CFD가 레이저 용접을 만나면 : 불꽃이 어떻게 날아갑니까?

Pareekshith Allu Senior CFD Engineer | Additive Manufacturing | Laser Welding | Business Development

When CFD meets laser welding: How sparks fly!

CFD 또는 전산 유체 역학은 수치적 방법을 사용하여 유체 흐름을 연구하는 것입니다. 유체 흐름의 기본 방정식에는 솔루션 해가 없으므로 컴퓨터를 사용하여 방정식을 반복적으로 계산하는 수치해석 방법으로 해결합니다. 일반적으로 CFD 도구는 공기 역학, 엔진 연소, 물 및 환경 흐름, 미세 유체 및 제조 공정에서 광범위한 연구 및 엔지니어링 문제에 적용될 수 있습니다. CFD가 개발에 중요한 역할을 한 기술을 매일 접할 가능성이 있습니다. FLOW-3D 소프트웨어 제품 제조업체인 Flow Science Inc.에서는 자유 표면 흐름 문제 라고하는 특수한 문제 해결에 중점을 둡니다 . 

자유 표면 흐름이란 무엇입니까? 밀도 차이가 큰 두 유체간에 인터페이스가 공유되는 분야는 자유 표면 흐름입니다. 예를 들어, 기체-액체 경계면이 제한되지 않고 시간에 따라 자유롭게 움직이고 변경할 수 있다는 점에서 강의 물과 주변 공기 사이에 자유 표면이 존재합니다. FLOW-3D 솔버의 기본 DNA 인 Volume of Fluid 또는 VoF 방법 은 자유 표면의 진화를 추적하는 강력한 계산 기술입니다. 우리는 지난 40 년 동안 이 문제에 거의 전적으로 집중했습니다.

자유 표면 흐름은 제조산업 분야에서도 널리 사용됩니다. 금속 주조에서는 용융 금속과 용융 금속이 채우는 금형 또는 다이의 공기 사이에 자유 표면이 존재합니다. L-PBF ( Laser Powder Bed fusion) 라고하는 적층 제조 공정에서 레이저를 사용하여 분말 입자를 녹이고 융합하여 공정에서 자유 표면 용융 풀을 만듭니다. 그리고 레이저 용접에서는 레이저 빔에 의해 녹아서 두 개의 금속 부품 / 부품을 함께 융합 할 때 형성되는 자유 표면 용융 풀이 있습니다. 

이 게시물에서는 레이저 용접 공정에 대한 CFD 시뮬레이션이 유용한 이유를 설명합니다.

레이저 기술은 지난 몇 년 동안 상당히 발전했으며 이제 다른 레이저 제조업체는 다양한 파장에서 펄싱 기능이 있는 고출력 레이저를 제공 할 수 있습니다. 레이저와 로봇 자동화 시스템, 컨트롤러 및 프로세스 센서의 통합은 다양한 제조 산업에서 사용을 확대하여 열 입력이 적고 열 영향 영역이 더 작은 레이저 용접 조인트를 가능하게합니다. 

레이저-재료 상호 작용은 복잡하며이를 정확하게 모델링하려면 이러한 시간적 및 공간적 규모와 관련된 물리학을 구현해야합니다. 레이저 열원은 표면에 에너지를 축적하여 기판을 녹이고 용융 금속 풀을 만듭니다. 용융 풀은 전력, 속도 및 스캔 경로와 같은 레이저 가공 매개 변수와 용융 풀의 자유 표면에 동적 증기압을 적용하는 차폐 가스의 영향을 더 많이받습니다. 또한 용접되는 기판의 재료 특성이 중요한 역할을합니다. 용융된 풀의 상 변화와 증발은 용융 풀을 더욱 압박하는 반동 압력을 유발할 수있는 반면 표면 장력은 풀 내의 유체 대류에 영향을줍니다. 키홀 링이있는 경우 레이저 광선이 키홀 내에 갇혀 추가 반사 영향을 받을 수 있습니다. 기판에 더 많은 에너지를 전달합니다. 불안정한 키홀이 붕괴되면 갇힌 공극이 진행되는 응고 경계에 의해 포착되는 다공성 형성으로 이어질 수 있습니다. 

분명히 많은 일이 진행되고 있습니다. 이것이 CFD 시뮬레이션이 강력 할 수있는 곳이며 FLOW-3D WELD를 개발할 때 레이저-재료 상호 작용을 이해하는 데 많은 노력을 기울이는 이유입니다. 자유 표면 추적 및 레이저 에너지 증착, 차폐 가스 역학, 상 변화, 반동 압력, 표면 장력, 레이저 광선 추적 및 응고와 함께 유체 및 열 흐름 방정식을 통합하는 물리 기반 모델은 레이저의 복잡한 상호 작용을 캡처하는 데 매우 정확합니다. 용접과정을 해석하는 기능은 용융 풀의 안정성에 대한 다양한 공정 매개 변수의 영향을 분리하고 엔지니어와 연구원이 용접 일정을 최적화하는 데 도움이 될 수 있습니다.

CFD 시뮬레이션은 레이저 용접 프로세스를 분석하고 개선하는데 도움이되는 프레임 워크를 제공 할 수 있습니다. 불안정한 용융 풀은 키홀 유발 다공성, 파열 및 스패 터와 같은 결함을 초래할 수 있기 때문에 용융 풀의 작동 방식을 이해하는 것은 조인트의 품질에 매우 중요합니다. 그 후, FLOW-3D WELD 모델의 출력인 응고된 용융 풀 데이터 및 열 구배와 같은 결과를 미세 구조 또는 유한 요소 분석 모델에 입력하여 각각 결정 성장 및 열 응력 진화를위한 길을 닦을 수 있습니다.

이 게시물이 CFD를 사용하여 레이저 용접 프로세스를 시뮬레이션하는 이점을 이해하는데 도움이 되기를 바랍니다.

레이저 용접 공정을 더 잘 이해하기 위해 CFD 시뮬레이션 적용을 고려해 보셨습니까? 어떤 특징 / 물리 현상이 모델링되기를 원하십니까? 질문과 의견이 있으면 언제든지 flow3d@stikorea.co.kr 또는 미국 본사의 paree.allu@flow3d.com에게 연락하십시오.

Ti-6Al-4V 금속 분말에 의한 선택적 레이저 용융법 수치 해석

Ti-6Al-4V 금속 분말에 의한 선택적 레이저 용융법 수치 해석

선택적 레이저 용융법(SLM: Selective Laser Melting)은 3D 프린팅 기술의 하나로 최근 주목 받고 있습니다. SLM에서는 레이저 조사 중 높은 온도 구배로 인해, 용융과 재응고 현상이 일어나므로 용융금속 유체의 거동이 중요한 역할을 담당하고 있어, 구성 부품의 최종 구조를 결정합니다.

FLOW-3D@ WELD를 이용하여 T-6Al-4V(64티타늄 합금)에 대한 선택적 레이저 용융법 (SLM) 시뮬레이션이 가능합니다.

SLM 개념도
SLM 개념도

금속 분말을 얇게 깔아 생긴 분말층에 레이저를 조사하면 조사된 부분만 용융, 응고 됩니다. 이 공정을 반복하면서 적층하여 3차원 형상을 만듭니다. 금속을 재료로 하여 고강도 제품을 만들수 있으므로, 기존의 시작 제품(Rapid Prototyping)뿐만 아니라, 짧은 납기일, 저비용, 고기능 등을 목적으로 한 Additive Manufactuing 기술로서 주목받고 있습니다.

FLOW-3D@ WELD를 이용한 해석을 통해서, 표면의 경사에 따라 용융지의 형상과 온도 분포가 결정된다는 것을 알 수 있습니다.

용융 풀의 최대 깊이는 SLM의 형태학적 변화에 따라 달라지며 평균 깊이는 42μm입니다.

선택적 레이저 용융법 (SLM) 해석 결과
선택적 레이저 용융법 (SLM) 해석 결과

 *Source: National Cheng Kung University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiwan YC Wu, WS Hwang

분말 베드 용융 결합의 Mesoscopic 열 유동해석

분말 베드 용융 결합의 Mesoscopic 열 유동해석

자료 제공: 오하이오 주립대학교
자료 제공: FLOW Science Japan

오하이오 주립대학의 YS Lee W.Zhang 등에 의한 Mesoscopic Simulation of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Laser Powder Bed Additive Manufactuing는 FLOW-3D를 이용하여 금속 분말층의 레이저에 의한 용융 결합 (L-PBF)을 분석하고 있습니다. 논문에서는 DEM으로 생성한 임의의 분말층을 분석 대상으로 하고, FSJ 에서 개발한 FLOW-3D WELD(레이저 용접 모듈) 모듈을 이용하여 균일한 분말을 바닥에 분사한 후 그 결과를 비교했습니다.

Mesoscopic Simulation of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Laser Powder Bed Additive Manufactuing
Mesoscopic Simulation of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Laser Powder Bed Additive Manufactuing 해석 모델
Mesoscopic Simulation of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Laser Powder Bed Additive Manufactuing 해석 결과
Mesoscopic Simulation of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Laser Powder Bed Additive Manufactuing 해석 결과

위 사례를 통해 열전도나 용융금속의 거동, 용접속도의 차이에 의한 영향 등, 같은 분말 베드에서도 정상적인 해석이 가능한 것을 알 수 있습니다.

온도분포등의 결과의 차이는 분말층의 차이로 발생될 수 있으며, 향후, FLOW-3D@ DEM(FSJ 개별요소법 모듈)을 이용한 분말층 생성기능도 개발 예정입니다.

The realm of operations of FLOW-3D

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING SIMULATIONS

Capabilities of FLOW-3D

FLOW-3D는 자유 표면 유체 흐름 시뮬레이션을 전문으로하는 다중 물리 CFD 소프트웨어입니다. 자유 표면의 동적 진화를 추적하는 소프트웨어의 알고리즘인 VOF (Volume of Fluid) 방법은 Flow Science의 설립자인 Tony Hirt 박사가 개척했습니다.

또한 FLOW-3D에는 금속 주조, 잉크젯 인쇄, 레이저 용접 및 적층 제조 (AM)와 같은 광범위한 응용 분야를 시뮬레이션하기위한 물리 모델이 내장되어 있습니다.
적층 제조 시뮬레이션 소프트웨어, 특히 L-PBF (레이저 파우더 베드 융합 공정)의 현상 유지는 열 왜곡, 잔류 응력 및지지 구조 생성과 같은 부분 규모 모델링에 도움이되는 열 기계 시뮬레이션에 초점을 맞추고 있습니다.

유용하지만 용융 풀 역학 및 볼링 및 다공성과 같은 관련 결함에 대한 정보는 일반적으로 이러한 접근 방식의 영역 밖에 있습니다. 용융 풀 내의 유체 흐름, 열 전달 및 표면 장력이 열 구배 및 냉각 속도에 영향을 미치며 이는 다시 미세 구조 진화에 영향을 미친다는 점을 명심하는 것도 중요합니다.

FLOW-3D와 이산 요소법 (DEM) 및 WELD 모듈을 사용하여 분말 및 용융 풀 규모에서 시뮬레이션 할 수 있습니다.
구현되는 관련 물리학에는 점성 흐름, 열 전달, 응고, 상 변화, 반동 압력, 차폐 가스 압력, 표면 장력, 움직이는 물체 및 분말 / 입자 역학이 포함됩니다. 이러한 접근 방식은 합금에 대한 공정을 성공적으로 개발할 수 있게 하고, AM 기계 제조업체와 AM 기술의 최종 사용자 모두에게 관심있는 미세 구조 진화에 대한 통찰력을 제공하는데 도움이 됩니다.

The realm of operations of FLOW-3D
The realm of operations of FLOW-3D

FLOW-3D는 레이저 분말 베드 융합 (L-PBF), 직접 에너지 증착 (DED) 및 바인더 제트 공정으로 확장되는 기능을 가지고 있습니다.
FLOW-3D를 사용하면 분말 확산 및 패킹, 레이저 / 입자 상호 작용, 용융 풀 역학, 표면 형태 및 후속 미세 구조 진화를 정확하게 시뮬레이션 할 수 있습니다. 이러한 기능은 FLOW-3D에 고유하며 계산 효율성이 높은 방식으로 달성됩니다.

예를 들어 1.0mm x 0.4mm x 0.3mm 크기의 계산 영역에서 레이저 빔의 단일 트랙을 시뮬레이션하기 위해 레이저 용융 모델은 단 8 개의 물리적 코어에서 약 2 시간이 걸립니다.
FLOW-3D는 모든 관련 물리 구현 간의 격차를 해소하는 동시에 업계 및 연구 표준에서 허용하는 시간 프레임으로 결과를 생성합니다. 분말 패킹, 롤러를 통한 파워 확산, 분말의 레이저 용융, 용융 풀 형성 및 응고를 고려하고 다층 분말 베드 융합 공정을 위해 이러한 단계를 순차적으로 반복하여 FLOW-3D에서 전체 AM 공정을 시뮬레이션 할 수 있습니다.

FLOW-3D의 다층 시뮬레이션은 이전에 응고된 층의 열 이력을 저장한다는 점에서 독특하며, 열 전달을 고려하여 이전에 응고된 층에 확산된 새로운 분말 입자 세트에 대해 시뮬레이션이 수행됩니다.
또한, 응고 된 베드의 열 왜곡 및 잔류 응력은 FLOW-3D를 사용하여 평가할 수 있으며, 보다 복잡한 분석을 수행하기 위해 FLOW-3D의 압력 및 온도 데이터를 Abaqus 및 MSC Nastran과 같은 FEA 소프트웨어로 내보낼 수 있습니다.

Sequence of a multi-layer L-PBF simulation setup in FLOW-3D

Ease of Use

FLOW-3D는 다양한 응용 분야에서 거의 40 년 동안 사용되어 왔습니다. 사용자 피드백을 기반으로 UI 개발자는 소프트웨어를 사용하기 매우 직관적으로 만들었으며 새로운 사용자는 시뮬레이션 설정의 순서를 거의 또는 전혀 어려움없이 이해합니다.
사용자는 FLOW3D에서 구현 된 다양한 모델의 이론에 정통하며 새로운 실험을 설계 할 수 있습니다. 실습 튜토리얼, 비디오 강의, 예제 시뮬레이션 및 기술 노트의 저장소도 사용할 수 있습니다.
사용자가 특정 수준의 경험에 도달하면 고급 수치 교육 및 소프트웨어 사용자 지정 교육을 사용할 수 있습니다.

Available Literature

실험 데이터에 대해 FLOW-3D 모델을 검증하는 몇 가지 독립적으로 발표된 연구가 있습니다. 여기에서 수록된 저널 논문은 레이저 용접 및 적층 제조 공정으로 제한됩니다. 더 많은 참조는 당사 웹 사이트에서 확인할 수 있습니다.

Laser Welding

  1. L.J.Zhang, J.X.Zhang, A.Gumenyuk, M.Rethmeier, S.J.Na, Numerical simulation of full penetration laser welding of thick steel plate with high power high brightness laser, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 214, Issue 8, 2014.
    A study by researchers from BAM in Germany, KAIST in Korea, and State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior of Materials in China that focuses on keyhole dynamics and full penetration laser welding of steel plates.
  2. Runqi Lin, Hui-ping Wang, Fenggui Lu, Joshua Solomon, Blair E.
    Carlson, Numerical study of keyhole dynamics and keyhole-induced porosity formation in remote laser welding of Al alloys, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 108, Part A, 2017.
    General Motors (GM) and Shangai University collaborated on a study on the influence of welding speed and weld angle of inclination on porosity occurrence in laser keyhole welding.
  3. Koji Tsukimoto, Masashi Kitamura, Shuji Tanigawa, Sachio Shimohata, and Masahiko Mega, Laser Welding Repair for Single Crystal Blades, International Gas Turbine Congress, Tokyo, 2015.
    Mitsubishi Heavy Industry’s study on laser welding repair using laser cladding for single Ni crystal alloys used in gas turbine blades.

Additive Manufacturing

  1. Yu-Che Wu, Cheng-Hung San, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Huey-Jiuan Lin, Raed Marwan, Shuhei Baba, Weng-Sing Hwang, Numerical modeling of melt-pool behavior in selective laser melting with random powder distribution and experimental validation, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 254, 2018
    This paper discusses powder bed compaction with random packing for different powder-size distributions, and the importance of considering evaporation effects in the melting process to validate the melt pool dimensions.
  2. Lee, Y.S., and W.Zhang, Mesoscopic simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser powder bed additive manufacturing, Proceedings of the Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, USA. 2015
    A study conducted by Ohio State University researchers to understand the influence of process parameters in formation of balling defects.
  3. Y.S. Lee, W.Zhang, Modeling of heat transfer, fluid flow and solidification microstructure of nickel-base superalloy fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, Additive Manufacturing, Volume 12, Part B, 2016
    A study conducted by Ohio State University researchers to understand the influence of solidification parameters, calculated from the temperature fields, on solidification morphology and grain size using existing theoretical models in laser powder bed fusion processes.

 

 

FLOW-3D Weld

FLOW-3D WELD 제품 배너
 

FLOW-3D  WELD 는 레이저 용접 공정에 대한 강력한 통찰력을 제공하여 공정 최적화를 달성합니다. 더 나은 공정 제어를 통해 다공성, 열 영향 영역을 최소화하고, 미세 구조 변화를 제어 할 수 있습니다. 레이저 용접 프로세스를 정확하게 시뮬레이션하기 위해 FLOW-3D WELD 는 레이저 열원, 레이저-재료 상호 작용, 유체 흐름, 열 전달, 표면 장력, 응고, 다중 레이저 반사 및 위상 변화와 같은 모든 관련 물리학을 구현합니다.

 

낮은 열 입력,  뛰어난 생산성, 속도는 기존의 용접 방법을 대체하는 레이저 용접 프로세스로 이어집니다. 레이저 용접이 제공하는 장점 중 일부는 더 나은 용접 강도, 더 작은 열 영향 영역, 더 정밀한 정밀도, 최소 변형 및 강철, 알루미늄, 티타늄 및 이종 금속을 포함한 광범위한 금속 / 합금을 용접 할 수있는 능력을 포함합니다.

공정 최적화

FLOW-3D WELD 는 레이저 용접 공정에 대한 강력한 통찰력을 제공하고 궁극적으로 공정 최적화를 달성하는 데 도움이됩니다. 더 나은 공정 제어로 다공성을 최소화하고 열 영향을받는 영역을 제한하며 미세 구조 변화를 제어 할 수 있습니다. FLOW-3D WELD 는 자유 표면 추적 알고리즘으로 인해 매우 복잡한 용접 풀을 시뮬레이션하는 데 매우 적합합니다. FLOW-3D WELD 는 관련 물리적 모델을 FLOW-3D 에 추가로 통합하여 개발되었습니다.  레이저 소스에 의해 생성된 열유속, 용융 금속의 증발 압력, 차폐 가스 효과, 용융 풀의 반동 압력 및 키홀 용접의 다중 레이저 반사. 현실적인 공정 시뮬레이션을 위해 모든 관련 물리 현상을 포착하는 것이 중요합니다.

 

얕은 용입 용접 (왼쪽 상단); 실드 가스 효과가 있는 깊은 용입 용접 (오른쪽 상단); 쉴드 가스 및 증발 압력을 사용한 심 용입 용접 (왼쪽 하단); 쉴드 가스, 증발 압력 및 다중 레이저 반사 효과 (오른쪽 하단)를 사용한 깊은 침투 용접.

FLOW-3D WELD 는 레이저 용접의 전도 모드와 키홀 모드를 모두 시뮬레이션 할 수 있습니다. 전 세계의 연구원들은 FLOW-3D WELD 를 사용하여 용융 풀 역학을 분석하고 공정 매개 변수를 최적화하여 다공성을 최소화하며 레이저 용접 수리 공정에서 결정 성장을 예측합니다.

완전 관통 레이저 용접 실험

한국의 KAIST와 독일의 BAM은 16K kW 레이저를 사용하여 10mm 강판에 완전 침투 레이저 용접 실험을 수행했습니다. CCD 카메라의 도움으로 그들은 완전 침투 레이저 용접으로 인해 형성된 상단 및 하단 용융 풀 역학을 포착 할 수있었습니다. 그들은 또한 FLOW-3D WELD 에서 프로세스를  시뮬레이션하고 시뮬레이션과 실험 결과 사이에 좋은 일치를 얻었습니다.

실험 설정 레이저 용접
CCD 카메라로 상단 및 하단 용융 풀을 관찰하는 실험 설정
레이저 용접 회로도
FLOW-3D의 계산 영역 개략도
레이저 용접 시뮬레이션 실험 결과
상단의 시뮬레이션 결과는 용융 풀 길이가 8mm 및 15mm 인 반면 실험에서는 용융 풀 길이가 7mm 및 13mm임을 나타냅니다.
 

레이저 용접 다공성 사례 연구

General Motors, Michigan 및 Shanghai University는 중국의 공정 매개 변수, 즉 용접 속도 및 용접 경사각이 키홀 용접에서 다공성 발생에 미치는 영향을 이해하기 위해 상세한 연구를 공동으로 진행했습니다.

키홀 유도 용접 다공성
레이저 용접된 알루미늄 조인트 단면의 용접 다공성, 키홀 유도 다공성은 유동 역학으로 인해 발생하며 균열을 일으킬 수 있습니다. 최적화 된 공정 매개 변수는 이러한 종류의 다공성을 완화 할 수 있습니다.

연구원들은 FLOW-3D WELD를 사용 하여 증발 및 반동 압력, 용융풀 역학, 온도 의존적 ​​표면 장력 및 키홀 내에서 여러 번의 레이저 반사 동안 프레넬 흡수를 포함한 모든 중요한 물리적 현상을 설명했습니다.

시뮬레이션 모델을 기반으로 연구진은 키홀 용접에서 유도 다공성의 주요 원인으로 불안정한 키홀을 식별했습니다. 아래 이미지에서 볼 수 있듯이 후방 용융 풀의 과도한 재순환으로 인해 후방 용융 풀이 전방 용융 풀 벽에서 붕괴되고 공극이 발생하여 다공성이 발생합니다. 이러한 갇힌 공극이 진행되는 응고 경계에 의해 포착되었을 때 다공성이 유도되었습니다.

높은 용접 속도에서는 더 큰 키홀 개구부가 있으며 이는 일반적으로 더 안정적인 키홀 구성을 가져옵니다. 사용 FLOW-3D 용접 , 연구진은 그 높은 용접 속도와 경사도 완화 다공성의 큰 용접 각도를 예측했습니다.

레이저 용접 수치 실험 결과
시뮬레이션 (위) 및 실험 (아래)에서 볼 수있는 세로 용접 섹션의 다공성 분포

FLOW Weld

FLOW Weld  모듈은 용접 해석에 필요한 모델을 FLOW-3D 에 추가하는 추가 모듈입니다.

FLOW-3D 의 표면 장력 자유 표면 분석, 용융, 응고, 증발, 상 변화 모델 등의 기본 기능을

응용하여 각종 용접 현상을 분석 할 수 있습니다.

주요 기능 :열원 모델 (출력 지정, 가우스분포, 디 포커스 등) 열원의 자유로운 이동 증발 압력 (그에 따른 반력) 실드 가스 압력 다중 반사 용접에 관한 대표적인 출력 (온도 구배 냉각 속도, 에너지 분포 등)
분석 용도 :높은 방사선 강도와 고온에 의해 직접 관찰이 어려운 현상을 시각화 온도, 열, 용접 속도, 위치 관계, 재료 물성 등의 매개 변수 연구 결함 예측 (기공, 응고, 수축 등)

FLOW -3D Weld 분석 기능

weld_flow
  1. 열원 모델의 이동
      출력량 지정, 가우스분포
  2. 에너지 밀도의 분포 , 가공 속도
      가우스 테이블 입력
  3. 증발 압력
      온도 의존성
  4. 다중 반사
      용해 깊이에 미치는 영향
  5. 결과 처리
      용해 모양, 에너지 분포, 온도 구배 냉각 속도
  6. 다양항형상의 레이저와 거동 (+ csv 파일로드)
      다양한 모양을 csv 파일 형식으로 정의 회전 + 이동
      임의 형상 이동을 csv 파일로 로드 (나선형)
  7.  이종 재료
      이종 재료의 용접
  8.  3D Printing Method  
      Cladding 적층공정

1. 열원 모델의 이동

weld16-1weld16-2
에너지 밀도공간 분포

2. 에너지 밀도의 분포, 가공 속도

열 플럭스 r 방향의 분포 단면은 원형으로, r 방향으로 열유속 분포를 제공합니다.

에너지 밀도의 공간적 분포

가우스 : 원추형의 경우는 조사 방향으로 변화하고 열유속의 면적 분은 동일합니다.

가공 속도

가공 노즐을 x, y, z 방향, 시간 – 속도의 테이블에서 지정합니다.
또한 노즐 (광원) 위치 좌표 조사 방향 벡터 성분을 지정합니다.

3. 증발 압력

에너지 밀도가 높은 경우, 용융 부 계면이 증발하고 그 반력에 의해 계면에 함몰이 발생합니다.
특히 깊은 용융부를 포함한 레이저 용접은 증발 압력을 고려한 모델링이 필요합니다.

증발 압력의 평가는 일반적인 수학적 모델이 없기 때문에 다음 모델 식을 사용합니다.

증발 가스의 상승 효과 (키 홀, 스퍼터 등)

증기의 상승 흐름의 영향을 동압, 전단력으로 평가합니다.

weld5-1 

4. 다중 반사

키홀 거동의 비교

weld9
다중 반사 없음다중 반사 있음

다중 반사를 고려한 레이저

weld10

5. 결과 처리

용접 기능에 관한 대표적인 출력 예입니다.

6. 다양한 형상의 레이저와 거동 (+ csv 파일 읽기)

weld17weld18

7. 이종 재료

이종 재료 간이 분석

재료 : 철, 구리

밀도고상율
weld19

이종 재료를 이용한 레이저 용접

재료 : 구리, 철

재료 체적 비율온도
weld20

8. 금속 3D 프린팅 기법  

– 적층 제조 (Additive Manufacturing) 공정

– DED(Direct Energy Deposition) 공정 

FLOW-3D AM

FLOW-3D AM 제품 배너

FLOW-3D AM 은 레이저 파우더 베드 융합 (L-PBF), 바인더 제트 및 DED (Directed Energy Deposition)와 같은 적층 제조 공정 ( additive manufacturing )을 시뮬레이션하고 분석하는 CFD 소프트웨어입니다. FLOW-3D AM 의 다중 물리 기능은 공정 매개 변수의 분석 및 최적화를 위해 분말 확산 및 압축, 용융 풀 역학, L-PBF 및 DED에 대한 다공성 형성, 바인더 분사 공정을위한 수지 침투 및 확산에 대한 매우 정확한 시뮬레이션을 제공합니다.

3D 프린팅이라고도하는 적층 제조(additive manufacturing)는 일반적으로 층별 접근 방식을 사용하여, 분말 또는 와이어로 부품을 제조하는 방법입니다. 금속 기반 적층 제조 공정에 대한 관심은 지난 몇 년 동안 시작되었습니다. 오늘날 사용되는 3 대 금속 적층 제조 공정은 PBF (Powder Bed Fusion), DED (Directed Energy Deposition) 및 바인더 제트 ( Binder jetting ) 공정입니다.  FLOW-3D  AM  은 이러한 각 프로세스에 대한 고유 한 시뮬레이션 통찰력을 제공합니다.

파우더 베드 융합 및 직접 에너지 증착 공정에서 레이저 또는 전자 빔을 열원으로 사용할 수 있습니다. 두 경우 모두 PBF용 분말 형태와 DED 공정용 분말 또는 와이어 형태의 금속을 완전히 녹여 융합하여 층별로 부품을 형성합니다. 그러나 바인더 젯팅(Binder jetting)에서는 결합제 역할을 하는 수지가 금속 분말에 선택적으로 증착되어 층별로 부품을 형성합니다. 이러한 부품은 더 나은 치밀화를 달성하기 위해 소결됩니다.

FLOW-3D AM 의 자유 표면 추적 알고리즘과 다중 물리 모델은 이러한 각 프로세스를 높은 정확도로 시뮬레이션 할 수 있습니다. 레이저 파우더 베드 융합 (L-PBF) 공정 모델링 단계는 여기에서 자세히 설명합니다. DED 및 바인더 분사 공정에 대한 몇 가지 개념 증명 시뮬레이션도 표시됩니다.

레이저 파우더 베드 퓨전 (L-PBF)

L-PBF 공정에는 유체 흐름, 열 전달, 표면 장력, 상 변화 및 응고와 같은 복잡한 다중 물리학 현상이 포함되어 공정 및 궁극적으로 빌드 품질에 상당한 영향을 미칩니다. FLOW-3D AM 의 물리적 모델은 질량, 운동량 및 에너지 보존 방정식을 동시에 해결하는 동시에 입자 크기 분포 및 패킹 비율을 고려하여 중규모에서 용융 풀 현상을 시뮬레이션합니다.

FLOW-3D DEM FLOW-3D WELD 는 전체 파우더 베드 융합 공정을 시뮬레이션하는 데 사용됩니다. L-PBF 공정의 다양한 단계는 분말 베드 놓기, 분말 용융 및 응고,이어서 이전에 응고 된 층에 신선한 분말을 놓는 것, 그리고 다시 한번 새 층을 이전 층에 녹이고 융합시키는 것입니다. FLOW-3D AM  은 이러한 각 단계를 시뮬레이션하는 데 사용할 수 있습니다.

파우더 베드 부설 공정

FLOW-3D DEM을 사용하면 아래 동영상처럼 입자의 분포를 무작위로 떨어뜨려 파우더 베드 배치 프로세스를 시뮬레이션할 수 있습니다.

다양한 파우더 베드 압축을 달성하는 한 가지 방법은 베드를 놓는 동안 다양한 입자 크기 분포를 선택하는 것입니다. 아래에서 볼 수 있듯이 세 가지 크기의 입자 크기 분포가 있으며, 이는 가장 높은 압축을 제공하는 Case 2와 함께 다양한 분말 베드 압축을 초래합니다.

파우더 베드 분포 다양한 입자 크기 분포
세 가지 다른 입자 크기 분포를 사용하여 파우더 베드 배치
파우더 베드 압축 결과
세 가지 다른 입자 크기 분포를 사용한 분말 베드 압축

입자-입자 상호 작용, 유체-입자 결합 및 입자 이동 물체 상호 작용은 FLOW-3D DEM을 사용하여 자세히 분석 할 수도 있습니다 . 또한 입자간 힘을 지정하여 분말 살포 응용 분야를 보다 정확하게 연구 할 수도 있습니다.

FLOW-3D AM  시뮬레이션은 이산 요소 방법 (DEM)을 사용하여 역 회전하는 원통형 롤러로 인한 분말 확산을 연구합니다. 비디오 시작 부분에서 빌드 플랫폼이 위로 이동하는 동안 분말 저장소가 아래로 이동합니다. 그 직후, 롤러는 분말 입자 (초기 위치에 따라 색상이 지정됨)를 다음 층이 녹고 구축 될 준비를 위해 구축 플랫폼으로 펼칩니다. 이러한 시뮬레이션은 저장소에서 빌드 플랫폼으로 전송되는 분말 입자의 선호 크기에 대한 추가 통찰력을 제공 할 수 있습니다.

파우더 베드 용해

파우더 베드를 놓은 후 FLOW-3D  WELD 에서 레이저 빔 공정 매개 변수를 지정 하여 고 충실도 용융 풀 시뮬레이션을 수행 할 수 있습니다  . 온도, 속도, 고체 분율, 온도 구배 및 고체 속도의 플롯을 자세히 분석 할 수 있습니다.

레이저 출력 200W, 스캔 속도 3.0m / s, 스폿 반경 100μm에서 파우더 베드의 용융 풀 분석.

용융 풀이 응고되면 FLOW-3D AM  압력 및 온도 데이터를 Abaqus 또는 MSC Nastran과 같은 FEA 도구로 가져와 응력 윤곽 및 변위 프로파일을 분석 할 수도 있습니다.

다층 적층 제조

첫 번째 용융 층이 응고되면 입자의 두 번째 층이 응고 층에 증착됩니다. 새로운 분말 입자 층에 레이저 공정 매개 변수를 지정하여 용융 풀 시뮬레이션을 다시 수행합니다. 이 프로세스를 여러 번 반복하여 연속적으로 응고 된 층 간의 융합, 빌드 내 온도 구배를 평가하는 동시에 다공성 또는 기타 결함의 형성을 모니터링 할 수 있습니다.

다층 적층 적층 제조 시뮬레이션

바인더 분사 (Binder jetting)

Binder jetting 시뮬레이션은 모세관 힘의 영향을받는 파우더 베드에서 바인더의 확산 및 침투에 대한 통찰력을 제공합니다. 공정 매개 변수와 재료 특성은 증착 및 확산 공정에 직접적인 영향을 미칩니다.

방향성 에너지 증착

FLOW-3D AM 의 내장 입자 모델 을 사용하여 직접 에너지 증착 프로세스를 시뮬레이션 할 수 있습니다. 분말 주입 속도와 고체 기질에 입사되는 열유속을 지정함으로써 고체 입자는 용융 풀에 질량, 운동량 및 에너지를 추가 할 수 있습니다. 다음 비디오에서 고체 금속 입자가 용융 풀에 주입되고 기판에서 용융 풀의 후속 응고가 관찰됩니다.

dem9
dem10

FLOW DEM

FLOW DEM 은 FLOW-3D 의 기체 및 액체 유동 해석에 DEM(Discrete Element Method : 개별 요소법)공법인 입자의 거동을 분석해주는 모듈입니다.

주요 기능 :고체 요소의 충돌, 스프링(Spring) / 대시 포트(Dash Pot) 모델 적용 Void, 1 fluid, 2 fluid(자유 계면 포함) 각각의 모드에 대응 가변 밀도 / 가변 직경 입자 크기조절로 입자 특성을 유지하면서 입자 수를 감소 독립적인 DEM의 Sub Time Step 이용

Discrete Element Method : 개별 요소법

다수의 고체 요소의 충돌 운동을 분석하는 데 유용합니다. 유동 해석과 함께 사용하면 광범위한 용도에 응용을 할 수 있습니다.

dem1

입자 간의 충돌

Voigt model은 스프링(Spring) 및 대시 포트(Dash pot)의 조합에 의해 입자 충돌 시의 힘을 평가합니다. 탄성력 부분은 스프링 모델에서,
비탄성 충돌의 에너지 소산부분은 대시 포트 모델에서 시뮬레이션되고 있으며, 중량 및 항력은 작용하는 외력으로 고려 될 수 있습니다.

분석 모드

기본적으로 이용하는 운동 방정식은 FLOW-3D 에 사용되는 질량 입자의 운동 방정식과 같은 것이지만, 여기에 DEM으로
평가되는 항목이 추가되기 형태로되어 있으며, 실제 시뮬레이션으로는 ‘void + DEM’, ‘1 Fluid + DEM’ , ‘ 1 Fluid 자유계면 + DEM ‘을 기본 유동 모드로 취급이 가능합니다.

dem4

입자 유형

입자 타입도 표준 기능의 질량 입자 모델처럼 입자 크기 (반경)와 밀도가 동일한 것 외, 크기는 같지만 밀도가 다른 것이나 밀도는 같지만 크기가 다른 것 등도 취급 가능합니다. 이로 인해 표준 질량 입자 모델에서는 입자 간의 상호 작용이 고려되어 있지 않기 때문에 모든 아래에 가라 앉아 버리고 있었지만, FLOW DEM을 이용하여 기하학적 관계를 평가하는 것이 가능합니다.

dem7

응용 분야

1. Mechanical Engineering 분야

수지 충전, 스쿠류 이송, 분말 이송 / Resin filling, screw conveyance, powder conveyance

2. Civil Engineering분야

3. Civil Engineering 분야

파편, 자갈, 낙 성/ Debris flow, gravel, falling rock

dem11

3. Chemical Engineering, Pharmaceutics 분야

유동층, 사이클론, 교반기 / Fluidized bed, cyclone, stirrer

dem12

4. MEMS, Electrical Engineering 분야

하전 입자를 포함한 전기장 해석 등

dem15

입자 그룹 가시화

그룹 가시화

DEM은 일반적으로 다수의 입자를 필요로하는 분석을 상정하고 있습니다. 
다만 이 경우, 계산 부하가 높아 지므로 현실적인 계산자원을 고려하면, 입자 수가 너무 많아 현실적으로 취급 할 수 없는 경우 입자의 특성은 유지하고 숫자를 줄여 가시화할 필요가 있습니다 .
일반적인 유동해석 계산의 메쉬 해상도에 해당합니다.
메쉬 수 많음 (계산 부하 큼) → 소 (계산 부하 적음)
입자 수 다 (계산 부하 큼) → 소 (계산 부하 적음)

원래 입자수
입자 사이즈를 키운경우
그룹 가시화
  • 입자 수를 줄이기 위해 그대로 입경을 크게했을 경우와 그룹 가시화 한 경우의 비교.
  • 입자 크기를 크게하면 개별 입자 특성이 달라지기 때문에 거동이 달라진다. (본 사례에서는 부력이 커진다.)
  • 그룹 가시화의 경우 개별 특성은 동일 원래의 거동과 대체로 일치한다.

주조 시뮬레이션에 DEM 적용

그룹 가시화 비교 예

그룹 가시화한 경우와 입경을 크게하여 수를 줄인 경우, 입경을 크게하면
개별 입자 특성이 변화하여 거동이 바뀌어 버리기 때문에 실제 계산으로는 사용할 수 어렵습니다.

중자 모래 분사 분석

DEM에서의 계산부하를 생각할 때는 입자모델에 의한 안정제한을 고려해야 하지만 서브타임스텝이라는 개념을 도입함으로써 입자의 경우와 유체의 경우의 타임스텝을 바꾸고 필요이상으로 계산시간을 들이지 않고 효율적으로 계산하는 것을 가능하게 하고 있습니다.

이를 통해 예를 들어 중자사 분사 시뮬레이션 실험에서는 이러한 문제로 자주 이용되는 빙엄 유체에서는 실험과의 정합성이 별로 좋지 않기 때문에 당사에서는 이전부터 입상류 모델이라는 모델을 개발하고 연속체로부터의 접근에서도 실험과의 높은 정합성을 실현할 수 있는 모델화를 해왔는데, 이번에 DEM을 사용해도 그것과 거의 같은 결과를 얻습니다. 할 수 있음을 확인할 수 있었다.

Reference :

  • Lefebvre D., Mackenbrock A., Vidal V., Pavan V. and Haigh PM, 2004,
  • Development and use of simulation in the Design of Blown Cores and Moulds

FLOW-3D CAST Bibliography

FLOW-3D CAST bibliography

아래는 FSI의 금속 주조 참고 문헌에 수록된 기술 논문 모음입니다. 이 모든 논문에는 FLOW-3D CAST 해석 결과가 수록되어 있습니다. FLOW-3D CAST를 사용하여 금속 주조 산업의 응용 프로그램을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Metal Casting Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D CAST results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D CAST can be used to successfully simulate applications for the Metal Casting Industry.

33-20     Eric Riedel, Martin Liepe Stefan Scharf, Simulation of ultrasonic induced cavitation and acoustic streaming in liquid and solidifying aluminum, Metals, 10.4; 476, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10040476

20-20   Wu Yue, Li Zhuo and Lu Rong, Simulation and visual tester verification of solid propellant slurry vacuum plate casting, Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, 2020. doi.org/10.1002/prep.201900411

17-20   C.A. Jones, M.R. Jolly, A.E.W. Jarfors and M. Irwin, An experimental characterization of thermophysical properties of a porous ceramic shell used in the investment casting process, Supplimental Proceedings, pp. 1095-1105, TMS 2020 149th Annual Meeting and Exhibition, San Diego, CA, February 23-27, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36296-6_102

12-20   Franz Josef Feikus, Paul Bernsteiner, Ricardo Fernández Gutiérrez and Michal Luszczak , Further development of electric motor housings, MTZ Worldwide, 81, pp. 38-43, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s38313-019-0176-z

09-20   Mingfan Qi, Yonglin Kang, Yuzhao Xu, Zhumabieke Wulabieke and Jingyuan Li, A novel rheological high pressure die-casting process for preparing large thin-walled Al–Si–Fe–Mg–Sr alloy with high heat conductivity, high plasticity and medium strength, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 776, art. no. 139040, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2020.139040

07-20   Stefan Heugenhauser, Erhard Kaschnitz and Peter Schumacher, Development of an aluminum compound casting process – Experiments and numerical simulations, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 279, art. no. 116578, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.116578

05-20   Michail Papanikolaou, Emanuele Pagone, Mark Jolly and Konstantinos Salonitis, Numerical simulation and evaluation of Campbell running and gating systems, Metals, 10.1, art. no. 68, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10010068

102-19   Ferencz Peti and Gabriela Strnad, The effect of squeeze pin dimension and operational parameters on material homogeneity of aluminium high pressure die cast parts, Acta Marisiensis. Seria Technologica, 16.2, 2019. doi.org/0.2478/amset-2019-0010

94-19   E. Riedel, I. Horn, N. Stein, H. Stein, R. Bahr, and S. Scharf, Ultrasonic treatment: a clean technology that supports sustainability incasting processes, Procedia, 26th CIRP Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) Conference, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, May 7-9, 2019. 

93-19   Adrian V. Catalina, Liping Xue, Charles A. Monroe, Robin D. Foley, and John A. Griffin, Modeling and Simulation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi- and AlCu-based Alloys, Transactions, 123rd Metalcasting Congress, Atlanta, GA, USA, April 27-30, 2019. 

84-19   Arun Prabhakar, Michail Papanikolaou, Konstantinos Salonitis, and Mark Jolly, Sand casting of sheet lead: numerical simulation of metal flow and solidification, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, pp. 1-13, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-019-04522-3

72-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Eric Macdonald, Robert Voigt, and Guha Manogharan, Measurement of metal velocity in sand casting during mold filling, Metals, 9:1079, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/met9101079

71-19   Sebastian Findeisen, Robin Van Der Auwera, Michael Heuser, and Franz-Josef Wöstmann, Gießtechnische Fertigung von E-Motorengehäusen mit interner Kühling (Casting production of electric motor housings with internal cooling), Geisserei, 106, pp. 72-78, 2019 (in German).

58-19     Von Malte Leonhard, Matthias Todte, and Jörg Schäffer, Realistic simulation of the combustion of exothermic feeders, Casting, No. 2, pp. 28-32, 2019. In English and German.

52-19     S. Lakkum and P. Kowitwarangkul, Numerical investigations on the effect of gas flow rate in the gas stirred ladle with dual plugs, International Conference on Materials Research and Innovation (ICMARI), Bangkok, Thailand, December 17-21, 2018. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 526, 2019. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/526/1/012028

47-19     Bing Zhou, Shuai Lu, Kaile Xu, Chun Xu, and Zhanyong Wang, Microstructure and simulation of semisolid aluminum alloy castings in the process of stirring integrated transfer-heat (SIT) with water cooling, International Journal of Metalcasting, Online edition, pp. 1-13, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-019-00357-6

31-19     Zihao Yuan, Zhipeng Guo, and S.M. Xiong, Skin layer of A380 aluminium alloy die castings and its blistering during solution treatment, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, Vol. 35, No. 9, pp. 1906-1916, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2019.05.011

25-19     Stefano Mascetti, Raul Pirovano, and Giulio Timelli, Interazione metallo liquido/stampo: Il fenomeno della metallizzazione, La Metallurgia Italiana, No. 4, pp. 44-50, 2019. In Italian.

20-19     Fu-Yuan Hsu, Campbellology for runner system design, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 187-199, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_19

19-19     Chengcheng Lyu, Michail Papanikolaou, and Mark Jolly, Numerical process modelling and simulation of Campbell running systems designs, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 53-64, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_5

18-19     Adrian V. Catalina, Liping Xue, and Charles Monroe, A solidification model with application to AlSi-based alloys, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 201-213, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_20

17-19     Fu-Yuan Hsu and Yu-Hung Chen, The validation of feeder modeling for ductile iron castings, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 227-238, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_22

04-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

02-19   Jingying Sun, Qichi Le, Li Fu, Jing Bai, Johannes Tretter, Klaus Herbold and Hongwei Huo, Gas entrainment behavior of aluminum alloy engine crankcases during the low-pressure-die-casting-process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 266, pp. 274-282, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.11.016

92-18   Fast, Flexible… More Versatile, Foundry Management Technology, March, 2018. 

82-18   Xu Zhao, Ping Wang, Tao Li, Bo-yu Zhang, Peng Wang, Guan-zhou Wang and Shi-qi Lu, Gating system optimization of high pressure die casting thin-wall AlSi10MnMg longitudinal loadbearing beam based on numerical simulation, China Foundry, Vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 436-442, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s41230-018-8052-z

80-18   Michail Papanikolaou, Emanuele Pagone, Konstantinos Salonitis, Mark Jolly and Charalampos Makatsoris, A computational framework towards energy efficient casting processes, Sustainable Design and Manufacturing 2018: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing (KES-SDM-18), Gold Coast, Australia, June 24-26 2018, SIST 130, pp. 263-276, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04290-5_27

64-18   Vasilios Fourlakidis, Ilia Belov and Attila Diószegi, Strength prediction for pearlitic lamellar graphite iron: Model validation, Metals, Vol. 8, No. 9, 2018. doi.org/10.3390/met8090684

51-18   Xue-feng Zhu, Bao-yi Yu, Li Zheng, Bo-ning Yu, Qiang Li, Shu-ning Lü and Hao Zhang, Influence of pouring methods on filling process, microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 Mg alloy pipe by horizontal centrifugal casting, China Foundry, vol. 15, no. 3, pp.196-202, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s41230-018-7256-6

47-18   Santosh Reddy Sama, Jiayi Wang and Guha Manogharan, Non-conventional mold design for metal casting using 3D sand-printing, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, vol. 34-B, pp. 765-775, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2018.03.049

42-18   M. Koru and O. Serçe, The Effects of Thermal and Dynamical Parameters and Vacuum Application on Porosity in High-Pressure Die Casting of A383 Al-Alloy, International Journal of Metalcasting, pp. 1-17, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-018-0214-7

41-18   Abhilash Viswanath, S. Savithri, U.T.S. Pillai, Similitude analysis on flow characteristics of water, A356 and AM50 alloys during LPC process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 257, pp. 270-277, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.02.031

29-18   Seyboldt, Christoph and Liewald, Mathias, Investigation on thixojoining to produce hybrid components with intermetallic phase, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1960, no. 1, 2018. doi.org/10.1063/1.5034992

28-18   Laura Schomer, Mathias Liewald and Kim Rouven Riedmüller, Simulation of the infiltration process of a ceramic open-pore body with a metal alloy in semi-solid state to design the manufacturing of interpenetrating phase composites, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1960, no. 1, 2018. doi.org/10.1063/1.5034991

41-17   Y. N. Wu et al., Numerical Simulation on Filling Optimization of Copper Rotor for High Efficient Electric Motors in Die Casting Process, Materials Science Forum, Vol. 898, pp. 1163-1170, 2017.

12-17   A.M.  Zarubin and O.A. Zarubina, Controlling the flow rate of melt in gravity die casting of aluminum alloys, Liteynoe Proizvodstvo (Casting Manufacturing), pp 16-20, 6, 2017. In Russian.

10-17   A.Y. Korotchenko, Y.V. Golenkov, M.V. Tverskoy and D.E. Khilkov, Simulation of the Flow of Metal Mixtures in the Mold, Liteynoe Proizvodstvo (Casting Manufacturing), pp 18-22, 5, 2017. In Russian.

08-17   Morteza Morakabian Esfahani, Esmaeil Hajjari, Ali Farzadi and Seyed Reza Alavi Zaree, Prediction of the contact time through modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in compound casting process of Al/Mg light metals, Journal of Materials Research, © Materials Research Society 2017

04-17   Huihui Liu, Xiongwei He and Peng Guo, Numerical simulation on semi-solid die-casting of magnesium matrix composite based on orthogonal experiment, AIP Conference Proceedings 1829, 020037 (2017); doi.org/10.1063/1.4979769.

100-16  Robert Watson, New numerical techniques to quantify and predict the effect of entrainment defects, applied to high pressure die casting, PhD Thesis: University of Birmingham, 2016.

88-16   M.C. Carter, T. Kauffung, L. Weyenberg and C. Peters, Low Pressure Die Casting Simulation Discovery through Short Shot, Cast Expo & Metal Casting Congress, April 16-19, 2016, Minneapolis, MN, Copyright 2016 American Foundry Society.

61-16   M. Koru and O. Serçe, Experimental and numerical determination of casting mold interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the high pressure die casting of a 360 aluminum alloy, ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, Vol. 129 (2016)

59-16   R. Pirovano and S. Mascetti, Tracking of collapsed bubbles during a filling simulation, La Metallurgia Italiana – n. 6 2016

43-16   Kevin Lee, Understanding shell cracking during de-wax process in investment casting, Ph.D Thesis: University of Birmingham, School of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2016.

35-16   Konstantinos Salonitis, Mark Jolly, Binxu Zeng, and Hamid Mehrabi, Improvements in energy consumption and environmental impact by novel single shot melting process for casting, Journal of Cleaner Production, doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.165, Open Access funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, June 29, 2016

20-16   Fu-Yuan Hsu, Bifilm Defect Formation in Hydraulic Jump of Liquid Aluminum, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 2016, Band: 47, Heft 3, 1634-1648.

15-16   Mingfan Qia, Yonglin Kanga, Bing Zhoua, Wanneng Liaoa, Guoming Zhua, Yangde Lib,and Weirong Li, A forced convection stirring process for Rheo-HPDC aluminum and magnesium alloys, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 234 (2016) 353–367

112-15   José Miguel Gonçalves Ledo Belo da Costa, Optimization of filling systems for low pressure by FLOW-3D, Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Mecânica, 2015.

89-15   B.W. Zhu, L.X. Li, X. Liu, L.Q. Zhang and R. Xu, Effect of Viscosity Measurement Method to Simulate High Pressure Die Casting of Thin-Wall AlSi10MnMg Alloy Castings, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Published online, November 2015, doi.org/10.1007/s11665-015-1783-8, © ASM International.

88-15   Peng Zhang, Zhenming Li, Baoliang Liu, Wenjiang Ding and Liming Peng, Improved tensile properties of a new aluminum alloy for high pressure die casting, Materials Science & Engineering A651(2016)376–390, Available online, November 2015.

83-15   Zu-Qi Hu, Xin-Jian Zhang and Shu-Sen Wu, Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Die-Filling Behavior of High-Performance Die-Cast Al–Mg–Si–Mn Alloy, Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.), doi.org/10.1007/s40195-015-0332-7, © The Chinese Society for Metals and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.

82-15   J. Müller, L. Xue, M.C. Carter, C. Thoma, M. Fehlbier and M. Todte, A Die Spray Cooling Model for Thermal Die Cycling Simulations, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

81-15   M. T. Murray, L.F. Hansen, L. Chilcott, E. Li and A.M. Murray, Case Studies in the Use of Simulation- Improved Yield and Reduced Time to Market, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

80-15   R. Bhola, S. Chandra and D. Souders, Predicting Castability of Thin-Walled Parts for the HPDC Process Using Simulations, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

76-15   Prosenjit Das, Sudip K. Samanta, Shashank Tiwari and Pradip Dutta, Die Filling Behaviour of Semi Solid A356 Al Alloy Slurry During Rheo Pressure Die Casting, Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, pp 1-6, October 2015

74-15   Murat KORU and Orhan SERÇE, Yüksek Basınçlı Döküm Prosesinde Enjeksiyon Parametrelerine Bağlı Olarak Döküm Simülasyon, Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Science, Science Journal (CSJ), Vol. 36, No: 5 (2015) ISSN: 1300-1949, May 2015

69-15   A. Viswanath, S. Sivaraman, U. T. S. Pillai, Computer Simulation of Low Pressure Casting Process Using FLOW-3D, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 830-831, pp. 45-48, September 2015

68-15   J. Aneesh Kumar, K. Krishnakumar and S. Savithri, Computer Simulation of Centrifugal Casting Process Using FLOW-3D, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 830-831, pp. 53-56, September 2015

59-15   F. Hosseini Yekta and S. A. Sadough Vanini, Simulation of the flow of semi-solid steel alloy using an enhanced model, Metals and Materials International, August 2015.

44-15   Ulrich E. Klotz, Tiziana Heiss and Dario Tiberto, Platinum investment casting material properties, casting simulation and optimum process parameters, Jewelry Technology Forum 2015

41-15   M. Barkhudarov and R. Pirovano, Minimizing Air Entrainment in High Pressure Die Casting Shot Sleeves, GIFA 2015, Düsseldorf, Germany

40-15   M. Todte, A. Fent, and H. Lang, Simulation in support of the development of innovative processes in the casting industry, GIFA 2015, Düsseldorf, Germany

19-15   Bruce Morey, Virtual casting improves powertrain design, Automotive Engineering, SAE International, March 2015.

15-15   K.S. Oh, J.D. Lee, S.J. Kim and J.Y. Choi, Development of a large ingot continuous caster, Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 203 (2015) © EDP Sciences, 2015, doi.org/10.1051/metal/2015006, www.metallurgical-research.org

14-15   Tiziana Heiss, Ulrich E. Klotz and Dario Tiberto, Platinum Investment Casting, Part I: Simulation and Experimental Study of the Casting Process, Johnson Matthey Technol. Rev., 2015, 59, (2), 95, doi.org/10.1595/205651315×687399

138-14 Christopher Thoma, Wolfram Volk, Ruben Heid, Klaus Dilger, Gregor Banner and Harald Eibisch, Simulation-based prediction of the fracture elongation as a failure criterion for thin-walled high-pressure die casting components, International Journal of Metalcasting, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 47-54, 2014. doi.org/10.1007/BF03355594

107-14  Mehran Seyed Ahmadi, Dissolution of Si in Molten Al with Gas Injection, ProQuest Dissertations And Theses; Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Toronto (Canada), 2014; Publication Number: AAT 3637106; ISBN: 9781321195231; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 76-02(E), Section: B.; 191 p.

99-14   R. Bhola and S. Chandra, Predicting Castability for Thin-Walled HPDC Parts, Foundry Management Technology, December 2014

92-14   Warren Bishenden and Changhua Huang, Venting design and process optimization of die casting process for structural components; Part II: Venting design and process optimization, Die Casting Engineer, November 2014

90-14   Ken’ichi Kanazawa, Ken’ichi Yano, Jun’ichi Ogura, and Yasunori Nemoto, Optimum Runner Design for Die-Casting using CFD Simulations and Verification with Water-Model Experiments, Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2014, November 14-20, 2014, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, IMECE2014-37419

89-14   P. Kapranos, C. Carney, A. Pola, and M. Jolly, Advanced Casting Methodologies: Investment Casting, Centrifugal Casting, Squeeze Casting, Metal Spinning, and Batch Casting, In Comprehensive Materials Processing; McGeough, J., Ed.; 2014, Elsevier Ltd., 2014; Vol. 5, pp 39–67.

77-14   Andrei Y. Korotchenko, Development of Scientific and Technological Approaches to Casting Net-Shaped Castings in Sand Molds Free of Shrinkage Defects and Hot Tears, Post-doctoral thesis: Russian State Technological University, 2014. In Russian.

69-14   L. Xue, M.C. Carter, A.V. Catalina, Z. Lin, C. Li, and C. Qiu, Predicting, Preventing Core Gas Defects in Steel Castings, Modern Casting, September 2014

68-14   L. Xue, M.C. Carter, A.V. Catalina, Z. Lin, C. Li, and C. Qiu, Numerical Simulation of Core Gas Defects in Steel Castings, Copyright 2014 American Foundry Society, 118th Metalcasting Congress, April 8 – 11, 2014, Schaumburg, IL

51-14   Jesus M. Blanco, Primitivo Carranza, Rafael Pintos, Pedro Arriaga, and Lakhdar Remaki, Identification of Defects Originated during the Filling of Cast Pieces through Particles Modelling, 11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM XI), 5th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM V), 6th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ECFD VI), E. Oñate, J. Oliver and A. Huerta (Eds)

47-14   B. Vijaya Ramnatha, C.Elanchezhiana, Vishal Chandrasekhar, A. Arun Kumarb, S. Mohamed Asif, G. Riyaz Mohamed, D. Vinodh Raj , C .Suresh Kumar, Analysis and Optimization of Gating System for Commutator End Bracket, Procedia Materials Science 6 ( 2014 ) 1312 – 1328, 3rd International Conference on Materials Processing and Characterisation (ICMPC 2014)

42-14  Bing Zhou, Yong-lin Kang, Guo-ming Zhu, Jun-zhen Gao, Ming-fan Qi, and Huan-huan Zhang, Forced convection rheoforming process for preparation of 7075 aluminum alloy semisolid slurry and its numerical simulation, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 24(2014) 1109−1116

37-14    A. Karwinski, W. Lesniewski, P. Wieliczko, and M. Malysza, Casting of Titanium Alloys in Centrifugal Induction Furnaces, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, Volume 59, Issue 1, doi.org/10.2478/amm-2014-0068, 2014.

26-14    Bing Zhou, Yonglin Kang, Mingfan Qi, Huanhuan Zhang and Guoming ZhuR-HPDC Process with Forced Convection Mixing Device for Automotive Part of A380 Aluminum Alloy, Materials 2014, 7, 3084-3105; doi.org/10.3390/ma7043084

20-14  Johannes Hartmann, Tobias Fiegl, Carolin Körner, Aluminum integral foams with tailored density profile by adapted blowing agents, Applied Physics A, doi.org/10.1007/s00339-014-8377-4, March 2014.

19-14    A.Y. Korotchenko, N.A. Nikiforova, E.D. Demjanov, N.C. Larichev, The Influence of the Filling Conditions on the Service Properties of the Part Side Frame, Russian Foundryman, 1 (January), pp 40-43, 2014. In Russian.

11-14 B. Fuchs and C. Körner, Mesh resolution consideration for the viability prediction of lost salt cores in the high pressure die casting process, Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2014, Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

08-14 FY Hsu, SW Wang, and HJ Lin, The External and Internal Shrinkages in Aluminum Gravity Castings, Shape Casting: 5th International Symposium 2014. Available online at Google Books

103-13  B. Fuchs, H. Eibisch and C. Körner, Core Viability Simulation for Salt Core Technology in High-Pressure Die Casting, International Journal of Metalcasting, July 2013, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 39–45

94-13    Randall S. Fielding, J. Crapps, C. Unal, and J.R.Kennedy, Metallic Fuel Casting Development and Parameter Optimization Simulations, International Conference on Fast reators and Related Fuel Cycles (FR13), 4-7 March 2013, Paris France

90-13  A. Karwińskia, M. Małyszaa, A. Tchórza, A. Gila, B. Lipowska, Integration of Computer Tomography and Simulation Analysis in Evaluation of Quality of Ceramic-Carbon Bonded Foam Filter, Archives of Foundry Engineering, doi.org/10.2478/afe-2013-0084, Published quarterly as the organ of the Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ISSN, (2299-2944), Volume 13, Issue 4/2013

88-13  Litie and Metallurgia (Casting and Metallurgy), 3 (72), 2013, N.V.Sletova, I.N.Volnov, S.P.Zadrutsky, V.A.Chaikin, Modeling of the Process of Removing Non-metallic Inclusions in Aluminum Alloys Using the FLOW-3D program, pp 138-140. In Russian.

85-13    Michał Szucki,Tomasz Goraj, Janusz Lelito, Józef S. Suchy, Numerical Analysis of Solid Particles Flow in Liquid Metal, XXXVII International Scientific Conference Foundryman’ Day 2013, Krakow, 28-29 November 2013

84-13  Körner, C., Schwankl, M., Himmler, D., Aluminum-Aluminum compound castings by electroless deposited zinc layers, Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2014), doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.12.01483-13.

77-13  Antonio Armillotta & Raffaello Baraggi & Simone Fasoli, SLM tooling for die casting with conformal cooling channels, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, doi.org/10.1007/s00170-013-5523-7, December 2013.

64-13   Johannes Hartmann, Christina Blümel, Stefan Ernst, Tobias Fiegl, Karl-Ernst Wirth, Carolin Körner, Aluminum integral foam castings with microcellular cores by nano-functionalization, J Mater Sci, doi.org/10.1007/s10853-013-7668-z, September 2013.

46-13  Nicholas P. Orenstein, 3D Flow and Temperature Analysis of Filling a Plutonium Mold, LA-UR-13-25537, Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Los Alamos Annual Student Symposium 2013, 2013-07-24 (Rev.1)

42-13   Yang Yue, William D. Griffiths, and Nick R. Green, Modelling of the Effects of Entrainment Defects on Mechanical Properties in a Cast Al-Si-Mg Alloy, Materials Science Forum, 765, 225, 2013.

39-13  J. Crapps, D.S. DeCroix, J.D Galloway, D.A. Korzekwa, R. Aikin, R. Fielding, R. Kennedy, C. Unal, Separate effects identification via casting process modeling for experimental measurement of U-Pu-Zr alloys, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 15 July 2013.

35-13   A. Pari, Real Life Problem Solving through Simulations in the Die Casting Industry – Case Studies, © Die Casting Engineer, July 2013.

34-13  Martin Lagler, Use of Simulation to Predict the Viability of Salt Cores in the HPDC Process – Shot Curve as a Decisive Criterion, © Die Casting Engineer, July 2013.

24-13    I.N.Volnov, Optimizatsia Liteynoi Tekhnologii, (Casting Technology Optimization), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), 3, 2013, 27-29. In Russian

23-13  M.R. Barkhudarov, I.N. Volnov, Minimizatsia Zakhvata Vozdukha v Kamere Pressovania pri Litie pod Davleniem, (Minimization of Air Entrainment in the Shot Sleeve During High Pressure Die Casting), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), 3, 2013, 30-34. In Russian

09-13  M.C. Carter and L. Xue, Simulating the Parameters that Affect Core Gas Defects in Metal Castings, Copyright 2012 American Foundry Society, Presented at the 2013 CastExpo, St. Louis, Missouri, April 2013

08-13  C. Reilly, N.R. Green, M.R. Jolly, J.-C. Gebelin, The Modelling Of Oxide Film Entrainment In Casting Systems Using Computational Modelling, Applied Mathematical Modelling, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2013.03.061, April 2013.

03-13  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A fast simulation of transient metal flow and solidification in a narrow channel. Part II. Model validation and parametric study, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.12.061.

02-13  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A fast simulation of transient metal flow and solidification in a narrow channel. Part I: Model development using lubrication approximation, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.12.060.

116-12  Jufu Jianga, Ying Wang, Gang Chena, Jun Liua, Yuanfa Li and Shoujing Luo, “Comparison of mechanical properties and microstructure of AZ91D alloy motorcycle wheels formed by die casting and double control forming, Materials & Design, Volume 40, September 2012, Pages 541-549.

107-12  F.K. Arslan, A.H. Hatman, S.Ö. Ertürk, E. Güner, B. Güner, An Evaluation for Fundamentals of Die Casting Materials Selection and Design, IMMC’16 International Metallurgy & Materials Congress, Istanbul, Turkey, 2012.

103-12 WU Shu-sen, ZHONG Gu, AN Ping, WAN Li, H. NAKAE, Microstructural characteristics of Al−20Si−2Cu−0.4Mg−1Ni alloy formed by rheo-squeeze casting after ultrasonic vibration treatment, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 22 (2012) 2863-2870, November 2012. Full paper available online.

109-12 Alexandre Reikher, Numerical Analysis of Die-Casting Process in Thin Cavities Using Lubrication Approximation, Ph.D. Thesis: The University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Engineering Department (2012) Theses and Dissertations. Paper 65.

97-12 Hong Zhou and Li Heng Luo, Filling Pattern of Step Gating System in Lost Foam Casting Process and its Application, Advanced Materials Research, Volumes 602-604, Progress in Materials and Processes, 1916-1921, December 2012.

93-12  Liangchi Zhang, Chunliang Zhang, Jeng-Haur Horng and Zichen Chen, Functions of Step Gating System in the Lost Foam Casting Process, Advanced Materials Research, 591-593, 940, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.591-593.940, November 2012.

91-12  Hong Yan, Jian Bin Zhu, Ping Shan, Numerical Simulation on Rheo-Diecasting of Magnesium Matrix Composites, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.192-193.287, Solid State Phenomena, 192-193, 287.

89-12  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A Fast Numerical Simulation for Modeling Simultaneous Metal Flow and Solidification in Thin Cavities Using the Lubrication Approximation, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications: An International Journal of Computation and Methodology, 63:2, 75-100, November 2012.

82-12  Jufu Jiang, Gang Chen, Ying Wang, Zhiming Du, Weiwei Shan, and Yuanfa Li, Microstructure and mechanical properties of thin-wall and high-rib parts of AM60B Mg alloy formed by double control forming and die casting under the optimal conditions, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2012.10.086, October 2012.

78-12   A. Pari, Real Life Problem Solving through Simulations in the Die Casting Industry – Case Studies, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

77-12  Y. Wang, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian and R.A. Miller, Rheological behavior models of metal matrix alloys in semi-solid casting process, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

76-12  A. Reikher and H. Gerber, Analysis of Solidification Parameters During the Die Cast Process, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

75-12 R.A. Miller, Y. Wang and K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, Estimating Cavity Fill Time, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012Indianapolis, IN.

65-12  X.H. Yang, T.J. Lu, T. Kim, Influence of non-conducting pore inclusions on phase change behavior of porous media with constant heat flux boundaryInternational Journal of Thermal Sciences, Available online 10 October 2012. Available online at SciVerse.

55-12  Hejun Li, Pengyun Wang, Lehua Qi, Hansong Zuo, Songyi Zhong, Xianghui Hou, 3D numerical simulation of successive deposition of uniform molten Al droplets on a moving substrate and experimental validation, Computational Materials Science, Volume 65, December 2012, Pages 291–301.

52-12 Hongbing Ji, Yixin Chen and Shengzhou Chen, Numerical Simulation of Inner-Outer Couple Cooling Slab Continuous Casting in the Filling Process, Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 557-559), Advanced Materials and Processes II, pp. 2257-2260, July 2012.

47-12    Petri Väyrynen, Lauri Holappa, and Seppo Louhenkilpi, Simulation of Melting of Alloying Materials in Steel Ladle, SCANMET IV – 4th International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, Lulea, Sweden, June 10-13, 2012.

46-12  Bin Zhang and Dave Salee, Metal Flow and Heat Transfer in Billet DC Casting Using Wagstaff® Optifill™ Metal Distribution Systems, 5th International Metal Quality Workshop, United Arab Emirates Dubai, March 18-22, 2012.

45-12 D.R. Gunasegaram, M. Givord, R.G. O’Donnell and B.R. Finnin, Improvements engineered in UTS and elongation of aluminum alloy high pressure die castings through the alteration of runner geometry and plunger velocity, Materials Science & Engineering.

44-12    Antoni Drys and Stefano Mascetti, Aluminum Casting Simulations, Desktop Engineering, September 2012

42-12   Huizhen Duan, Jiangnan Shen and Yanping Li, Comparative analysis of HPDC process of an auto part with ProCAST and FLOW-3D, Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 184-185 (2012) pp 90-94, Online available since 2012/Jun/14 at www.scientific.net, © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.184-185.90.

41-12    Deniece R. Korzekwa, Cameron M. Knapp, David A. Korzekwa, and John W. Gibbs, Co-Design – Fabrication of Unalloyed Plutonium, LA-UR-12-23441, MDI Summer Research Group Workshop Advanced Manufacturing, 2012-07-25/2012-07-26 (Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States)

29-12  Dario Tiberto and Ulrich E. Klotz, Computer simulation applied to jewellery casting: challenges, results and future possibilities, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.33 012008. Full paper available at IOP.

28-12  Y Yue and N R Green, Modelling of different entrainment mechanisms and their influences on the mechanical reliability of Al-Si castings, 2012 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 33,012072.Full paper available at IOP.

27-12  E Kaschnitz, Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes, 2012 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 33 012031, Issue 1. Full paper available at IOP.

15-12  C. Reilly, N.R Green, M.R. Jolly, The Present State Of Modeling Entrainment Defects In The Shape Casting Process, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Available online 27 April 2012, ISSN 0307-904X, 10.1016/j.apm.2012.04.032.

12-12   Andrei Starobin, Tony Hirt, Hubert Lang, and Matthias Todte, Core drying simulation and validation, International Foundry Research, GIESSEREIFORSCHUNG 64 (2012) No. 1, ISSN 0046-5933, pp 2-5

10-12  H. Vladimir Martínez and Marco F. Valencia (2012). Semisolid Processing of Al/β-SiC Composites by Mechanical Stirring Casting and High Pressure Die Casting, Recent Researches in Metallurgical Engineering – From Extraction to Forming, Dr Mohammad Nusheh (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0356-1, InTech

07-12     Amir H. G. Isfahani and James M. Brethour, Simulating Thermal Stresses and Cooling Deformations, Die Casting Engineer, March 2012

06-12   Shuisheng Xie, Youfeng He and Xujun Mi, Study on Semi-solid Magnesium Alloys Slurry Preparation and Continuous Roll-casting Process, Magnesium Alloys – Design, Processing and Properties, ISBN: 978-953-307-520-4, InTech.

04-12 J. Spangenberg, N. Roussel, J.H. Hattel, H. Stang, J. Skocek, M.R. Geiker, Flow induced particle migration in fresh concrete: Theoretical frame, numerical simulations and experimental results on model fluids, Cement and Concrete Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.01.007, February 2012.

01-12   Lee, B., Baek, U., and Han, J., Optimization of Gating System Design for Die Casting of Thin Magnesium Alloy-Based Multi-Cavity LCD Housings, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Springer New York, Issn: 1059-9495, 10.1007/s11665-011-0111-1, Volume 1 / 1992 – Volume 21 / 2012. Available online at Springer Link.

104-11  Fu-Yuan Hsu and Huey Jiuan Lin, Foam Filters Used in Gravity Casting, Metall and Materi Trans B (2011) 42: 1110. doi:10.1007/s11663-011-9548-8.

99-11    Eduardo Trejo, Centrifugal Casting of an Aluminium Alloy, thesis: Doctor of Philosophy, Metallurgy and Materials School of Engineering University of Birmingham, October 2011. Full paper available upon request.

93-11  Olga Kononova, Andrejs Krasnikovs ,Videvuds Lapsa,Jurijs Kalinka and Angelina Galushchak, Internal Structure Formation in High Strength Fiber Concrete during Casting, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 59 2011

76-11  J. Hartmann, A. Trepper, and C. Körner, Aluminum Integral Foams with Near-Microcellular Structure, Advanced Engineering Materials 2011, Volume 13 (2011) No. 11, © Wiley-VCH

71-11  Fu-Yuan Hsu and Yao-Ming Yang Confluence Weld in an Aluminum Gravity Casting, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Available online 23 November 2011, ISSN 0924-0136, 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2011.11.006.

65-11     V.A. Chaikin, A.V. Chaikin, I.N.Volnov, A Study of the Process of Late Modification Using Simulation, in Zagotovitelnye Proizvodstva v Mashinostroenii, 10, 2011, 8-12. In Russian.

54-11  Ngadia Taha Niane and Jean-Pierre Michalet, Validation of Foundry Process for Aluminum Parts with FLOW-3D Software, Proceedings of the 2011 International Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, 2011.

51-11    A. Reikher and H. Gerber, Calculation of the Die Cast parameters of the Thin Wall Aluminum Cast Part, 2011 Die Casting Congress & Tabletop, Columbus, OH, September 19-21, 2011

50-11   Y. Wang, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, and R.A. Miller, Runner design optimization based on CFD simulation for a die with multiple cavities, 2011 Die Casting Congress & Tabletop, Columbus, OH, September 19-21, 2011

48-11 A. Karwiński, W. Leśniewski, S. Pysz, P. Wieliczko, The technology of precision casting of titanium alloys by centrifugal process, Archives of Foundry Engineering, ISSN: 1897-3310), Volume 11, Issue 3/2011, 73-80, 2011.

46-11  Daniel Einsiedler, Entwicklung einer Simulationsmethodik zur Simulation von Strömungs- und Trocknungsvorgängen bei Kernfertigungsprozessen mittels CFD (Development of a simulation methodology for simulating flow and drying operations in core production processes using CFD), MSc thesis at Technical University of Aalen in Germany (Hochschule Aalen), 2011.

44-11  Bin Zhang and Craig Shaber, Aluminum Ingot Thermal Stress Development Modeling of the Wagstaff® EpsilonTM Rolling Ingot DC Casting System during the Start-up Phase, Materials Science Forum Vol. 693 (2011) pp 196-207, © 2011 Trans Tech Publications, July, 2011.

43-11 Vu Nguyen, Patrick Rohan, John Grandfield, Alex Levin, Kevin Naidoo, Kurt Oswald, Guillaume Girard, Ben Harker, and Joe Rea, Implementation of CASTfill low-dross pouring system for ingot casting, Materials Science Forum Vol. 693 (2011) pp 227-234, © 2011 Trans Tech Publications, July, 2011.

40-11  A. Starobin, D. Goettsch, M. Walker, D. Burch, Gas Pressure in Aluminum Block Water Jacket Cores, © 2011 American Foundry Society, International Journal of Metalcasting/Summer 2011

37-11 Ferencz Peti, Lucian Grama, Analyze of the Possible Causes of Porosity Type Defects in Aluminum High Pressure Diecast Parts, Scientific Bulletin of the Petru Maior University of Targu Mures, Vol. 8 (XXV) no. 1, 2011, ISSN 1841-9267

31-11  Johannes Hartmann, André Trepper, Carolin Körner, Aluminum Integral Foams with Near-Microcellular Structure, Advanced Engineering Materials, 13: n/a. doi: 10.1002/adem.201100035, June 2011.

27-11  A. Pari, Optimization of HPDC Process using Flow Simulation Case Studies, Die Casting Engineer, July 2011

26-11    A. Reikher, H. Gerber, Calculation of the Die Cast Parameters of the Thin Wall Aluminum Die Casting Part, Die Casting Engineer, July 2011

21-11 Thang Nguyen, Vu Nguyen, Morris Murray, Gary Savage, John Carrig, Modelling Die Filling in Ultra-Thin Aluminium Castings, Materials Science Forum (Volume 690), Light Metals Technology V, pp 107-111, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.690.107, June 2011.

19-11 Jon Spangenberg, Cem Celal Tutum, Jesper Henri Hattel, Nicolas Roussel, Metter Rica Geiker, Optimization of Casting Process Parameters for Homogeneous Aggregate Distribution in Self-Compacting Concrete: A Feasibility Study, © IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2011, New Orleans, USA

16-11  A. Starobin, C.W. Hirt, H. Lang, and M. Todte, Core Drying Simulation and Validations, AFS Proceedings 2011, © American Foundry Society, Presented at the 115th Metalcasting Congress, Schaumburg, Illinois, April 2011.

15-11  J. J. Hernández-Ortega, R. Zamora, J. López, and F. Faura, Numerical Analysis of Air Pressure Effects on the Flow Pattern during the Filling of a Vertical Die Cavity, AIP Conf. Proc., Volume 1353, pp. 1238-1243, The 14th International Esaform Conference on Material Forming: Esaform 2011; doi:10.1063/1.3589686, May 2011. Available online.

10-11 Abbas A. Khalaf and Sumanth Shankar, Favorable Environment for Nondentric Morphology in Controlled Diffusion Solidification, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-011-0641-z, © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2011, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, March 11, 2011.

08-11 Hai Peng Li, Chun Yong Liang, Li Hui Wang, Hong Shui Wang, Numerical Simulation of Casting Process for Gray Iron Butterfly Valve, Advanced Materials Research, 189-193, 260, February 2011.

04-11  C.W. Hirt, Predicting Core Shooting, Drying and Defect Development, Foundry Management & Technology, January 2011.

76-10  Zhizhong Sun, Henry Hu, Alfred Yu, Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of Squeeze Casting Magnesium Alloy AM50, Magnesium Technology 2010, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & ExhibitionFebruary 14-18, 2010, Seattle, WA.

68-10  A. Reikher, H. Gerber, K.M. Pillai, T.-C. Jen, Natural Convection—An Overlooked Phenomenon of the Solidification Process, Die Casting Engineer, January 2010

54-10    Andrea Bernardoni, Andrea Borsi, Stefano Mascetti, Alessandro Incognito and Matteo Corrado, Fonderia Leonardo aveva ragione! L’enorme cavallo dedicato a Francesco Sforza era materialmente realizzabile, A&C – Analisis e Calcolo, Giugno 2010. In  Italian.

48-10  J. J. Hernández-Ortega, R. Zamora, J. Palacios, J. López and F. Faura, An Experimental and Numerical Study of Flow Patterns and Air Entrapment Phenomena During the Filling of a Vertical Die Cavity, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., October 2010, Volume 132, Issue 5, 05101, doi:10.1115/1.4002535.

47-10  A.V. Chaikin, I.N. Volnov, and V.A. Chaikin, Development of Dispersible Mixed Inoculant Compositions Using the FLOW-3D Program, Liteinoe Proizvodstvo, October, 2010, in Russian.

42-10  H. Lakshmi, M.C. Vinay Kumar, Raghunath, P. Kumar, V. Ramanarayanan, K.S.S. Murthy, P. Dutta, Induction reheating of A356.2 aluminum alloy and thixocasting as automobile component, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China 20(20101) s961-s967.

41-10  Pamela J. Waterman, Understanding Core-Gas Defects, Desktop Engineering, October 2010. Available online at Desktop Engineering. Also published in the Foundry Trade Journal, November 2010.

39-10  Liu Zheng, Jia Yingying, Mao Pingli, Li Yang, Wang Feng, Wang Hong, Zhou Le, Visualization of Die Casting Magnesium Alloy Steering Bracket, Special Casting & Nonferrous Alloys, ISSN: 1001-2249, CN: 42-1148/TG, 2010-04. In Chinese.

37-10  Morris Murray, Lars Feldager Hansen, and Carl Reinhardt, I Have Defects – Now What, Die Casting Engineer, September 2010

36-10  Stefano Mascetti, Using Flow Analysis Software to Optimize Piston Velocity for an HPDC Process, Die Casting Engineer, September 2010. Also available in Italian: Ottimizzare la velocita del pistone in pressofusione.  A & C, Analisi e Calcolo, Anno XII, n. 42, Gennaio 2011, ISSN 1128-3874.

32-10  Guan Hai Yan, Sheng Dun Zhao, Zheng Hui Sha, Parameters Optimization of Semisolid Diecasting Process for Air-Conditioner’s Triple Valve in HPb59-1 Alloy, Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 129 – 131), Vol. Material and Manufacturing Technology, pp. 936-941, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.129-131.936, August 2010.

29-10 Zheng Peng, Xu Jun, Zhang Zhifeng, Bai Yuelong, and Shi Likai, Numerical Simulation of Filling of Rheo-diecasting A357 Aluminum Alloy, Special Casting & Nonferrous Alloys, DOI: CNKI:SUN:TZZZ.0.2010-01-024, 2010.

27-10 For an Aerospace Diecasting, Littler Uses Simulation to Reveal Defects, and Win a New Order, Foundry Management & Technology, July 2010

23-10 Michael R. Barkhudarov, Minimizing Air Entrainment, The Canadian Die Caster, June 2010

15-10 David H. Kirkwood, Michel Suery, Plato Kapranos, Helen V. Atkinson, and Kenneth P. Young, Semi-solid Processing of Alloys, 2010, XII, 172 p. 103 illus., 19 in color., Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-642-00705-7.

09-10  Shannon Wetzel, Fullfilling Da Vinci’s Dream, Modern Casting, April 2010.

08-10 B.I. Semenov, K.M. Kushtarov, Semi-solid Manufacturing of Castings, New Industrial Technologies, Publication of Moscow State Technical University n.a. N.E. Bauman, 2009 (in Russian)

07-10 Carl Reilly, Development Of Quantitative Casting Quality Assessment Criteria Using Process Modelling, thesis: The University of Birmingham, March 2010 (Available upon request)

06-10 A. Pari, Optimization of HPDC Process using Flow Simulation – Case Studies, CastExpo ’10, NADCA, Orlando, Florida, March 2010

05-10 M.C. Carter, S. Palit, and M. Littler, Characterizing Flow Losses Occurring in Air Vents and Ejector Pins in High Pressure Die Castings, CastExpo ’10, NADCA, Orlando, Florida, March 2010

04-10 Pamela Waterman, Simulating Porosity Factors, Foundry Management Technology, March 2010, Article available at Foundry Management Technology

03-10 C. Reilly, M.R. Jolly, N.R. Green, JC Gebelin, Assessment of Casting Filling by Modeling Surface Entrainment Events Using CFD, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Jim Evans Honorary Symposium), Seattle, Washington, USA, February 14-18, 2010

02-10 P. Väyrynen, S. Wang, J. Laine and S.Louhenkilpi, Control of Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Inclusions in Continuous Casting – CFD and Neural Network Studies, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Jim Evans Honorary Symposium), Seattle, Washington, USA, February 14-18, 2010

60-09   Somlak Wannarumon, and Marco Actis Grande, Comparisons of Computer Fluid Dynamic Software Programs applied to Jewelry Investment Casting Process, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 55 2009.

59-09   Marco Actis Grande and Somlak Wannarumon, Numerical Simulation of Investment Casting of Gold Jewelry: Experiments and Validations, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol:3 2009-07-24

56-09  Jozef Kasala, Ondrej Híreš, Rudolf Pernis, Start-up Phase Modeling of Semi Continuous Casting Process of Brass Billets, Metal 2009, 19.-21.5.2009

51-09  In-Ting Hong, Huan-Chien Tung, Chun-Hao Chiu and Hung-Shang Huang, Effect of Casting Parameters on Microstructure and Casting Quality of Si-Al Alloy for Vacuum Sputtering, China Steel Technical Report, No. 22, pp. 33-40, 2009.

42-09  P. Väyrynen, S. Wang, S. Louhenkilpi and L. Holappa, Modeling and Removal of Inclusions in Continuous Casting, Materials Science & Technology 2009 Conference & Exhibition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, October 25-29, 2009

41-09 O.Smirnov, P.Väyrynen, A.Kravchenko and S.Louhenkilpi, Modern Methods of Modeling Fluid Flow and Inclusions Motion in Tundish Bath – General View, Proceedings of Steelsim 2009 – 3rd International Conference on Simulation and Modelling of Metallurgical Processes in Steelmaking, Leoben, Austria, September 8-10, 2009

21-09 A. Pari, Case Studies – Optimization of HPDC Process Using Flow Simulation, Die Casting Engineer, July 2009

20-09 M. Sirvio, M. Wos, Casting directly from a computer model by using advanced simulation software, FLOW-3D Cast, Archives of Foundry Engineering Volume 9, Issue 1/2009, 79-82

19-09 Andrei Starobin, C.W. Hirt, D. Goettsch, A Model for Binder Gas Generation and Transport in Sand Cores and Molds, Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Solidification Processes XII, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Minerals Society), June 2009

11-09 Michael Barkhudarov, Minimizing Air Entrainment in a Shot Sleeve during Slow-Shot Stage, Die Casting Engineer (The North American Die Casting Association ISSN 0012-253X), May 2009

10-09 A. Reikher, H. Gerber, Application of One-Dimensional Numerical Simulation to Optimize Process Parameters of a Thin-Wall Casting in High Pressure Die Casting, Die Casting Engineer (The North American Die Casting Association ISSN 0012-253X), May 2009

7-09 Andrei Starobin, Simulation of Core Gas Evolution and Flow, presented at the North American Die Casting Association – 113th Metalcasting Congress, April 7-10, 2009, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

6-09 A.Pari, Optimization of HPDC PROCESS: Case Studies, North American Die Casting Association – 113th Metalcasting Congress, April 7-10, 2009, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

2-09 C. Reilly, N.R. Green and M.R. Jolly, Oxide Entrainment Structures in Horizontal Running Systems, TMS 2009, San Francisco, California, February 2009

30-08 I.N.Volnov, Computer Modeling of Casting of Pipe Fittings, © 2008, Pipe Fittings, 5 (38), 2008. Russian version

28-08 A.V.Chaikin, I.N.Volnov, V.A.Chaikin, Y.A.Ukhanov, N.R.Petrov, Analysis of the Efficiency of Alloy Modifiers Using Statistics and Modeling, © 2008, Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), October, 2008

27-08 P. Scarber, Jr., H. Littleton, Simulating Macro-Porosity in Aluminum Lost Foam Castings, American Foundry Society, © 2008, AFS Lost Foam Conference, Asheville, North Carolina, October, 2008

25-08 FMT Staff, Forecasting Core Gas Pressures with Computer Simulation, Foundry Management and Technology, October 28, 2008 © 2008 Penton Media, Inc. Online article

24-08 Core and Mold Gas Evolution, Foundry Management and Technology, January 24, 2008 (excerpted from the FM&T May 2007 issue) © 2008 Penton Media, Inc.

22-08 Mark Littler, Simulation Eliminates Die Casting Scrap, Modern Casting/September 2008

21-08 X. Chen, D. Penumadu, Permeability Measurement and Numerical Modeling for Refractory Porous Materials, AFS Transactions © 2008 American Foundry Society, CastExpo ’08, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

20-08 Rolf Krack, Using Solidification Simulations for Optimising Die Cooling Systems, FTJ July/August 2008

19-08 Mark Littler, Simulation Software Eliminates Die Casting Scrap, ECS Casting Innovations, July/August 2008

13-08 T. Yoshimura, K. Yano, T. Fukui, S. Yamamoto, S. Nishido, M. Watanabe and Y. Nemoto, Optimum Design of Die Casting Plunger Tip Considering Air Entrainment, Proceedings of 10th Asian Foundry Congress (AFC10), Nagoya, Japan, May 2008

08-08 Stephen Instone, Andreas Buchholz and Gerd-Ulrich Gruen, Inclusion Transport Phenomena in Casting Furnaces, Light Metals 2008, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), 2008

07-08 P. Scarber, Jr., H. Littleton, Simulating Macro-Porosity in Aluminum Lost Foam Casting, AFS Transactions 2008 © American Foundry Society, CastExpo ’08, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

06-08 A. Reikher, H. Gerber and A. Starobin, Multi-Stage Plunger Deceleration System, CastExpo ’08, NADCA, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

05-08 Amol Palekar, Andrei Starobin, Alexander Reikher, Die-casting end-of-fill and drop forge viscometer flow transients examined with a coupled-motion numerical model, 68th World Foundry Congress, Chennai, India, February 2008

03-08 Petri J. Väyrynen, Sami K. Vapalahti and Seppo J. Louhenkilpi, On Validation of Mathematical Fluid Flow Models for Simulation of Tundish Water Models and Industrial Examples, AISTech 2008, May 2008

53-07   A. Kermanpur, Sh. Mahmoudi and A. Hajipour, Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Metal Flow and Solidification in the Multi-cavity Casting Moulds of Automotive Components, International Journal of Iron & Steel Society of Iran, Article 2, Volume 4, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2007, pages 8-15.

36-07 Duque Mesa A. F., Herrera J., Cruz L.J., Fernández G.P. y Martínez H.V., Caracterización Defectológica de Piezas Fundida por Lost Foam Casting Mediante Simulación Numérica, 8° Congreso Iberoamericano de Ingenieria Mecanica, Cusco, Peru, 23 al 25 de Octubre de 2007 (in Spanish)

27-07 A.Y. Korotchenko, A.M. Zarubin, I.A.Korotchenko, Modeling of High Pressure Die Casting Filling, Russian Foundryman, December 2007, pp 15-19. (in Russian)

26-07 I.N. Volnov, Modeling of Casting Processes with Variable Geometry, Russian Foundryman, November 2007, pp 27-30. (in Russian)

16-07 P. Väyrynen, S. Vapalahti, S. Louhenkilpi, L. Chatburn, M. Clark, T. Wagner, Tundish Flow Model Tuning and Validation – Steady State and Transient Casting Situations, STEELSIM 2007, Graz/Seggau, Austria, September 12-14 2007

11-07 Marco Actis Grande, Computer Simulation of the Investment Casting Process – Widening of the Filling Step, Santa Fe Symposium on Jewelry Manufacturing Technology, May 2007

09-07 Alexandre Reikher and Michael Barkhudarov, Casting: An Analytical Approach, Springer, 1st edition, August 2007, Hardcover ISBN: 978-1-84628-849-4. U.S. Order FormEurope Order Form.

07-07 I.N. Volnov, Casting Modeling Systems – Current State, Problems and Perspectives, (in Russian), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), June 2007

05-07 A.N. Turchin, D.G. Eskin, and L. Katgerman, Solidification under Forced-Flow Conditions in a Shallow Cavity, DOI: 10.1007/s1161-007-9183-9, © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2007

04-07 A.N. Turchin, M. Zuijderwijk, J. Pool, D.G. Eskin, and L. Katgerman, Feathery grain growth during solidification under forced flow conditions, © Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2007.02.030, April 2007

03-07 S. Kuyucak, Sponsored Research – Clean Steel Casting Production—Evaluation of Laboratory Castings, Transactions of the American Foundry Society, Volume 115, 111th Metalcasting Congress, May 2007

02-07 Fu-Yuan Hsu, Mark R. Jolly and John Campbell, The Design of L-Shaped Runners for Gravity Casting, Shape Casting: 2nd International Symposium, Edited by Paul N. Crepeau, Murat Tiryakioðlu and John Campbell, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), Orlando, FL, Feb 2007

30-06 X.J. Liu, S.H. Bhavnani, R.A. Overfelt, Simulation of EPS foam decomposition in the lost foam casting process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 182 (2007) 333–342, © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

25-06 Michael Barkhudarov and Gengsheng Wei, Modeling Casting on the Move, Modern Casting, August 2006; Modeling of Casting Processes with Variable Geometry, Russian Foundryman, December 2007, pp 10-15. (in Russian)

24-06 P. Scarber, Jr. and C.E. Bates, Simulation of Core Gas Production During Mold Fill, © 2006 American Foundry Society

7-06 M.Y.Smirnov, Y.V.Golenkov, Manufacturing of Cast Iron Bath Tubs Castings using Vacuum-Process in Russia, Russia’s Foundryman, July 2006. In Russian.

6-06 M. Barkhudarov, and G. Wei, Modeling of the Coupled Motion of Rigid Bodies in Liquid Metal, Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes – XI, May 28 – June 2, 2006, Opio, France, eds. Ch.-A. Gandin and M. Bellet, pp 71-78, 2006.

2-06 J.-C. Gebelin, M.R. Jolly and F.-Y. Hsu, ‘Designing-in’ Controlled Filling Using Numerical Simulation for Gravity Sand Casting of Aluminium Alloys, Int. J. Cast Met. Res., 2006, Vol.19 No.1

1-06 Michael Barkhudarov, Using Simulation to Control Microporosity Reduces Die Iterations, Die Casting Engineer, January 2006, pp. 52-54

30-05 H. Xue, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, R.A. Miller, Modeling Dynamic Cavity Pressure and Impact Spike in Die Casting, Cast Expo ’05, April 16-19, 2005

22-05 Blas Melissari & Stavros A. Argyropoulous, Measurement of Magnitude and Direction of Velocity in High-Temperature Liquid Metals; Part I, Mathematical Modeling, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Volume 36B, October 2005, pp. 691-700

21-05 M.R. Jolly, State of the Art Review of Use of Modeling Software for Casting, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 337-346

20-05 J-C Gebelin, M.R. Jolly & F-Y Hsu, ‘Designing-in’ Controlled Filling Using Numerical Simulation for Gravity Sand Casting of Aluminium Alloys, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 355-364

19-05 F-Y Hsu, M.R. Jolly & J Campbell, Vortex Gate Design for Gravity Castings, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 73-82

18-05 M.R. Jolly, Modelling the Investment Casting Process: Problems and Successes, Japanese Foundry Society, JFS, Tokyo, Sept. 2005

13-05 Xiaogang Yang, Xiaobing Huang, Xiaojun Dai, John Campbell and Joe Tatler, Numerical Modelling of the Entrainment of Oxide Film Defects in Filling of Aluminium Alloy Castings, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 17 (6), 2004, 321-331

10-05 Carlos Evaristo Esparza, Martha P. Guerro-Mata, Roger Z. Ríos-Mercado, Optimal Design of Gating Systems by Gradient Search Methods, Computational Materials Science, October 2005

6-05 Birgit Hummler-Schaufler, Fritz Hirning, Jurgen Schaufler, A World First for Hatz Diesel and Schaufler Tooling, Die Casting Engineer, May 2005, pp. 18-21

4-05 Rolf Krack, The W35 Topic—A World First, Die Casting World, March 2005, pp. 16-17

3-05 Joerg Frei, Casting Simulations Speed Up Development, Die Casting World, March 2005, p. 14

2-05 David Goettsch and Michael Barkhudarov, Analysis and Optimization of the Transient Stage of Stopper-Rod Pour, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2005

36-04  Ik Min Park, Il Dong Choi, Yong Ho Park, Development of Light-Weight Al Scroll Compressor for Car Air Conditioner, Materials Science Forum, Designing, Processing and Properties of Advanced Engineering Materials, 449-452, 149, March 2004.

32-04 D.H. Kirkwood and P.J Ward, Numerical Modelling of Semi-Solid Flow under Processing Conditions, steel research int. 75 (2004), No. 8/9

30-04 Haijing Mao, A Numerical Study of Externally Solidified Products in the Cold Chamber Die Casting Process, thesis: The Ohio State University, 2004 (Available upon request)

28-04 Z. Cao, Z. Yang, and X.L. Chen, Three-Dimensional Simulation of Transient GMA Weld Pool with Free Surface, Supplement to the Welding Journal, June 2004.

23-04 State of the Art Use of Computational Modelling in the Foundry Industry, 3rd International Conference Computational Modelling of Materials III, Sicily, Italy, June 2004, Advances in Science and Technology,  Eds P. Vincenzini & A Lami, Techna Group Srl, Italy, ISBN: 88-86538-46-4, Part B, pp 479-490

22-04 Jerry Fireman, Computer Simulation Helps Reduce Scrap, Die Casting Engineer, May 2004, pp. 46-49

21-04 Joerg Frei, Simulation—A Safe and Quick Way to Good Components, Aluminium World, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 42-43

20-04 J.-C. Gebelin, M.R. Jolly, A. M. Cendrowicz, J. Cirre and S. Blackburn, Simulation of Die Filling for the Wax Injection Process – Part II Numerical Simulation, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, Volume 35B, August 2004

14-04 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, Charles H. Sherwin, and Ruel A. Overfelt, Hot Distortion Studies In Phenolic Urethane Cold Box System, American Foundry Society, 108th Casting Congress, June 12-15, 2004, Rosemont, IL, USA

13-04 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov and Ruel A. Overfelt, First V-Process Casting of Magnesium, American Foundry Society, 108th Casting Congress, June 12-15, 2004, Rosemont, IL, USA

5-04 C. Schlumpberger & B. Hummler-Schaufler, Produktentwicklung auf hohem Niveau (Product Development on a High Level), Druckguss Praxis, January 2004, pp 39-42 (in German).

3-04 Charles Bates, Dealing with Defects, Foundry Management and Technology, February 2004, pp 23-25

1-04 Laihua Wang, Thang Nguyen, Gary Savage and Cameron Davidson, Thermal and Flow Modeling of Ladling and Injection in High Pressure Die Casting Process, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, vol. 16 No 4 2003, pp 409-417

2-03 J-C Gebelin, AM Cendrowicz, MR Jolly, Modeling of the Wax Injection Process for the Investment Casting Process – Prediction of Defects, presented at the Third International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Minerals and Process Industries, December 10-12, 2003, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 415-420

29-03 C. W. Hirt, Modeling Shrinkage Induced Micro-porosity, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-03-TN66)

28-03 Thixoforming at the University of Sheffield, Diecasting World, September 2003, pp 11-12

26-03 William Walkington, Gas Porosity-A Guide to Correcting the Problems, NADCA Publication: 516

22-03 G F Yao, C W Hirt, and M Barkhudarov, Development of a Numerical Approach for Simulation of Sand Blowing and Core Formation, in Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Process-X”, Ed. By Stefanescu et al pp. 633-639, 2003

21-03 E F Brush Jr, S P Midson, W G Walkington, D T Peters, J G Cowie, Porosity Control in Copper Rotor Die Castings, NADCA Indianapolis Convention Center, Indianapolis, IN September 15-18, 2003, T03-046

12-03 J-C Gebelin & M.R. Jolly, Modeling Filters in Light Alloy Casting Processes,  Trans AFS, 2002, 110, pp. 109-120

11-03 M.R. Jolly, Casting Simulation – How Well Do Reality and Virtual Casting Match – A State of the Art Review, Intl. J. Cast Metals Research, 2002, 14, pp. 303-313

10-03 Gebelin., J-C and Jolly, M.R., Modeling of the Investment Casting Process, Journal of  Materials Processing Tech., Vol. 135/2-3, pp. 291 – 300

9-03 Cox, M, Harding, R.A. and Campbell, J., Optimised Running System Design for Bottom Filled Aluminium Alloy 2L99 Investment Castings, J. Mat. Sci. Tech., May 2003, Vol. 19, pp. 613-625

8-03 Von Alexander Schrey and Regina Reek, Numerische Simulation der Kernherstellung, (Numerical Simulation of Core Blowing), Giesserei, June 2003, pp. 64-68 (in German)

7-03 J. Zuidema Jr., L Katgerman, Cyclone separation of particles in aluminum DC Casting, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 607-614

6-03 Jean-Christophe Gebelin and Mark Jolly, Numerical Modeling of Metal Flow Through Filters, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 431-438

5-03 N.W. Lai, W.D. Griffiths and J. Campbell, Modelling of the Potential for Oxide Film Entrainment in Light Metal Alloy Castings, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 415-422

21-02 Boris Lukezic, Case History: Process Modeling Solves Die Design Problems, Modern Casting, February 2003, P 59

20-02 C.W. Hirt and M.R. Barkhudarov, Predicting Defects in Lost Foam Castings, Modern Casting, December 2002, pp 31-33

19-02 Mark Jolly, Mike Cox, Ric Harding, Bill Griffiths and John Campbell, Quiescent Filling Applied to Investment Castings, Modern Casting, December 2002 pp. 36-38

18-02 Simulation Helps Overcome Challenges of Thin Wall Magnesium Diecasting, Foundry Management and Technology, October 2002, pp 13-15

17-02 G Messmer, Simulation of a Thixoforging Process of Aluminum Alloys with FLOW-3D, Institute for Metal Forming Technology, University of Stuttgart

16-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Computer Simulation of Lost Foam Process, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 319-324

15-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Computer Simulation of Inclusion Tracking, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 341-346

14-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Advanced Simulation of the Flow and Heat Transfer of an Alternator Housing, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 219-228

8-02 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, and Ruel A. Overfelt, Experimental and Numerical Study of Bonded Sand-Air Two-Phase Flow in PUA Process, Auburn University, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-091, Kansas City, MO

7-02 A Habibollah Zadeh, and J Campbell, Metal Flow Through a Filter System, University of Birmingham, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-020, Kansas City, MO

6-02 Phil Ward, and Helen Atkinson, Final Report for EPSRC Project: Modeling of Thixotropic Flow of Metal Alloys into a Die, GR/M17334/01, March 2002, University of Sheffield

5-02 S. I. Bakhtiyarov and R. A. Overfelt, Numerical and Experimental Study of Aluminum Casting in Vacuum-sealed Step Molding, Auburn University, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-050, Kansas City, MO

4-02 J. C. Gebelin and M. R. Jolly, Modelling Filters in Light Alloy Casting Processes, University of Birmingham, 2002 American Foundry Society AFS Transactions 02-079, Kansas City, MO

3-02 Mark Jolly, Mike Cox, Jean-Christophe Gebelin, Sam Jones, and Alex Cendrowicz, Fundamentals of Investment Casting (FOCAST), Modelling the Investment Casting Process, Some preliminary results from the UK Research Programme, IRC in Materials, University of Birmingham, UK, AFS2001

49-01   Hua Bai and Brian G. Thomas, Bubble formation during horizontal gas injection into downward-flowing liquid, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 1143-1159, 2001. doi.org/10.1007/s11663-001-0102-y

45-01 Jan Zuidema; Laurens Katgerman; Ivo J. Opstelten;Jan M. Rabenberg, Secondary Cooling in DC Casting: Modelling and Experimental Results, TMS 2001, New Orleans, Louisianna, February 11-15, 2001

43-01 James Andrew Yurko, Fluid Flow Behavior of Semi-Solid Aluminum at High Shear Rates,Ph.D. thesis; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2001. Abstract only; full thesis available at http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/8451 (for a fee).

33-01 Juang, S.H., CAE Application on Design of Die Casting Dies, 2001 Conference on CAE Technology and Application, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, November 2001, (article in Chinese with English-language abstract)

32-01 Juang, S.H. and C. M. Wang, Effect of Feeding Geometry on Flow Characteristics of Magnesium Die Casting by Numerical Analysis, The Preceedings of 6th FADMA Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, July 2001, Chinese language with English abstract

26-01 C. W. Hirt., Predicting Defects in Lost Foam Castings, December 13, 2001

21-01 P. Scarber Jr., Using Liquid Free Surface Areas as a Predictor of Reoxidation Tendency in Metal Alloy Castings, presented at the Steel Founders’ Society of American, Technical and Operating Conference, October 2001

20-01 P. Scarber Jr., J. Griffin, and C. E. Bates, The Effect of Gating and Pouring Practice on Reoxidation of Steel Castings, presented at the Steel Founders’ Society of American, Technical and Operating Conference, October 2001

19-01 L. Wang, T. Nguyen, M. Murray, Simulation of Flow Pattern and Temperature Profile in the Shot Sleeve of a High Pressure Die Casting Process, CSIRO Manufacturing Science and Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Presented by North American Die Casting Association, Oct 29-Nov 1, 2001, Cincinnati, To1-014

18-01 Rajiv Shivpuri, Venkatesh Sankararaman, Kaustubh Kulkarni, An Approach at Optimizing the Ingate Design for Reducing Filling and Shrinkage Defects, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, Presented by North American Die Casting Association, Oct 29-Nov 1, 2001, Cincinnati, TO1-052

5-01 Michael Barkhudarov, Simulation Helps Overcome Challenges of Thin Wall Magnesium Diecasting, Diecasting World, March 2001, pp. 5-6

2-01 J. Grindling, Customized CFD Codes to Simulate Casting of Thermosets in Full 3D, Electrical Manufacturing and Coil Winding 2000 Conference, October 31-November 2, 20

20-00 Richard Schuhmann, John Carrig, Thang Nguyen, Arne Dahle, Comparison of Water Analogue Modelling and Numerical Simulation Using Real-Time X-Ray Flow Data in Gravity Die Casting, Australian Die Casting Association Die Casting 2000 Conference, September 3-6, 2000, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

15-00 M. Sirvio, Vainola, J. Vartianinen, M. Vuorinen, J. Orkas, and S. Devenyi, Fluid Flow Analysis for Designing Gating of Aluminum Castings, Proc. NADCA Conf., Rosemont, IL, Nov 6-8, 1999

14-00 X. Yang, M. Jolly, and J. Campbell, Reduction of Surface Turbulence during Filling of Sand Castings Using a Vortex-flow Runner, Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August 2000

13-00 H. S. H. Lo and J. Campbell, The Modeling of Ceramic Foam Filters, Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August 2000

12-00 M. R. Jolly, H. S. H. Lo, M. Turan and J. Campbell, Use of Simulation Tools in the Practical Development of a Method for Manufacture of Cast Iron Camshafts,” Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August, 2000

14-99 J Koke, and M Modigell, Time-Dependent Rheological Properties of Semi-solid Metal Alloys, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Aachen University of Technology, Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials 3: 15-30, 1999

12-99 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, Schneider, Wolfgang, Ray, Steven, Marthinusen, Jan-Olaf, Recent Improvements in Ceramic Foam Filter Design by Coupled Heat and Fluid Flow Modeling, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1999, pp. 1041-1047

10-99 Bongcheol Park and Jerald R. Brevick, Computer Flow Modeling of Cavity Pre-fill Effects in High Pressure Die Casting, NADCA Proceedings, Cleveland T99-011, November, 1999

8-99 Brad Guthrie, Simulation Reduces Aluminum Die Casting Cost by Reducing Volume, Die Casting Engineer Magazine, September/October 1999, pp. 78-81

7-99 Fred L. Church, Virtual Reality Predicts Cast Metal Flow, Modern Metals, September, 1999, pp. 67F-J

19-98 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, & Schneider, Wolfgang, Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow Phenomena in the Launder-integrated Tool Within Casting Unit Development, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1998, pp. 1175-1182

18-98 X. Yang & J. Campbell, Liquid Metal Flow in a Pouring Basin, Int. J. Cast Metals Res, 1998, 10, pp. 239-253

15-98 R. Van Tol, Mould Filling of Horizontal Thin-Wall Castings, Delft University Press, The Netherlands, 1998

14-98 J. Daughtery and K. A. Williams, Thermal Modeling of Mold Material Candidates for Copper Pressure Die Casting of the Induction Motor Rotor Structure, Proc. Int’l Workshop on Permanent Mold Casting of Copper-Based Alloys, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Oct. 15-16, 1998

10-98 C. W. Hirt, and M.R. Barkhudarov, Lost Foam Casting Simulation with Defect Prediction, Flow Science Inc, presented at Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes VIII Conference, June 7-12, 1998, Catamaran Hotel, San Diego, California

9-98 M. R. Barkhudarov and C. W. Hirt, Tracking Defects, Flow Science Inc, presented at the 1st International Aluminum Casting Technology Symposium, 12-14 October 1998, Rosemont, IL

5-98 J. Righi, Computer Simulation Helps Eliminate Porosity, Die Casting Management Magazine, pp. 36-38, January 1998

3-98 P. Kapranos, M. R. Barkhudarov, D. H. Kirkwood, Modeling of Structural Breakdown during Rapid Compression of Semi-Solid Alloy Slugs, Dept. Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, U.K. and Flow Science Inc, USA, Presented at the 5th International Conference Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, 23-25 June 1998

1-98 U. Jerichow, T. Altan, and P. R. Sahm, Semi Solid Metal Forming of Aluminum Alloys-The Effect of Process Variables Upon Material Flow, Cavity Fill and Mechanical Properties, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, published in Die Casting Engineer, p. 26, Jan/Feb 1998

8-97 Michael Barkhudarov, High Pressure Die Casting Simulation Using FLOW-3D, Die Casting Engineer, 1997

15-97 M. R. Barkhudarov, Advanced Simulation of the Flow and Heat Transfer Process in Simultaneous Engineering, Flow Science report, presented at the Casting 1997 – International ADI and Simulation Conference, Helsinki, Finland, May 28-30, 1997

14-97 M. Ranganathan and R. Shivpuri, Reducing Scrap and Increasing Die Life in Low Pressure Die Casting through Flow Simulation and Accelerated Testing, Dept. Welding and Systems Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, presented at 19th International Die Casting Congress & Exposition, November 3-6, 1997

13-97 J. Koke, Modellierung und Simulation der Fließeigenschaften teilerstarrter Metallegierungen, Livt Information, Institut für Verfahrenstechnik, RWTH Aachen, October 1997

10-97 J. P. Greene and J. O. Wilkes, Numerical Analysis of Injection Molding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics – Part 2 Fiber Orientation, Body-in-White Center, General Motors Corp. and Dept. Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 37, No. 6, June 1997

9-97 J. P. Greene and J. O. Wilkes, Numerical Analysis of Injection Molding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics. Part 1 – Injection Pressures and Flow, Manufacturing Center, General Motors Corp. and Dept. Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 37, No. 3, March 1997

8-97 H. Grazzini and D. Nesa, Thermophysical Properties, Casting Simulation and Experiments for a Stainless Steel, AT Systemes (Renault) report, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

7-97 R. Van Tol, L. Katgerman and H. E. A. Van den Akker, Horizontal Mould Filling of a Thin Wall Aluminum Casting, Laboratory of Materials report, Delft University, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

6-97 M. R. Barkhudarov, Is Fluid Flow Important for Predicting Solidification, Flow Science report, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

22-96 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich & Schneider, Wolfgang, 3-D Modeling of the Start-up Phase of DC Casting of Sheet Ingots, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1996, pp. 971-981

9-96 M. R. Barkhudarov and C. W. Hirt, Thixotropic Flow Effects under Conditions of Strong Shear, Flow Science report FSI96-00-2, to be presented at the “Materials Week ’96” TMS Conference, Cincinnati, OH, 7-10 October 1996

4-96 C. W. Hirt, A Computational Model for the Lost Foam Process, Flow Science final report, February 1996 (FSI-96-57-R2)

3-96 M. R. Barkhudarov, C. L. Bronisz, C. W. Hirt, Three-Dimensional Thixotropic Flow Model, Flow Science report, FSI-96-00-1, published in the proceedings of (pp. 110- 114) and presented at the 4th International Conference on Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites, The University of Sheffield, 19-21 June 1996

1-96 M. R. Barkhudarov, J. Beech, K. Chang, and S. B. Chin, Numerical Simulation of Metal/Mould Interfacial Heat Transfer in Casting, Dept. Mech. & Process Engineering, Dept. Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield and Flow Science Inc, 9th Int. Symposium on Transport Phenomena in Thermal-Fluid Engineering, June 25-28, 1996, Singapore

11-95 Barkhudarov, M. R., Hirt, C.W., Casting Simulation Mold Filling and Solidification-Benchmark Calculations Using FLOW-3D, Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes VII, pp 935-946

10-95 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, & Schneider, Wolfgang, Optimal Design of a Distribution Pan for Level Pour Casting, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1995, pp. 1061-1070

9-95 E. Masuda, I. Itoh, K. Haraguchi, Application of Mold Filling Simulation to Die Casting Processes, Honda Engineering Co., Ltd., Tochigi, Japan, presented at the Modelling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes VII, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 1995

6-95 K. Venkatesan, Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Process Parameters on the Erosive Wear of Die Casting Dies, presented for Ph.D. degree at Ohio State University, 1995

5-95 J. Righi, A. F. LaCamera, S. A. Jones, W. G. Truckner, T. N. Rouns, Integration of Experience and Simulation Based Understanding in the Die Design Process, Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA 15069, presented by the North American Die Casting Association, 1995

2-95 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Simulation and Comparison with Water Modeling Studies of the Inertia Dominated Cavity Filling in Die Casting, NUMIFORM, 1995

1-95 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Gate Velocity and Gate Size on the Quality of Die Casting Parts, NAMRC, 1995.

15-94 D. Liang, Y. Bayraktar, S. A. Moir, M. Barkhudarov, and H. Jones, Primary Silicon Segregation During Isothermal Holding of Hypereutectic AI-18.3%Si Alloy in the Freezing Range, Dept. of Engr. Materials, U. of Sheffield, Metals and Materials, February 1994

13-94 Deniece Korzekwa and Paul Dunn, A Combined Experimental and Modeling Approach to Uranium Casting, Materials Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, presented at the Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, El Dorado Hotel, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1994

12-94 R. van Tol, H. E. A. van den Akker and L. Katgerman, CFD Study of the Mould Filling of a Horizontal Thin Wall Aluminum Casting, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, HTD-Vol. 284/AMD-Vol. 182, Transport Phenomena in Solidification, ASME 1994

11-94 M. R. Barkhudarov and K. A. Williams, Simulation of ‘Surface Turbulence’ Fluid Phenomena During the Mold Filling Phase of Gravity Castings, Flow Science Technical Note #41, November 1994 (FSI-94-TN41)

10-94 M. R. Barkhudarov and S. B. Chin, Stability of a Numerical Algorithm for Gas Bubble Modelling, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K., International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 19, 415-437 (1994)

16-93 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Simulation of Die Cavity Filling in Die Castings and an Evaluation of Process Parameters on Die Wear, Dept. of Industrial Systems Engineering, Presented by: N.A. Die Casting Association, Cleveland, Ohio, October 18-21, 1993

15-93 K. Venkatesen and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Modeling of Filling and Solidification for Improved Quality of Die Casting: A Literature Survey (Chapters II and III), Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, Report C-93-07, August 1993, Ohio State University

1-93 P-E Persson, Computer Simulation of the Solidification of a Hub Carrier for the Volvo 800 Series, AB Volvo Technological Development, Metals Laboratory, Technical Report No. LM 500014E, Jan. 1993

13-92 D. R. Korzekwa, M. A. K. Lewis, Experimentation and Simulation of Gravity Fed Lead Castings, in proceedings of a TMS Symposium on Concurrent Engineering Approach to Materials Processing, S. N. Dwivedi, A. J. Paul and F. R. Dax, eds., TMS-AIME Warrendale, p. 155 (1992)

12-92 M. A. K. Lewis, Near-Net-Shaiconpe Casting Simulation and Experimentation, MST 1992 Review, Los Alamos National Laboratory

2-92 M. R. Barkhudarov, H. You, J. Beech, S. B. Chin, D. H. Kirkwood, Validation and Development of FLOW-3D for Casting, School of Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, presented at the TMS/AIME Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 3, 1992

1-92 D. R. Korzekwa and L. A. Jacobson, Los Alamos National Laboratory and C.W. Hirt, Flow Science Inc, Modeling Planar Flow Casting with FLOW-3D, presented at the TMS/AIME Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 3, 1992

12-91 R. Shivpuri, M. Kuthirakulathu, and M. Mittal, Nonisothermal 3-D Finite Difference Simulation of Cavity Filling during the Die Casting Process, Dept. Industrial and Systems Engineering, Ohio State University, presented at the 1991 Winter Annual ASME Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1-6, 1991

3-91 C. W. Hirt, FLOW-3D Study of the Importance of Fluid Momentum in Mold Filling, presented at the 18th Annual Automotive Materials Symposium, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI, May 1-2, 1991 (FSI-91-00-2)

11-90 N. Saluja, O.J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, On the Calculation of the Electromagnetic Force Field in the Circular Stirring of Metallic Melts, accepted in J. Appl. Physics, 1990

10-90 N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, On the Calculation of the Electromagnetic Force Field in the Circular Stirring of Metallic Molds in Continuous Castings, presented at the 6th Iron and Steel Congress of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Nagoya, Japan, October 1990

9-90 N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, Fluid Flow in Phenomena in the Electromagnetic Stirring of Continuous Casting Systems, Part I. The Behavior of a Cylindrically Shaped, Laboratory Scale Installation, accepted for publication in Steel Research, 1990

8-89 C. W. Hirt, Gravity-Fed Casting, Flow Science Technical Note #20, July 1989 (FSI-89-TN20)

6-89 E. W. M. Hansen and F. Syvertsen, Numerical Simulation of Flow Behaviour in Moldfilling for Casting Analysis, SINTEF-Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway, Report No. STS20 A89001, June 1989

1-88 C. W. Hirt and R. P. Harper, Modeling Tests for Casting Processes, Flow Science report, Jan. 1988 (FSI-88-38-01)

2-87 C. W. Hirt, Addition of a Solidification/Melting Model to FLOW-3D, Flow Science report, April 1987 (FSI-87-33-1)

3D 프린팅 시뮬레이션 기술 자료 모음

본 자료에서는 분말 또는 와이어를 층별로 적층 제조하는 3D프린팅 과정에 대해 3차원 수치해석 시뮬레이션이 가능한 FLOW-3D 제품과 기술에 관련된 자료를 찾아볼 수 있습니다. FLOW-3D는 주요 금속 적층 제조 공정인 파우더 베드 융접(PBF), 직접 에너지 증착(DED) 및 바인더 분사 공정에 대해 FLOW-3D는 높은 정확도의 시뮬레이션 기능을 제공합니다.

현재 3D 프린팅 및 레이저 용접 시뮬레이션에 FLOW-3D를 사용하고 있는 기관들은 포항공대, KAIST, 부산대학교, 성균관대학교 등 국내 여러 대학들과 한국생산기술연구원, 한국기계연구원, LG전자, 현재조선해양(현대중공업) 등 많은 기관에서 연구개발에 사용되고 있습니다.

FLOW-3D는 자유수면(VOF), 상변화, 열전달 등 여러 면에서 탁월한 정확도를 가지고 있는 제품으로 특히 국내외 적층 제조 분야에서 독보적인 위치를 차지하고 있습니다.
아래에 3D 프린팅 관련 기술을 연구 개발하는데 참고가 될 만한 관련 자료 및 링크를 제공합니다.

  1. Weld
  2. Additive Manufacturing
  3. DEM(Discrete Element Method)

Additive manufacturing

LPBF 시뮬레이션 순서

  • Powder settling
  • Powder spreading
  • Laser scan tracks on a powder bed

선택적 레이저 용해(Melting) : 단일 트랙 모델링

  • Power Bed spreading : 파우더 베드(Bed)압축의 파라메트릭 분석
    – 블레이드(Blade) 모션
    – 롤러(Roller) 속도와 방향

용융 풀(Melt pool) 모델링

  • 용융 풀의 진화(Evolution of the melt pool)
  • 시뮬레이션 및 실험적 단면(Cross-section) 검증

다층 SLM프로세스 : TU덴마크

추가 특성 – 고객 요청

  • 두 재료의 온도 의존성 재료 특성
  • 유체 영역과 고체 영역 사이의 접촉각 설정

Fluid dynamics modelling for additive manufacturing

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Fluid dynamics modelling for additive manufacturing
텍스트 또는 HTML 입력

AM프로세스에 CFD를 사용해야하는 이유

  • AM의 용융 풀(Melt pool) 분해능(0.01 – 0.001mm 길이 스케일)에서 유체 흐름을 정확하게 표현
    – 파우더 페드 퍼짐(Powder bed spreading) : DEM(Discrete Element Method)을 통해 파우더 베드 압축 및 흡수 특성을 예측하는데 도움
    – 선택적 레이저 용해 : 결함 설계 공간 및 용융 풀(Melt pooe) 형상 매핑 및 예측
    – 빠른 응고(Solidification) : 구성 분리 및 위상 핵(Phase nucleation) 형성 및 예측

파우더 증착 및 레이저 용융(Powder deposition and laser melting)

  • 모델 입력 : 파우더 크기 분포, 합금 재료 특성 및 레이저 공정 매개 변수
  • 모델 출력 : 가열/냉각 프로파일, 결함 밀도, 조성 변화

연속 및 펄스 레이저 용융

  • Takeaway : 두 매개 변수 세트 모두 고밀도 재료를 생산하지만 열 이력(History)은 상당히 다름

모델 정확도 및 검증

NiTi, Ti64 및 316L에서 수행된 모델 검증

용융 풀(Melt pool) 형태 및 키홀링(Keyholing)

공정 공간에서 열분해에 대한 경향

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Liquid Metal 3D Printing

Liquid Metal 3D Printing

This article was contributed by V.Sukhotskiy1,2, I. H. Karampelas3, G. Garg 1, A. Verma1, M. Tong 1, S. Vader2, Z. Vader2, and E. P. Furlani1
1
University at Buffalo SUNY, 2Vader Systems, 3Flow Science, Inc.

이 연구의 초점은 3D 고체 금속 구조의 인쇄에 잉크젯 기술의 확장에 있습니다 [3, 4]. 현재 대부분의 3D 금속 인쇄 프로그램에는 금속 물체를 형성하는 레이저 [6] 또는 전자빔 [7]과 같은 외부 지향 에너지 소스를 이용한 금속 분말 소결 또는 용해를 포함합니다. 그러나, 이러한 방법은 비용 및 공정 복잡성, 예를 들어, 3D 인쇄 공정에 앞서 분말을 생성하는 시간 및 에너지 집약적 기술에 대한 필요성과 같은 단점을 갖고 있습니다.

이 기사에서는 움직이는 기판에서의 MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) Drop-on-demand 방출 및 액체 방울 증착에 기반한 3D 금속 구조의 첨가제 제조에 대한 새로운 접근 방시에 대해 설명합니다.

이 과정의 각 부분을 연구하기 위해 많은 시뮬레이션을 수행했습니다. 단순화를 위해 이 연구는 두 부분으로 나누었습니다.

첫 번째 부분에서는 MHD 분석을 사용하여 프린트 헤드 내부의 로렌츠 힘 밀도에 의해 생성 된 압력을 추정한 다음 FLOW-3D 모델의 경계 조건으로 사용합니다. 그것은 방울 분사 동력학을 연구하는 데 사용되었습니다.
두 번째 부분에서는 FLOW-3D 파라 메트릭 분석을 수행하여 이상적인 액적 증착 조건을 확인했습니다.

모델링 노력의 결과는 위 그림에 표시된 장치 설계를 가이드하는데 사용되었습니다. 코일은 분사 챔버를 둘러싸고 전기적으로 펄싱되어 액체 금속을 투과시키고, 순환 루프를 유도하는 과도 자기장을 생성합니다. 그것 내의 일시적인 전기장. 전기장은 순환 전류 밀도를 발생 시키며, 이는 일시적인 전계에 다시 커플 링되고 챔버 내에서 마젠 토 히드로 다이나믹 로렌츠 힘 밀도를 생성한다. 힘의 반경 방향 성분은 오리피스에서 금속 액체를 배출하는 역할을하는 압력을 생성합니다. 방출된 금속 액체 방울은 기판으로 이동하여 합체되고 응고되어 확장된 견고한 구조를 형성합니다. 임의 형상의 3 차원 구조는 방출하는 금속 방울의 정확한 패턴화 증착을 가능하게하는 움직이는 기판을 사용하여 층별로 인쇄 할 수 있습니다. 이 기술은 MagnadoJet라는 상품명으로 Vader Systems (www.vadersystems.com)에 의해 특허 및 상용화되었습니다.

MagnetoJet 프린팅 공정의 장점은 상대적으로 높은 증착 속도와 낮은 재료 비용으로 임의 형상의 3D 금속 구조를 인쇄하는 것입니다 [8, 9]. 또한 고유한 금속 입자 구조가 존재하기 때문에 기계적 특성이 개선 된 부품을 인쇄 할 수 있습니다.

프로토타입 디바이스 개발

Vader Systems의 3D 인쇄 시스템의 핵심 구성 요소는 두 부분의 노즐과 솔레노이드 코일로 구성된 프린트 헤드 어셈블리입니다. 액체화는 노즐의 상부에서 발생합니다. 하부에는 직경이 100μm ~ 500μm 인 서브 밀리미터 오리피스가 있습니다. 수냉식 솔레노이드 코일은 위 그림에 표시된 바와 같이 오리피스 챔버를 둘러싸고있습니다 (냉각 시스템은 도시되지 않음). 다수의 프린트 헤드 디자인의 반복적인 개발은 액체 금속 배출 거동뿐만 아니라, 액체 금속 충전 거동에 대한 사출 챔버 기하적인 효과를 분석하기 위해 연구되었습니다. 이 프로토타입 시스템은 일반적인 알루미늄 합금으로 만들어진 견고한 3D 구조를 성공적으로 인쇄했습니다 (아래 그림 참조). 액적 직경, 기하학, 토출 빈도 및 기타 매개 변수에 따라 직경이 50 μm에서 500 μm까지 다양합니다. 짧은 버스트에서 최대 5000 Hz까지 40-1000 Hz의 지속적인 방울 분사 속도가 달성되었습니다.

전산 모델

프로토 타입 디바이스 개발의 일부로서, 프로토 타입 제작에 앞서 계산 시뮬레이션을 수행하여 성능, 즉 액적 방출 동역학, 액적 – 공기 및 액적 – 기판 상호 작용에 대한 설계 개념을 선별했습니다. 분석을 단순화하기 위해 CFD 분석뿐만 아니라, 전산 전자기 (CE)를 사용하는 두 가지 상보 모델이 개발되었습니다. 첫 번째 모델에서는 2 단계 CE 및 CFD 분석을 사용하여 MHD 기반의 액적 방출 동작과 효과적인 압력 생성을 연구했습니다. 두 번째 모델에서, 열 유동성 CFD 분석은 기판상의 물방울의 패터닝, 유착 및 고형화를 연구하기 위해 사용되었습니다.

MHD 분석에 이어 등가 압력 프로파일을 첫 번째 모델에서 추출하고, FLOW-3D 모델의 입력으로 사용하여 액적 배출 및 액적 – 기판 상호 작용의 일시적인 동력학을 탐구하도록 설계되었습니다. 플로우 – 3D 시뮬레이션은 액적 분사에 대한 오리피스 내부 및 주변의 습윤 효과를 이해하기 위해 수행되었습니다. 오리피스 내부 및 외부의 유체 초기화 레벨을 변경하고 펄싱 주파수에 의해 결정된 펄스 사이의 시간 간격을 허용함으로써, 크기 및 속도를 포함하여 방출 된 액 적의 특성 차이를 확인할 수있었습니다.

Droplet 생성

MagnetoJet 인쇄 프로세스에서, 방울은 전압 펄스 매개 변수에 따라 일반적으로 1 – 10m/s 범위의 속도로 배출되고 기판에 충돌하기 전에 비행 중에 약간 냉각됩니다. 기판상의 액적들의 패터닝 및 응고를 제어하는 ​​능력은 정밀한 3D 솔리드 구조의 형성에 중요합니다. 고해상도 3D 모션베이스를 사용하여 패터닝을 위한 정확한 Droplet 배치가 이루어집니다. 그러나 낮은 다공성과 원하지 않는 레이어링 artifacts가 없는 잘 형성된 3D 구조를 만들기 위해 응고를 제어하는 ​​것은 다음과 같은 제어를 필요로하기 때문에 어려움이 있습니다.

  • 냉각시 액체 방울로부터 주변 물질로의 열 확산,
  • 토출된 액 적의 크기,
  • 액적 분사 빈도 및
  • 이미 형성된 3D 물체로부터의 열 확산.

이들 파라미터를 최적화함으로써, 인쇄 된 형상의 높은 공간 분해능을 제공하기에 충분히 작으며, 인접한 액적들 및 층들 사이의 매끄러운 유착을 촉진하기에 충분한 열 에너지를 보유 할 것입니다. 열 관리 문제에 직면하는 한 가지 방법은 가열된 기판을 융점보다 낮지만 상대적으로 가까운 온도에서 유지하는 것입니다. 이는 액체 금속방울과 그 주변 사이의 온도 구배를 감소시켜 액체 금속방울로부터의 열의 확산을 늦춤으로써 유착을 촉진시키고 고형화하여 매끄러운 입체 3D 덩어리를 형성합니다. 이 접근법의 실행 가능성을 탐구하기 위해 FLOW-3D를 사용한 파라 메트릭 CFD 분석이 수행되었습니다.

액체 금속방울 응집과 응고

우리는 액체 금속방울 분사 주파수뿐만 아니라 액체 금속방울 사이의 중심 간 간격의 함수로서 가열된 기판에서 내부 층의 금속방울 유착 및 응고를 조사했습니다. 이 분석에서 액체 알루미늄의 구형 방울은 3mm 높이에서 가열 된 스테인리스 강 기판에 충돌합니다. 액적 분리 거리 (100)로 변화 될 때 방울이 973 K의 초기 온도를 가지고, 기판이 다소 943 K.도 3의 응고 온도보다 900 K로 유지됩니다. 실선의 인쇄 중에 액적 유착 및 응고를 도시 50㎛의 간격으로 500㎛에서 400㎛까지 연속적으로 유지하고, 토출 주파수는 500Hz에서 일정하게 유지 하였습니다.

방울 분리가 250μm를 초과하면 선을 따라 입자가 있는 응고된 세그먼트가 나타납니다. 350μm 이상의 거리에서는 세그먼트가 분리되고 선이 채워지지 않은 간극이 있어 부드러운 솔리드 구조를 형성하는데 적합하지 않습니다. 낮은 온도에서 유지되는 기질에 대해서도 유사한 분석을 수행했습니다(예: 600K, 700K 등). 3D 구조물이 쿨러 기질에 인쇄될 수 있지만, 그것들은 후속적인 퇴적 금속 층들 사이에 강한 결합의 결여와 같은 바람직하지 않은 공예품을 보여주는 것이 관찰되었습니다. 이는 침전된 물방울의 열 에너지 손실률이 증가했기 때문입니다. 기판 온도의 최종 선택은 주어진 용도에 대해 물체의 허용 가능한 인쇄 품질에 따라 결정될 수 있습니다. 인쇄 중에 부품이 커짐에 따라 더 높은 열 확산에 맞춰 동적으로 조정할 수도 있습니다.

FLOW-3D 결과 검증

위 그림은 가열된 기판 상에 인쇄된 컵 구조 입니다. 인쇄 과정에서 가열된 인쇄물의 온도는 인쇄 된 부분의 순간 높이를 기준으로 실시간으로 733K (430 ° C)에서 833K (580 ° C)로 점차 증가했습니다. 이것은 물체 표면적이 증가함에 따라 국부적 인 열 확산의 증가를 극복하기 위해 행해졌습니다. 알루미늄의 높은 열전도율은 국부적 인 온도 구배에 대한 조정이 신속하게 이루어져야하기 때문에 특히 어렵습니다. 그렇지 않으면 온도가 빠르게 감소하고 층내 유착을 저하시킵니다.

결론

시뮬레이션 결과를 바탕으로, Vader System의 프로토 타입 마그네슘 유체 역학 액체 금속 Drop-on-demand 3D 프린터 프로토 타입은 임의의 형태의 3D 솔리드 알루미늄 구조를 인쇄 할 수 있었습니다. 이러한 구조물은 서브 밀리미터의 액체 금속방울을 층 단위로 패턴화하여 성공적으로 인쇄되었습니다. 시간당 540 그램 이상의 재료 증착 속도는 오직 하나의 노즐을 사용하여 달성되었습니다. 이 기술의 상업화는 잘 진행되고 있지만 처리량, 효율성, 해상도 및 재료 선택면에서 최적의 인쇄 성능을 실현하는 데는 여전히 어려움이 있습니다. 추가 모델링 작업은 인쇄 과정 중 과도 열 영향을 정량화하고, 메니스커스 동작뿐만 아니라 인쇄된 부품의 품질을 평가하는 데 초점을 맞출 것입니다.

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Additive Manufacturing & Welding Bibliography

적층제조 및 용접 해석 참고문헌

아래는 당사의 적층 제조 및 용접 참고 문헌에 수록된 기술 문서 모음입니다. 이 모든 논문에는 FLOW-3D AM 결과가 나와 있습니다. FLOW-3D AM을 사용하여 적층 제조, 레이저 용접 및 기타 용접 기술에 있는 프로세스를 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아봅니다.

Additive Manufacturing & Welding Bibliography

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Additive Manufacturing and Welding Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D AM results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D AM can be used to successfully simulate the processes found in Additive ManufacturingLaser Welding, and other welding technologies.

61-20       Raphael Comminal, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Thomas Juul Andersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg, Influence of processing parameters on the layer geometry in 3D concrete printing: Experiments and modelling, 2nd RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication, RILEM Bookseries, 28; pp. 852-862, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-49916-7_83

60-20       Marcin P. Serdeczny, Raphaël Comminal, Md. Tusher Mollah, David B. Pedersen, Jon Spangenberg, Numerical modeling of the polymer flow through the hot-end in filament-based material extrusion additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing, 36; 101454, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101454

58-20       H.L. Wei, T. Mukherjee, W. Zhang, J.S. Zuback, G.L. Knapp, A. De, T. DebRoy, Mechanistic models for additive manufacturing of metallic components, Progress in Materials Science, preprint, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2020.100703

55-20       Masoud Mohammadpour, Experimental study and numerical simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser welded and brazed joints, Thesis, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, US; Available in Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertations, 24, 2020.

48-20     Masoud Mohammadpour, Baixuan Yang, Hui-Ping Wang, John Forrest, Michael Poss, Blair Carlson, Radovan Kovacevica, Influence of laser beam inclination angle on galvanized steel laser braze quality, Optics and Laser Technology, 129; 106303, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2020.106303

34-20       Binqi Liu, Gang Fang, Liping Lei, Wei Liu, A new ray tracing heat source model for mesoscale CFD simulation of selective laser melting (SLM), Applied Mathematical Modeling, 79; pp. 506-520, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2019.10.049

27-20   Xuesong Gao, Guilherme Abreu Farira, Wei Zhang and Kevin Wheeler, Numerical analysis of non-spherical particle effect on molten pool dynamics in laser-powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Computational Materials Science, 179, art. no. 109648, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2020.109648

26-20   Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka and Akihiko Chiba, Isothermal γ → ε phase transformation behavior in a Co-Cr-Mo alloy depending on thermal history during electron beam powder-bed additive manufacturing, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 50, pp. 162-170, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2019.11.040

21-20   Won-Ik Cho and Peer Woizeschke, Analysis of molten pool behavior with buttonhole formation in laser keyhole welding of sheet metal, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 152, art. no. 119528, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.119528

06-20   Wei Xing, Di Ouyang, Zhen Chen and Lin Liu, Effect of energy density on defect evolution in 3D printed Zr-based metallic glasses by selective laser melting, Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 63, art. no. 226111, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s11433-019-1485-8

04-20    Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

02-20   Dongsheng Wu, Shinichi Tashiro, Ziang Wu, Kazufumi Nomura, Xueming Hua, and Manabu Tanaka, Analysis of heat transfer and material flow in hybrid KPAW-GMAW process based on the novel three dimensional CFD simulation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 147, art. no. 118921, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.118921

01-20   Xiang Huang, Siying Lin, Zhenxiang Bu, Xiaolong Lin, Weijin Yi, Zhihong Lin, Peiqin Xie, and Lingyun Wang, Research on nozzle and needle combination for high frequency piezostack-driven dispenser, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 96, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2019.102453

101-19   Wei Xing, Di Ouyang, Zhen Chen and Lin Liu, Effect of energy density on defect evolution in 3D printed Zr-based metallic glasses by selective laser melting, Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 63, art. no. 226111, 2019.

88-19   Bo Cheng and Charles Tuffile, Numerical study of porosity formation with implementation of laser multiple reflection in selective laser melting, Proceedings Volume 1: Additive Manufacturing; Manufacturing Equipment and Systems; Bio and Sustainable Manufacturing, ASME 2019 14th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, Erie, Pennsylvania, USA, June 10-14, 2019. doi.org/10.1115/MSEC2019-2891

87-19   Shuhao Wang, Lida Zhu, Jerry Ying His Fuh, Haiquan Zhang, and Wentao Yan, Multi-physics modeling and Gaussian process regression analysis of cladding track geometry for direct energy deposition, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 127:105950, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2019.105950

78-19   Bo Cheng, Lukas Loeber, Hannes Willeck, Udo Hartel, and Charles Tuffile, Computational investigation of melt pool process dynamics and pore formation in laser powder bed fusion, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 28:11, 6565-6578, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s11665-019-04435-y

77-19   David Souders, Pareekshith Allu, Anurag Chandorkar, and Ruendy Castillo, Application of computational fluid dynamics in developing process parameters for additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing Journal, 9th International Conference on 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing Technologies (AM 2019), Bangalore, India, September 7-9, 2019.

75-19   Raphaël Comminal, Marcin Piotr Serdeczny, Navid Ranjbar, Mehdi Mehrali, David Bue Pedersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg, Modelling of material deposition in big area additive manufacturing and 3D concrete printing, Proceedings, Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing, Nantes, France, September 16-18, 2019.

73-19   Baohua Chang, Zhang Yuan, Hao Cheng, Haigang Li, Dong Du 1, and Jiguo Shan, A study on the influences of welding position on the keyhole and molten pool behavior in laser welding of a titanium alloy, Metals, 9:1082, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/met9101082

60-19   Binqi Liu, Gang Fang, Liping Lei, and Wei Liu, A new ray tracing heat source model for mesoscale CFD simulation of selective laser melting (SLM), Applied Mathematical Modeling, in press, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2019.10.049

57-19     Shengjie Deng, Hui-Ping Wang, Fenggui Lu, Joshua Solomon, and Blair E. Carlson, Investigation of spatter occurrence in remote laser spiral welding of zinc-coated steels, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 140, pp. 269-280, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.06.009

53-19     Mohamad Bayat, Aditi Thanki, Sankhya Mohanty, Ann Witvrouw, Shoufeng Yang, Jesper Thorborg, Niels Skat Tieldje, and Jesper Henri Hattel, Keyhole-induced porosities in Laser-based Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) of Ti6Al4V: High-fidelity modelling and experimental validation, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 30, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2019.100835

51-19     P. Ninpetch, P. Kowitwarangkul, S. Mahathanabodee, R. Tongsri, and P. Ratanadecho, Thermal and melting track simulations of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF), International Conference on Materials Research and Innovation (ICMARI), Bangkok, Thailand, December 17-21, 2018. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 526, 2019. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/526/1/012030

46-19     Hongze Wang and Yu Zou, Microscale interaction between laser and metal powder in powder-bed additive manufacturing: Conduction mode versus keyhole mode, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 142, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.118473

45-19     Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka, and Akihiko Chiba, Manipulating local heat accumulation towards controlled quality and microstructure of a Co-Cr-Mo alloy in powder bed fusion with electron beam, Materials Letters, Vol. 254, pp. 269-272, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2019.07.078

44-19     Guoxiang Xu, Lin Li, Houxiao Wang, Pengfei Li, Qinghu Guo, Qingxian Hu, and Baoshuai Du, Simulation and experimental studies of keyhole induced porosity in laser-MIG hybrid fillet welding of aluminum alloy in the horizontal position, Optics & Laser Technology, Vol. 119, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2019.105667

38-19     Subin Shrestha and Y. Kevin Chou, A numerical study on the keyhole formation during laser powder bed fusion process, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 141, No. 10, 2019. doi.org/10.1115/1.4044100

34-19     Dae-Won Cho, Jin-Hyeong Park, and Hyeong-Soon Moon, A study on molten pool behavior in the one pulse one drop GMAW process using computational fluid dynamics, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 139, pp. 848-859, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.05.038

30-19     Mohamad Bayat, Sankhya Mohanty, and Jesper Henri Hattel, Multiphysics modelling of lack-of-fusion voids formation and evolution in IN718 made by multi-track/multi-layer L-PBF, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 139, pp. 95-114, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.05.003

29-19     Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Daixiu Wei, Kenta Yamanaka, and Akihiko Chiba, Comprehensive study on mechanisms for grain morphology evolution and texture development in powder bed fusion with electron beam of Co–Cr–Mo alloy, Materialia, Vol. 6, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.mtla.2019.100346

28-19     Pareekshith Allu, Computational fluid dynamics modeling in additive manufacturing processes, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) 148th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, March 10-14, 2019.

24-19     Simulation Software: Use, Advantages & Limitations, The Additive Manufacturing and Welding Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2019

22-19     Hunchul Jeong, Kyungbae Park, Sungjin Baek, and Jungho Cho, Thermal efficiency decision of variable polarity aluminum arc welding through molten pool analysis, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 138, pp. 729-737, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.04.089

07-19   Guangxi Zhao, Jun Du, Zhengying Wei, Ruwei Geng and Siyuan Xu, Numerical analysis of arc driving forces and temperature distribution in pulsed TIG welding, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 41, No. 60, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s40430-018-1563-0

04-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

03-19   Dongsheng Wu, Anh Van Nguyen, Shinichi Tashiro, Xueming Hua and Manabu Tanaka, Elucidation of the weld pool convection and keyhole formation mechanism in the keyhold plasma arc welding, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 131, pp. 920-931, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.11.108

84-18   Bo Cheng, Xiaobai Li, Charles Tuffile, Alexander Ilin, Hannes Willeck and Udo Hartel, Multi-physics modeling of single track scanning in selective laser melting: Powder compaction effect, Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, pp. 1887-1902, 2018.

81-18 Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Daixiu Wei, Kenta Yamanaka and Akihiko Chiba, Molten pool behavior and effect of fluid flow on solidification conditions in selective electron beam melting (SEBM) of a biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloy, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 26, pp. 202-214, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.002

77-18   Jun Du and Zhengying Wei, Numerical investigation of thermocapillary-induced deposited shape in fused-coating additive manufacturing process of aluminum alloy, Journal of Physics Communications, Vol. 2, No. 11, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/2399-6528/aaedc7

76-18   Yu Xiang, Shuzhe Zhang, Zhengying We, Junfeng Li, Pei Wei, Zhen Chen, Lixiang Yang and Lihao Jiang, Forming and defect analysis for single track scanning in selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V, Applied Physics A, 124:685, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s00339-018-2056-9

74-18   Paree Allu, CFD simulations for laser welding of Al Alloys, Proceedings, Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 15-17, 2018.

72-18   Hunchul Jeong, Kyungbae Park, Sungjin Baek, Dong-Yoon Kim, Moon-Jin Kang and Jungho Cho, Three-dimensional numerical analysis of weld pool in GMAW with fillet joint, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol. 19, No. 8, pp. 1171-1177, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s12541-018-0138-4

60-18   R.W. Geng, J. Du, Z.Y. Wei and G.X. Zhao, An adaptive-domain-growth method for phase field simulation of dendrite growth in arc preheated fused-coating additive manufacturing, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063, 012077, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012077 (Available at http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012077/pdf and in shared drive)

59-18   Guangxi Zhao, Jun Du, Zhengying Wei, Ruwei Geng and Siyuan Xu, Coupling analysis of molten pool during fused coating process with arc preheating, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063, 012076, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012076 (Available at http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012076/pdf and in shared drive)

58-18   Siyuan Xu, Zhengying Wei, Jun Du, Guangxi Zhao and Wei Liu, Numerical simulation and analysis of metal fused coating forming, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063, 012075, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012075

55-18   Jason Cheon, Jin-Young Yoon, Cheolhee Kim and Suck-Joo Na, A study on transient flow characteristic in friction stir welding with realtime interface tracking by direct surface calculation, Journal of Materials Processing Tech., vol. 255, pp. 621-634, 2018.

54-18   V. Sukhotskiy, P. Vishnoi, I. H. Karampelas, S. Vader, Z. Vader, and E. P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic drop-on-demand liquid metal additive manufacturing: System overview and modeling, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of Fluid Flow, Heat and Mass Transfer, Niagara Falls, Canada, June 7 – 9, 2018; Paper no. 155, 2018. doi.org/10.11159/ffhmt18.155

52-18   Michael Hilbinger, Claudia Stadelmann, Matthias List and Robert F. Singer, Temconex® – Kontinuierliche Pulverextrusion: Verbessertes Verständnis mit Hilfe der numerischen Simulation, Hochleistungsmetalle und Prozesse für den Leichtbau der Zukunft, Tagungsband 10. Ranshofener Leichtmetalltage, 13-14 Juni 2018, Linz, pp. 175-186, 2018.

38-18   Zhen Chen, Yu Xiang, Zhengying Wei, Pei Wei, Bingheng Lu, Lijuan Zhang and Jun Du, Thermal dynamic behavior during selective laser melting of K418 superalloy: numerical simulation and experimental verification, Applied Physics A, vol. 124, pp. 313, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s00339-018-1737-8

19-18   Chenxiao Zhu, Jason Cheon, Xinhua Tang, Suck-Joo Na, and Haichao Cui, Molten pool behaviors and their influences on welding defects in narrow gap GMAW of 5083 Al-alloy, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 126:A, pp.1206-1221, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.05.132

16-18   P. Schneider, V. Sukhotskiy, T. Siskar, L. Christie and I.H. Karampelas, Additive Manufacturing of Microfluidic Components via Wax Extrusion, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, vol. 3, pp. 162 – 165, 2018.

09-18   The Furlani Research Group, Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal 3D Printing, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, © University at Buffalo, May 2018.

08-18   Benjamin Himmel, Dominik Rumschöttel and Wolfram Volk, Thermal process simulation of droplet based metal printing with aluminium, Production Engineering, March 2018 © German Academic Society for Production Engineering (WGP) 2018.

07-18   Yu-Che Wu, Cheng-Hung San, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Huey-Jiuan Lin, Raed Marwan, Shuhei Baba and Weng-Sing Hwang, Numerical modeling of melt-pool behavior in selective laser melting with random powder distribution and experimental validation, Journal of Materials Processing Tech. 254 (2018) 72–78.

60-17   Pei Wei, Zhengying Wei, Zhen Chen, Yuyang He and Jun Du, Thermal behavior in single track during selective laser melting of AlSi10Mg powder, Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 123:604, 2017. doi.org/10.1007/z00339-017-1194-9

51-17   Koichi Ishizaka, Keijiro Saitoh, Eisaku Ito, Masanori Yuri, and Junichiro Masada, Key Technologies for 1700°C Class Ultra High Temperature Gas Turbine, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Review, vol. 54, no. 3, 2017.

49-17   Yu-Che Wu, Weng-Sing Hwang, Cheng-Hung San, Chih-Hsiang Chang and Huey-Jiuan Lin, Parametric study of surface morphology for selective laser melting on Ti6Al4V powder bed with numerical and experimental methods, International Journal of Material Forming, © Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2017. doi.org/10.1007/s12289-017-1391-2.

37-17   V. Sukhotskiy, I. H. Karampelas, G. Garg, A. Verma, M. Tong, S. Vader, Z. Vader, and E. P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic Drop-on-Demand Liquid Metal 3D Printing, Solid Freeform Fabrication 2017: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference

14-17   Jason Cheon and Suck-Joo Na, Prediction of welding residual stress with real-time phase transformation by CFD thermal analysis, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 131–132 (2017) 37–51.

91-16   Y. S. Lee and D. F. Farson, Surface tension-powered build dimension control in laser additive manufacturing process, Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2016) 85:1035–1044, doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7974-5.

84-16   Runqi Lin, Hui-ping Wang, Fenggui Lu, Joshua Solomon, Blair E. Carlson, Numerical study of keyhole dynamics and keyhole-induced porosity formation in remote laser welding of Al alloys, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 108 (2017) 244–256, Available online December 2016.

68-16   Dongsheng Wu, Xueming Hua, Dingjian Ye and Fang Li, Understanding of humping formation and suppression mechanisms using the numerical simulation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 104, January 2017, Pages 634–643, Published online 2016.

26-16   Y.S. Lee and W. Zhang, Modeling of heat transfer, fluid flow and solidification microstructure of nickel-base superalloy fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, S2214-8604(16)30087-2, doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2016.05.003, ADDMA 86.

123-15   Koji Tsukimoto, Masashi Kitamura, Shuji Tanigawa, Sachio Shimohata, and Masahiko Mega, Laser welding repair for single crystal blades, Proceedings of International Gas Turbine Congress, pp. 1354-1358, 2015.

116-15   Yousub Lee, Simulation of Laser Additive Manufacturing and its Applications, Ph.D. Thesis: Graduate Program in Welding Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2015, Copyright by Yousub Lee 2015

103-15   Ligang Wu, Jason Cheon, Degala Venkata Kiran, and Suck-Joo Na, CFD Simulations of GMA Welding of Horizontal Fillet Joints based on Coordinate Rotation of Arc Models, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Available online December 29, 2015

96-15   Jason Cheon, Degala Venkata Kiran, and Suck-Joo Na, Thermal metallurgical analysis of GMA welded AH36 steel using CFD – FEM framework, Materials & Design, Volume 91, February 5 2016, Pages 230-241, published online November 2015

25-15   Dae-Won Cho and Suck-Joo Na, Molten pool behaviors for second pass V-groove GMAW, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 88 (2015) 945–956.

21-15   Jungho Cho, Dave F. Farson, Kendall J. Hollis and John O. Milewski, Numerical analysis of weld pool oscillation in laser welding, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 29 (4) (2015) 1715~1722, www.springerlink.com/content/1738-494x, doi.org/10.1007/s12206-015-0344-2.

82-14  Yousub Lee, Mark Nordin, Sudarsanam Suresh Babu, and Dave F. Farson, Effect of Fluid Convection on Dendrite Arm Spacing in Laser Deposition, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, August 2014, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 1520-1529

59-14   Y.S. Lee, M. Nordin, S.S. Babu, and D.F. Farson, Influence of Fluid Convection on Weld Pool Formation in Laser Cladding, Welding Research/ August 2014, VOL. 93

18-14  L.J. Zhang, J.X. Zhang, A. Gumenyuk, M. Rethmeier, and S.J. Na, Numerical simulation of full penetration laser welding of thick steel plate with high power high brightness laser, Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2014), doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.03.016.

36-13  Dae-Won Cho,Woo-Hyun Song, Min-Hyun Cho, and Suck-Joo Na, Analysis of Submerged Arc Welding Process by Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2013. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.06.017

12-13 D.W. Cho, S.J. Na, M.H. Cho, J.S. Lee, A study on V-groove GMAW for various welding positions, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, April 2013, doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.02.015.

01-13  Dae-Won Cho & Suck-Joo Na & Min-Hyun Cho & Jong-Sub Lee, Simulations of weld pool dynamics in V-groove GTA and GMA welding, Weld World, doi.org/10.1007/s40194-012-0017-z, © International Institute of Welding 2013.

63-12  D.W. Cho, S.H. Lee, S.J. Na, Characterization of welding arc and weld pool formation in vacuum gas hollow tungsten arc welding, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2012.09.024, September 2012.

77-10  Lim, Y. C.; Yu, X.; Cho, J. H.; et al., Effect of magnetic stirring on grain structure refinement Part 1-Autogenous nickel alloy welds, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Volume: 15 Issue: 7, Pages: 583-589, doi.org/10.1179/136217110X12720264008277, October 2010

18-10 K Saida, H Ohnishi, K Nishimoto, Fluxless laser brazing of aluminium alloy to galvanized steel using a tandem beam–dissimilar laser brazing of aluminium alloy and steels, Welding International, 2010

58-09  Cho, Jung-Ho; Farson, Dave F.; Milewski, John O.; et al., Weld pool flows during initial stages of keyhole formation in laser welding, Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics, Volume: 42 Issue: 17 Article Number: 175502 ; doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/42/17/175502, September 2009

57-09  Lim, Y. C.; Farson, D. F.; Cho, M. H.; et al., Stationary GMAW-P weld metal deposit spreading, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Volume: 14 Issue: 7 ;Pages: 626-635, doi.org/10.1179/136217109X441173, October 2009

1-09 J.-H. Cho and S.-J. Na, Three-Dimensional Analysis of Molten Pool in GMA-Laser Hybrid Welding, Welding Journal, February 2009, Vol. 88

52-07   Huey-Jiuan Lin and Wei-Kuo Chang, Design of a sheet forming apparatus for overflow fusion process by numerical simulation, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 353 (2007) 2817–2825.

50-07  Cho, Min Hyun; Farson, Dave F., Understanding bead hump formation in gas metal arc welding using a numerical simulation, Metallurgical and Mateials Transactions B-Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science, Volume: 38, Issue: 2, Pages: 305-319, doi.org/10.1007/s11663-007-9034-5, April 2007

49-07  Cho, M. H.; Farson, D. F., Simulation study of a hybrid process for the prevention of weld bead hump formation, Welding Journal Volume: 86, Issue: 9, Pages: 253S-262S, September 2007

48-07  Cho, M. H.; Farson, D. F.; Lim, Y. C.; et al., Hybrid laser/arc welding process for controlling bead profile, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Volume: 12 Issue: 8, Pages: 677-688, doi.org/10.1179/174329307X236878, November 2007

47-07   Min Hyun Cho, Dave F. Farson, Understanding Bead Hump Formation in Gas Metal Arc Welding Using a Numerical Simulation, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 305-319, April 2007

36-06  Cho, M. H.; Lim, Y. C.; Farson, D. F., Simulation of weld pool dynamics in the stationary pulsed gas metal arc welding process and final weld shape, Welding Journal, Volume: 85 Issue: 12, Pages: 271S-283S, December 2006

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STI C&D 에서 공급하는 CFD 프로그램은 미국 Flow Science 에서 개발된 FLOW-3D solver 를 기반으로 한 매우 강력하고 정확한 열유동 수치해석 프로그램 입니다. 귀하의 업무에 적합한 제품군을 찾고자 하시면 당사의 솔루션팀으로 문의 주시기 바랍니다.
 

FLOW-3D 는 유체의 동적 거동을 연구하는 개발 및 설계 엔지니어에게 꼭 필요한 유동 시뮬레이션 솔루션을 제공합니다. FLOW-3D는 1, 2, 3차원의 자유 표면 해석, 시간에 따른 유체의 유동해석, 제한된 유체의 흐름, 정상 상태의 문제들을 완벽하게 해결 할 수 있습니다.
 

FLOW-3D HPC 는 흔히 슈퍼컴퓨터 또는 클러스터 컴퓨터를 이용하여 고성능 컴퓨팅(HPC, High-Performance Computing)을 할 수 있는 제품으로 대규모 또는 장시간 계산이 필요한 문제를 효과적으로 해결할 수 있도록 뛰어난 성능을 제공합니다. FLOW-3D HPC 는 초대형 컴퓨팅 시스템부터 조립 클러스터까지 쉽게 고성능 컴퓨팅 클러스터를 활용할 수 있습니다.
 
FLOW-3D/CAST 는 금속 주조 공정 시뮬레이션을 위해 특별히 설계된 FLOW-3D의 특별 버전입니다. 본 제품은 FLOW-3D의 강력한 해석기능을 주조분야 설계자가 쉽게 사용할 수 있는 쉬운 인터페이스를 제공합니다.
 

FLOW-3D Weld DEM

FLOW Weld 는 용접 해석에 필요한 모델을 FLOW-3D 에 추가하는 추가 모듈입니다.  FLOW-3D 표면 장력 자유 표면 분석, 용융 · 응고 · 증발 상 변화 모델 등의 기본 기능을 응용하여 각종 용접 현상을 분석 할 수 있습니다.

FLOW-3D AM 은 레이저 파우더 베드 융합 (L-PBF), 바인더 제트 및 DED (Directed Energy Deposition)와 같은 적층 제조 공정 ( additive manufacturing )을 시뮬레이션하고 분석하는 CFD 소프트웨어입니다. FLOW-3D AM 의 다중 물리 기능은 공정 매개 변수의 분석 및 최적화를 위해 분말 확산 및 압축, 용융 풀 역학, L-PBF 및 DED에 대한 다공성 형성, 바인더 분사 공정을위한 수지 침투 및 확산에 대한 매우 정확한 시뮬레이션을 제공합니다.

FSAI는 유체-구조 연성해석을 쉽게 할 수 있는 프로그램으로 FLOW-3D / FLOW-3D MP 해석 결과 데이터(유체 압력, 유체 온도, 벽 온도)를 구조 해석의 유한 요소(FEM) Mesh에 출력할 수 있습니다.  반대로 구조 해석의 유한 요소(FEM) Mesh 데이터를 FLOW-3D Solid 형상으로 읽어 처리 할 수 있습니다.

 
 
 
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flow3d flow3dmp hydraulics maritime aerospace
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Microfluidics Bibliography

다음은 Microfluidics Bibliography의 기술 문서 모음입니다.
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  결과를 특징으로  합니다. 미세 유체 공정 및 장치 를 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하기 위해 FLOW-3D 를 사용 하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오  .

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Microfluidics Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate microfluidic processes and devices.

08-20   Li Yong-Qiang, Dong Jun-Yan and Rui Wei, Numerical simulation for capillary driven flow in capsule-type vane tank with clearances under microgravity, Microgravity Science and Technology, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s12217-019-09773-z

89-19   Tim Dreckmann, Julien Boeuf, Imke-Sonja Ludwig, Jorg Lumkemann, and Jorg Huwyler, Low volume aseptic filling: impact of pump systems on shear stress, European Journal of Pharmeceutics and Biopharmeceutics, in press, 2019. doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2019.12.006

88-19   V. Amiri Roodan, J. Gomez-Pastora, C. Gonzalez-Fernandez, I.H. Karampelas, E. Bringas, E.P. Furlani, and I. Ortiz, CFD analysis of the generation and manipulation of ferrofluid droplets, TechConnect Briefs, pp. 182-185, 2019. TechConnect World Innovation Conference & Expo, Boston, Massachussetts, USA, June 17-19, 2019.

55-19     Julio Aleman, Sunil K. George, Samuel Herberg, Mahesh Devarasetty, Christopher D. Porada, Aleksander Skardal, and Graça Almeida‐Porada, Deconstructed microfluidic bone marrow on‐a‐chip to study normal and malignant hemopoietic cell–niche interactions, Small, 2019. doi: 10.1002/smll.201902971

37-19     Feng Lin Ng, Miniaturized 3D fibrous scaffold on stereolithography-printed microfluidic perfusion culture, Doctoral Thesis, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 2019.

32-19     Jenifer Gómez-Pastora, Ioannis H. Karampelas, Eugenio Bringas, Edward P. Furlani, and Inmaculada Ortiz, Numerical analysis of bead magnetophoresis from flowing blood in a continuous-flow microchannel: Implications to the bead-fluid interactions, Nature: Scientific Reports, Vol. 9, No. 7265, 2019. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-43827-x

01-19  Jelena Dinic and Vivek Sharma, Computational analysis of self-similar capillary-driven thinning and pinch-off dynamics during dripping using the volume-of-fluid method, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 31, 2019. doi: 10.1063/1.5061715

75-18   Tobias Ladner, Sebastian Odenwald, Kevin Kerls, Gerald Zieres, Adeline Boillon and Julien Bœuf, CFD supported investigation of shear induced by bottom-mounted magnetic stirrer in monoclonal antibody formulation, Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 35, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11095-018-2492-4

53-18   Venoos Amiri Roodan, Jenifer Gómez-Pastora, Aditi Verma, Eugenio Bringas, Inmaculada Ortiz and Edward P. Furlani, Computational analysis of magnetic droplet generation and manipulation in microfluidic devices, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of Fluid Flow, Heat and Mass Transfer, Niagara Falls, Canada, June 7 – 9, 2018; Paper no. 154, 2018.  doi: 10.11159/ffhmt18.154

35-18   Jenifer Gómez-Pastora, Cristina González Fernández, Marcos Fallanza, Eugenio Bringas and Inmaculada Ortiz, Flow patterns and mass transfer performance of miscible liquid-liquid flows in various microchannels: Numerical and experimental studies, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 344, pp. 487-497, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2018.03.110

16-18   P. Schneider, V. Sukhotskiy, T. Siskar, L. Christie and I.H. Karampelas, Additive Manufacturing of Microfluidic Components via Wax Extrusion, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, vol. 3, pp. 162 – 165, 2018.

15-18   J. Gómez-Pastora, I.H. Karampelas, A.Q. Alorabi, M.D. Tarn, E. Bringas, A. Iles, V.N. Paunov, N. Pamme, E.P. Furlani, I. Ortiz, CFD analysis and experimental validation of magnetic droplet generation and deflection across multilaminar flow streams, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, vol. 3, pp. 182-185, 2018.

14-18   J. Gómez-Pastora, C. González-Fernández, I.H. Karampelas, E. Bringas, E.P. Furlani, and I. Ortiz, Design of Magnetic Blood Cleansing Microdevices through Experimentally Validated CFD Modeling, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, vol. 3, pp. 170-173, 2018.

10-18   A. Gupta, I.H. Karampelas, J. Kitting, Numerical modeling of the formation of dynamically configurable L2 lens in a microchannel, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, Vol. 3, pp. 186 – 189, 2018.

17-17   I.H. Karampelas, J. Gómez-Pastora, M.J. Cowan, E. Bringas, I. Ortiz and E.P. Furlani, Numerical Analysis of Acoustophoretic Discrete Particle Focusing in Microchannels, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs 2017, Vol. 3

16-17   J. Gómez-Pastora, I.H. Karampelas, E. Bringas, E.P. Furlani and I. Ortiz, CFD analysis of particle magnetophoresis in multiphase continuous-flow bioseparators, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs 2017, Vol. 3

15-17   I.H. Karampelas, S. Vader, Z. Vader, V. Sukhotskiy, A. Verma, G. Garg, M. Tong and E.P. Furlani, Drop-on-Demand 3D Metal Printing, Informatics, Electronics and Microsystems TechConnect Briefs 2017, Vol. 4

102-16   J. Brindha, RA.G. Privita Edwina, P.K. Rajesh and P.Rani, “Influence of rheological properties of protein bio-inks on printability: A simulation and validation study,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 3, no.10, pp. 3285-3295, 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2016.10.010

99-16   Ioannis H. Karampelas, Kai Liu, Fatema Alali, and Edward P. Furlani, Plasmonic Nanoframes for Photothermal Energy Conversion, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2016, 120 (13), pp 7256–7264

98-16   Jelena Dinic and Vivek Sharma, Drop formation, pinch-off dynamics and liquid transfer of simple and complex fluidshttp://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2016.MAR.B53.12, APS March Meeting 2016, Volume 61, Number 2, March 14–18, 2016, Baltimore, Maryland

67-16  Vahid Bazargan and Boris Stoeber, Effect of substrate conductivity on the evaporation of small sessile droplets, PHYSICAL REVIEW E 94, 033103 (2016), doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.94.033103

57-16   Ioannis Karampelas, Computational analysis of pulsed-laser plasmon-enhanced photothermal energy conversion and nanobubble generation in the nanoscale, PhD Dissertation: Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, July 2016

44-16   Takeshi Sawada et al., Prognostic impact of circulating tumor cell detected using a novel fluidic cell microarray chip system in patients with breast cancer, EBioMedicine, Available online 27 July 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.07.027.

39-16   Chien-Hsun Wang, Ho-Lin Tsai, Yu-Che Wu and Weng-Sing Hwang, Investigation of molten metal droplet deposition and solidification for 3D printing techniques, IOP Publishing, J. Micromech. Microeng. 26 (2016) 095012 (14pp), doi: 10.1088/0960-1317/26/9/095012, July 8, 2016

30-16   Ioannis H. Karampelas, Kai Liu and Edward P. Furlani, Plasmonic Nanocages as Photothermal Transducers for Nanobubble Cancer Therapy, Nanotech 2016 Conference & Expo, May 22-25, Washington, DC.

29-16   Scott Vader, Zachary Vader, Ioannis H. Karampelas and Edward P. Furlani, Advances in Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing, Nanotech 2016 Conference & Expo, May 22-25, Washington, DC.

02-16  Stephen D. Hoath (Editor), Fundamentals of Inkjet Printing: The Science of Inkjet and Droplets, ISBN: 978-3-527-33785-9, 472 pages, February 2016 (see chapters 2 and 3 for FLOW-3D results)

125-15   J. Berthier, K.A. Brakke, E.P. Furlani, I.H. Karampelas, V. Poher, D. Gosselin, M. Cubinzolles and P. Pouteau, Whole blood spontaneous capillary flow in narrow V-groove microchannels, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 206, pp. 258-267, 2015.

86-15   Yousub Lee and Dave F. Farson, Simulation of transport phenomena and melt pool shape for multiple layer additive manufacturing, J. Laser Appl. 28, 012006 (2016). doi: 10.2351/1.4935711, published online 2015.

77-15   Ho-Lin Tsai, Weng-Sing Hwang, Jhih-Kai Wang, Wen-Chih Peng and Shin-Hau Chen, Fabrication of Microdots Using Piezoelectric Dispensing Technique for Viscous Fluids, Materials 2015, 8(10), 7006-7016. doi: 10.3390/ma8105355

63-15   Scott Vader, Zachary Vader, Ioannis H. Karampelas and Edward P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing, TechConnect World Innovation Conference & Expo, Washington, D.C., June 14-17, 2015

46-15   Adwaith Gupta, 3D Printing Multi-Material, Single Printhead Simulation, Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop, July 20 – 21, 2015, Santa Fe, NM

28-15   Yongqiang Li, Mingzhu Hu, Ling Liu, Yin-Yin Su, Li Duan, and Qi Kang, Study of Capillary Driven Flow in an Interior Corner of Rounded Wall Under MicrogravityMicrogravity Science and Technology, June 2015

20-15   Pamela J. Waterman, Diversity in Medical Simulation Applications, Desktop Engineering, May 2015, pp 22-26,

16-15   Saurabh Singh, Ann Junghans, Erik Watkins, Yash Kapoor, Ryan Toomey, and Jaroslaw Majewski, Effects of Fluid Shear Stress on Polyelectrolyte Multilayers by Neutron Scattering Studies, © 2015 American Chemical Society, DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b00037, Langmuir 2015, 31, 2870−2878, February 17, 2015

11-15   Cheng-Han Wu and Weng-Sing Hwang, The effect of process condition of the ink-jet printing process on the molten metallic droplet formation through the analysis of fluid propagation direction, Canadian Journal of Physics, 2015. doi: 10.1139/cjp-2014-0259

03-15 Hanchul Cho, Sivasubramanian Somu, Jin Young Lee, Hobin Jeong and Ahmed Busnaina, High-Rate Nanoscale Offset Printing Process Using Directed Assembly and Transfer of Nanomaterials, Adv. Materials, doi: 10.1002/adma.201404769, February 2015

122-14  Albert Chi, Sebastian Curi, Kevin Clayton, David Luciano, Kameron Klauber, Alfredo Alexander-Katz, Sebastián D’hers and Noel M Elman, Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) implemented by integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D printed microfluidics, Research Gate, doi: 10.1007/s13346-014-0198-7, July 2014

113-14 Cihan Yilmaz, Arif E. Cetin, Georgia Goutzamanidis, Jun Huang, Sivasubramanian Somu, Hatice Altug, Dongguang Wei and Ahmed Busnaina, Three-Dimensional Crystalline and Homogeneous Metallic Nanostructures Using Directed Assembly of Nanoparticles, 10.1021/nn500084g, © 2014 American Chemical Society, April 2014

110-14 Koushik Ponnuru, Jincheng Wu, Preeti Ashok, Emmanuel S. Tzanakakis and Edward P. Furlani, Analysis of Stem Cell Culture Performance in a Microcarrier Bioreactor System, Nanotech, Washington, D.C., June 15-18, 2014

109-14   Ioannis H. Karampelas, Young Hwa Kim and Edward P. Furlani, Numerical Analysis of Laser Induced Photothermal Effects using Colloidal Plasmonic Nanostructures, Nanotech, Washington, D.C., June 15-18, 2014

108-14   Chenxu Liu, Xiaozheng Xue and Edward P. Furlani, Numerical Analysis of Fully-Coupled Particle-Fluid Transport and Free-Flow Magnetophoretic Sorting in Microfluidic Systems, Nanotech, Washington, D.C., June 15-18, 2014

95-14   Cheng-Han Wu, Weng-Sing Hwang, The effect of the echo-time of a bipolar pulse waveform on molten metallic droplet formation by squeeze mode piezoelectric inkjet printing, Accepted November 2014, Microelectronics Reliability (2014) , © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

85-14   Sudhir Srivastava, Lattice Boltzmann method for contact line dynamics, ISBN: 978-90-386-3608-5, Copyright © 2014 S. Srivastava

61-14   Chenxu Liu, A Computational Model for Predicting Fully-Coupled Particle-Fluid Dynamics and Self-Assembly for Magnetic Particle Applications, Master’s Thesis: State University of New York at Buffalo, 2014, 75 pages; 1561583, http://gradworks.umi.com/15/61/1561583.html

41-14 Albert Chi, Sebastian Curi, Kevin Clayton, David Luciano, Kameron Klauber, Alfredo Alexander-Katz, Sebastian D’hers, and Noel M. Elman, Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) implemented by integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D printed microfluidics, Drug Deliv. and Transl. Res., DOI 10.1007/s13346-014-0198-7, # Controlled Release Society 2014. Available for purchase online at SpringerLink.

21-14  Suk-Hee Park, Ung Hyun Koh, Mina Kim, Dong-Yol Yang, Kahp-Yang Suh and Jennifer Hyunjong Shin, Hierarchical multilayer assembly of an ordered nanofibrous scaffold via thermal fusion bonding, Biofabrication 6 (2014) 024107 (10pp), doi:10.1088/1758-5082/6/2/024107, IOP Publishing, 2014. Available for purchase online at IOP.

17-14   Vahid Bazargan, Effect of substrate cooling and droplet shape and composition on the droplet evaporation and the deposition of particles, Ph.D. Thesis: Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, March 2014, © Vahid Bazargan, 2014

73-13  Oliver G. Harlen, J. Rafael Castrejón-Pita, and Arturo Castrejon-Pita, Asymmetric Detachment from Angled Nozzles Plates in Drop-on Demand Inkjet Printing, NIP & Digital Fabrication Conference, 2013 International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies. Pages 253-549, pp. 277-280(4)

63-13  Fatema Alali, Ioannis H. Karampelas, Young Hwa Kim, and Edward P. Furlani, Photonic and Thermofluidic Analysis of Colloidal Plasmonic Nanorings and Nanotori for Pulsed-Laser Photothermal ApplicationsJ. Phys. Chem. C, Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/jp406986y, Copyright © 2013 American Chemical Society, September 2013.

25-13  Sudhir Srivastava, Theo Driessen, Roger Jeurissen, Herma Wijshoff, and Federico Toschi, Lattice Boltzmann Method to Study the Contraction of a Viscous Ligament, International Journal of Modern Physics © World Scientific Publishing Company, May 2013.

11-13  Li-Chieh Hsu, Yong-Jhih Chen, Jia-Huang Liou, Numerical Investigation in the Factors on the Pool Boiling, Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 311 (2013) pp 456-461, © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.311.456. Available for purchase online at Scientific.Net.

10-13 Pamela J. Waterman, CFD: Shaping the Medical World, Desktop Engineering, April 2013. Full article available online at Desktop Engineering.

90-12 Charles R. Ortloff and Martin Vogel, Spray Cooling Heat Transfer- Test and CFD Analysis, Electronics Cooling, June 2012. Available online at Electronics Cooling.

79-12    Daniel Parsaoran Siregar, Numerical simulation of evaporation and absorption of inkjet printed droplets, Ph.D. Thesis: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, September 18, 2012, Copyright 2012 by D.P. Siregar, ISBN: 978-90-386-3190-5.

71-12   Jong-hyeon Chang, Kyu-Dong Jung, Eunsung Lee, Minseog Choi, Seungwan Lee, and Woonbae Kim, Varifocal liquid lens based on microelectrofluidic technology, Optics Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 21, pp. 4377-4379 (2012) http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.37.004377

70-12   Jong-hyeon Chang, Kyu-Dong Jung, Eunsung Lee, Minseog Choi, and Seunwan Lee, Microelectrofluidic Iris for Variable ApertureProc. SPIE 8252, MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XI, 82520O (February 9, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.906587

69-12   Jong-hyeon Chang, Eunsung Lee, Kyu-Dong Jung, Seungwan Lee, Minseog Choi, and  Woonbae Kim, Microelectrofluidic Lens for Variable CurvatureProc. SPIE 8486, Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Engineering XIII, 84860X (October 11, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.925852.

61-12  Biddut Bhattacharjee, Study of Droplet Splitting in an Electrowetting Based Digital Microfluidic System, Thesis: Doctor of Philosophy in the College of Graduate Studies (Applied Sciences), The University of British Columbia, September 2012, © Biddut Bhattacharjee.

55-12 Hejun Li, Pengyun Wang, Lehua Qi, Hansong Zuo, Songyi Zhong, Xianghui Hou, 3D numerical simulation of successive deposition of uniform molten Al droplets on a moving substrate and experimental validation, Computational Materials Science, Volume 65, December 2012, Pages 291–301. Available for purchase online at SciVerse.

54-12   Edward P. Furlani, Anthony Nunez, Gianmarco Vizzeri, Modeling Fluid Structure-Interactions for Biomechanical Analysis of the Human Eye, Nanotech Conference & Expo, June 18-21, 2012, Santa Clara, CA.

53-12   Xinyun Wu, Richard D. Oleschuk and Natalie M. Cann, Characterization of microstructured fibre emitters in pursuit of improved nano electrospray ionization performance, The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012, http://pubs.rsc.org, DOI: 10.1039/c2an35249d, May 2012

25-12    Edward P. Furlani, Ioannis H. Karampelas and Qian Xie, Analysis of Pulsed Laser Plasmon-assisted Photothermal Heating and Bubble Generation at the Nanoscale, Lab on a Chip, 10.1039/C2LC40495H, Received 01 May 2012, Accepted 07 Jun 2012. First published on the web 13 Jun 2012.

22-12  R.A. Sultanov, D. Guster, Numerical Modeling and Simulations of Pulsatile Human Blood Flow in Different 3D-Geometries, Book chapter #21 in Fluid Dynamics, Computational Modeling and Applications (2012), ISBN: 978-953-51-0052-2, p. 475 [18 pages]. Available online at INTECH.

21-12  Guo-Wei Huang, Tzu-Yi Hung, and Chin-Tai Chen, Design, Simulation, and Verification of Fluidic Light-Guide Chips with Various Geometries of Micro Polymer Channels, NEMS 2012, Kyoto, Japan, March 5-8, 2012. Available for purchase online at IEEE.

103-11   Suk-Hee Park, Development of Three-Dimensional Scaffolds containing Electrospun Nanofibers and their Applications to Tissue Regeneration, Ph.D. Thesis: School of Mechanical, Aersospace and Systems Engineering, Division of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 2011.

81-11   Xinyun Wu, Modeling and Characterization of Microfabricated Emitters-In Pursuit of Improved ESI-MS Performance, thesis: Department of Chemistry, Queen’s University, December 2011, Copyright © Xinyun Wu, 2011

79-11  Cong Lu, A Cell Preparation Stage for Automatic Cell Injection, thesis: Graduate Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Copyright © Cong Lu, 2011

77-11 Ge Bai, W. Thomas Leach, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) insights into agitation stress methods in biopharmaceutical development, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Available online 8 December 2011, ISSN 0378-5173, 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2011.11.044. Available online at SciVerse.

72-11  M.R. Barkhudarov, C.W. Hirt, D. Milano, and G. Wei, Comments on a Comparison of CFD Software for Microfluidic Applications, Flow Science Technical Note #93, FSI-11-TN93, December 2011

45-11  Chang-Wei Kang, Jiak Kwang Tan, Lunsheng Pan, Cheng Yee Low and Ahmed Jaffar, Numerical and experimental investigations of splat geometric characteristics during oblique impact of plasma spraying, Applied Surface Science, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 20 July 2011, ISSN 0169-4332, DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2011.06.081. Available to purchase online at SciVers

33-11  Edward P. Furlani, Mark T. Swihart, Natalia Litchinitser, Christopher N. Delametter and Melissa Carter, Modeling Nanoscale Plasmon-assisted Bubble Nucleation and Applications, Nanotech Conference and Expo 2011, Boston, MA, June 13-16, 2011

32-11  Lu, Cong and Mills, James K., Three cell separation design for realizing automatic cell injection, Complex Medical Engineering (CME), 2011 IEEE/ICME, pp: 599 – 603, Harbin, China, 10.1109/ICCME.2011.5876811, June 2011. Available online at IEEEXplore.

25-11 Issam M. Bahadur, James K. Mills, Fluidic vacuum-based biological cell holding device with piezoelectrically induced vibration, Complex Medical Engineering (CME), 2011 IEEE/ICME International Conference on, 22-25 May 2011, pp: 85 – 90, Harbin, China. Available online at: IEEE Xplore.

14-11  Edward P. Furlani, Roshni Biswas, Alexander N. Cartwright and Natalia M. Litchinitser, Antiresonant guiding optofluidic biosensor, doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2011.04.014, Optics Communication, April 2011

05-11 Hyeju Eom and Keun Park, Integrated numerical analysis to evaluate replication characteristics of micro channels in a locally heated mold by selective induction, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Volume 12, Number 1, 53-60, DOI: 10.1007/s12541-011-0007-x, 2011. Available online at: SpringerLink.

70-10  I.N. Volnov, V.S. Nagornyi, Modeling Processes for Generation of Streams of Monodispersed Fluid Droplets in Electro-inkjet Applications, Science and Technology News, St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, 4, pp 294-300, 2010. In Russian.

62-10  F. Mobadersani, M. Eskandarzade, S. Azizi and S. Abbasnezhad, Effect of Ambient Pressure on Bubble Growth in Micro-Channel and Its Pumping Effect, ESDA2010-24436, pp. 577-584, doi:10.1115/ESDA2010-24436, ASME 2010 10th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis (ESDA2010), Istanbul, Turkey, July 12–14, 2010. Available online at the ASME Digital Library.

58-10 Tsung-Yi Ho, Jun Zeng, and Chakrabarty, K, Digital microfluidic biochips: A vision for functional diversity and more than moore, Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), 2010 IEEE/ACM International Conference on, DOI: 10.1109/ICCAD.2010.5654199, © IEEE, November 2010. Available online at IEEE Explore.

51-10  Regina Bleul, Marion Ritzi-Lehnert, Julian Höth, Nico Scharpfenecker, Ines Frese, Dominik Düchs, Sabine Brunklaus, Thomas E. Hansen-Hagge, Franz-Josef Meyer-Almes, Klaus S. Drese, Compact, cost-efficient microfluidics-based stopped-flow device, Anal Bioanal Chem, DOI 10.1007/s00216-010-4446-5, Available online at Springer, November 2010

22-10    Krishendu Chakrabarty, Richard B. Fair and Jun Zeng, Design Tools for Digital Microfluidic Biochips Toward Functional Diversification and More than Moore, IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, Vol. 29, No. 7, July 2010

14-10 E. P. Furlani and M. S. Hanchak, Nonlinear analysis of the deformation and breakup of viscous microjets using the method of lines, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids (2010), © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Published online in Wiley InterScience. DOI: 10.1002/fld.2205

55-09 R.A. Sultanov, and D. Guster, Computer simulations of  pulsatile human blood flow through 3D models of the human aortic arch, vessels of simple geometry and a bifurcated artery, Proceedings of the 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society), Minneapolis, September 2-6, 2009, p.p. 4704-4710.

30-09 Anurag Chandorkar and Shayan Palit, Simulation of Droplet Dynamics and Mixing in Microfluidic Devices using a VOF-Based Method, Sensors & Transducers journal, ISSN 1726-5479 © 2009 by IFSA, Vol.7, Special Issue “MEMS: From Micro Devices to Wireless Systems,” October 2009, pp. 136-149.

13-09 E.P. Furlani, M.C. Carter, Analysis of an Electrostatically Actuated MEMS Drop Ejector, Presented at Nanotech Conference & Expo 2009, Houston, Texas, USA, May 3-7, 2009

12-09 A. Chandorkar, S. Palit, Simulation of Droplet-Based Microfluidics Devices Using a Volume-of-Fluid Approach, Presented at Nanotech Conference & Expo 2009, Houston, Texas, USA, May 3-7, 2009

3-09 Christopher N. Delametter, FLOW-3D Speeds MEMS Inkjet Development, Desktop Engineering, January 2009

42-08  Tien-Li Chang, Jung-Chang Wang, Chun-Chi Chen, Ya-Wei Lee, Ta-Hsin Chou, A non-fluorine mold release agent for Ni stamp in nanoimprint process, Microelectronic Engineering 85 (2008) 1608–1612

26-08 Pamela J. Waterman, First-Pass CFD Analyses – Part 2, Desktop Engineering, November 2008

09-08 M. Ren and H. Wijshoff, Thermal effect on the penetration of an ink droplet onto a porous medium, Proc. Eurotherm2008 MNH, 1 (2008)

04-08 Delametter, Christopher N., MEMS development in less than half the time, Small Times, Online Edition, May 2008

02-08 Renat A. Sultanov, Dennis Guster, Brent Engelbrekt and Richard Blankenbecler, 3D Computer Simulations of Pulsatile Human Blood Flows in Vessels and in the Aortic Arch – Investigation of Non-Newtonian Characteristics of Human Blood, The Journal of Computational Physics, arXiv:0802.2362v1 [physics.comp-ph], February 2008

01-08 Herman Wijshoff, thesis: University of Twente, Structure- and fluid dynamics in piezo inkjet printheads, ISBN 978-90-365-2582-4, Venlo, The Netherlands January 2008.

30-07 A. K. Sen, J. Darabi, and D. R. Knapp, Simulation and parametric study of a novel multi-spray emitter for ESI–MS applications, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, Volume 3, Number 3, June 2007, pp. 283-298(16)

28-07 Dan Soltman and Vivek Subramanian, Inkjet-Printed Line Morphologies and Temperature Control of the Coffee Ring Effect, Langmuir; 2008; ASAP Web Release Date: 16-Jan-2008; (Research Article) DOI: 10.1021/la7026847

23-07 A K Sen and J Darabi, Droplet ejection performance of a monolithic thermal inkjet print head, Journal of Micromechanical and Microengineering,vol.17, pp.1420-1427 (2007) doi:10.1088/0960-1317/17/8/002; Abstract only.

18-07 Herman Wisjhoff, Better Printheads Via Simulation, Desktop Engineering, October 2007, Vol. 13, Issue 2

17-07 Jos de Jong, Ph.D. Thesis: University of Twente, Air entrapment in piezo inkjet printing, ISBN 978-90-365-2483-4, April 2007

15-07 Krishnendu Chakrabarty and Jun Zeng, (Ed.), Design Automation Methods and Tools for Microfluidics-Based Biochips, Springer, September 2006.

14-07 Fei Su and Jun Zeng, Computer-aided design and test for digital microfluidics, IEEE Design & Test of Computers, 24(1), 2007, 60-70.

13-07 Jun Zeng, Modeling and simulation of electrified droplets and its application to computer-aided design of digital microfluidics, IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 25(2), 2006, 224-233.

12-07 Krishnendu Chakrabarty and Jun Zeng, (2005), Automated top-down design for microfluidic biochips, ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems, 1(3), 2005, 186–223.

01-07 Wijshoff, Herman, Drop formation mechanisms in piezo-acoustic inkjet, NSTI-Nanotech 2007, ISBN 1420061844 Vol. 3, 2007)

23-06 John J. Uebbing, Stephan Hengstler, Dale Schroeder, Shalini Venkatesh, and Rick Haven, Heat and Fluid Flow in an Optical Switch Bubble, Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 15, No. 6, December 2006

21-06 Wijshoff, Herman, Manipulating Drop Formation in Piezo Acoustic Inkjet, Proc. IS&T’s NIP22, 79 (2006)

20-06 J. de Jong, H. Reinten, M. van den Berg, H. Wijshoff, M. Versluis, G. de Bruin, A. Prosperetti and D. Lohse, Air entrapment in piezo-driven inkjet printheads, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120(3), 1257 (2006)

11-06 A. K. Sen, J. Darabi, D. R. Knapp and J. Liu, Modeling and Characterization of a Carbon Fiber Emitter for Electrospray Ionization, 1 MEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA, 2 Department of Pharmacology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC

5-06 E. P. Furlani, B. G. Price, G. Hawkins, and A. G. Lopez, Thermally Induced Marangoni Instability of Liquid Microjets with Application to Continuous Inkjet Printing, Proceedings of NSTI Nanotech Conference 2006, Vol. 2, pp 534-537.

28-05 O B Fawehinmi, P H Gaskell, P K Jimack, N Kapur, and H M Thompson, A combined experimental and computational fluid dynamics analysis of the dynamics of drop formation, May 2005. DOI: 10.1243/095440605X31788

5-05 E. P. Furlani, Thermal Modulation and Instability of Newtonian Liquid Microjets, presented at Nanotech 2005, Anaheim, CA, May 8-12, 2005.

1-05 C.W. Hirt, Electro-Hydrodynamics of Semi-Conductive Fluids: With Application to Electro-Spraying, Flow Science Technical Note #70, FSI-05-TN70

19-04 G. F. Yao, Modeling of Electroosmosis Without Resolving Physics Inside a Electric Double Layer, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-04-TN69)

12-04 Jun Zeng and Tom Korsmeyer, Principles of Droplet Electrohydrodynamics for Lab-on-a-Chip, Lab. Chip. Journal, 2004, 4(4), 265-277

9-04 Constantine N. Anagnostopoulos, James M. Chwalek, Christopher N. Delametter, Gilbert A. Hawkins, David L. Jeanmaire, John A. Lebens, Ali Lopez, and David P. Trauernicht, Micro-Jet Nozzle Array for Precise Droplet Metering and Steering Having Increased Droplet Deflection, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Solid State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, sponsored by IEEE, Boston, June 8-12, 2003, pp. 368-71

8-04 Christopher N. Delametter, David P. Trauernicht, James M. Chwalek, Novel Microfluidic Jet Deflection – Significant Modeling Challenge with Great Application Potential, Technical Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems sponsored by NSTI, San Juan, Puerto Rico, April 21-25, 2002, pp. 44-47

6-04 D. Vadillo*, G. Desie**, A Soucemarianadin*, Spreading Behavior of Single and Multiple Drops, *Laboratoire des Ecoulements Geophysiques et Industriels (LEGI), and **AGFA-Gevaert Group N.V., XXI ICTAM, 15-21 August 2004, Warsaw, Poland

2-04 Herman Wijshoff, Free Surface Flow and Acousto-Elastic Interaction in Piezo Inkjet, Nanotech 2004, sponsored by the Nano Science & Technology Institute, Boston, MA, March 2004

30-03 D Souders, I Khan and GF Yao, Alessandro Incognito, and Matteo Corrado, A Numerical Model for Simulation of Combined Electroosmotic and Pressure Driven Flow in Microdevices, 7th International Symposium on Fluid Control, Measurement and Visualization

27-03 Jun Zeng, Daniel Sobek and Tom Korsmeyer, Electro-Hydrodynamic Modeling of Electrospray Ionization – CAD for a µFluidic Device-Mass Spectrometer Interface, Agilent Technologies Inc, paper presented at Transducers 2003, June 03 Boston (note: Reference #10 is to FLOW-3D)

17-03 John Uebbing, Switching Fiber-optic Circuits with Microscopic Bubbles, Sensors Magazine, May 2003, Vol 20, No 5, p 36-42

16-03 CFD Speeds Development of MEMS-based Printing Technology, MicroNano Magazine, June 2003, Vol 8, No 6, p 16

3-03 Simulation Speeds Design of Microfluidic Medical Devices, R&D Magazine, March 2003, pp 18-19

1-03 Simulations Help Microscopic Bubbles Switch Fiber-Optic Circuits, Agilent Technologies, Fiberoptic Product News, January 2003, pp 22-23

27-02 Feng, James Q., A General Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Drop Ejection in Drop-on-Demand Ink Jet Devices, Journal of Imaging Science and Technology®, Volume 46, Number 5, September/October 2002

1-02 Feixia Pan, Joel Kubby, and Jingkuang Chen, Numerical Simulation of Fluid Structure Interaction in a MEMS Diaphragm Drop Ejector, Xerox Wilson Research Center, Institute of Physics Publishing, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 12 (2002), PII: SO960-1317(02)27439-2, pp. 70-76

48-01   Rainer Gruber, Radial Mass Transfer Enhancement in Bubble-Train Flow, PhD thesis in Engineering Sciences, Rheinisch- Westf alischen Technische Hochschule Aachen, December 2001.

34-01 Furlani, E.P., Delametter, C.N., Chwalek, J.M., and Trauernicht, D., Surface Tension Induced Instability of Viscous Liquid Jets, Fourth International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems, April 2001

12-01 C. N. Delametter, Eastman Kodak Company, Micro Resolution, Mechanical Engineering, Col 123/No 7, July 2001, pp 70-72

11-01 C. N. Delametter, Eastman Kodak Company, Surface Tension Induced Instability of Viscous Liquid Jets, Technical Proceeding of the Fourth International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems, April 2001

9-01 Aman Khan, Unipath Limited Research and Development, Effects of Reynolds Number on Surface Rolling in Small Drops, PVP-Col 431, Emerging Technologies for Fluids, Structures and Fluids, Structures and Fluid Structure Interaction — 2001

2-00 Narayan V. Deshpande, Significance of Inertance and Resistance in Fluidics of Thermal Ink-Jet Transducers, Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, Volume 40, Number 5, Sept./Oct. 1996, pp.457-461

4-98 D. Deitz, Connecting the Dots with CFD, Mechanical Engineering Magazine, pp. 90-91, March 1998

14-94 M. P. O’Hare, N. V. Deshpande, and D. J. Drake, Drop Generation Processes in TIJ Printheads, Xerox Corporation, Adv. Imaging Business Unit, IS&T’s Tenth International Congress on Advances in Non-Impact Printing, Tech. 1994

14-92 Asai, A.,Three-Dimensional Calculation of Bubble Growth and Drop Ejection in a Bubble Jet Printer, Journal of Fluids Engineering Vol. 114 December 1992:638-641

제품 소개 요청

FLOW-3D 소개 요청

    회사/기관명* :
    제목* :
    성명* :
    이메일 주소* :
    연락 전화번호* :
    내용 :

    산업 분야별 해석 사례

    FLOW-3D 를 이용한 각각의 산업분야 적용 가능성을 살펴보십시오.
    경험이 풍부한 당사 FLOW-3D  Engineer가 귀하의 궁금하신 사항에 대해 언제든지 답변해 드립니다.

    주조분야
    • Gravity Pour 중력 주조
    • High Pressure Die Casting 고압 다이캐스팅
    • Tilt Casting 경동 주조
    • Centrifugal Casting 원심 주조
    • Investment Casting 정밀 주조
    • Vacuum Casting 진공 주조
    • Continuous Casting 연속 주조
    • Lost Foam Casting 소실 모형 주조
    • Fill and Defects Tracking 용탕 주입 및 결함 추적
    • Solidification and Shrinkage 응고 및 수축 해석
    • Thermal Stress Evolution and Deformation 열응력 및 변형 해석
    물 및 환경 응용 분야
    • Wastewater Treatment and Recovery 폐수 처리 및 복구
    • Pump Stations 펌프장
    • Dams, Weirs, Spillways 댐, 위어, 여수로
    • River Hydraulics 강 유역
    • Inundation & Flooding 침수 및 범람
    • Open Channel Flow 개수로 흐름
    • Sediment and Scour 퇴적 및 세굴(쇄굴)
    • Plumes, Hydraulic Zones of Influence 기둥, 수리 영향 구역
    • Coastal and Critical Infrastructure Wave Run-Up 연안 및 핵심 인프라 웨이브 런업

    에너지 분야
    • Fuel/cargo sloshing in oceangoing containers 해양 컨테이너 용 연료 /화물 슬로싱
    • Offshore platform wave effects 근해 플랫폼 파 영향
    • Separation devices undergoing 6 DOF motion 6 자유도 운동을하는 분리 장치
    • Wave energy converters 파동 에너지 변환기
    미세유체
    • Continuous-Flow 연속 흐름
    • Droplet, Digital 물방울, 디지털
    • Molecular Biology 분자 생물학
    • Opto-Microfluidics 광 마이크로 유체
    • Cell Behavior 세포 행동
    • Fuel Cells 연료 전지들
    용접 제조
    • Laser Welding 레이저 용접
    • Laser Metal Deposition 레이저 금속 증착
    • Additive Manufacturing 첨가제 제조
    • Multi-Layer Build 다중 레이어 빌드
    • Polymer 3D Printing 폴리머 3D 프린팅
    코팅 분야
    • Curtain Coating 커튼 코팅
    • Dip Coating 딥 코팅
    • Gravure Printing 그라비아 코팅
    • Roll Coating 롤 코팅
    • Slide Coating 슬라이드 코팅
    • Slot Coating 슬롯 코팅
    • Contact Insights 접촉면 분석
    연안 / 해양분야
    • Breakwater Structures 방파제 구조물
    • Offshore Structures 항만 연안 구조물
    • Ship Hydrodynamics 선박 유체 역학
    • Sloshing & Slamming 슬로싱 & 슬래 밍
    • Tsunamis 쓰나미 해석
    생명공학 분야
    • Active Mixing 액티브 믹싱
    • Chemical Reactions 화학 반응
    • Dissolution 용해
    • Drug Delivery 약물 전달
    • Drug Particles 마약 입자
    • Microdispensers 마이크로 디스펜서
    • Passive Mixing 패시브 믹싱
    • Piezo Driven Pumps 피에조 구동 펌프
    자동차 분야
    • Fuel Tanks 연료 탱크
    • Early Fuel Shut-Off 초기 연료 차단
    • Gear Interaction 기어 상호 작용
    • Filters 필터
    • Degas Bottles 병의 가스제거
    우주 항공 분야
    • Sloshing Dynamics 슬로싱 동역학
    • Electric Charge Distribution 전기 충전 배분
    • PMDs PMD