Influences of the Powder Size and Process Parameters on the Quasi-Stability of Molten Pool Shape in Powder Bed Fusion-Laser Beam of Molybdenum

몰리브덴 분말층 융합-레이저 빔의 용융 풀 형태의 준안정성에 대한 분말 크기 및 공정 매개변수의 영향


Formation of a quasi-steady molten pool is one of the necessary conditions for achieving excellent quality in many laser processes. The influences of distribution characteristics of powder sizes on quasi-stability of the molten pool shape during single-track powder bed fusion-laser beam (PBF-LB) of molybdenum and the underlying mechanism were investigated.

The feasibility of improving quasi-stability of the molten pool shape by increasing the laser energy conduction effect and preheating was explored. Results show that an increase in the range of powder sizes does not significantly influence the average laser energy conduction effect in PBF-LB process. Whereas, it intensifies fluctuations of the transient laser energy conduction effect.

It also leads to fluctuations of the replenishment rate of metals, difficulty in formation of the quasi-steady molten pool, and increased probability of incomplete fusion and pores defects. As the laser power rises, the laser energy conduction effect increases, which improves the quasi-stability of the molten pool shape. When increasing the laser scanning speed, the laser energy conduction effect grows.

However, because the molten pool size reduces due to the decreased heat input, the replenishment rate of metals of the molten pool fluctuates more obviously and the quasi-stability of the molten pool shape gets worse. On the whole, the laser energy conduction effect in the PBF-LB process of Mo is low (20-40%). The main factor that affects quasi-stability of the molten pool shape is the amount of energy input per unit length of the scanning path, rather than the laser energy conduction effect.

Moreover, substrate preheating can not only enlarge the molten pool size, particularly the length, but also reduce non-uniformity and discontinuity of surface morphologies of clad metals and inhibit incomplete fusion and pores defects.

준안정 용융 풀의 형성은 많은 레이저 공정에서 우수한 품질을 달성하는 데 필요한 조건 중 하나입니다. 몰리브덴의 단일 트랙 분말층 융합 레이저 빔(PBF-LB) 동안 용융 풀 형태의 준안정성에 대한 분말 크기 분포 특성의 영향과 그 기본 메커니즘을 조사했습니다.

레이저 에너지 전도 효과와 예열을 증가시켜 용융 풀 형태의 준안정성을 향상시키는 타당성을 조사했습니다. 결과는 분말 크기 범위의 증가가 PBF-LB 공정의 평균 레이저 에너지 전도 효과에 큰 영향을 미치지 않음을 보여줍니다. 반면, 과도 레이저 에너지 전도 효과의 변동이 강화됩니다.

이는 또한 금속 보충 속도의 변동, 준안정 용융 풀 형성의 어려움, 불완전 융합 및 기공 결함 가능성 증가로 이어집니다. 레이저 출력이 증가함에 따라 레이저 에너지 전도 효과가 증가하여 용융 풀 모양의 준 안정성이 향상됩니다. 레이저 스캐닝 속도를 높이면 레이저 에너지 전도 효과가 커집니다.

그러나 열 입력 감소로 인해 용융 풀 크기가 줄어들기 때문에 용융 풀의 금속 보충 속도의 변동이 더욱 뚜렷해지고 용융 풀 형태의 준안정성이 악화됩니다.

전체적으로 Mo의 PBF-LB 공정에서 레이저 에너지 전도 효과는 낮다(20~40%). 용융 풀 형상의 준안정성에 영향을 미치는 주요 요인은 레이저 에너지 전도 효과보다는 스캐닝 경로의 단위 길이당 입력되는 에너지의 양입니다.

또한 기판 예열은 용융 풀 크기, 특히 길이를 확대할 수 있을 뿐만 아니라 클래드 금속 표면 형태의 불균일성과 불연속성을 줄이고 불완전한 융합 및 기공 결함을 억제합니다.


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