αc=−tan−1(y/x)max. Numerical experiments are conducted using the FLOW-3D to simulate ship wave propagation. The cusp locus angles of the FLOW-3D are similar to both those of the present theory and Havelock (1908) theory in the entire range of the Froude number. Both the present theory and the FLOW-3D yield that, with the increase of ship speed, the Froude number increases and does the wavelength. For the Froude number equal to or greater than unity, the wavelength becomes infinitely large and the transverse waves disappear. The wavelengths of the FLOW-3D are slightly smaller than those of the present theory because the FLOW-3D considers the decrease of wavelength due to energy dissipation which happens because of viscosity of water and turbulence of high-speed particle velocities.

Fig. 6. Configuration of Johnson (1958) hydraulic experiment.
Fig. 6. Configuration of Johnson (1958) hydraulic experiment.
Fig. 8. Comparison of ship wave crest patterns: (a) Fr ¼ 0:66 (Us ¼ 6:5m=s,  kh � 0:724π), (b) Fr ¼ 0:86 (Us ¼ 8:5m=s, kh � 0:342π), (c) Fr ¼ 1:21 (Us ¼ 12:0m=s, kh � 0:003π). Line definition: red solid line ¼ present theory; yellow  dashed line ¼ Kelvin theory; white dot ¼ FLOW-3D solution. (For interpretation  of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the  Web version of this article.)
Fig. 8. Comparison of ship wave crest patterns: (a) Fr ¼ 0:66 (Us ¼ 6:5m=s, kh >= 0:724π), (b) Fr ¼ 0:86 (Us ¼ 8:5m=s, kh >= 0:342π), (c) Fr ¼ 1:21 (Us ¼ 12:0m=s, kh >= 0:003π). Line definition: red solid line ¼ present theory; yellow dashed line ¼ Kelvin theory; white dot ¼ FLOW-3D solution. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the Web version of this article.)

Keywords

Ship wave crests
Cusp locus angle
Entire range of water depths
Theoretical solution
Numerical experiment

References

kylas, T.R., 1984. On the excitation of long nonlinear water waves by a moving pressure
distribution. J. Fluid Mech. 141, 455–466.

Chen, X.N., Sharma, S.D., 1995. A slender ship moving at a near-critical speed in a
shallow channel. J. Fluid Mech. 291, 263–285.
David, C.G., Roeber, V., Goseberg, N., Schlurmann, T., 2017. Generation and propagation
of ship-borne waves – solutions from a Boussinesq-type model. Cost Eng. 127,
170–187.
Ersan, D.B., Beji, S., 2013. Numerical simulation of waves generated by a moving
pressure field. Ocean Eng. 59, 231–239.
Ertekin, R.C., Webster, W.C., Wehausen, J.V., 1986. Waves caused by a moving
disturbance in a shallow channel of finite width. J. Fluid Mech. 169, 275–292.
Fang, M.-C., Yang, R.-Y., Shugan, I.V., 2011. Kelvin ship wake in the wind waves field
and on the finite sea depth. J. Mech. 27 (1), 71–77.
Havelock, T.H., 1908. The propagation of groups of waves in dispersive media with
application to waves on water produced by a travelling disturbance. Proc. Royal Soc.
London Ser. A 398–430.
Hennings, I., Romeiser, R., Alpers, W., Viola, A., 1999. Radar imaging of Kelvin arms of
ship wakes. Int. J. Remote Sens. 20 (13), 2519–2543.
Hur, D.S., Lee, J., Choi, D.S., Lee, H.W., 2011. On run-up characteristics of revetment
under interaction among ocean wave, current and ship induced wave in the canal.
In: Proceedings of the 37th Conference on the Korean Society of Civil Engineers,
pp. 588–591 (in Korean).
Johnson, J.W., 1958. Ship waves in navigation channels. In: Proceedings of the 6th
Conference on Coastal Engineering, pp. 666–690.
Kang, Y.S., Kim, P.J., Hyun, S.K., Sung, H.K., 2008. Numerical simulation of ship-induced
wave using FLOW-3D. J. Korean Soc. Coast. Ocean Eng. 20 (3), 255–267 (in Korean).
Kelvin, 1887. On ship waves. In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical
Engineering, pp. 409–433.
Kelvin, 1906. Deep sea ship-waves. Proc. R. Soc. Edinb. 25 (2), 1060–1084.
Lamb, H., 1945. Hydrodynamics. Dover Publications.
Lee, C., Lee, B.W., Kim, Y.J., Ko, K.O., 2011. Ship wave crests in intermediate-depth
water. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Asian and Pacific
Coasts, pp. 1818–1825.
Lee, B.W., Lee, C., Kim, Y.J., Ko, K.O., 2013. Prediction of ship wave crests on varying
water depths and verification by FLOW-3D. J. Korean Soc. Civil Eng. 33 (4),
1447–1454 (in Korean).
Lighthill, M.J., Whitham, G.B., 1955. On kinematic waves: I. Flood movement in long
rivers; II. Theory of traffic flow on long crowded roads. Proc. R. Soc. A 229, 281–345.
Newman, J.N., 1970. Recent research on ship waves. In: Proceedings of the 8th
Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, pp. 519–545.
Newman, J.N., 1977. Marine Hydrodynamics. The MIT Press.
Reed, A.M., Milgram, J.H., 2002. Ship wakes and their radar images. Annu. Rev. Fluid
Mech. 34, 469–502.
Shemdin, O.H., 1990. Synthetic aperture radar imaging of ship wakes in the Gulf of
Alaska. J. Geophys. Res. 95 (C9), 16319–16338.
Shi, F., Malej, M., Smith, J.M., Kirby, J.T., 2018. Breaking of ship bores in a Boussinesqtype ship-wake model. Cost Eng. 132, 1–12.
Sorensen, R.M., 1967. Investigation of ship-generated waves. J. Waterw. Harb. Div.
85–99. ASCE.
Sorensen, R.M., 1969. Waves generated by model ship hull. J. Waterw. Harb. Div.
513–538. ASCE.
Sorensen, R.M., Weggel, J.R., 1984. Development of ship wave design information. In:
Proceedings of the 19th Conference on Coastal Engineering, pp. 3227–3243. ASCE.
Stoker, J.J., 1957. Water Waves: the Mathematical Theory with Applications.
Interscience Publishers.
Tuck, E.O., 1966. Shallow-water flows past slender bodies. J. Fluid Mech. 26, 81–95.
Wu, D.M., Wu, T.Y., 1982. Three-dimensional nonlinear long waves due to moving
surface pressure. In: Proceedings of the 14th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics,
pp. 103–129.

Fig. 11. Velocity vectors along x-direction through the center of the box culvert for B0, B30, B50, and B70 respectively.

Numerical investigation of scour characteristics downstream of blocked culverts

막힌 암거 하류의 세굴 특성 수치 조사

NesreenTahabMaged M.El-FekyaAtef A.El-SaiadaIsmailFathya
aDepartment of Water and Water Structures Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
bLab Manager, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt

Abstract

횡단 구조물을 통한 막힘은 안정성을 위협하는 위험한 문제 중 하나입니다. 암거의 막힘 형상 및 하류 세굴 특성에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구는 거의 없습니다.

이 연구의 목적은 수면과 세굴 모두에서 상자 암거를 통한 막힘의 작용을 수치적으로 논의하는 것입니다. 이를 위해 FLOW 3D v11.1.0을 사용하여 퇴적물 수송 모델을 조사했습니다.

상자 암거를 통한 다양한 차단 비율이 연구되었습니다. FLOW 3D 모델은 실험 데이터로 보정되었습니다. 결과는 FLOW 3D 프로그램이 세굴 다운스트림 상자 암거를 정확하게 시뮬레이션할 수 있음을 나타냅니다.

막힌 경우에 대한 속도 분포, 최대 세굴 깊이 및 수심을 플롯하고 비차단된 사례(기본 사례)와 비교했습니다.

그 결과 암거 높이의 70% 차단율은 상류의 수심을 암거 높이의 2.3배 증가시키고 평균 유속은 기본 경우보다 3배 더 증가시키는 것으로 입증되었다. 막힘 비율의 함수로 상대 최대 세굴 깊이를 추정하는 방정식이 만들어졌습니다.

Blockage through crossing structures is one of the dangerous problems that threaten its stability. There are few researches concerned with blockage shape in culverts and its effect on characteristics of scour downstream it.

The study’s purpose is to discuss the action of blockage through box culvert on both water surface and scour numerically. A sediment transport model has been investigated for this purpose using FLOW 3D v11.1.0. Different ratios of blockage through box culvert have been studied. The FLOW 3D model was calibrated with experimental data.

The results present that the FLOW 3D program was capable to simulate accurately the scour downstream box culvert. The velocity distribution, maximum scour depth and water depths for blocked cases have been plotted and compared with the non-blocked case (base case).

The results proved that the blockage ratio 70% of culvert height makes the water depth upstream increases by 2.3 times of culvert height and mean velocity increases by 3 times more than in the base case. An equation has been created to estimate the relative maximum scour depth as a function of blockage ratio.

1. Introduction

Local scour is the removal of granular bed material by the action of hydrodynamic forces. As the depth of scour hole increases, the stability of the foundation of the structure may be endangered, with a consequent risk of damage and failure [1]. So the prediction and control of scour is considered to be very important for protecting the water structures from failure. Most previous studies were designed to study the different factors that impact on scour and their relationship with scour hole dimensions like fluid characteristics, flow conditions, bed properties, and culvert geometry. Many previous researches studied the effect of flow rate on scour hole by information Froude number or modified Froude number [2][3][4][5][6]. Cesar Mendoza [6] found a good correlation between the scour depth and the discharge Intensity (Qg−.5D−2.5). Breusers and Raudkiv [7] used shear velocity in the outlet-scour prediction procedure. Ali and Lim [8] used the densimetric Froude number in estimation of the scour depth [1][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. “The densimetric Froude number presents the ratio of the tractive force on sediment particle to the submerged specific weight of the sediment” [15](1)Fd=uρsρ-1gD50

Ali and Lim [8] pointed to the consequence of tailwater depth on scour behavior [1][2][8][13]. Abida and Townsend [2] indicated that the maximum depth of local scour downstream culvert was varying with the tailwater depth in three ways: first, for very shallow tailwater depths, local scouring decreases with a decrease in tailwater depth; second, when the ratio of tailwater depth to culvert height ranged between 0.2 and 0.7, the scour depth increases with decreasing tailwater depth; and third for a submerged outlet condition. The tailwater depth has only a marginal effect on the maximum depth of scour [2]. Ruff et al. [16] observed that for materials having similar mean grain sizes (d50) but different standard deviations (σ). As (σ) increased, the maximum scour hole depth decreased. Abt et al. [4] mentioned to role of soil type of maximum scour depth. It was noticed that local scour was more dangerous for uniform sands than for well-graded mixtures [1][2][4][9][17][18]. Abt et al [3][19] studied the culvert shape effect on scour hole. The results evidenced that the culvert shape has a limited effect on outlet scour. Under equivalent discharge conditions, it was noted that a square culvert with height equal to the diameter of a circular culvert would reduce scour [16][20]. The scour hole dimension was also effected by the culvert slope. Abt et al. [3][21] showed that the culvert slope is a key element in estimating the culvert flow velocity, the discharge capacity, and sediment transport capability. Abt et al. [21][22] tested experimentally culvert drop height effect on maximum scour depth. It was observed that as the drop height was increasing, the depth of scour was also increasing. From the previous studies, it could have noticed that the most scour prediction formula downstream unblocked culvert was the function of densimetric Froude number, soil properties (d50, σ), tailwater depth and culvert opening size. Blockage is the phenomenon of plugging water structures due to the movement of water flow loaded with sediment and debris. Water structures blockage has a bad effect on water flow where it causes increasing of upstream water level that may cause flooding around the structure and increase of scour rate downstream structures [23][24]. The blockage phenomenon through was studied experimentally and numerical [15][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. Jaeger and Lucke [33] studied the debris transport behavior in a natural channel in Australia. Froude number scale model of an existing culvert was used. It was noticed that through rainfall event, the mobility of debris was impressed by stream shape (depth and width). The condition of the vegetation (size and quantities) through the catchment area was the main factor in debris transport. Rigby et al. [26] reported that steep slope was increasing the ability to mobilize debris that form field data of blocked culverts and bridges during a storm in Wollongong city.

Streftaris et al. [32] studied the probability of screen blockage by debris at trash screens through a numerical model to relate between the blockage probability and nature of the area around. Recently, many commercial computational fluid programs (CFD) such as SSIIM, Fluent, and FLOW 3D are used in the analysis of the scour process. Scour and sediment transport numerical model need to validate by using experimental data or field data [34][35][36][37][38]. Epely-Chauvin et al. [36] investigated numerically the effect of a series of parallel spur diked. The experimental data were compared by SSIIM and FLOW 3D program. It was found that the accuracy of calibrated FLOW 3D model was better than SSIIM model. Nielsen et al. [35] used the physical model and FLOW 3D model to analyze the scour process around the pile. The soil around the pile was uniform coarse stones in the physical models that were simulated by regular spheres, porous media, and a mixture of them. The calibrated porous media model can be used to determine the bed shear stress. In partially blocked culverts, there aren’t many studies that explain the blockage impact on scour dimensions. Sorourian et al. [14][15] studied the effect of inlet partial blockage on scour characteristics downstream box culvert. It resulted that the partial blockage at the culvert inlet could be the main factor in estimating the depth of scour. So, this study is aiming to investigate the effects of blockage through a box culvert on flow and scour characteristics by different blockage ratios and compares the results with a non-blocked case. Create a dimensionless equation relates the blockage ratio of the culvert with scour characteristics downstream culvert.

2. Experimental data

The experimental work of the study was conducted in the Hydraulics and Water Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Egypt. The flume had a rectangular cross-section of 66 cm width, 65.5 cm depth, and 16.2 m long. A rectangular culvert was built with 0.2 m width, 0.2 m height and 3.00 m long with θ = 25° gradually outlet and 0.8 m fixed apron. The model was located on the mid-point of the channel. The sediment part was extended for a distance 2.20 m with 0.66 m width and 0.20 m depth of coarse sand with specific weight 1.60 kg/cm3, d50 = 2.75 mm and σ (d90/d50) = 1.50. The particle size distribution was as shown in Fig. 1. The experimental model was tested for different inlet flow (Q) of 25, 30, 34, 40 l/s for different submerged ratio (S) of 1.25, 1.50, 1.75.

3. Dimensional analysis

A dimensional analysis has been used to reduce the number of variables which affecting on the scour pattern downstream partial blocked culvert. The main factors affecting the maximum scour depth are:(2)ds=f(b.h.L.hb.lb.Q.ud.hu.hd.D50.ρ.ρs.g.ls.dd.ld)

Fig. 2 shows a definition sketch of the experimental model. The maximum scour depth can be written in a dimensionless form as:(3)dsh=f(B.Fd.S)where the ds/h is the relative maximum scour depth.

4. Numerical work

The FLOW 3D is (CFD) program used by many researchers and appeared high accuracy in solving hydrodynamic and sediment transport models in the three dimensions. Numerical simulation with FLOW 3D was performed to study the impacts of blockage ratio through box culvert on shear stress, velocity distribution and the sediment transport in terms of the hydrodynamic features (water surface, velocity and shear stress) and morphological parameters (scour depth and sizes) conditions in accurately and efficiently. The renormalization group (RNG) turbulence model was selected due to its high ability to predict the velocity profiles and turbulent kinetic energy for the flow through culvert [39]. The one-fluid incompressible mode was used to simulate the water surface. Volume of fluid (VOF) method was employed in FLOW 3D to tracks a liquid interface through arbitrary deformations and apply the correct boundary conditions at the interface [40].1.

Governing equations

Three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equation was applied for incompressible viscous fluid motion. The continuity equation is as following:(4)VF∂ρ∂t+∂∂xρuAx+∂∂yρvAy+∂∂zρwAz=RDIF(5)∂u∂t+1VFuAx∂u∂x+vAy∂u∂y+ωAz∂u∂z=-1ρ∂P∂x+Gx+fx(6)∂v∂t+1VFuAx∂v∂x+vAy∂v∂y+ωAz∂v∂z=-1ρ∂P∂y+Gy+fy(7)∂ω∂t+1VFuAx∂ω∂x+vAy∂ω∂y+ωAz∂ω∂z=-1ρ∂P∂z+Gz+fz

ρ is the fluid density,

VF is the volume fraction,

(x,y,z) is the Cartesian coordinates,

(u,v,w) are the velocity components,

(Ax,Ay,Az) are the area fractions and

RDIF is the turbulent diffusion.

P is the average hydrodynamic pressure,

(Gx, Gy, Gz) are the body accelerations and

(fx, fy, fz) are the viscous accelerations.

The motion of sediment transport (suspended, settling, entrainment, bed load) is estimated by predicting the erosion, advection and deposition process as presented in [41].

The critical shields parameter is (θcr) is defined as the critical shear stress τcr at which sediments begin to move on a flat and horizontal bed [41]:(8)θcr=τcrgd50(ρs-ρ)

The Soulsby–Whitehouse [42] is used to predict the critical shields parameter as:(9)θcr=0.31+1.2d∗+0.0551-e(-0.02d∗)(10)d∗=d50g(Gs-1ν3where:

d* is the dimensionless grain size

Gs is specific weight (Gs = ρs/ρ)

The entrainment coefficient (0.005) was used to scale the scour rates and fit the experimental data. The settling velocity controls the Soulsby deposition equation. The volumetric sediment transport rate per width of the bed is calculated using Van Rijn [43].2.

Meshing and geometry of model

After many trials, it was found that the uniform cell size with 0.03 m cell size is the closest to the experimental results and takes less time. As shown in Fig. 3. In x-direction, the total model length in this direction is 700 cm with mesh planes at −100, 0, 300, 380 and 600 cm respectively from the origin point, in y-direction, the total model length in this direction is 66 cm at distances 0, 23, 43 and 66 cm respectively from the origin point. In z-direction, the total model length in this direction is 120 cm. with mesh planes at −20, 0, 20 and 100 cm respectively.3.

Boundary condition

As shown in Fig. 4, the boundary conditions of the model have been defined to simulate the experimental flow conditions accurately. The upstream boundary was defined as the volume flow rate with a different flow rate. The downstream boundary was defined as specific pressure with different fluid elevation. Both of the right side, the left side, and the bottom boundary were defined as a wall. The top boundary defined as specified pressure with pressure value equals zero.

5. Validation of experimental results and numerical results

The experimental results investigated the flow and scour characteristics downstream culvert due to different flow conditions. The measured value of maximum scour depth is compared with the simulated depth from FLOW 3D model as shown in Fig. 5. The scour results show that the simulated results from the numerical model is quite close to the experimental results with an average error of 3.6%. The water depths in numerical model results is so close to the experimental results as shown in Fig. 6 where the experiment and numerical results are compared at different submerged ratios and flow rates. The results appear maximum error percentage in water depths upstream and downstream the culvert is about 2.37%. This indicated that the FLOW 3D is efficient for the prediction of maximum scour depth and the flow depths downstream box culvert.

6. Computation time

The run time was chosen according to reaching to the stability limit. Hydraulic stability was achieved after 50 s, where the scour development may still go on. For run 1, the numerical simulation was run for 1000 s as shown in Fig. 7 where it mostly reached to scour stability at 800 s. The simulation time was taken 500 s at about 95% of scour stability.

7. Analysis and discussions

Fig. 8 shows the study sections where sec 1 represents to upstream section, sec2 represents to inside section and sec3 represents to downstream stream section. Table 1 indicates the scour hole dimensions at different blockage case. The symbol (B) represents to blockage and the number points to blockage ratio. B0 case signifies to the non-blocked case, B30 is that blockage height is 30% to the culvert height and so on.

Table 1. The scour results of different blockage ratio.

Casehb cmB = hb/hQ lit/sSFdd50 mmds/h measuredls/hdd/hld/hds/h estimated
B000351.261.692.50.581.500.275.000.46
B3060.30351.261.682.50.481.250.274.250.40
B50100.50351.221.742.50.451.100.244.000.37
B70140.70351.231.732.50.431.500.165.500.33

7.1. Scour hole geometry

The scour hole geometry mainly depends on the properties of soil of the bed downstream the fixed apron. From Table 1, the results show that the maximum scour depth in B0 case is about 0.58 of culvert height while the maximum deposition in B0 is 0.27 culvert height. There is a symmetric scour hole as shown in Fig. 9 in B0 case. An asymmetric scour hole is created in B50 and B70 due to turbulences that causes the deviation of the jet direction from the center of the flume where appear in Fig. 11 and Fig. 19.

7.2. Flow water surface

Fig. 10 presents the relative free surface water (hw/h) along the x-direction at center of the box culvert. From the mention Figure, it is easy to release the effect of different blockage ratios. The upstream water level rises by increasing the blockage ratio. Increasing upstream water level may cause flooding over the banks of the waterway. In the 70% blockage case, the upstream water level rises to 2.3 times of culvert height more than the non-blocked case at the same discharge and submerged ratio. The water surface profile shows an increase in water level upstream the culvert due to a decrease in transverse velocity. Because of decreasing velocity downstream culvert, there is an increase in water level before it reaches its uniform depth.

7.3. Velocity vectors

Scour downstream hydraulic structures mainly affects by velocities distribution and bed shear stress. Fig. 11 shows the velocity vectors and their magnitude in xz plane at the same flow conditions. The difference in the upstream water level due to the different blockage ratios is so clear. The maximum water level is in B70 and the minimum level is in B0. The inlet mean velocity value is about 0.88 m/s in B0 increases to 2.86 m/s in B70. As the blockage ratio increases, the inlet velocity increases. The outlet velocity in B0 case makes downward jet causes scour hole just after the fixed apron in the middle of the bed while the blockage causes upward water flow that appears clearly in B70. The upward jet decreases the scour depth to 0.13 culvert height less than B0 case. After the scour hole, the velocity decreases and the flow becomes uniform.

7.4. Velocity distribution

Fig. 12 represents flow velocity (Vx) distribution along the vertical depth (z/hu) upstream the inlet for the different blockage ratios at the same flow conditions. From the Figure, the maximum velocity creates closed to bed in B0 while in blocked case, the maximum horizontal velocity creates at 0.30 of relative vertical depth (z/hu). Fig. 13 shows the (Vz) distribution along the vertical depth (z/hu) upstream culvert at sec 1. From the mentioned Figure, it is easy to note that the maximum vertical is in B70 which appears that as the blockage ratio increases the vertical ratio also increases. In the non-blocked case. The vertical velocity (Vz) is maximum at (z/hu) equals 0.64. At the end of the fixed apron (sec 3), the horizontal velocity (Vx) is slowly increasing to reach the maximum value closed to bed in B0 and B30 while the maximum horizontal velocity occurs near to the top surface in B50 and B70 as shown in Fig. 14. The vertical velocity component along the vertical depth (z/hd) is presented in Fig. 15. The vertical velocity (Vz) is maximum in B0 at vertical depth (z/hd) 0.3 with value 0.45 m/s downward. Figs. 16 and 17 observe velocity components (Vx, Vz) along the vertical depth just after the end of blockage length at the centerline of the culvert barrel. It could be noticed the uniform velocity distribution in B0 case with horizontal velocity (Vx) closed to 1.0 m/s and vertical velocity closed to zero. In the blocked case, the maximum horizontal velocity occurs in depth more than the blockage height.

7.5. Bed velocity distribution

Fig. 18 presents the x-velocity vectors at 1.5 cm above the bed for different blockage ratios from the velocity vectors distribution and magnitude, it is easy to realize the position of the scour hole and deposition region. In B0 and B30, the flow is symmetric so that the scour hole is created around the centerline of flow while in B50 and B70 cases, the flow is asymmetric and the scour hole creates in the right of flow direction in B50. The maximum scour depth is found in the left of flow direction in B70 case where the high velocity region is found.

8. Maximum scour depth prediction

Regression analysis is used to estimate maximum scour depth downstream box culvert for different ratios of blockage by correlating the maximum relative scour by other variables that affect on it in one formula. An equation is developed to predict maximum scour depth for blocked and non-blocked. As shown in the equation below, the relative maximum scour depth(ds/hd) is a function of densimetric Froude number (Fd), blockage ratio (B) and submerged ratio (S)(11)dsh=0.56Fd-0.20B+0.45S-1.05

In this equation the coefficient of correlation (R2) is 0.82 with standard error equals 0·08. The developed equation is valid for Fd = [0.9 to 2.10] and submerged ratio (S) ≥ 1.00. Fig. 19 shows the comparison between relative maximum scour depths (ds/h) measured and estimated for different blockage ratios. Fig. 20 clears the comparison between residuals and ds/h estimated for the present study. From these figures, it could be noticed that there is a good agreement between the measured and estimated relative scour depth.

9. Comparison with previous scour equations

Many previous scour formulae have been produced for calculation the maximum scour depth downstream non-blockage culvert. These equations have been included the effect of flow regime, culvert shape, soil properties and the flow rate on maximum scour depth. Two of previous experimental studies data have been chosen to be compared with the present study results in non-blocked study data. Table 2 shows comparison of culvert shape, densmetric Froude number, median particle size and scour equations for these previous studies. By applying the present study data in these studies scour formula as shown in Fig. 21, it could be noticed that there are a good agreement between present formula results and others empirical equations results. Where that Lim [44] and Abt [4] are so closed to the present study data.

Table 2. Comparison of some previous scour formula.

ResearchersFdCulvert shaped50(mm)Proposed equationSubmerged ratio
Present study0.9–2.11square2.75dsh=0.56Fd-0.20B+0.45S-1.051.25–1.75
Lim [44]1–10Circular1.65dsh=0.45Fd0.47
Abt [4]Fd ≥ 1Circular0.22–7.34-dsh=3.67Fd0.57∗D500.4∗σ-0.4

10. Conclusions

The present study has shown that the FLOW 3D model can accurately simulate water surface and the scour hole characteristics downstream the box culvert with error percentage in water depths does not exceed 2.37%. Velocities distribution through and outlets culvert barrel helped on understanding the scour hole shape.

The blockage through culvert had caused of increasing of water surface upstream structure where the upstream water level in B70 was 2.3 of culvert height more than non-blocked case at the same discharge that could be dangerous on the stability of roads above. The depth averaged velocity through culvert barrel increased by 3 times its value in non-blocked case.

On the other hand, blockage through culvert had a limited effect on the maximum scour depth. The little effect of blockage on maximum scour depth could be noticed in Fig. 11. From this Figure, it could be noted that the residual part of culvert barrel after the blockage part had made turbulences. These turbulences caused the deviation of the flow resulting in the formation of asymmetric scour hole on the side of channel. This not only but in B70 the blockage height caused upward jet which made a wide far scour hole as cleared from the results in Table 1.

An empirical equation was developed from the results to estimate the maximum scour depth relative to culvert height function of blockage ratio (B), submerged ratio (S), and densimetric Froude number (Fd). The equation results was compared with some scour formulas at the same densimetric Froude number rang where the present study results was in between the other equations results as shown in Fig. 21.

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

References

[1]P. Sarathi, M. Faruque, R. BalachandarInfluence of tailwater depth, sediment size and densimetric Froude number on scour by submerged square wall jetsJ. Hydraul. Res., 46 (2) (2008), pp. 158-175CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[2]H. Abida, R. TownsendLocal scour downstream of box-culvert outletsJ. Irrig. Drain. Eng., 117 (3) (1991), pp. 425-440CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[3]S.R. Abt, C.A. Donnell, J.F. Ruff, F.K. DoehringCulvert Slope and Shape Effects on Outlet ScourTransp. Res. Rec., 1017 (1985), pp. 24-30View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[4]S.R. Abt, R.L. Kloberdanz, C. MendozaUnified culvert scour determinationJ. Hydraul. Eng., 110 (10) (1984), pp. 1475-1479CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[5]J.P. Bohan, Erosion And Riprap Requirements At Culvert And Storm-Drain Outlets, ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MISS1970.Google Scholar[6]C. Mendoza, S.R. Abt, J.F. RuffHeadwall influence on scour at culvert outletsJ. Hydraul. Eng., 109 (7) (1983), pp. 1056-1060CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[7]H. Breusers, A. Raudkivi, Scouring, hydraulic structures design manual, vol. 143, IAHR, AA Balkema, Rotterdam, 1991.Google Scholar[8]K. Ali, S. LimLocal scour caused by submerged wall jetsProc. Inst. Civ. Eng., 81 (4) (1986), pp. 607-645CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[9]O. Aderibigbe, N. RajaratnamEffect of sediment gradation on erosion by plane turbulent wall jetsJ. Hydraul. Eng., 124 (10) (1998), pp. 1034-1042View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[10]F.W. Blaisdell, C.L. AndersonA comprehensive generalized study of scour at cantilevered pipe outletsJ. Hydraul. Res., 26 (4) (1988), pp. 357-376CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[11]Y.-M. Chiew, S.-Y. LimLocal scour by a deeply submerged horizontal circular jetJ. Hydraul. Eng., 122 (9) (1996), pp. 529-532View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[12]R.A. Day, S.L. Liriano, W.R. WhiteEffect of tailwater depth and model scale on scour at culvert outletsProc. Instit. Civil Eng. – Water Marit. Eng., 148 (3) (2001), pp. 189-198http://www.icevirtuallibrary.com/doi/10.1680/wame.2001.148.3.18910.1680/wame.2001.148.3.189View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[13]S. Emami, A.J. SchleissPrediction of localized scour hole on natural mobile bed at culvert outletsScour and Erosion (2010), pp. 844-853CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[14]S. Sorourian, A. Keshavarzi, J. Ball, B. SamaliStudy of Blockage Effect on Scouring Pattern Downstream of a Box Culvert under Unsteady FlowAustr. J Water Resor. (2013)Google Scholar[15]S. Sorourian, Turbulent Flow Characteristics At The Outlet Of Partially Blocked Box Culverts, in: 36th IAHR World Congress, The Hague, the Netherlands, 2015.Google Scholar[16]J. Ruff, S. Abt, C. Mendoza, A. Shaikh, R. KloberdanzScour at culvert outlets in mixed bed materialsUnited States. Federal Highway Administration. Office of Research and Development (1982)Google Scholar[17]S.A. Ansari, U.C. Kothyari, K.G.R. RajuInfluence of cohesion on scour under submerged circular vertical jetsJ. Hydraul. Eng., 129 (12) (2003), pp. 1014-1019View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[18]B. Crookston B. Tullis, Scour and Riprap Protection in a Bottomless Arch Culvert, in: World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2008: Ahupua’A, 2008, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar[19]S.R. Abt, J. Ruff, F. Doehring, C. DonnellInfluence of culvert shape on outlet scourJ. Hydraul. Eng., 113 (3) (1987), pp. 393-400View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[20]Y.H. Chen, Scour at outlets of box culverts, Colorado State University, 1970.Google Scholar[21]S. Abt, P. Thompson, T. LewisEnhancement of the culvert outlet scour estimation equationsTransp. Res. Rec. J. Transp. Res. Board, 1523 (1996), pp. 178-185View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[22]F.K. Doehring, S.R. AbtDrop height influence on outlet scourJ. Hydraul. Eng., 120 (12) (1994), pp. 1470-1476CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[23]W. Weeks, A. Barthelmess, E. Rigby, G. Witheridge, R. Adamson, Australian rainfall and runoff revison project 11: blockage of hydraulic structures, 2009.Google Scholar[24]W. Weeks, G. Witheridge, E. Rigby, A. BarthelmessProject 11: blockage of hydraulic structuresEngineers Australia (2013)Google Scholar[25]S.R. Abt, T.E. Brisbane, D.M. Frick, C.A. McKnightTrash rack blockage in supercritical flowJ. Hydraul. Eng., 118 (12) (1992), pp. 1692-1696View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[26]E. Rigby, M. Boyd, S. Roso, P. Silveri, A. Davis, Causes and effects of culvert blockage during large storms, in: Global solutions for urban drainage, 2002, pp. 1–16.Google Scholar[27]S. Roso, M. Boyd, E. Rigby, R. VanDrie“Prediction of increased flooding in urban catchments due to debris blockage and flow diversionsProceedings Novatech (2004), pp. 8-13View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[28]C.-D. Jan, C.-L. ChenDebris flows caused by Typhoon Herb in Taiwanin Debris-Flow Hazards and Related Phenomena, Springer (2005), pp. 539-563CrossRefGoogle Scholar[29]L.W. Zevenbergen, P.F. Lagasse, P.E. Clopper, Effects of debris on bridge pier scour, in: World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007: Restoring Our Natural Habitat, 2007, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar[30]A. Barthelmess, E. Rigby, Estimating Culvert and Bridge Blockages-a Simplified Procedure, in: Proceedings of the 34th World Congress of the International Association for Hydro-Environment Research and Engineering: 33rd Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium and 10th Conference on Hydraulics in Water Engineering, Engineers Australia, 2011, pp. 39.Google Scholar[31]E. Rigby, A. Barthelmess, Culvert Blockage Mechanisms and their Impact on Flood Behaviour, in: Proceedings of the 34th World Congress of the International Association for Hydro-Environment Research and Engineering: 33rd Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium and 10th Conference on Hydraulics in Water Engineering, Engineers Australia, 2011, pp. 380.Google Scholar[32]G. Streftaris, N. Wallerstein, G. Gibson, S. ArthurModeling probability of blockage at culvert trash screens using Bayesian approachJ. Hydraul. Eng., 139 (7) (2012), pp. 716-726Google Scholar[33]R. Jaeger, T. LuckeInvestigating the relationship between rainfall intensity, catchment vegetation and debris mobilityInt. J. GEOMATE, 12 (33) (2017), pp. 22-29 Download PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[34]S. Amiraslani, J. Fahimi, H. Mehdinezhad, The Numerical Investigation of Free Falling Jet’s Effect On the Scour of Plunge Pool, in: XVIII International conference on water resources, Tehran University, Iran, 2008.Google Scholar[35]A.W. Nielsen, X. Liu, B.M. Sumer, J. FredsøeFlow and bed shear stresses in scour protections around a pile in a currentCoast. Eng., 72 (2013), pp. 20-38ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[36]G. Epely-Chauvin, G. De Cesare, S. SchwindtNumerical modelling of plunge pool scour evolution in non-cohesive sedimentsEng. Appl. Comput. Fluid Mech., 8 (4) (2014), pp. 477-487 Download PDFCrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[37]H. Karami, H. Basser, A. Ardeshir, S.H. HosseiniVerification of numerical study of scour around spur dikes using experimental dataWater Environ. J., 28 (1) (2014), pp. 124-134CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[38]S.-H. Oh, K.S. Lee, W.-M. JeongThree-dimensional experiment and numerical simulation of the discharge performance of sluice passageway for tidal power plantRenew. Energy, 92 (2016), pp. 462-473ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[39]M.A. Khodier, B.P. TullisExperimental and computational comparison of baffled-culvert hydrodynamics for fish passageJ. Appl. Water Eng. Res. (2017), pp. 1-9CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[40]F.S. Inc., FLOW-3D user’s manual, Flow Science, Inc., 2009.Google Scholar[41]G. Wei, J. Brethour, M. Grünzner, J. BurnhamSedimentation scour modelFlow Science Report, 7 (2014), pp. 1-29View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[42]R. Soulsby, R. Whitehouse, Threshold of sediment motion in coastal environments, in: Pacific Coasts and Ports’ 97: Proceedings of the 13th Australasian Coastal and Ocean Engineering Conference and the 6th Australasian Port and Harbour Conference, vol. 1, Centre for Advanced Engineering, University of Canterbury, 1997, pp. 145.Google Scholar[43]L.C.v. RijnSediment transport, part II: suspended load transportJ. Hydraul. Eng., 110 (11) (1984), pp. 1613-1641View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[44]S Y LIMScour below unsubmerged full-flowing culvert outletsProc. Instit. Civil Eng. – Water Marit. Energy, 112 (2) (1995), pp. 136-149http://www.icevirtuallibrary.com/doi/10.1680/iwtme.1995.2765910.1680/iwtme.1995.27659View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

Peer review under responsibility of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University.

Dynamic Pressure at Flip Buckets of Chute Spillways

낙하 배수로의 플립 버킷에서의 동적 압력: 수치 해석

Dynamic Pressure at Flip Buckets of Chute Spillways: A Numerical Study

International Journal of Civil Engineering (2021)Cite this article

Abstract

이 연구는 이러한 구조물의 가장 중요한 설계 매개변수 중 하나인 슈트 여수로의 플립 버킷에서 동적 압력을 조사합니다. 첫째, 압력에 영향을 미치는 무차원 매개변수를 치수해석을 통해 결정하였다.

그 후, 플립 버킷으로 이어지는 슈트 여수로가 있는 선택된 댐의 특성에 따라 플립 버킷으로의 특정 Froude 수 간격과 슈트 경사 각도, 반경 및 플립 버킷 곡률 각도가 분석을 위해 선택되었습니다.

이러한 매개변수의 조합으로 FLOW-3D에서 총 137개 모델을 시뮬레이션하여 플립 버킷의 바닥 압력과 최대 압력 값을 얻었습니다.

다음으로 고려된 무차원 매개변수를 기반으로 다중 회귀 분석을 사용하여 슈트의 플립 버킷 다운스트림에서 바닥 압력과 최대 압력을 결정하기 위한 방정식이 제안되었습니다. 수치 모델링 실행 결과와 다중 회귀 분석을 사용하여 무차원 압력 관계의 미지의 계수를 결정하고 바닥 압력과 최대 압력에 대한 최종 방정식을 제시했습니다.

저압과 최고압을 결정하기 위해 제안된 식의 상관계수와 MAPE(Mean Absolute Percentage Error) 값은 각각 0.94와 0.96, 6.75%와 8.49%였습니다.

이 값은 제안된 방정식의 적절한 정확도를 나타냅니다. 제안된 방정식에서 Froude 수, 상대 곡률, 슈트 경사각, 이륙 각도 및 플립 버킷의 곡률 각도가 각각 저면 압력과 최대 압력에 가장 큰 영향을 미쳤습니다.

This study investigates the dynamic pressure at the flip buckets of chute spillways, which is one of the most important design parameters of these structures. First, the dimensionless parameters affecting pressure were determined by dimensional analysis. Following that, according to the characteristics of selected dams with chute spillways leading to flip buckets, certain Froude number intervals of inflow to the flip bucket, as well as the chute slope angle, radius, and flip bucket curvature angle were selected for analysis. The combination of these parameters resulted in a total of 137 models simulated in FLOW-3D to obtain bottom pressure and maximum pressure values in the flip bucket. Next, based on the dimensionless parameters considered, equations were proposed to determine the bottom pressure and maximum pressure in the flip bucket downstream of the chute, using multiple regression analysis. Using the numerical modeling run results, along with multiple regression analyses, the unknown coefficients of the dimensionless pressure relationship were determined, and final equations for the bottom pressure and maximum pressure were presented. The correlation coefficient and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) values of the proposed equations for determining the bottom pressure and maximum pressure were 0.94 and 0.96, and, 6.75% and 8.49%, respectively. These values indicate the appropriate accuracy of the proposed equations. In the proposed equations, the Froude number, relative curvature, chute slope angle, takeoff angle, and flip bucket’s curvature angle, respectively, had the highest impacts on the bottom pressure and maximum pressure.

Keywords

  • Dam spillway
  • Flip bucket
  • Ski jump
  • Dynamic pressure
  • Numerical modeling
  • FLOW-3D
  • Fig. 1extended data figure 1
  • Fig. 2extended data figure 2
  • Fig. 3extended data figure 3
  • Fig. 4extended data figure 4
  • Fig. 5extended data figure 5
  • Fig. 6extended data figure 6
  • Fig. 7extended data figure 7
  • Fig. 8extended data figure 8
  • Fig. 9extended data figure 9
  • Fig. 10extended data figure 10

References

  1. 1.Vischer DL, Hager WH (1995) Energy dissipators. Balkema, Rotterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar 
  2. 2.Khatsuria RM (2005) Hydraulics of spillways and energy dissipators. CRC Press, Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar 
  3. 3.Novak P, Moffat AIB, Nalluri C, Narayanan R (2006) Hydraulics structures. Spon, LondonGoogle Scholar 
  4. 4.Chow VT (1959) Open channel hydraulics. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar 
  5. 5.Balloffet A (1961) Pressures on spillway flip buckets. J Hydraul Div ASCE 87(5):87–98. https://doi.org/10.1061/JYCEAJ.0000650Article Google Scholar 
  6. 6.Chen TC, Yu YS (1965) Pressure distribution on spillway flip buckets. J Hydraul Div ASCE 91(2):51–63. https://doi.org/10.1061/JYCEAJ.0001228Article Google Scholar 
  7. 7.Lenau CW, Cassidy JJ (1969) Flow through spillway flip bucket. Journal of the Hydraulics Division ASCE 95(2):633–648. https://doi.org/10.1061/JYCEAJ.0002029Article Google Scholar 
  8. 8.Juon R, Hager WH (2000) Flip bucket without and with deflectors. J Hydraul Eng 126(11):837–845. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2000)126:11(837)Article Google Scholar 
  9. 9.Savage BM, Johnson MC (2001) Flow over ogee spillway: physical and numerical model case study. J Hydraul Eng 127(8):640–649. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2001)127:8(640)Article Google Scholar 
  10. 10.Heller V, Hager WH, Minor HE (2005) Ski jump hydraulics. J Hydraul Eng 131(5):347–355. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2005)131:5(347)Article Google Scholar 
  11. 11.Larese A, Rossi R, Onate E, Idelsohn SR (2008) Validation of the particle finite element method (PFEM) for simulation of free surface flows. Eng Comput 25(4):385–425. https://doi.org/10.1108/02644400810874976Article MATH Google Scholar 
  12. 12.Steiner R, Heller V, Hager WH, Minor HE (2008) Deflector ski jump hydraulics. J Hydraul Eng 134(5):562–571. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2008)134:5(562)Article Google Scholar 
  13. 13.Kirkgoz MS, Akoz MS, Oner AA (2009) Numerical modeling of flow over a chute spillway. J Hydraul Res 47(6):790–797. https://doi.org/10.3826/jhr.2009.3467Article Google Scholar 
  14. 14.Jorabloo M, Maghsoodi R, Sarkardeh H (2011) 3D simulation of flow over flip buckets at dams. J Am Sci 7(6):931–936Google Scholar 
  15. 15.Nazari O, Jabbari E, Sarkardeh H (2015) Dynamic pressure analysis at chute flip buckets of five dam model studies. Int J Civil Eng 13(1):45–54. http://ijce.iust.ac.ir/article-1-951-en.html
  16. 16.Yamini OA, Kavianpour MR, Movahedi A (2015) Pressure distribution on the bed of the compound flip buckets. J Comput Multiphase Flows 7(3):181–194. https://doi.org/10.1260/1757-482X.7.3.181Article Google Scholar 
  17. 17.Hojjati SH, Mohammadiun S, Salehi Neyshabouri SAA (2016) Effects of different turbulence models on flow over a triangular flip- bucket. Modares Civil Eng J 16(4):69–81 (in Persian)Google Scholar 
  18. 18.Lauria A, Alfonsi G (2020) Numerical investigation of ski jump hydraulics. J Hydraul Eng 146(4):121–127. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001718Article MATH Google Scholar 
  19. 19.Muralha A, Melo J, Ramos HM (2020) Assessment of CFD solvers and turbulent models for water free jets in spillways. Fluids 5(3):104. https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030104Article Google Scholar 
  20. 20.Novak P, Cabelka J (1981) Model in hydraulic engineering. Pitman Advanced Publishing Program, LondonGoogle Scholar 
  21. 21.Flow Science, Inc. FLOW-3D User Manual Version 11.2.
  22. 22.Water Research Institute (2003) Hydraulic model of Shafaroud Dam flood control system. Final Report, vol 5. Hydraulic structures Divisions, Tehran, Iran, Chapter 5, pp 1–35 (in Persian)Google Scholar
Design of Inductive Sensor System for Wear Particles in Oil

금속재료 표면의 잔류응력 초음파 측정법

Design of Inductive Sensor System for Wear Particles in Oil

NIU Ze, LI Kai, BAI Wenbin, SUN Yuanyuan, GONG Qingqing, HAN Yan
Shanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Information Detection and Processing, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051

Abstract

오일의 연마 입자는 엔진 및 기타 장비의 마모 상태를 반영할 수 있습니다.오일 금속 연마 입자의 온라인 모니터링을 실현하기 위해 전자기 원리에 기반한 3코일 센서의 수학적 모델이 설정되었습니다. 유도 및 센서의 최적 구조 매개변수(내경), 간격, 너비 등), 간섭성 복조 모델을 사용하여 마모 입자 신호를 추출하고 마모 입자 신호의 생성 원리를 분석합니다. 

시스템은 다층 차폐 구조를 채택하여 외부 자기장 간섭을 효과적으로 줄일 수 있으며 설계된 센서 감지 시스템은 관련 테스트를 위해 팬 기어 박스의 오일 회로에 연결됩니다. 테스트 결과 시스템은 마모 입자 신호를 효과적으로 추출할 수 있으며 마모 입자 신호는 동시에 연마 입자의 속도와 크기에 영향을 받습니다.

1-18의 유속에서 187μm 강자성을 달성할 수 있습니다 L/min 금속 연마 입자 및 578μm 비강자성 금속 연마 입자의 검출은 BP 신경망과 결합되어 오일 금속 연마 입자의 특성 매개변수를 적응적으로 구별할 수 있으며, 이는 오일 연마 입자의 개발에 대한 이론적 지원을 제공합니다.

미래의 라인 모니터링 장비 그리고 기술 지원은 기계 장비의 고장 진단을 위한 중요한 기반을 제공합니다.

Key words

oil,wear particle detection,coherent demodulation,multilayer shielding

Reference

[1] 郭静英, 赵志龙, 陈森, 等. 二节螺线管式润滑油金属颗粒传感器研究[J]. 仪表技术与传感器, 2018(1):13-16. GUO Jingying, ZHAO Zhilong, CHEN Sen, et al. Research on two-section solenoid type lubricating oil metal particle sensor[J]. Instrument Technology and Sensor, 2018(1):13-16.
[2] 张勇, 司二伟, 李国盛, 等. 润滑油金属磨粒传感器设计及试验研究[J]. 润滑与密封, 2017, 42(4):89-94. ZHANG Yong, SI Erwei, LI Guosheng, et al. Design and experimental study of lubricating oil metal abrasive sensor[J]. Lubrication and Sealing, 2017, 42(4):89-94.
[3] 曾霖, 张洪朋, 滕怀波, 等. 一种船机油液多污染物检测新方法研究[J]. 机械工程学报, 2018, 54(12):125-132. ZENG Lin, ZHANG Hongpeng, TENG Huaibo, et al. Research on a new method for detecting multiple pollutants in marine oil[J]. Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2018, 54(12):125-132.
[4] 孙衍山, 杨昊, 佟海滨, 等. 航空发动机滑油磨粒在线监测[J]. 仪器仪表学报, 2017, 38(7):1561-1569. SUN Yanshan, YANG Hao, TONG Haibin, et al. Online monitoring of aero-engine lubricant oil wear particles[J]. Chinese Journal of Scientific Instrument, 2017, 38(7):1561-1569.
[5] DING Y, WANG Y, XIANG J. An online debris sensor system with vibration resistance for lubrication analysis[J]. Review of entific Instruments, 2016, 87(2):1590-1597.
[6] 莫固良, 汪慧云, 李兴旺, 等. 飞机健康监测与预测系统的发展及展望[J]. 振动、测试与诊断, 2013, 33(6):925-930. MO Guliang, WANG Huiyun, LI Xingwang, et al. The development and prospect of aircraft health monitoring and prediction systems[J]. Vibration, Testing and Diagnosis, 2013, 33(6):925-930.
[7] 李萌, 郑长松, 李和言, 等. 电感式磨粒在线监测传感器的激励特性分析[J]. 传感器与微系统, 2014, 33(6):19-22, 30. LI Meng, ZHENG Changsong, LI Heyan, et al. Analysis of excitation characteristics of inductive wear particle online monitoring sensors[J]. Sensors and Microsystems, 2014, 33(6):19-22, 30.
[8] FAN X, LIANG M, YEAP T. A joint time-invariant wavelet transform and kurtosis approach to the improvement of in-line oil debris sensor capability[J]. Smart Materials & Structures, 2009, 18(8):1-13.
[9] MURALI S, JAGTIANI A V, XIA G, et al. A microfluidic Coulter counting device for metal wear detection in lubrication oil[J]. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2009, 80(1):016105.
[10] 孙广涛, 张洪朋, 顾长智, 等. 高精度微流体多参数液压油检测芯片设计[J]. 仪器仪表学报, 2019, 40(2):59-66. SUN Guangtao, ZHANG Hongpeng, GU Changzhi, et al. Design of high-precision microfluidic multi-parameter hydraulic oil detection chip[J]. Chinese Journal of Scientific Instrument, 2019, 40(2):59-66.
[11] 马来好, 张洪朋, 乔卫亮, 等. 双螺线管套管结构的液压油金属颗粒检测传感器[J]. 仪器仪表学报, 2019, 40(7):216-223. MA Laihao, ZHANG Hongpeng, QIAO Weiliang, et al. Hydraulic oil metal particle detection sensor with double solenoid casing structure[J]. Chinese Journal of Scientific Instrument, 2019, 40(7):216-223.
[12] 白晨朝, 张洪朋, 曾霖, 等. 双螺线圈式液压油微污染物检测传感器[J]. 仪器仪表学报, 2019, 40(6):16-22. BAI Chenchao, ZHANG Hongpeng, ZENG Lin, et al. Double spiral coil type hydraulic oil micro-pollutant detection sensor[J]. Chinese Journal of Scientific Instrument, 2019, 40(6):16-22.
[13] 史皓天, 张洪朋, 曾霖, 等. 采用柱形极板的电容式油液检测传感器[J]. 仪表技术与传感器, 2019(8):8-12. SHI Haotian, ZHANG Hongpeng, ZENG Lin, et al. Capacitive oil detection sensor using columnar plates[J]. Instrument Technology and Sensor, 2019(8):8-12.
[14] 虞子雷, 张洪朋, 曾霖, 等. 基于微流控谐振式芯片的金属颗粒检测[J]. 电子测量与仪器学报, 2017, 31(10):1627-1632. YU Zilei, ZHANG Hongpeng, ZENG Lin, et al. Metal particle detection based on microfluidic resonant chip[J]. Journal of Electronic Measurement and Instrument, 2017, 31(10):1627-1632.
[15] 张洪朋, 白晨朝, 孙广涛, 等. 高通量微型多参数油液污染物检测传感器[J]. 光学精密工程, 2018, 26(9):2237-2245. ZHANG Hongpeng, BAI Chenchao, SUN Guangtao, et al. High-throughput miniature multi-parameter oil contaminant detection sensor[J]. Optics and Precision Engineering, 2018, 26(9):2237-2245.
[16] 郑长松, 李萌, 高震, 等. 电感式磨粒传感器磨感电动势提取方法[J]. 振动. 测试与诊断, 2016, 36(1):36-41, 196. ZHENG Changsong, LI Meng, GAO Zhen, et al. Method for extracting the electromotive force of the inductive wear sensor[J]. Vibration. Test and Diagnosis, 2016, 36(01):36-41, 196.
[17] 吴超, 郑长松, 马彪. 电感式磨粒传感器中铁磁质磨粒特性仿真研究[J]. 仪器仪表学报, 2011, 32(12):2774-2780. WU Chao, ZHENG Changsong, MA Biao. Simulation study on the characteristics of ferromagnetic wear particles in an inductive wear particle sensor[J]. Chinese Journal of Scientific Instrument, 2011, 32(12):2774-2780.
[18] 把鑫, 王吉芳, 左云波, 等. 基于FPGA的油液在线监测系统[J]. 仪表技术与传感器, 2015(6):103-106. BA Xin, WANG Jifang, ZUO Yunbo, et al. On-line oil monitoring system based on FPGA[J]. Instrumentation Technology and Sensors, 2015(6):103-106.
[19] 游修东, 陈勇, 陈遥沛. 近距离磁感应线圈的磁场计算与仿真分析[J]. 水雷战与舰船防护, 2017, 25(1):54-59. YOU Xiudong, CHEN Yong, CHEN Yaopei. Magnetic field calculation and simulation analysis of close-range magnetic induction coils[J]. Mine Warfare and Ship Protection, 2017, 25(1):54-59.
[20] 高震, 郑长松, 贾然, 等. 综合传动油液金属磨粒在线监测传感器研究[J]. 广西大学学报, 2017, 42(2):409-418. GAO Zhen, ZHENG Changsong, JIA Ran, et al. Research on on-line monitoring sensor for metal wear particles in comprehensive transmission oil[J]. Journal of Guangxi University, 2017, 42(2):409-418.
[21] 于振南, 刘倩, 高秀晓, 等. 基于低通滤波的相敏检波算法改进与实现[J]. 测井技术, 2018, 42(5):568-570, 576. YU Zhennan, LIU Qian, GAO Xiuxiao, et al. Improvement and realization of phase-sensitive detection algorithm based on low-pass filtering[J]. Logging Technology, 2018, 42(5):568-570, 576.
[22] 范红波, 张英堂, 李志宁, 等. 电感式磨粒传感器中铁磁质磨粒的磁特性研究[J]. 摩擦学学报, 2009, 29(5):452-457. FAN Hongbo, ZHANG Yingtang, LI Zhining, et al. Study on the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic wear particles in inductive wear particle sensors[J]. Acta Tribology, 2009, 29(5):452-457.
[23] FAN Hongbo, ZHANG Yingtang, LI Zhining, et al. Design and noise control of the portable wear debris concentration detector[C]//2009 International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics AutomationICMTMA 2009:206-209.
[24] DUKA K, GERRIT J. Advanced oil debris monitoring for pipeline mechanical drive gas turbines[C/CD]//Asme Turbo Expo:Power for Land, Sea, & Air, 2000.
[25] 左云波, 谷玉海, 王立勇. 电磁式油液金属磨粒检测系统研究[J]. 设备管理与维修, 2018(13):21-23. ZUO Yunbo, GU Yuhai, WANG Liyong. Research on electromagnetic oil metal debris detection system[J]. Equipment Management and Maintenance, 2018(13):21-23.
[26] DU Li, ZHU Xiaoliang, HAN Yu, et al. Improving sensitivity of an inductive pulse sensor for detection of metallic wear debris in lubricants using parallel LC resonance method[J]. Measurement Science and Technology, 2013, 24(7):075106.
[27] CAO Yunpeng, LIU Rui, DU Jianwei, et al. Gas turbine bearing wear monitoring method based on magnetic plug inductance sensor[C/CD]//ASME Turbo Expo 2018:Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition. 2018.

Fig. 5 Comparison of experimental SEM image and CtFD simulated melt pool with beam diameters of(a)700 μm,(b)1000 μm, and(c)1300 μm and an absorption rate of 0.3. Electron beam power and scan speed are 900 W and 100 mm s-1, respectively

추가 생산용 전자빔 조사에 의한 316L 스테인리스 용융 · 응고 거동

Melting and Solidification Behavior of 316L Steel Induced by Electron-Beam Irradiation for Additive Manufacturing

付加製造用電子ビーム照射による 316L ステンレス鋼の溶融・凝固挙動

奥 川 将 行*・宮 田 雄一朗*・王     雷*・能 勢 和 史*
小 泉 雄一郎*・中 野 貴 由*
Masayuki OKUGAWA, Yuichiro MIYATA, Lei WANG, Kazufumi NOSE,
Yuichiro KOIZUMI and Takayoshi NAKANO

Abstract

적층 제조(AM) 기술은 복잡한 형상의 3D 부품을 쉽게 만들고 미세 구조 제어를 통해 재료 특성을 크게 제어할 수 있기 때문에 많은 관심을 받았습니다. PBF(Powderbed fusion) 방식의 AM 공정에서는 금속 분말을 레이저나 전자빔으로 녹이고 응고시키는 과정을 반복하여 3D 부품을 제작합니다.

일반적으로 응고 미세구조는 Hunt[Mater. 과학. 영어 65, 75(1984)]. 그러나 CET 이론이 일반 316L 스테인리스강에서도 높은 G와 R로 인해 PBF형 AM 공정에 적용될 수 있을지는 불확실하다.

본 연구에서는 미세구조와 응고 조건 간의 관계를 밝히기 위해 전자빔 조사에 의해 유도된 316L 강의 응고 미세구조를 분석하고 CtFD(Computational Thermal-Fluid Dynamics) 방법을 사용하여 고체/액체 계면에서의 응고 조건을 평가했습니다.

CET 이론과 반대로 높은 G 조건에서 등축 결정립이 종종 형성되는 것으로 밝혀졌다. CtFD 시뮬레이션은 약 400 mm s-1의 속도까지 유체 흐름이 있음을 보여 주며 수상 돌기의 파편 및 이동의 영향으로 등축 결정립이 형성됨을 시사했습니다.

Additive manufacturing(AM)technologies have attracted much attention because it enables us to build 3D parts with complicated geometry easily and control material properties significantly via the control of microstructures. In the powderbed fusion(PBF)type AM process, 3D parts are fabricated by repeating a process of melting and solidifying metal powders by laser or electron beams. In general, the solidification microstructures can be predicted from solidification conditions defined by the combination of temperature gradient G and solidification rate R on the basis of columnar-equiaxed transition(CET)theory proposed by Hunt [Mater. Sci. Eng. 65, 75(1984)]. However, it is unclear whether the CET theory can be applied to the PBF type AM process because of the high G and R, even for general 316L stainless steel. In this study, to reveal relationships between microstructures and solidification conditions, we have analyzed solidification microstructures of 316L steel induced by electronbeam irradiation and evaluated solidification conditions at the solid/liquid interface using a computational thermal-fluid dynamics (CtFD)method. It was found that equiaxed grains were often formed under high G conditions contrary to the CET theory. CtFD simulation revealed that there is a fluid flow up to a velocity of about 400 mm s-1, and suggested that equiaxed grains are formed owing to the effect of fragmentations and migrations of dendrites.

Keywords

Additive Manufacturing, 316L Stainless Steel, Powder Bed Fusion, Electron Beam Melting, Computational Thermal
Fluid Dynamics Simulation

Fig. 1 Width, height, and height differences calculated from laser microscope analysis of melt tracks formed by scanning electron beam. Fig. 2(a)Scanning electron microscope(SEM)image and(b) corresponding electron back-scattering diffraction(EBSD) IPF-map taken from the electron-beam irradiated region in P900-V100 sample. Fig. 3 Average grain size and their aspect ratio calculated from EBSD IPF-map taken from the electron-beam irradiated region.
Fig. 1 Width, height, and height differences calculated from laser microscope analysis of melt tracks formed by scanning electron beam. Fig. 2(a)Scanning electron microscope(SEM)image and(b) corresponding electron back-scattering diffraction(EBSD) IPF-map taken from the electron-beam irradiated region in P900-V100 sample. Fig. 3 Average grain size and their aspect ratio calculated from EBSD IPF-map taken from the electron-beam irradiated region.
Fig. 4 Comparison of experimental SEM image and computational thermal fluid dynamics(CtFD)simulated melt pool with a beam diameter of 700 μm and absorption rates of(a)0.3,(b)0.5, and (c)0.7. Electron beam power and scan speed are 900 W and 100 mm s-1, respectively.
Fig. 4 Comparison of experimental SEM image and computational thermal fluid dynamics(CtFD)simulated melt pool with a beam diameter of 700 μm and absorption rates of(a)0.3,(b)0.5, and (c)0.7. Electron beam power and scan speed are 900 W and 100 mm s-1, respectively.
Fig. 5 Comparison of experimental SEM image and CtFD simulated melt pool with beam diameters of(a)700 μm,(b)1000 μm, and(c)1300 μm and an absorption rate of 0.3. Electron beam power and scan speed are 900 W and 100 mm s-1, respectively
Fig. 5 Comparison of experimental SEM image and CtFD simulated melt pool with beam diameters of(a)700 μm,(b)1000 μm, and(c)1300 μm and an absorption rate of 0.3. Electron beam power and scan speed are 900 W and 100 mm s-1, respectively
Fig. 6 Depth of melt tracks calculated from experimental SEM image and CtFD simulation results.
Fig. 6 Depth of melt tracks calculated from experimental SEM image and CtFD simulation results.
Fig. 7 G-R plots of 316L steel colored by(a)aspect ratio of crystalline grains and(b)fluid velocity.
Fig. 7 G-R plots of 316L steel colored by(a)aspect ratio of crystalline grains and(b)fluid velocity.
Fig. 8 Comparison of solidification microstructure(EBSD IPF-map)of melt region formed by scanning electron beam and corresponding snap shot of CtFD simulation colored by fluid velocity
Fig. 8 Comparison of solidification microstructure(EBSD IPF-map)of melt region formed by scanning electron beam and corresponding snap shot of CtFD simulation colored by fluid velocity

References

1) M.C. Sow, T. De Terris, O. Castelnau, Z. Hamouche, F. Coste, R.
Fabbro and P. Peyre: “Influence of beam diameter on Laser Powder

Bed Fusion(L-PBF)process”, Addit. Manuf. 36(2020), 101532.
2) J.C. Simmons, X. Chen, A. Azizi, M.A. Daeumer, P.Y. Zavalij, G.
Zhou and S.N. Schiffres: “Influence of processing and microstructure
on the local and bulk thermal conductivity of selective laser melted
316L stainless steel”, Addit. Manuf. 32(2020), 100996.
3) S. Dryepondt, P. Nandwana, P. Fernandez-Zelaia and F. List:
“Microstructure and High Temperature Tensile properties of 316L
Fabricated by Laser Powder-Bed Fusion”, Addit. Manuf. 37(2020),
101723.
4) S.H. Sun, T. Ishimoto, K. Hagihara, Y. Tsutsumi, T. Hanawa and T.
Nakano: “Excellent mechanical and corrosion properties of austenitic
stainless steel with a unique crystallographic lamellar microstructure
via selective laser melting”, Scr. Mater. 159(2019), 89-93.
5) T. Ishimoto, S. Wu, Y. Ito, S.H. Sun, H. Amano and T. Nakano:
“Crystallographic orientation control of 316L austenitic stainless
steel via selective laser melting”, ISIJ Int. 60(2020), 1758-1764.
6) T. Ishimoto, K. Hagihara, K. Hisamoto, S.H. Sun and T. Nakano:
“Crystallographic texture control of beta-type Ti-15Mo-5Zr3Al alloy by selective laser melting for the development of novel
implants with a biocompatible low Young’s modulus”, Scr. Mater.
132(2017), 34-38.
7) X. Ding, Y. Koizumi, D. Wei and A. Chiba: “Effect of process
parameters on melt pool geometry and microstructure development
for electron beam melting of IN718: A systematic single bead
analysis study”, Addit. Manuf. 26(2019), 215-226.
8) K. Karayagiz, L. Johnson, R. Seede, V. Attari, B. Zhang, X. Huang,
S. Ghosh, T. Duong, I. Karaman, A. Elwany and R. Arróyave: “Finite
interface dissipation phase field modeling of Ni-Nb under additive
manufacturing conditions”, Acta Mater. 185(2020), 320-339.
9) M.M. Kirka, Y. Lee, D.A. Greeley, A. Okello, M.J. Goin, M.T.
Pearce and R.R. Dehoff: “Strategy for Texture Management in
Metals Additive Manufacturing”, JOM, 69(2017), 523-531.
10) S.S. Babu, N. Raghavan, J. Raplee, S.J. Foster, C. Frederick, M.
Haines, R. Dinwiddie, M.K. Kirka, A. Plotkowski, Y. Lee and
R.R. Dehoff: “Additive Manufacturing of Nickel Superalloys:
Opportunities for Innovation and Challenges Related to
Qualification”, Metall. Mater. Trans. A. 49(2018), 3764-3780.
11) M.R. Gotterbarm, A.M. Rausch and C. Körner: “Fabrication of
Single Crystals through a μ-Helix Grain Selection Process during
Electron Beam Metal Additive Manufacturing”, Metals, 10(2020),
313.
12) J.D.D. Hunt: “Steady state columnar and equiaxed growth of
dendrites and eutectic”, Mater. Sci. Eng. 65(1984), 75-83.
13) S. Bontha, N.W. Klingbeil, P.A. Kobryn and H.L. Fraser: “Effects of
process variables and size-scale on solidification microstructure in
beam-based fabrication of bulky 3D structures”, Mater. Sci. Eng. A.
513-514(2009), 311-318.
14) J. Gockel and J. Beuth: “Understanding Ti-6Al-4V microstructure
control in additive manufacturing via process maps”, 24th Int. SFF
Symp. – An Addit. Manuf. Conf. SFF 2013.(2013), 666-674.
15) B. Schoinochoritis, D. Chantzis and K. Salonitis: “Simulation of
metallic powder bed additive manufacturing processes with the finite
element method: A critical review”, Proc. of Instit. Mech. Eng., Part
B: J. Eng. Manuf. 231(2017), 96-117.
16)小泉雄一郎: “計算機シミュレーションを用いたAdditive
Manufacturing プロセス最適化予測”, スマートプロセス学会誌,
8-4(2019), 132-138.
17) Y. Zhao, Y. Koizumi, K. Aoyagi, D. Wei, K. Yamanaka and A. Chiba:
“Molten pool behavior and effect of fluid flow on solidification
conditions in selective electron beam melting(SEBM)of a
biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloy”, Addit. Manuf. 26(2019), 202-214.
18) C. Tang, J.L. Tan and C.H. Wong: “A numerical investigation on
the physical mechanisms of single track defects in selective laser
melting”, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 126(2018), 957-968.
19) Technical data for Iron, [Online]. Available: http://periodictable.com/
Elements/026/data.html. [Accessed: 8-Feb-2021].
20) N. Raghavan, R. Dehoff, S. Pannala, S. Simunovic, M. Kirka, J.
Turner, N. Carl-son and S.S. Babu: “Numerical modeling of heattransfer and the influence of process parameters on tailoring the grain
morphology of IN718 in electron beam additive manufacturing”,
Acta Mater. 112(2016), 303-314.
21) S. Morita, Y. Miki and K. Toishi: “Introduction of Dendrite
Fragmentation to Microstructure Calculation by Cellular Automaton
Method”, Tetsu-to-Hagane. 104(2018), 559-566.
22) H. Esaka and M. Tamura: “Model Experiment Using Succinonitrile
on the Formation of Equiaxed Grains caused by Forced Convection”,
Tetsu-to-Hagane. 86(2000), 252-258.

Numerical study of the dam-break waves and Favre waves down sloped wet rigid-bed at laboratory scale

Numerical study of the dam-break waves and Favre waves down sloped wet rigid-bed at laboratory scale

WenjunLiua  BoWangb  YakunGuoc

a State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, College of Water Resource and Hydropower, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China
State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, College Of Water Resource and Hydropower, Chengdu, 610065, China
faculty of Engineering & Informatics, University of Bradford, BD7 1DP, UK

Abstract

The bed slope and the tailwater depth are two important ones among the factors that affect the propagation of the dam-break flood and Favre waves. Most previous studies have only focused on the macroscopic characteristics of the dam-break flows or Favre waves under the condition of horizontal bed, rather than the internal movement characteristics in sloped channel. The present study applies two numerical models, namely, large eddy simulation (LES) and shallow water equations (SWEs) models embedded in the CFD software package FLOW-3D to analyze the internal movement characteristics of the dam-break flows and Favre waves, such as water level, the velocity distribution, the fluid particles acceleration and the bed shear stress, under the different bed slopes and water depth ratios. The results under the conditions considered in this study show that there is a flow state transition in the flow evolution for the steep bed slope even in water depth ratio α = 0.1 (α is the ratio of the tailwater depth to the reservoir water depth). The flow state transition shows that the wavefront changes from a breaking state to undular. Such flow transition is not observed for the horizontal slope and mild bed slope. The existence of the Favre waves leads to a significant increase of the vertical velocity and the vertical acceleration. In this situation, the SWEs model has poor prediction. Analysis reveals that the variation of the maximum bed shear stress is affected by both the bed slope and tailwater depth. Under the same bed slope (e.g., S0 = 0.02), the maximum bed shear stress position develops downstream of the dam when α = 0.1, while it develops towards the end of the reservoir when α = 0.7. For the same water depth ratio (e.g., α = 0.7), the maximum bed shear stress position always locates within the reservoir at S0 = 0.02, while it appears in the downstream of the dam for S0 = 0 and 0.003 after the flow evolves for a while. The comparison between the numerical simulation and experimental measurements shows that the LES model can predict the internal movement characteristics with satisfactory accuracy. This study improves the understanding of the effect of both the bed slope and the tailwater depth on the internal movement characteristics of the dam-break flows and Favre waves, which also provides a valuable reference for determining the flood embankment height and designing the channel bed anti-scouring facility.

댐붕괴 홍수와 파브르 파도의 전파에 영향을 미치는 요인 중 하상경사와 후미수심은 두 가지 중요한 요소이다. 대부분의 선행 연구들은 경사 수로에서의 내부 이동 특성보다는 수평층 조건에서 댐파괴류나 Favre파동의 거시적 특성에만 초점을 맞추었다.

본 연구에서는 CFD 소프트웨어 패키지 FLOW-3D에 내장된 LES(Large Eddy Simulation) 및 SWE(Shallow Water Equation) 모델의 두 가지 수치 모델을 적용하여 댐-파괴 흐름 및 Favre 파도의 내부 이동 특성을 분석합니다.

수위, 속도 분포, 유체 입자 가속도 및 층 전단 응력, 다양한 층 경사 및 수심 비율로. 본 연구에서 고려한 조건하의 결과는 수심비 α = 0.1(α는 저수지 수심에 대한 tailwater 깊이의 비율)에서도 급경사면에 대한 유동상태 전이가 있음을 보여준다. 유동 상태 전이는 파면이 파단 상태에서 비정형으로 변하는 것을 보여줍니다.

수평 경사와 완만한 바닥 경사에서는 이러한 흐름 전이가 관찰되지 않습니다. Favre 파의 존재는 수직 속도와 수직 가속도의 상당한 증가로 이어집니다. 이 상황에서 SWE 모델은 예측이 좋지 않습니다.

분석에 따르면 최대 바닥 전단 응력의 변화는 바닥 경사와 꼬리 수심 모두에 영향을 받습니다. 동일한 바닥 경사(예: S0 = 0.02)에서 최대 바닥 전단 응력 위치는 α = 0.1일 때 댐의 하류에서 발생하고 α = 0.7일 때 저수지의 끝쪽으로 발생합니다.

동일한 수심비(예: α = 0.7)에 대해 최대 바닥 전단 응력 위치는 항상 S0 = 0.02에서 저수지 내에 위치하는 반면, S0 = 0 및 0.003에 대해 흐름이 진화한 후 댐 하류에 나타납니다. 수치적 시뮬레이션과 실험적 측정을 비교한 결과 LES 모델이 내부 움직임 특성을 만족스러운 정확도로 예측할 수 있음을 알 수 있습니다.

본 연구는 댐 파절류 및 Favre파의 내부 이동 특성에 대한 하상 경사 및 후미 수심의 영향에 대한 이해를 향상 시키며, 이는 또한 제방 높이를 결정하고 수로 저반위 설계를 위한 귀중한 참고자료를 제공한다.

Keywords

Figure Numerical study of the dam-break waves and Favre waves down sloped wet rigid-bed at laboratory scale
Figure Numerical study of the dam-break waves and Favre waves down sloped wet rigid-bed at laboratory scale

Dam-break flow, Bed slope, Wet bed, Velocity profile, Bed shear stress, Large eddy simulation
댐파괴유동, 하상경사, 습상, 유속분포, 하상전단응력, 대와류 시뮬레이션

Laser powder bed fusion Figure

A study of transient and steady-state regions from single-track deposition in laser powder bed fusion

SubinShrestha KevinChou

J.B. Speed School of Engineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, United States

Abstract

The surface morphology of parts made by the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process is governed by the flow of the melt pool. The nature of the molten metal flow depends on the material properties, process parameters, and powder-bed particles, etc., and may result in potentially significant variations along a laser scanning path.

This study investigates the formation of transient and steady-state zones through a single-track l-PBF experiment using Inconel 625 powder. Single tracks with lengths of 1 mm and 2 mm were fabricated using 195 W laser power and scan speeds of 400 mm/s or 800 mm/s. The surface morphology of the track was analyzed using a white light interferometer (WLI), and an individual single track can be divided into three distinct zones based on the track width and height.

The initial transient region has a wider and taller solidified track geometry, the region near the end of a scan has a tapered profile with a decreasing track width and height, while the steady-state region in the middle has a smaller variation in the width and height.

A mesoscale numerical model was further developed using FLOW-3D to examine the formation of the transient and steady-state zones. At the start of a scan, strong flow occurs outward and backward, leading to the formation of a wider track with a bump. As the scan continues, the thermal gradient stabilizes, leading to a steady state, which resulted in a very small fluctuation in the width. Furthermore, the tapered end of the scan track is due to the half-lemniscate shape of the melt pool during laser scanning.

L-PBF(Laser Powder Bed fusion) 공정으로 만든 부품의 표면 형태는 용융 풀의 흐름에 따라 결정됩니다. 용융 금속 흐름의 특성은 재료 특성, 공정 매개변수 및 분말층 입자 등에 따라 달라지며 레이저 스캐닝 경로를 따라 잠재적으로 상당한 변동이 발생할 수 있습니다.

이 연구는 Inconel 625 분말을 사용하여 단일 트랙 l-PBF 실험을 통해 과도 및 정상 상태 영역의 형성을 조사합니다. 1 mm 및 2 mm 길이의 단일 트랙은 195 W 레이저 출력과 400 mm/s 또는 800 mm/s의 스캔 속도를 사용하여 제작되었습니다. 트랙의 표면 형태는 백색광 간섭계(WLI)를 사용하여 분석되었으며 개별 단일 트랙은 트랙 너비와 높이에 따라 3개의 별개 영역으로 나눌 수 있습니다.

초기 과도 영역은 더 넓고 더 높은 응고된 트랙 형상을 가지며, 스캔 끝 근처의 영역은 트랙 너비와 높이가 감소하는 테이퍼 프로파일을 갖는 반면, 중간의 정상 상태 영역은 너비와 높이에서 더 작은 변동을 가집니다. 신장. 중간 규모 수치 모델은 과도 및 정상 상태 영역의 형성을 조사하기 위해 FLOW-3D를 사용하여 추가로 개발되었습니다.

스캔이 시작될 때 강한 흐름이 바깥쪽과 뒤쪽으로 발생하여 범프가 있는 더 넓은 트랙이 형성됩니다. 스캔이 계속됨에 따라 열 구배가 안정화되어 정상 상태로 이어지며 폭의 변동이 매우 작습니다. 또한 스캔 트랙의 끝이 가늘어지는 것은 레이저 스캔 중 용융 풀의 반-렘니케이트 모양 때문입니다.

A study of transient and steady-state regions from single-track deposition in laser powder bed fusion
A study of transient and steady-state regions from single-track deposition in laser powder bed fusion

Keywords

Additive manufacturing, Laser powder bed fusion, Numerical modelling, Transient region

Fig6. 실험실 연구에서 계단식 오버 플로우에 대한 쐐기 요소의 선택된 형상 및 배열

Numerical and Experimental Study of Wedge Elements Influence on Hydraulic Parameters and Energy Dissipation over Stepped Spillway in Skimming Flow Regime

Wedge Elements의 수치 및 실험적 연구가 스키밍 흐름 체제에서 계단식 배수로에 대한 유압 매개 변수 및 에너지 소산에 미치는 영향

Authors

  • Kiyoumars Roushangar  1 ; samira akhgar 2
  • 1 Civil Engineering Department, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran.
  • 2 Water Engineering Department, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract

A stepped spillway is a hydraulic and cost-effective measure to dissipate the energy of large water flow over the spillway. Due to some limitations in stepped spillways, this study has intended a plan to increase and improve the effectiveness of energy depreciation. For this purpose, the effect of the wedge-shaped elements on the velocity and pressure changes over the steps, water level, and energy dissipation downstream the stepped spillway are evaluated.In this regard, several forms of wedge elements are studied with changes in wedge arrangement and the rate of discharge by using a numerical model of Flow-3D, and the appropriate models from the aspect of the most energy depreciation are selected and studied in the laboratory.In the laboratory, 25 experiments were performed on 5 physical models. Numerical and experimental results show that the addition of wedge elements on the stepped spillway has reduced the velocity and water depth downstream of the spillway to about 80% and 30%, respectively, and the energy dissipation over the stepped spillway increased by about 2.7 times. Also, by drawing the distribution profiles of pressure on the edge and the floor of steps, it was observed that the negative pressure in the horizontal section turned into a positive one. Also, negative pressure in the vertical section decreased up to 96% and positive pressure increased about 2 times. As well as increasing the density of the elements, the results that increase the energy dissipation are going to be more remarkable.

요약계단식 배수로는 배수로를 통해 큰 물 흐름의 에너지를 분산시키는 유압적이고 비용 효율적인 조치입니다. 계단식 배수로의 일부 한계로 인해 본 연구는 에너지 감가 상각의 효과를 높이고 개선하기위한 계획을 세웠습니다. 이를 위해 계단, 수위 및 계단식 배수로 하류의 에너지 소실에 대한 속도 및 압력 변화에 대한 쐐기 모양 요소의 영향을 평가합니다. 이와 관련하여 Flow-3D의 수치 모델을 이용하여 쐐기 배열 및 배출 속도의 변화로 여러 형태의 쐐기 요소를 연구하고 가장 에너지 감가 상각 측면에서 적절한 모델을 선택하여 실험실에서 연구합니다. .실험실에서는 5 개의 물리적 모델에 대해 25 개의 실험이 수행되었습니다. 수치 및 실험 결과에 따르면 계단식 배수로에 쐐기 요소를 추가하면 배수로 하류의 속도와 수심이 각각 약 80 % 및 30 %로 감소했으며 계단식 배수로에 대한 에너지 소산은 약 2.7 배 증가했습니다. 또한 계단의 가장자리와 바닥의 압력 분포 프로파일을 그려서 수평 단면의 부압이 양압으로 변하는 것을 관찰했습니다. 또한 수직 부의 부압은 96 %까지 감소했고 양압은 약 2 배 증가했습니다. 요소의 밀도를 높이는 것 외에도 에너지 소산을 증가시키는 결과가 더욱 두드러 질 것입니다.

키워드

Stepped spillway Wedge elements Change of the velocity and pressure Energy dissipation Flow-3D, 계단식 방수로, 웨지 요소 , 속도와 압력의 변화 , 에너지 소산 


Fig. 1. Geometry and alignment of the wedges in the numerical study    Fig. 2. Secondary water depth versus unit flow rate in the simple stepped spillway and stepped spillway with wedge elements.
Fig. 1. Geometry and alignment of the wedges in the numerical study Fig. 2. Secondary water depth versus unit flow rate in the simple stepped spillway and stepped spillway with wedge elements.
Fig6. 실험실 연구에서 계단식 오버 플로우에 대한 쐐기 요소의 선택된 형상 및 배열
Fig6. 실험실 연구에서 계단식 오버 플로우에 대한 쐐기 요소의 선택된 형상 및 배열

 참고 문헌

[1] H. CHANSON. Comparison of energy dissipation between
nappe and skimming flow regimes on stepped chutes. Journal of
hydraulic research, 32.1994, 213-218.
[2] M. R. CHAMANI & N. RAJARATNAM. Jet flow on stepped
spillways. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 120.1994, 254-259.
[3] J.A. KELLS. Comparison of energy dissipation between nappe
and skimming flow regimes on stepped chutes discussion. IAHR
Journal of Hydraulic Research 33.1995, 128-133.
[4] M. TABBARA, J. CHATILA & R. AWWAD. Computational
simulation of flow over stepped spillways. Computers &
structures, 83.2005, 2215-2224.
[5] S. RAZI, F. SALMASI & A. H. DALIR. Laboratory Study of
the Effects of Step Number, Slope and Particle Size on Energy
Dissipation in Gabion Stepped Spillways. Amir Kabir Civil
Engineering Journal, 2018.

Fig.1 Schematic diagram of the novel cytometric device

Fabrication and Experimental Investigation of a Novel 3D Hydrodynamic Focusing Micro Cytometric Device

Yongquan Wang*a , Jingyuan Wangb, Hualing Chenc

School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 710049, P. R. China
a yqwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn,, bwjy2006@stu.xjtu.edu.cn,, c hlchen@mail.xjtu.edu.cn,

Abstract:

This paper presents the fabrication of a novel micro-machined cytometric device, and the experimental investigations for its 3D hydrodynamic focusing performance. The proposed device is simple in structure, with the uniqueness that the depth of its microchannels is non-uniform. Using the SU-8 soft lithography containing two exposures, as well as micro-molding techniques, the PDMS device is successfully fabricated. Two kinds of experiments, i.e., the red ink fluidity observation experiments and the fluorescent optical experiments, are then performed for the device prototypes with different step heights, or channel depth differences, to explore the influence laws of the feature parameter on the devices hydrodynamic focusing behaviors. The experimental results show that the introducing of the steps can efficiently enhance the vertical focusing performance of the device. At appropriate geometry and operating conditions, good 3D hydrodynamic focusing can be obtained.

Korea Abstract

이 논문은 새로운 마이크로 머신 세포 측정 장치의 제조와 3D 유체 역학적 초점 성능에 대한 실험적 조사를 제시합니다. 제안 된 장치는 구조가 단순하며, 마이크로 채널의 깊이가 균일하지 않다는 독특함이 있습니다. 두 가지 노출이 포함 된 SU-8 소프트 리소그래피와 마이크로 몰딩 기술을 사용하여 PDMS 장치가 성공적으로 제작되었습니다. 그런 다음 두 종류의 실험, 즉 적색 잉크 유동성 관찰 실험과 형광 광학 실험을 단계 높이 또는 채널 깊이 차이가 다른 장치 프로토 타입에 대해 수행하여 장치 유체 역학적 초점에 대한 기능 매개 변수의 영향 법칙을 탐색합니다. 행동. 실험 결과는 단계의 도입이 장치의 수직 초점 성능을 효율적으로 향상시킬 수 있음을 보여줍니다. 적절한 형상과 작동 조건에서 우수한 3D 유체 역학적 초점을 얻을 수 있습니다.

Keywords

Flow cytometer, Hydrodynamic focusing, Three-dimensional (3D), Micro-machined