Omega-Luitex법을 이용한 수력점프 발생시 러프 베드의 와류 진화 예측 및 영향 분석

Cong Trieu Tran, Cong Ty Trinh

Abstract

The dissipation of energy downstream of hydropower projects is a significant issue. The hydraulic jump is exciting and widely applied in practice to dissipate energy. Many hydraulic jump characteristics have been studied, such as length of jump Lj and sequent flow depth y2. However, understanding the evolution of the vortex structure in the hydraulic jump shows a significant challenge. This study uses the RNG k-e turbulence model to simulate hydraulic jumps on the rough bed. The Omega-Liutex method is compared with Q-criterion for capturing vortex structure in the hydraulic jump. The formation, development, and shedding of the vortex structure at the rough bed in the hydraulic jumper are analyzed. The vortex forms and rapidly reduces strength on the rough bed, resulting in fast dissipation of energy. At the rough block rows 2nd and 3rd, the vortex forms a vortex rope that moves downstream and then breaks. The vortex-shedding region represents a significant energy attenuation of the flow. Therefore, the rough bed dissipates kinetic energy well. Adding reliability to the vortex determined by the Liutex method, the vorticity transport equation is used to compare the vorticity distribution with the Liutex distribution. The results show a further comprehension of the hydraulic jump phenomenon and its energy dissipation.

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[11] Tran, C. T. & Pham, D. C. (2022). Application of Liutex and Entropy Production to Analyze the Influence of Vortex Rope in the Francis-99 Turbine Draft Tube. Tehnički vjesnik, 29(4), 1177-1183. https://doi.org/10.17559/TV-20210821070801

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Waqed H. Hassan^{}| Zahraa Mohammad Fadhe^{*}| Rifqa F. Thiab^{}| Karrar Mahdi^{} Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Warith Al-Anbiyaa, Kerbala 56001, Iraq Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Kerbala 56001, Iraq Corresponding Author Email: Waqed.hammed@uowa.edu.iq

OPEN ACCESS

Abstract:

This work investigates numerically a local scour moves in irregular waves around tripods. It is constructed and proven to use the numerical model of the seabed-tripod-fluid with an RNG k turbulence model. The present numerical model then examines the flow velocity distribution and scour characteristics. After that, the suggested computational model Flow-3D is a useful tool for analyzing and forecasting the maximum scour development and the flow field in random waves around tripods. The scour values affecting the foundations of the tripod must be studied and calculated, as this phenomenon directly and negatively affects the structure of the structure and its design life. The lower diagonal braces and the main column act as blockages, increasing the flow accelerations underneath them. This increases the number of particles that are moved, which in turn creates strong scouring in the area. The numerical model has a good agreement with the experimental model, with a maximum percentage of error of 10% between the experimental and numerical models. In addition, Based on dimensional analysis parameters, an empirical equation has been devised to forecast scour depth with flow depth, median size ratio, Keulegan-Carpenter (Kc), Froud number flow, and wave velocity that the results obtained in this research at various flow velocities and flow depths demonstrated that the maximum scour depth rate depended on wave height with rising velocities and decreasing particle sizes (d_{50}) and the scour depth attains its steady-current value for V_{w} < 0.75. As the Froude number rises, the maximum scour depth will be large.

Keywords:

local scour, tripod foundation, Flow-3D, waves

1. Introduction

New energy sources have been used by mankind since they become industrialized. The main energy sources have traditionally been timber, coal, oil, and gas, but advances in the science of new energies, such as nuclear energy, have emerged [1, 2]. Clean and renewable energy such as offshore wind has grown significantly during the past few decades. There are numerous different types of foundations regarding offshore wind turbines (OWTs), comprising the tripod, jacket, gravity foundation, suction anchor (or bucket), and monopile [3, 4]. When the water depth is less than 30 meters, Offshore wind farms usually employ the monopile type [4]. Engineers must deal with the wind’s scouring phenomenon turbine foundations when planning and designing wind turbines for an offshore environment [5]. Waves and currents generate scour, this is the erosion of soil near a submerged foundation and at its location [6]. To predict the regional scour depth at a bridge pier, Jalal et al. [7-10] developed an original gene expression algorithm using artificial neural networks. Three monopiles, one main column, and several diagonal braces connecting the monopiles to the main column make up the tripod foundation, which has more complicated shapes than a single pile. The design of the foundation may have an impact on scour depth and scour development since the foundation’s form affects the flow field [11, 12]. Stahlmann [4] conducted several field investigations. He discovered that the main column is where the greatest scour depth occurred. Under the main column is where the maximum scour depth occurs in all experiments. The estimated findings show that higher wave heights correspond to higher flow velocities, indicating that a deeper scour depth is correlated with finer silt granularity [13] recommends as the design value for a single pile. These findings support the assertion that a tripod may cause the seabed to scour more severely than a single pile. The geography of the scour is significantly more influenced by the KC value (Keulegan–Carpenter number)

The capability of computer hardware and software has made computational fluid dynamics (CFD) quite popular to predict the behavior of fluid flow in industrial and environmental applications has increased significantly in recent years [14].

Finding an acceptable piece of land for the turbine’s construction and designing the turbine pile precisely for the local conditions are the biggest challenges. Another concern related to working in a marine environment is the effect of sea waves and currents on turbine piles and foundations. The earth surrounding the turbine’s pile is scoured by the waves, which also render the pile unstable.

In this research, the main objective is to investigate numerically a local scour around tripods in random waves. It is constructed and proven to use the tripod numerical model. The present numerical model is then used to examine the flow velocity distribution and scour characteristics.

2. Numerical Model

To simulate the scouring process around the tripod foundation, the CFD code Flow-3D was employed. By using the fractional area/volume method, it may highlight the intricate boundaries of the solution domain (FAVOR).

This model was tested and validated utilizing data derived experimentally from Schendel et al. [15] and Sumer and Fredsøe [6]. 200 runs were performed at different values of parameters.

2.1 Momentum equations

The incompressible viscous fluid motion is described by the three RANS equations listed below [16]:

where, respectively, u, v, and w represent the x, y, and z flow velocity components; volume fraction (VF), area fraction (A_{i}; I=x, y, z), water density (f), viscous force (f_{i}), and body force (G_{i}) are all used in the formula.

2.2 Model of turbulence

Several turbulence models would be combined to solve the momentum equations. A two-equation model of turbulence is the RNG k-model, which has a high efficiency and accuracy in computing the near-wall flow field. Therefore, the flow field surrounding tripods was captured using the RNG k-model.

2.3 Model of sediment scour

2.3.1 Induction and deposition

Eq. (4) can be used to determine the particle entrainment lift velocity [17].

α𝛼_{i }is the Induction parameter, n_{s} the normal vector is parallel to the seafloor, and for the present numerical model, n_{s}=(0,0,1), θ𝜃_{cr} is the essential Shields variable, g is the accelerated by gravity, d_{i} is the size of the particles, ρ_{i} is species density in beds, and d_{∗} The diameter of particles without dimensions; these values can be obtained in Eq. (5).

f_{b}is the essential particle packing percentage, q_{b}, i is the bed load transportation rate, and c_{b}, I the percentage of sand by volume i. These variables can be found in Eq. (9), Eq. (10), f_{b}, δ𝛿_{i} the bed load thickness.

In this paper, after the calibration of numerous trials, the selection of parameters for sediment scour is crucial. Maximum packing fraction is 0.64 with a shields number of 0.05, entrainment coefficient of 0.018, the mass density of 2650, bed load coefficient of 12, and entrainment coefficient of 0.01.

3. Model Setup

To investigate the scour characteristics near tripods in random waves, the seabed-tripod-fluid numerical model was created as shown in Figure 1. The tripod basis, a seabed, and fluid and porous medium were all components of the model. The seabed was 240 meters long, 40 meters wide, and three meters high. It had a median diameter of d_{50} and was composed of uniformly fine sand. The 2.5-meter main column diameter D. The base of the main column was three dimensions above the original seabed. The center of the seafloor was where the tripod was, 130 meters from the offshore and 110 meters from the onshore. To prevent wave reflection, the porous media were positioned above the seabed on the onshore side.

Figure 1. An illustration of the numerical model for the seabed-tripod-fluid

3.1 Generation of meshes

Figure 2 displays the model’s mesh for the Flow-3D software grid. The current model made use of two different mesh types: global mesh grid and nested mesh grid. A mesh grid with the following measurements was created by the global hexahedra mesh grid: 240m length, 40m width, and 32m height. Around the tripod, a finer nested mesh grid was made, with dimensions of 0 to 32m on the z-axis, 10 to 30 m on the x-axis, and 25 to 15 m on the y-axis. This improved the calculation’s precision and mesh quality.

To increase calculation efficiency, the top side, The model’s two x-z plane sides, as well as the symmetry boundaries, were all specified. For u, v, w=0, the bottom boundary wall was picked. The offshore end of the wave boundary was put upstream. For the wave border, random waves were generated using the wave spectrum from the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP). Boundary conditions are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Boundary conditions of the typical problem

The wave spectrum peak enhancement factor (=3.3 for this work) and can be used to express the unidirectional JONSWAP frequency spectrum.

3.3 Mesh sensitivity

Before doing additional research into scour traits and scour depth forecasting, mesh sensitivity analysis is essential. Three different mesh grid sizes were selected for this section: Mesh 1 has a 0.45 by 0.45 nested fine mesh and a 0.6 by 0.6 global mesh size. Mesh 2 has a 0.4 global mesh size and a 0.35 nested fine mesh size, while Mesh 3 has a 0.25 global mesh size and a nested fine mesh size of 0.15. Comparing the relative fine mesh size (such as Mesh 2 or Mesh 3) to the relatively coarse mesh size (such as Mesh 1), a larger scour depth was seen; this shows that a finer mesh size can more precisely represent the scouring and flow field action around a tripod. Significantly, a lower mesh size necessitates a time commitment and a more difficult computer configuration. Depending on the sensitivity of the mesh guideline utilized by Pang et al., when Mesh 2 is applied, the findings converge and the mesh size is independent [20]. In the next sections, scouring the area surrounding the tripod was calculated using Mesh 2 to ensure accuracy and reduce computation time. The working segment generates a total of 14, 800,324 cells.

3.4 Model validation

Comparisons between the predicted outcomes from the current model and to confirm that the current numerical model is accurate and suitably modified, experimental data from Sumer and Fredsøe [6] and Schendel et al. [15] were used. For the experimental results of Run 05, Run 15, and Run 22 from Sumer and Fredsøe [6], the experimental A9, A13, A17, A25, A26, and A27 results from Schendel et al. [15], and the numerical results from the current model are shown in Figure 4. The present model had d_{50}=0.051cm, the height of the water wave(h)=10m, and wave velocity=0.854 m.s^{-1}.

Figure 5. Comparison of the present study’s maximum scour depth with that authored by Sumer and Fredsøe [6] and Schendel et al. [15]

According to Figure 5, the highest discrepancy between the numerical results and experimental data is about 10%, showing that overall, there is good agreement between them. The ability of the current numerical model to accurately depict the scour process and forecast the maximum scour depth (S) near foundations is demonstrated by this. Errors in the simulation were reduced by using the calibrated values of the parameter. Considering these results, a suggested simulated scouring utilizing a Flow-3D numerical model is confirmed as a superior way for precisely forecasting the maximum scour depth near a tripod foundation in random waves.

3.5 Dimensional analysis

The variables found in this study as having the greatest impacts, variables related to flow, fluid, bed sediment, flume shape, and duration all had an impact on local scouring depth (t). Hence, scour depth (S) can be seen as a function of these factors, shown as:

With the aid of dimensional analysis, the 14-dimensional parameters in Eq. (11) were reduced to 6 dimensionless variables using Buckingham’s -theorem. D, V, and were therefore set as repetition parameters and others as constants, allowing for the ignoring of their influence. Eq. (12) thus illustrates the relationship between the effect of the non-dimensional components on the depth of scour surrounding a tripod base.

(12)

\frac{S}{D}=f\left(\frac{h}{D}, \frac{d 50}{D}, \frac{V}{V W}, F r, K c\right)

where, SD𝑆𝐷 are scoured depth ratio, VVw𝑉𝑉𝑤 is flow wave velocity, d50D𝑑50𝐷 median size ratio, $Fr representstheFroudnumber,and𝑟𝑒𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠𝑡ℎ𝑒𝐹𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑑𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟,𝑎𝑛𝑑Kc$is the Keulegan-Carpenter.

4. Result and Discussion

4.1 Development of scour

Similar to how the physical model was used, this numerical model was also used. The numerical model’s boundary conditions and other crucial variables that directly influence the outcomes were applied (flow depth, median particle size (d_{50}), and wave velocity). After the initial 0-300 s, the scour rate reduced as the scour holes grew quickly. The scour depths steadied for about 1800 seconds before reaching an asymptotic value. The findings of scour depth with time are displayed in Figure 6.

4.2 Features of scour

Early on (t=400s), the scour hole began to appear beneath the main column and then began to extend along the diagonal bracing connecting to the wall-facing pile. Gradually, the geography of the scour; of these results is similar to the experimental observations of Stahlmann [4] and Aminoroayaie Yamini et al. [1]. As the waves reached the tripod, there was an enhanced flow acceleration underneath the main column and the lower diagonal braces as a result of the obstructing effects of the structural elements. More particles are mobilized and transported due to the enhanced near-bed flow velocity, it also increases bed shear stress, turbulence, and scour at the site. In comparison to a single pile, the main column and structural components of the tripod have a significant impact on the flow velocity distribution and, consequently, the scour process and morphology. The main column and seabed are separated by a gap, therefore the flow across the gap may aid in scouring. The scour hole first emerged beneath the main column and subsequently expanded along the lower structural components, both Aminoroayaie Yamini et al. [1] and Stahlmann [4] made this claim. Around the tripod, there are several different scour morphologies and the flow velocity distribution as shown in Figures 7 and 8.

Figure 8. Random waves of flow velocity distribution around a tripod

4.3 Wave velocity’s (V_{w}) impact on scour depth

In this study’s section, we looked at how variations in wave current velocity affected the scouring depth. Bed scour pattern modification could result from an increase or decrease in waves. As a result, the backflow area produced within the pile would become stronger, which would increase the depth of the sediment scour. The quantity of current turbulence is the primary cause of the relationship between wave height and bed scour value. The current velocity has increased the extent to which the turbulence energy has changed and increased in strength now present. It should be mentioned that in this instance, the Jon swap spectrum random waves are chosen. The scour depth attains its steady-current value for Vw<0.75, Figure 9 (a) shows that effect. When (V) represents the mean velocity=0.5 m.s^{-1}.

Figure 9. Main effects on maximum scour depth (S_{max}) as a function of column diameter (D)

4.4 Impact of a median particle (d_{50}) on scour depth

In this section of the study, we looked into how variations in particle size affected how the bed profile changed. The values of various particle diameters are defined in the numerical model for each run numerical modeling, and the conditions under which changes in particle diameter have an impact on the bed scour profile are derived. Based on Figure 9 (b), the findings of the numerical modeling show that as particle diameter increases the maximum scour depth caused by wave contact decreases. When (d_{50}) is the diameter of Sediment (d_{50}). The Shatt Al-Arab soil near Basra, Iraq, was used to produce a variety of varied diameters.

4.5 Impact of wave height and flow depth (h) on scour depth

One of the main elements affecting the scour profile brought on by the interaction of the wave and current with the piles of the wind turbines is the height of the wave surrounding the turbine pile causing more turbulence to develop there. The velocity towards the bottom and the bed both vary as the turbulence around the pile is increased, modifying the scour profile close to the pile. According to the results of the numerical modeling, the depth of scour will increase as water depth and wave height in random waves increase as shown in Figure 9 (c).

4.6 Froude number’s (Fr) impact on scour depth

No matter what the spacing ratio, the Figure 9 shows that the Froude number rises, and the maximum scour depth often rises as well increases in Figure 9 (d). Additionally, it is crucial to keep in mind that only a small portion of the findings regarding the spacing ratios with the smallest values. Due to the velocity acceleration in the presence of a larger Froude number, the range of edge scour downstream is greater than that of upstream. Moreover, the scouring phenomena occur in the region farthest from the tripod, perhaps as a result of the turbulence brought on by the collision of the tripod’s pile. Generally, as the Froude number rises, so does the deposition height and scour depth.

4.7 Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) number

The geography of the scour is significantly more influenced by the KC value. Greater KC causes a deeper equilibrium scour because an increase in KC lengthens the horseshoe vortex’s duration and intensifies it as shown in Figure 10.

The result can be attributed to the fact that wave superposition reduced the crucial KC for the initiation of the scour, particularly under small KC conditions. The primary variable in the equation used to calculate This is the depth of the scouring hole at the bed. The following expression is used to calculate the Keulegan-Carpenter number:

Kc=Vw∗TpD𝐾𝑐=𝑉𝑤∗𝑇𝑝𝐷 (13)

where, the wave period is T_{p} and the wave velocity is shown by V_{w}_{.}

Figure 10. Relationship between the relative maximum scour depth and KC

5. Conclusion

(1) The existing seabed-tripod-fluid numerical model is capable of faithfully reproducing the scour process and the flow field around tripods, suggesting that it may be used to predict the scour around tripods in random waves.

(2) Their results obtained in this research at various flow velocities and flow depths demonstrated that the maximum scour depth rate depended on wave height with rising velocities and decreasing particle sizes (d_{50}).

(3) A diagonal brace and the main column act as blockages, increasing the flow accelerations underneath them. This raises the magnitude of the disturbance and the shear stress on the seafloor, which in turn causes a greater number of particles to be mobilized and conveyed, as a result, causes more severe scour at the location.

(4) The Froude number and the scouring process are closely related. In general, as the Froude number rises, so does the maximum scour depth and scour range. The highest maximum scour depth always coincides with the bigger Froude number with the shortest spacing ratio.

Since the issue is that there aren’t many experiments or studies that are relevant to this subject, therefore we had to rely on the monopile criteria. Therefore, to gain a deeper knowledge of the scouring effect surrounding the tripod in random waves, further numerical research exploring numerous soil, foundation, and construction elements as well as upcoming physical model tests will be beneficial.

Nomenclature

CFD

Computational fluid dynamics

FAVOR

Fractional Area/Volume Obstacle Representation

VOF

Volume of Fluid

RNG

Renormalized Group

OWTs

Offshore wind turbines

Greek Symbols

ε, ω

Dissipation rate of the turbulent kinetic energy, m^{2}s^{-3}

Subscripts

d_{50}

Median particle size

V_{f}

Volume fraction

G_{T}

Turbulent energy of buoyancy

K_{T}

Turbulent velocity

P_{T}

Kinetic energy of the turbulence

Α_{i}

Induction parameter

n_{s}

Induction parameter

ΘΘ_{cr}

The essential Shields variable

D_{i}

Diameter of sediment

d_{∗}

The diameter of particles without dimensions

µ_{f}

Dynamic viscosity of the fluid

q_{b},_{i}

The bed load transportation rate

C_{s,i}

Sand particle’s concentration of mass

D

Diameter of pile

D_{f}

Diffusivity

D

Diameter of main column

Fr

Froud number

Kc

Keulegan–Carpenter number

G

Acceleration of gravity g

H

Flow depth

Vw

Wave Velocity

V

Mean Velocity

Tp

Wave Period

S

Scour depth

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[18] Soulsby, R. (1997). Dynamics of marine sands. https://doi.org/10.1680/doms.25844

[19] Van Rijn, L.C. (1984). Sediment transport, part I: Bed load transport. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 110(10): 1431-1456. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1984)110:10(1431)

[20] Pang, A.L.J., Skote, M., Lim, S.Y., Gullman-Strand, J., Morgan, N. (2016). A numerical approach for determining equilibrium scour depth around a mono-pile due to steady currents. Applied Ocean Research, 57: 114-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2016.02.010

Mohammad Raze Raeisi Dehkordi^{1}*, Amir Hossein Yeganeh Mazhar^{1} , Farzaneh Kheradzare^{2} ^{1}– PhD. Student in the Department of Construction and Water Management, Science and Research Unit, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran ^{2}– M.Sc. Graduate Water resource management, Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Ghiaseddin Jamshid Kashani University, Qazvin, Iran

One of the key issues in river engineering is analyzing the flow properties at the intersection of natural rivers and canals. The flow of the side channel moves away from the intersection of the two channels as a result of the exchange of input force from the side channel with the main flow after coming into contact with it. One of the most evident properties of the flow in these sections is the development of a revolving region with low pressure and even negative pressure close to the inner wall of the side channel. One advantage of the whirling flow in this low-pressure region is that it gives the flow enough space to sediment, but it also increases flow speed near the channel’s bottom and outside wall by lowering the intersectional area of the flow. One of the most crucial considerations in the design of these intersections is minimizing sedimentation in the rotating region and scouring in the area above the shear plane.

Materials and methods:

The channel (flume) created in the laboratory based on Weber et al., (2001) model, was employed in the current investigation to confirm the validity and examine other study objectives. The main channel is 21. 95 meters long, while the side channel, which is at a 90-degree angle to the main channel, is 3. 66 meters long. The total downstream discharge is approximately 0. 17 m3/s, with the upstream velocities of the main channel being 0. 166 m/s and the side channel being 0. 5 m/s. In both channels, the flow depth and width are 0. 91 meters and 0. 296 meters, respectively. In this study, 6 various models’ angles of intersection between the main and side channels, inlet flow velocity, intersectional area, and side channel length have been examined. Models 2 and 3 have intersection angles of 60 and 30 degrees, respectively, and share the rest of their attributes with the fundamental model, or model number 1. Model 1 is the same as Weber’s experimental model. The length of the side channel in model 4 is different from model 1. The only difference between model 6 and the basic model is the side channel intake speed.

Results and Discussion

Analyzing the intersection angle The angle between the main channel and the side channel is investigated in this section of the findings. Models 1, 2, and 3 are assessed using the intersection angles of 90, 60, and 30 degrees, respectively. In some studies, the impact of the intersection angle has been examined, but in this study, three-dimensional investigation in transverse and longitudinal sections as well as the plan of the intersection is discussed, as can be observed from the literature review. Considering three models with intersection angles of 90, 60, and 30 degrees, the kinetic energy contours at the channel’s middle height can be obtained for each model. The channel with a 30-degree intersection angle (model 3) has the maximum kinetic energy in the flow. The channel with a 60-degree intersection has the minimum kinetic energy. As a result of the maximum deviation of the flow in the main channel caused by the flow of the side channel, the channel with a 90-degree intersection also has the maximum kinetic energy near the wall in front of the side channel.

Examining the side channel length In model 1, the side channel is 3. 66 meters long, whereas in model 4, it is 5. 52 meters long. This study aims to determine how changing the side channel’s length affects the flow pattern where two channels intersect. The kinetic energy contours were obtained for two states of the channel length, which are known to extend the lateral channel, increase the energy of the flow after the intersection, and shorten the length of the high-kinetic energy zone. When compared to model 1 with a shorter length of the side channel, the width of the flow separation zone is reduced by approximately 20%, which results in less flow sedimentation. Figure 12 illustrates the rotating zones in the flow separation area. The flow separation region’s length is essentially unchanged. Studying the intersection of the lateral channel After determining the lateral channel’s length, its width and, consequently, its intersectional area should be evaluated.

This section compares model 1 width of 0. 91 meters to model 5 width of 1. 40 meters. One of the most recent topics related to the intersection of the main and side channels is examining the intersection of the side channel. In model 5, the side channel’s flow rate has also increased due to an increase in the width or intersection of the channel. The flow rate through the intersection and the momentum of the flow from the side channel and the main channel increase when the side channel flow rate rises. The findings indicate that when flow width and side channel flow rise, energy increases after the inlet.

Investigating the value of inlet speed in the side channel Unlike the preceding sections, which were all concerned with the channel geometry, the inlet velocity in the side channel is one of the hydraulic parameters of the flow. In this section, models 1 and 6 with inlet velocities of the side channel of 0. 5 and 0. 75 m/s are evaluated. According to the modeling, the flow is somewhat horst before and immediately on the intersection of the flow level, but it undergoes a substantial prolapse just after the intersection. Model 6 has a larger volume and height of flow, but a smaller and softer prolapse after the intersection.

Conclusion

Some hydraulic and geometric properties of the intersection of channels have been examined using Flow-3D software. The RNG turbulence model was used for three-dimensional modeling. Some of the results are listed below. The flow is uniform upstream of the main and minor channels and only slightly becomes horst at the intersection. The analysis of the lengthening of the side channel revealed a 20% reduction in the separation zone’s width and a considerable reduction in the kinetic energy at the intersection. The input flow rate of this channel to the intersection increases with the speed and width of the side channel, which accounts for the local drop in the width of the main channel flow.

References

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Gonzalo Duró, Mariano De Dios, Alfredo López, Sergio O. Liscia

ABSTRACT

This study presents comparisons between the results of a commercial CFD code and physical model measurements. The case study is a hydro-combined power station operating in spillway mode for a given scenario. Two turbulence models and two scales are implemented to identify the capabilities and limitations of each approach and to determine the selection criteria for CFD modeling for this kind of structure. The main flow characteristics are considered for analysis, but the focus is on a fluctuating frequency phenomenon for accurate quantitative comparisons. Acceptable representations of the general hydraulic functioning are found in all approaches, according to physical modeling. The k-ε RNG, and LES models give good representation of the discharge flow, mean water depths, and mean pressures for engineering purposes. The k-ε RNG is not able to characterize fluctuating phenomena at a model scale but does at a prototype scale. The LES is capable of identifying the dominant frequency at both prototype and model scales. A prototype-scale approach is recommended for the numerical modeling to obtain a better representation of fluctuating pressures for both turbulence models, with the complement of physical modeling for the ultimate design of the hydraulic structures.

본 연구에서는 상용 CFD 코드 결과와 물리적 모델 측정 결과를 비교합니다. 사례 연구는 주어진 시나리오에 대해 배수로 모드에서 작동하는 수력 복합 발전소입니다.

각 접근 방식의 기능과 한계를 식별하고 이러한 종류의 구조에 대한 CFD 모델링의 선택 기준을 결정하기 위해 두 개의 난류 모델과 두 개의 스케일이 구현되었습니다. 주요 흐름 특성을 고려하여 분석하지만 정확한 정량적 비교를 위해 변동하는 주파수 현상에 중점을 둡니다.

일반적인 수리학적 기능에 대한 허용 가능한 표현은 물리적 모델링에 따라 모든 접근 방식에서 발견됩니다. k-ε RNG 및 LES 모델은 엔지니어링 목적을 위한 배출 유량, 평균 수심 및 평균 압력을 잘 표현합니다.

k-ε RNG는 모델 규모에서는 변동 현상을 특성화할 수 없지만 프로토타입 규모에서는 특성을 파악합니다. LES는 프로토타입과 모델 규모 모두에서 주요 주파수를 식별할 수 있습니다.

수력학적 구조의 궁극적인 설계를 위한 물리적 모델링을 보완하여 두 난류 모델에 대한 변동하는 압력을 더 잘 표현하기 위해 수치 모델링에 프로토타입 규모 접근 방식이 권장됩니다.

ADRIAN R. J. (2007). “Hairpin vortex organization in wall turbulence.” Phys. Fluids 19(4), 041301. DEWALS B., ARCHAMBEAU P., RULOT F., PIROTTON M. and ERPICUM S. (2013). “Physical and Numerical Modelling in Low-Head Structures Design.” Proc. International Workshop on Hydraulic Design of Low-Head Structures, Aachen, Germany, Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau Publ., D.B. BUNG and S. PAGLIARA Editors, pp.11-30. GRENANDER, U. (1959). Probability and Statistics: The Harald Cramér Volume. Wiley. HIRT, C. W. and NICHOLS B. D. (1981). “Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries.” Journal of Computational Physics 39(1): 201-225. JOHNSON M. C. and SAVAGE B. M. (2006). “Physical and numerical comparison of flow over ogee spillway in the presence of tailwater.” J. Hydraulic Eng. 132(12): 1353–1357. KHAN L.A., WICKLEIN E.A., RASHID M., EBNER L.L. and RICHARDS N.A. (2004). “Computational fluid dynamics modeling of turbine intake hydraulics at a hydropower plant.” Journal of Hydraulic Research, 42:1, 61-69 LAROCQUE L.A., IMRAN J. and CHAUDHRY M. (2013). “3D numerical simulation of partial breach dam-break flow using the LES and k–ϵ turbulence models.” Jl of Hydraulic Research, 51:2, 145-157 LI S., LAI Y., WEBER L., MATOS SILVA J. and PATEL V.C. (2004). “Validation of a threedimensional numerical model for water-pump intakes.” Journal of Hydraulic Research, 42:3, 282-292 NOVAK P., GUINOT V., JEFFREY A. and REEVE D.E. (2010). “Hydraulic modelling – An introduction.” Spon Press, London and New York, ISBN 978-0-419-25010-4, 616 pp.

This work investigates numerically a local scour moves in irregular waves around tripods. It is constructed and proven to use the numerical model of the seabed-tripodfluid with an RNG k turbulence model. The present numerical model then examines the flow velocity distribution and scour characteristics. After that, the suggested computational model Flow-3D is a useful tool for analyzing and forecasting the maximum scour development and the flow field in random waves around tripods. The scour values affecting the foundations of the tripod must be studied and calculated, as this phenomenon directly and negatively affects the structure of the structure and its design life. The lower diagonal braces and the main column act as blockages, increasing the flow accelerations underneath them. This increases the number of particles that are moved, which in turn creates strong scouring in the area. The numerical model has a good agreement with the experimental model, with a maximum percentage of error of 10% between the experimental and numerical models. In addition, Based on dimensional analysis parameters, an empirical equation has been devised to forecast scour depth with flow depth, median size ratio, Keulegan-Carpenter (Kc), Froud number flow, and wave velocity that the results obtained in this research at various flow velocities and flow depths demonstrated that the maximum scour depth rate depended on wave height with rising velocities and decreasing particle sizes (d50) and the scour depth attains its steady-current value for Vw < 0.75. As the Froude number rises, the maximum scour depth will be large.

웨어의 두 가지 서로 다른 배열(즉, 직선형 웨어와 직사각형 미로 웨어)을 사용하여 웨어 모양, 웨어 간격, 웨어의 오리피스 존재, 흐름 영역에 대한 바닥 경사와 같은 기하학적 매개변수의 영향을 평가했습니다.

유량과 수심의 관계, 수심 평균 속도의 변화와 분포, 난류 특성, 어도에서의 에너지 소산. 흐름 조건에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위해 FLOW-3D® 소프트웨어를 사용하여 전산 유체 역학 시뮬레이션을 수행했습니다.

수치 모델은 계산된 표면 프로파일과 속도를 문헌의 실험적으로 측정된 값과 비교하여 검증되었습니다. 수치 모델과 실험 데이터의 결과, 급락유동의 표면 프로파일과 표준화된 속도 프로파일에 대한 평균 제곱근 오차와 평균 절대 백분율 오차가 각각 0.014m와 3.11%로 나타나 수치 모델의 능력을 확인했습니다.

수영장과 둑의 흐름 특성을 예측합니다. 각 모델에 대해 L/B = 1.83(L: 웨어 거리, B: 수로 폭) 값에서 급락 흐름이 발생할 수 있고 L/B = 0.61에서 스트리밍 흐름이 발생할 수 있습니다. 직사각형 미로보 모델은 기존 모델보다 무차원 방류량(Q+)이 더 큽니다.

수중 흐름의 기존 보와 직사각형 미로 보의 경우 Q는 각각 1.56과 1.47h에 비례합니다(h: 보 위 수심). 기존 웨어의 풀 내 평균 깊이 속도는 직사각형 미로 웨어의 평균 깊이 속도보다 높습니다.

그러나 주어진 방류량, 바닥 경사 및 웨어 간격에 대해 난류 운동 에너지(TKE) 및 난류 강도(TI) 값은 기존 웨어에 비해 직사각형 미로 웨어에서 더 높습니다. 기존의 웨어는 직사각형 미로 웨어보다 에너지 소산이 더 낮습니다.

더 낮은 TKE 및 TI 값은 미로 웨어 상단, 웨어 하류 벽 모서리, 웨어 측벽과 채널 벽 사이에서 관찰되었습니다. 보와 바닥 경사면 사이의 거리가 증가함에 따라 평균 깊이 속도, 난류 운동 에너지의 평균값 및 난류 강도가 증가하고 수영장의 체적 에너지 소산이 감소했습니다.

둑에 개구부가 있으면 평균 깊이 속도와 TI 값이 증가하고 풀 내에서 가장 높은 TKE 범위가 감소하여 두 모델 모두에서 물고기를 위한 휴식 공간이 더 넓어지고(TKE가 낮아짐) 에너지 소산율이 감소했습니다.

Two different arrangements of the weir (i.e., straight weir and rectangular labyrinth weir) were used to evaluate the effects of geometric parameters such as weir shape, weir spacing, presence of an orifice at the weir, and bed slope on the flow regime and the relationship between discharge and depth, variation and distribution of depth-averaged velocity, turbulence characteristics, and energy dissipation at the fishway. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed using FLOW-3D® software to examine the effects on flow conditions. The numerical model was validated by comparing the calculated surface profiles and velocities with experimentally measured values from the literature. The results of the numerical model and experimental data showed that the root-mean-square error and mean absolute percentage error for the surface profiles and normalized velocity profiles of plunging flows were 0.014 m and 3.11%, respectively, confirming the ability of the numerical model to predict the flow characteristics of the pool and weir. A plunging flow can occur at values of L/B = 1.83 (L: distance of the weir, B: width of the channel) and streaming flow at L/B = 0.61 for each model. The rectangular labyrinth weir model has larger dimensionless discharge values (Q+) than the conventional model. For the conventional weir and the rectangular labyrinth weir at submerged flow, Q is proportional to 1.56 and 1.47h, respectively (h: the water depth above the weir). The average depth velocity in the pool of a conventional weir is higher than that of a rectangular labyrinth weir. However, for a given discharge, bed slope, and weir spacing, the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulence intensity (TI) values are higher for a rectangular labyrinth weir compared to conventional weir. The conventional weir has lower energy dissipation than the rectangular labyrinth weir. Lower TKE and TI values were observed at the top of the labyrinth weir, at the corner of the wall downstream of the weir, and between the side walls of the weir and the channel wall. As the distance between the weirs and the bottom slope increased, the average depth velocity, the average value of turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulence intensity increased, and the volumetric energy dissipation in the pool decreased. The presence of an opening in the weir increased the average depth velocity and TI values and decreased the range of highest TKE within the pool, resulted in larger resting areas for fish (lower TKE), and decreased the energy dissipation rates in both models.

1 Introduction

Artificial barriers such as detour dams, weirs, and culverts in lakes and rivers prevent fish from migrating and completing the upstream and downstream movement cycle. This chain is related to the life stage of the fish, its location, and the type of migration. Several riverine fish species instinctively migrate upstream for spawning and other needs. Conversely, downstream migration is a characteristic of early life stages [1]. A fish ladder is a waterway that allows one or more fish species to cross a specific obstacle. These structures are constructed near detour dams and other transverse structures that have prevented such migration by allowing fish to overcome obstacles [2]. The flow pattern in fish ladders influences safe and comfortable passage for ascending fish. The flow’s strong turbulence can reduce the fish’s speed, injure them, and delay or prevent them from exiting the fish ladder. In adult fish, spawning migrations are usually complex, and delays are critical to reproductive success [3].

Various fish ladders/fishways include vertical slots, denil, rock ramps, and pool weirs [1]. The choice of fish ladder usually depends on many factors, including water elevation, space available for construction, and fish species. Pool and weir structures are among the most important fish ladders that help fish overcome obstacles in streams or rivers and swim upstream [1]. Because they are easy to construct and maintain, this type of fish ladder has received considerable attention from researchers and practitioners. Such a fish ladder consists of a sloping-floor channel with series of pools directly separated by a series of weirs [4]. These fish ladders, with or without underwater openings, are generally well-suited for slopes of 10% or less [1, 2]. Within these pools, flow velocities are low and provide resting areas for fish after they enter the fish ladder. After resting in the pools, fish overcome these weirs by blasting or jumping over them [2]. There may also be an opening in the flooded portion of the weir through which the fish can swim instead of jumping over the weir. Design parameters such as the length of the pool, the height of the weir, the slope of the bottom, and the water discharge are the most important factors in determining the hydraulic structure of this type of fish ladder [3]. The flow over the weir depends on the flow depth at a given slope S0 and the pool length, either “plunging” or “streaming.” In plunging flow, the water column h over each weir creates a water jet that releases energy through turbulent mixing and diffusion mechanisms [5]. The dimensionless discharges for plunging (Q+) and streaming (Q*) flows are shown in Fig. 1, where Q is the total discharge, B is the width of the channel, w is the weir height, S_{0} is the slope of the bottom, h is the water depth above the weir, d is the flow depth, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The maximum velocity occurs near the top of the weir for plunging flow. At the water’s surface, it drops to about half [6].

Extensive experimental studies have been conducted to investigate flow patterns for various physical geometries (i.e., bed slope, pool length, and weir height) [2]. Guiny et al. [7] modified the standard design by adding vertical slots, orifices, and weirs in fishways. The efficiency of the orifices and vertical slots was related to the velocities at their entrances. In the laboratory experiments of Yagci [8], the three-dimensional (3D) mean flow and turbulence structure of a pool weir fishway combined with an orifice and a slot is investigated. It is shown that the energy dissipation per unit volume and the discharge have a linear relationship.

Considering the beneficial characteristics reported in the limited studies of researchers on the labyrinth weir in the pool-weir-type fishway, and knowing that the characteristics of flow in pool-weir-type fishways are highly dependent on the geometry of the weir, an alternative design of the rectangular labyrinth weir instead of the straight weirs in the pool-weir-type fishway is investigated in this study [7, 9]. Kim [10] conducted experiments to compare the hydraulic characteristics of three different weir types in a pool-weir-type fishway. The results show that a straight, rectangular weir with a notch is preferable to a zigzag or trapezoidal weir. Studies on natural fish passes show that pass ability can be improved by lengthening the weir’s crest [7]. Zhong et al. [11] investigated the semi-rigid weir’s hydraulic performance in the fishway’s flow field with a pool weir. The results showed that this type of fishway performed better with a lower invert slope and a smaller radius ratio but with a larger pool spacing.

Considering that an alternative method to study the flow characteristics in a fishway with a pool weir is based on numerical methods and modeling from computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which can easily change the geometry of the fishway for different flow fields, this study uses the powerful package CFD and the software FLOW-3D to evaluate the proposed weir design and compare it with the conventional one to extend the application of the fishway. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the hydraulic performance of the rectangular labyrinth pool and the weir with submerged openings in different hydraulic configurations. The primary objective of creating a new weir configuration for suitable flow patterns is evaluated based on the swimming capabilities of different fish species. Specifically, the following questions will be answered: (a) How do the various hydraulic and geometric parameters relate to the effects of water velocity and turbulence, expressed as turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulence intensity (TI) within the fishway, i.e., are conventional weirs more affected by hydraulics than rectangular labyrinth weirs? (b) Which weir configurations have the greatest effect on fish performance in the fishway? (c) In the presence of an orifice plate, does the performance of each weir configuration differ with different weir spacing, bed gradients, and flow regimes from that without an orifice plate?

2 Materials and Methods

2.1 Physical Model Configuration

This paper focuses on Ead et al. [6]’s laboratory experiments as a reference, testing ten pool weirs (Fig. 2). The experimental flume was 6 m long, 0.56 m wide, and 0.6 m high, with a bottom slope of 10%. Field measurements were made at steady flow with a maximum flow rate of 0.165 m^{3}/s. Discharge was measured with magnetic flow meters in the inlets and water level with point meters (see Ead et al. [6]. for more details). Table 1 summarizes the experimental conditions considered for model calibration in this study.

Table 1 Experimental conditions considered for calibration

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using FLOW-3D® v11.2 to validate a series of experimental liner pool weirs by Ead et al. [6] and to investigate the effects of the rectangular labyrinth pool weir with an orifice. The dimensions of the channel and data collection areas in the numerical models are the same as those of the laboratory model. Two types of pool weirs were considered: conventional and labyrinth. The proposed rectangular labyrinth pool weirs have a symmetrical cross section and are sized to fit within the experimental channel. The conventional pool weir model had a pool length of l = 0.685 and 0.342 m, a weir height of w = 0.141 m, a weir width of B = 0.56 m, and a channel slope of S_{0} = 5 and 10%. The rectangular labyrinth weirs have the same front width as the offset, i.e., a = b = c = 0.186 m. A square underwater opening with a width of 0.05 m and a depth of 0.05 m was created in the middle of the weir. The weir configuration considered in the present study is shown in Fig. 3.

2.3 Governing Equations

FLOW-3D® software solves the Navier–Stokes–Reynolds equations for three-dimensional analysis of incompressible flows using the fluid-volume method on a gridded domain. FLOW -3D® uses an advanced free surface flow tracking algorithm (TruVOF) developed by Hirt and Nichols [12], where fluid configurations are defined in terms of a VOF function F (x, y, z, t). In this case, F (fluid fraction) represents the volume fraction occupied by the fluid: F = 1 in cells filled with fluid and F = 0 in cells without fluid (empty areas) [4, 13]. The free surface area is at an intermediate value of F. (Typically, F = 0.5, but the user can specify a different intermediate value.) The equations in Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) applicable to the model are as follows:

�f∂�∂�+∂(���x)∂�+∂(���y)∂�+∂(���z)∂�=�SOR

(1)

∂�∂�+1�f(��x∂�∂�+��y∂�∂�+��z∂�∂�)=−1�∂�∂�+�x+�x

(2)

∂�∂�+1�f(��x∂�∂�+��y∂�∂�+��z∂�∂�)=−1�∂�∂�+�y+�y

(3)

∂�∂�+1�f(��x∂�∂�+��y∂�∂�+��z∂�∂�)=−1�∂�∂�+�z+�z

(4)

where (u, v, w) are the velocity components, (A_{x}, A_{y}, A_{z}) are the flow area components, (G_{x}, G_{y}, G_{z}) are the mass accelerations, and (f_{x}, f_{y}, f_{z}) are the viscous accelerations in the directions (x, y, z), ρ is the fluid density, R_{SOR} is the spring term, V_{f} is the volume fraction associated with the flow, and P is the pressure. The k–ε turbulence model (RNG) was used in this study to solve the turbulence of the flow field. This model is a modified version of the standard k–ε model that improves performance. The model is a two-equation model; the first equation (Eq. 5) expresses the turbulence’s energy, called turbulent kinetic energy (k) [14]. The second equation (Eq. 6) is the turbulent dissipation rate (ε), which determines the rate of dissipation of kinetic energy [15]. These equations are expressed as follows Dasineh et al. [4]:

In these equations, k is the turbulent kinetic energy, ε is the turbulent energy consumption rate, G_{k} is the generation of turbulent kinetic energy by the average velocity gradient, with empirical constants α_{ε} = α_{k} = 1.39, C_{1ε} = 1.42, and C_{2ε} = 1.68, eff is the effective viscosity, μ_{eff} = μ + μ_{t} [15]. Here, μ is the hydrodynamic density coefficient, and μ_{t} is the turbulent density of the fluid.

2.4 Meshing and the Boundary Conditions in the Model Setup

The numerical area is divided into three mesh blocks in the X-direction. The meshes are divided into different sizes, a containing mesh block for the entire spatial domain and a nested block with refined cells for the domain of interest. Three different sizes were selected for each of the grid blocks. By comparing the accuracy of their results based on the experimental data, the reasonable mesh for the solution domain was finally selected. The convergence index method (GCI) evaluated the mesh sensitivity analysis. Based on this method, many researchers, such as Ahmadi et al. [16] and Ahmadi et al. [15], have studied the independence of numerical results from mesh size. Three different mesh sizes with a refinement ratio (r) of 1.33 were used to perform the convergence index method. The refinement ratio is the ratio between the larger and smaller mesh sizes (r = G_{coarse}/G_{fine}). According to the recommendation of Celik et al. [17], the recommended number for the refinement ratio is 1.3, which gives acceptable results. Table 2 shows the characteristics of the three mesh sizes selected for mesh sensitivity analysis.Table 2 Characteristics of the meshes tested in the convergence analysis

The results of u_{1} = u_{max} (u_{1} = velocity component along the x_{1} axis and u_{max} = maximum velocity of u_{1} in a section perpendicular to the invert of the fishway) at Q = 0.035 m^{3}/s, × 1/l = 0.66, and Y_{1}/b = 0 in the pool of conventional weir No. 4, obtained from the output results of the software, were used to evaluate the accuracy of the calculation range. As shown in Fig. 4, x_{1} = the distance from a given weir in the x-direction, Y_{1} = the water depth measured in the y-direction, Y_{0} = the vertical distance in the Cartesian coordinate system, h = the water column at the crest, b = the distance between the two points of maximum velocity u_{max} and zero velocity, and l = the pool length.

The apparent index of convergence (p) in the GCI method is calculated as follows:

�=ln(�3−�2)(�2−�1)/ln(�)

(7)

f_{1}, f_{2}, and f_{3} are the hydraulic parameters obtained from the numerical simulation (f_{1} corresponds to the small mesh), and r is the refinement ratio. The following equation defines the convergence index of the fine mesh:

GCIfine=1.25|ε|��−1

(8)

Here, ε = (f_{2} − f_{1})/f_{1} is the relative error, and f_{2} and f_{3} are the values of hydraulic parameters considered for medium and small grids, respectively. GCI_{12} and GCI_{23} dimensionless indices can be calculated as:

GCI12=1.25|�2−�1�1|��−1

(9)

Then, the independence of the network is preserved. The convergence index of the network parameters obtained by Eqs. (7)–(9) for all three network variables is shown in Table 3. Since the GCI values for the smaller grid (GCI_{12}) are lower compared to coarse grid (GCI_{23}), it can be concluded that the independence of the grid is almost achieved. No further change in the grid size of the solution domain is required. The calculated values (GCI_{23}/r^{p}GCI_{12}) are close to 1, which shows that the numerical results obtained are within the convergence range. As a result, the meshing of the solution domain consisting of a block mesh with a mesh size of 0.012 m and a block mesh within a larger block mesh with a mesh size of 0.009 m was selected as the optimal mesh (Fig. 5).Table 3 GCI calculation

The boundary conditions applied to the area are shown in Fig. 6. The boundary condition of specific flow rate (volume flow rate-Q) was used for the inlet of the flow. For the downstream boundary, the flow output (outflow-O) condition did not affect the flow in the solution area. For the Z_{max} boundary, the specified pressure boundary condition was used along with the fluid fraction = 0 (P). This type of boundary condition considers free surface or atmospheric pressure conditions (Ghaderi et al. [19]). The wall boundary condition is defined for the bottom of the channel, which acts like a virtual wall without friction (W). The boundary between mesh blocks and walls were considered a symmetrical condition (S).

The convergence of the steady-state solutions was controlled during the simulations by monitoring the changes in discharge at the inlet boundary conditions. Figure 7 shows the time series plots of the discharge obtained from the Model A for the three main discharges from the numerical results. The 8 s to reach the flow equilibrium is suitable for the case of the fish ladder with pool and weir. Almost all discharge fluctuations in the models are insignificant in time, and the flow has reached relative stability. The computation time for the simulations was between 6 and 8 h using a personal computer with eight cores of a CPU (Intel Core i7-7700K @ 4.20 GHz and 16 GB RAM).

3 Results

3.1 Verification of Numerical Results

Quantitative outcomes, including free surface and normalized velocity profiles obtained using FLOW-3D software, were reviewed and compared with the results of Ead et al. [6]. The fourth pool was selected to present the results and compare the experiment and simulation. For each quantity, the percentage of mean absolute error (MAPE (%)) and root-mean-square error (RMSE) are calculated. Equations (10) and (11) show the method used to calculate the errors.

MAPE(%)100×1�∑1�|�exp−�num�exp|

(10)

RMSE(−)1�∑1�(�exp−�num)2

(11)

Here, X_{exp} is the value of the laboratory data, X_{num} is the numerical data value, and n is the amount of data. As shown in Fig. 8, let x_{1} = distance from a given weir in the x-direction and Y_{1} = water depth in the y-direction from the bottom. The trend of the surface profiles for each of the numerical results is the same as that of the laboratory results. The surface profiles of the plunging flows drop after the flow enters and then rises to approach the next weir. The RMSE and MAPE error values for Model A are 0.014 m and 3.11%, respectively, indicating acceptable agreement between numerical and laboratory results. Figure 9 shows the velocity vectors and plunging flow from the numerical results, where x and y are horizontal and vertical to the flow direction, respectively. It can be seen that the jet in the fish ladder pool has a relatively high velocity. The two vortices, i.e., the enclosed vortex rotating clockwise behind the weir and the surface vortex rotating counterclockwise above the jet, are observed for the regime of incident flow. The point where the jet meets the fish passage bed is shown in the figure. The normalized velocity profiles upstream and downstream of the impact points are shown in Fig. 10. The figure shows that the numerical results agree well with the experimental data of Ead et al. [6].

3.2 Flow Regime and Discharge-Depth Relationship

Depending on the geometric shape of the fishway, including the distance of the weir, the slope of the bottom, the height of the weir, and the flow conditions, the flow regime in the fishway is divided into three categories: dipping, transitional, and flow regimes [4]. In the plunging flow regime, the flow enters the pool through the weir, impacts the bottom of the fishway, and forms a hydraulic jump causing two eddies [2, 20]. In the streamwise flow regime, the surface of the flow passing over the weir is almost parallel to the bottom of the channel. The transitional regime has intermediate flow characteristics between the submerged and flow regimes. To predict the flow regime created in the fishway, Ead et al. [6] proposed two dimensionless parameters, Q_{t}* and L/w, where Q_{t}* is the dimensionless discharge, L is the distance between weirs, and w is the height of the weir:

��∗=���0���

(12)

Q is the total discharge, B is the width of the channel, S_{0} is the slope of the bed, and g is the gravity acceleration. Figure 11 shows different ranges for each flow regime based on the slope of the bed and the distance between the pools in this study. The results of Baki et al. [21], Ead et al. [6] and Dizabadi et al. [22] were used for this comparison. The distance between the pools affects the changes in the regime of the fish ladder. So, if you decrease the distance between weirs, the flow regime more likely becomes. This study determined all three flow regimes in a fish ladder. When the corresponding range of Q_{t}* is less than 0.6, the flow regime can dip at values of L/B = 1.83. If the corresponding range of Q_{t}* is greater than 0.5, transitional flow may occur at L/B = 1.22. On the other hand, when Q_{t}* is greater than 1, streamwise flow can occur at values of L/B = 0.61. These observations agree well with the results of Baki et al. [21], Ead et al. [6] and Dizabadi et al. [22].

For plunging flows, another dimensionless discharge (Q+) versus h/w given by Ead et al. [6] was used for further evaluation:

�+=��ℎ�ℎ=23�d�

(13)

where h is the water depth above the weir, and C_{d} is the discharge coefficient. Figure 12a compares the numerical and experimental results of Ead et al. [6]. In this figure, Rehbock’s empirical equation is used to estimate the discharge coefficient of Ead et al. [6].

�d=0.57+0.075ℎ�

(14)

The numerical results for the conventional weir (Model A) and the rectangular labyrinth weir (Model B) of this study agree well with the laboratory results of Ead et al. [6]. When comparing models A and B, it is also found that a rectangular labyrinth weir has larger Q + values than the conventional weir as the length of the weir crest increases for a given channel width and fixed headwater elevation. In Fig. 12b, Models A and B’s flow depth plot shows the plunging flow regime. The power trend lines drawn through the data are the best-fit lines. The data shown in Fig. 12b are for different bed slopes and weir geometries. For the conventional weir and the rectangular labyrinth weir at submerged flow, Q can be assumed to be proportional to 1.56 and 1.47h, respectively. In the results of Ead et al. [6], Q is proportional to 1.5h. If we assume that the flow through the orifice is Q_{o} and the total outflow is Q, the change in the ratio of Q_{o}/Q to total outflow for models A and B can be shown in Fig. 13. For both models, the flow through the orifice decreases as the total flow increases. A logarithmic trend line was also found between the total outflow and the dimensionless ratio Q_{o}/Q.

3.3 Depth-Averaged Velocity Distributions

To ensure that the target fish species can pass the fish ladder with maximum efficiency, the average velocity in the fish ladder should be low enough [4]. Therefore, the average velocity in depth should be as much as possible below the critical swimming velocities of the target fishes at a constant flow depth in the pool [20]. The contour plot of depth-averaged velocity was used instead of another direction, such as longitudinal velocity because fish are more sensitive to depth-averaged flow velocity than to its direction under different hydraulic conditions. Figure 14 shows the distribution of depth-averaged velocity in the pool for Models A and B in two cases with and without orifice plates. Model A’s velocity within the pool differs slightly in the spanwise direction. However, no significant variation in velocity was observed. The flow is gradually directed to the sides as it passes through the rectangular labyrinth weir. This increases the velocity at the sides of the channel. Therefore, the high-velocity zone is located at the sides. The low velocity is in the downstream apex of the weir. This area may be suitable for swimming target fish. The presence of an opening in the weir increases the flow velocity at the opening and in the pool’s center, especially in Model A. The flow velocity increase caused by the models’ opening varied from 7.7 to 12.48%. Figure 15 illustrates the effect of the inverted slope on the averaged depth velocity distribution in the pool at low and high discharge. At constant discharge, flow velocity increases with increasing bed slope. In general, high flow velocity was found in the weir toe sidewall and the weir and channel sidewalls.

On the other hand, for a constant bed slope, the high-velocity area of the pool increases due to the increase in runoff. For both bed slopes and different discharges, the most appropriate path for fish to travel from upstream to downstream is through the middle of the cross section and along the top of the rectangular labyrinth weirs. The maximum dominant velocities for Model B at S_{0} = 5% were 0.83 and 1.01 m/s; at S_{0} = 10%, they were 1.12 and 1.61 m/s at low and high flows, respectively. The low mean velocities for the same distance and S_{0} = 5 and 10% were 0.17 and 0.26 m/s, respectively.

Figure 16 shows the contour of the averaged depth velocity for various distances from the weir at low and high discharge. The contour plot shows a large variation in velocity within short distances from the weir. At L/B = 0.61, velocities are low upstream and downstream of the top of the weir. The high velocities occur in the side walls of the weir and the channel. At L/B = 1.22, the low-velocity zone displaces the higher velocity in most of the pool. Higher velocities were found only on the sides of the channel. As the discharge increases, the velocity zone in the pool becomes wider. At L/B = 1.83, there is an area of higher velocities only upstream of the crest and on the sides of the weir. At high discharge, the prevailing maximum velocities for L/B = 0.61, 1.22, and 1.83 were 1.46, 1.65, and 1.84 m/s, respectively. As the distance between weirs increases, the range of maximum velocity increases.

On the other hand, the low mean velocity for these distances was 0.27, 0.44, and 0.72 m/s, respectively. Thus, the low-velocity zone decreases with increasing distance between weirs. Figure 17 shows the pattern distribution of streamlines along with the velocity contour at various distances from the weir for Q = 0.05 m^{3}/s. A stream-like flow is generally formed in the pool at a small distance between weirs (L/B = 0.61). The rotation cell under the jet forms clockwise between the two weirs. At the distances between the spillways (L/B = 1.22), the transition regime of the flow is formed. The transition regime occurs when or shortly after the weir is flooded. The rotation cell under the jet is clockwise smaller than the flow regime and larger than the submergence regime. At a distance L/B = 1.83, a plunging flow is formed so that the plunging jet dips into the pool and extends downstream to the center of the pool. The clockwise rotation of the cell is bounded by the dipping jet of the weir and is located between the bottom and the side walls of the weir and the channel.

Figure 18 shows the average depth velocity bar graph for each weir at different bed slopes and with and without orifice plates. As the distance between weirs increases, all models’ average depth velocity increases. As the slope of the bottom increases and an orifice plate is present, the average depth velocity in the pool increases. In addition, the average pool depth velocity increases as the discharge increases. Among the models, Model A’s average depth velocity is higher than Model B’s. The variation in velocity ranged from 8.11 to 12.24% for the models without an orifice plate and from 10.26 to 16.87% for the models with an orifice plate.

3.4 Turbulence Characteristics

The turbulent kinetic energy is one of the important parameters reflecting the turbulent properties of the flow field [23]. When the k value is high, more energy and a longer transit time are required to migrate the target species. The turbulent kinetic energy is defined as follows:

�=12(�x′2+�y′2+�z′2)

(15)

where u_{x}, u_{y}, and u_{z} are fluctuating velocities in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. An illustration of the TKE and the effects of the geometric arrangement of the weir and the presence of an opening in the weir is shown in Fig. 19. For a given bed slope, in Model A, the highest TKE values are uniformly distributed in the weir’s upstream portion in the channel’s cross section. In contrast, for the rectangular labyrinth weir (Model B), the highest TKE values are concentrated on the sides of the pool between the crest of the weir and the channel wall. The highest TKE value in Models A and B is 0.224 and 0.278 J/kg, respectively, at the highest bottom slope (S_{0} = 10%). In the downstream portion of the conventional weir and within the crest of the weir and the walls of the rectangular labyrinth, there was a much lower TKE value that provided the best conditions for fish to recover in the pool between the weirs. The average of the lowest TKE for bottom slopes of 5 and 10% in Model A is 0.041 and 0.056 J/kg, and for Model B, is 0.047 and 0.064 J/kg. The presence of an opening in the weirs reduces the area of the highest TKE within the pool. It also increases the resting areas for fish (lower TKE). The highest TKE at the highest bottom slope in Models A and B with an orifice is 0.208 and 0.191 J/kg, respectively.

Figure 20 shows the effect of slope on the longitudinal distribution of TKE in the pools. TKE values significantly increase for a given discharge with an increasing bottom slope. Thus, for a low bed slope (S_{0} = 5%), a large pool area has expanded with average values of 0.131 and 0.168 J/kg for low and high discharge, respectively. For a bed slope of S_{0} = 10%, the average TKE values are 0.176 and 0.234 J/kg. Furthermore, as the discharge increases, the area with high TKE values within the pool increases. Lower TKE values are observed at the apex of the labyrinth weir, at the corner of the wall downstream of the weir, and between the side walls of the weir and the channel wall for both bottom slopes. The effect of distance between weirs on TKE is shown in Fig. 21. Low TKE values were observed at low discharge and short distances between weirs. Low TKE values are located at the top of the rectangular labyrinth weir and the downstream corner of the weir wall. There is a maximum value of TKE at the large distances between weirs, L/B = 1.83, along the center line of the pool, where the dip jet meets the bottom of the bed. At high discharge, the maximum TKE value for the distance L/B = 0.61, 1.22, and 1.83 was 0.246, 0.322, and 0.417 J/kg, respectively. In addition, the maximum TKE range increases with the distance between weirs.

For TKE size, the average value (TKE_{ave}) is plotted against q in Fig. 22. For all models, the TKE values increase with increasing q. For example, in models A and B with L/B = 0.61 and a slope of 10%, the TKE value increases by 41.66 and 86.95%, respectively, as q increases from 0.1 to 0.27 m^{2}/s. The TKE values in Model B are higher than Model A for a given discharge, bed slope, and weir distance. The TKE_{ave} in Model B is higher compared to Model A, ranging from 31.46 to 57.94%. The presence of an orifice in the weir reduces the TKE values in both weirs. The intensity of the reduction is greater in Model B. For example, in Models A and B with L/B = 0.61 and q = 0.1 m^{2}/s, an orifice reduces TKE_{ave} values by 60.35 and 19.04%, respectively. For each model, increasing the bed slope increases the TKE_{ave} values in the pool. For example, for Model B with q = 0.18 m^{2}/s, increasing the bed slope from 5 to 10% increases the TKE_{ave} value by 14.34%. Increasing the distance between weirs increases the TKE_{ave} values in the pool. For example, in Model B with S_{0} = 10% and q = 0.3 m^{2}/s, the TKE_{ave} in the pool increases by 34.22% if you increase the distance between weirs from L/B = 0.61 to L/B = 0.183.

Cotel et al. [24] suggested that turbulence intensity (TI) is a suitable parameter for studying fish swimming performance. Figure 23 shows the plot of TI and the effects of the geometric arrangement of the weir and the presence of an orifice. In Model A, the highest TI values are found upstream of the weirs and are evenly distributed across the cross section of the channel. The TI values increase as you move upstream to downstream in the pool. For the rectangular labyrinth weir, the highest TI values were concentrated on the sides of the pool, between the top of the weir and the side wall of the channel, and along the top of the weir. Downstream of the conventional weir, within the apex of the weir, and at the corners of the walls of the rectangular labyrinth weir, the percentage of TI was low. At the highest discharge, the average range of TI in Models A and B was 24–45% and 15–62%, respectively. The diversity of TI is greater in the rectangular labyrinth weir than the conventional weir. Fish swimming performance is reduced due to higher turbulence intensity. However, fish species may prefer different disturbance intensities depending on their swimming abilities; for example, Salmo trutta prefers a disturbance intensity of 18–53% [25]. Kupferschmidt and Zhu [26] found a higher range of TI for fishways, such as natural rock weirs, of 40–60%. The presence of an orifice in the weir increases TI values within the pool, especially along the middle portion of the cross section of the fishway. With an orifice in the weir, the average range of TI in Models A and B was 28–59% and 22–73%, respectively.

The effect of bed slope on TI variation is shown in Fig. 24. TI increases in different pool areas as the bed slope increases for a given discharge. For a low bed slope (S_{0} = 5%), a large pool area has increased from 38 to 63% and from 56 to 71% for low and high discharge, respectively. For a bed slope of S_{0} = 10%, the average values of TI are 45–67% and 61–73% for low and high discharge, respectively. Therefore, as runoff increases, the area with high TI values within the pool increases. A lower TI is observed for both bottom slopes in the corner of the wall, downstream of the crest walls, and between the side walls in the weir and channel. Figure 25 compares weir spacing with the distribution of TI values within the pool. The TI values are low at low flows and short distances between weirs. A maximum value of TI occurs at long spacing and where the plunging stream impinges on the bed and the area around the bed. TI ranges from 36 to 57%, 58–72%, and 47–76% for the highest flow in a wide pool area for L/B = 0.61, 1.22, and 1.83, respectively.

The average value of turbulence intensity (TI_{ave}) is plotted against q in Fig. 26. The increase in TI values with the increase in q values is seen in all models. For example, the average values of TI for Models A and B at L/B = 0.61 and slope of 10% increased from 23.9 to 33.5% and from 42 to 51.8%, respectively, with the increase in q from 0.1 to 0.27 m^{2}/s. For a given discharge, a given gradient, and a given spacing of weirs, the TI_{ave} is higher in Model B than Model A. The presence of an orifice in the weirs increases the TI values in both types. For example, in Models A and B with L/B = 0.61 and q = 0.1 m^{2}/s, the presence of an orifice increases TI_{ave} from 23.9 to 37.1% and from 42 to 48.8%, respectively. For each model, TI_{ave} in the pool increases with increasing bed slope. For Model B with q = 0.18 m^{2}/s, TI_{ave} increases from 37.5 to 45.8% when you increase the invert slope from 5 to 10%. Increasing the distance between weirs increases the TI_{ave} in the pool. In Model B with S_{0} = 10% and q = 0.3 m^{2}/s, the TI_{ave} in the pool increases from 51.8 to 63.7% as the distance between weirs increases from L/B = 0.61 to L/B = 0.183.

3.5 Energy Dissipation

To facilitate the passage of various target species through the pool of fishways, it is necessary to pay attention to the energy dissipation of the flow and to keep the flow velocity in the pool slow. The average volumetric energy dissipation (k) in the pool is calculated using the following basic formula:

�=����0��

(16)

where ρ is the water density, and H is the average water depth of the pool. The change in k versus Q for all models at two bottom slopes, S_{0} = 5%, and S_{0} = 10%, is shown in Fig. 27. Like the results of Yagci [8] and Kupferschmidt and Zhu [26], at a constant bottom slope, the energy dissipation in the pool increases with increasing discharge. The trend of change in k as a function of Q from the present study at a bottom gradient of S_{0} = 5% is also consistent with the results of Kupferschmidt and Zhu [26] for the fishway with rock weir. The only difference between the results is the geometry of the fishway and the combination of boulders instead of a solid wall. Comparison of the models shows that the conventional model has lower energy dissipation than the rectangular labyrinth for a given discharge. Also, increasing the distance between weirs decreases the volumetric energy dissipation for each model with the same bed slope. Increasing the slope of the bottom leads to an increase in volumetric energy dissipation, and an opening in the weir leads to a decrease in volumetric energy dissipation for both models. Therefore, as a guideline for volumetric energy dissipation, if the value within the pool is too high, the increased distance of the weir, the decreased slope of the bed, or the creation of an opening in the weir would decrease the volumetric dissipation rate.

To evaluate the energy dissipation inside the pool, the general method of energy difference in two sections can use:

ε=�1−�2�1

(17)

where ε is the energy dissipation rate, and E_{1} and E_{2} are the specific energies in Sects. 1 and 2, respectively. The distance between Sects. 1 and 2 is the same. (L is the distance between two upstream and downstream weirs.) Figure 28 shows the changes in ε relative to q (flow per unit width). The rectangular labyrinth weir (Model B) has a higher energy dissipation rate than the conventional weir (Model A) at a constant bottom gradient. For example, at S_{0} = 5%, L/B = 0.61, and q = 0.08 m^{3}/s.m, the energy dissipation rate in Model A (conventional weir) was 0.261. In Model B (rectangular labyrinth weir), however, it was 0.338 (22.75% increase). For each model, the energy dissipation rate within the pool increases as the slope of the bottom increases. For Model B with L/B = 1.83 and q = 0.178 m^{3}/s.m, the energy dissipation rate at S_{0} = 5% and 10% is 0.305 and 0.358, respectively (14.8% increase). Figure 29 shows an orifice’s effect on the pools’ energy dissipation rate. With an orifice in the weir, both models’ energy dissipation rates decreased. Thus, the reduction in energy dissipation rate varied from 7.32 to 9.48% for Model A and from 8.46 to 10.57 for Model B.

4 Discussion

This study consisted of entirely of numerical analysis. Although this study was limited to two weirs, the hydraulic performance and flow characteristics in a pooled fishway are highlighted by the rectangular labyrinth weir and its comparison with the conventional straight weir. The study compared the numerical simulations with laboratory experiments in terms of surface profiles, velocity vectors, and flow characteristics in a fish ladder pool. The results indicate agreement between the numerical and laboratory data, supporting the reliability of the numerical model in capturing the observed phenomena.

When the configuration of the weir changes to a rectangular labyrinth weir, the flow characteristics, the maximum and minimum area, and even the location of each hydraulic parameter change compared to a conventional weir. In the rectangular labyrinth weir, the flow is gradually directed to the sides as it passes the weir. This increases the velocity at the sides of the channel [21]. Therefore, the high-velocity area is located on the sides. In the downstream apex of the weir, the flow velocity is low, and this area may be suitable for swimming target fish. However, no significant change in velocity was observed at the conventional weir within the fish ladder. This resulted in an average increase in TKE of 32% and an average increase in TI of about 17% compared to conventional weirs.

In addition, there is a slight difference in the flow regime for both weir configurations. In addition, the rectangular labyrinth weir has a higher energy dissipation rate for a given discharge and constant bottom slope than the conventional weir. By reducing the distance between the weirs, this becomes even more intense. Finally, the presence of an orifice in both configurations of the weir increased the flow velocity at the orifice and in the middle of the pool, reducing the highest TKE value and increasing the values of TI within the pool of the fish ladder. This resulted in a reduction in volumetric energy dissipation for both weir configurations.

The results of this study will help the reader understand the direct effects of the governing geometric parameters on the hydraulic characteristics of a fishway with a pool and weir. However, due to the limited configurations of the study, further investigation is needed to evaluate the position of the weir’s crest on the flow direction and the difference in flow characteristics when combining boulders instead of a solid wall for this type of labyrinth weir [26]. In addition, hydraulic engineers and biologists must work together to design an effective fishway with rectangular labyrinth configurations. The migration habits of the target species should be considered when designing the most appropriate design [27]. Parametric studies and field observations are recommended to determine the perfect design criteria.

The current study focused on comparing a rectangular labyrinth weir with a conventional straight weir. Further research can explore other weir configurations, such as variations in crest position, different shapes of labyrinth weirs, or the use of boulders instead of solid walls. This would help understand the influence of different geometric parameters on hydraulic characteristics.

5 Conclusions

A new layout of the weir was evaluated, namely a rectangular labyrinth weir compared to a straight weir in a pool and weir system. The differences between the weirs were highlighted, particularly how variations in the geometry of the structures, such as the shape of the weir, the spacing of the weir, the presence of an opening at the weir, and the slope of the bottom, affect the hydraulics within the structures. The main findings of this study are as follows:

The calculated dimensionless discharge (Q_{t}*) confirmed three different flow regimes: when the corresponding range of Q_{t}* is smaller than 0.6, the regime of plunging flow occurs for values of L/B = 1.83. (L: distance of the weir; B: channel width). When the corresponding range of Q_{t}* is greater than 0.5, transitional flow occurs at L/B = 1.22. On the other hand, if Q_{t}* is greater than 1, the streaming flow is at values of L/B = 0.61.

For the conventional weir and the rectangular labyrinth weir with the plunging flow, it can be assumed that the discharge (Q) is proportional to 1.56 and 1.47h, respectively (h: water depth above the weir). This information is useful for estimating the discharge based on water depth in practical applications.

In the rectangular labyrinth weir, the high-velocity zone is located on the side walls between the top of the weir and the channel wall. A high-velocity variation within short distances of the weir. Low velocity occurs within the downstream apex of the weir. This area may be suitable for swimming target fish.

As the distance between weirs increased, the zone of maximum velocity increased. However, the zone of low speed decreased. The prevailing maximum velocity for a rectangular labyrinth weir at L/B = 0.61, 1.22, and 1.83 was 1.46, 1.65, and 1.84 m/s, respectively. The low mean velocities for these distances were 0.27, 0.44, and 0.72 m/s, respectively. This finding highlights the importance of weir spacing in determining the flow characteristics within the fishway.

The presence of an orifice in the weir increased the flow velocity at the orifice and in the middle of the pool, especially in a conventional weir. The increase ranged from 7.7 to 12.48%.

For a given bottom slope, in a conventional weir, the highest values of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) are uniformly distributed in the upstream part of the weir in the cross section of the channel. In contrast, for the rectangular labyrinth weir, the highest TKE values were concentrated on the sides of the pool between the crest of the weir and the channel wall. The highest TKE value for the conventional and the rectangular labyrinth weir was 0.224 and 0.278 J/kg, respectively, at the highest bottom slope (S_{0} = 10%).

For a given discharge, bottom slope, and weir spacing, the average values of TI are higher for the rectangular labyrinth weir than for the conventional weir. At the highest discharge, the average range of turbulence intensity (TI) for the conventional and rectangular labyrinth weirs was between 24 and 45% and 15% and 62%, respectively. This reveals that the rectangular labyrinth weir may generate more turbulent flow conditions within the fishway.

For a given discharge and constant bottom slope, the rectangular labyrinth weir has a higher energy dissipation rate than the conventional weir (22.75 and 34.86%).

Increasing the distance between weirs decreased volumetric energy dissipation. However, increasing the gradient increased volumetric energy dissipation. The presence of an opening in the weir resulted in a decrease in volumetric energy dissipation for both model types.

Availability of data and materials

Data is contained within the article.

References

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해저 퇴적물 흐름은 퇴적물을 심해로 운반하는 주요 수단 중 하나이며, 종종 장거리를 이동하고 수십 또는 수백 킬로미터에 걸쳐 상당한 양의 퇴적물을 운반합니다. 그것의 강력한 파괴력은 종종 이동 과정에서 잠수함 유틸리티에 심각한 손상을 초래합니다.

퇴적물 흐름의 퇴적물 농도는 주변 해수와의 밀도차를 결정하며, 이 밀도 차이는 퇴적물 흐름의 흐름 능력을 결정하여 이송된 퇴적물의 최종 퇴적 위치에 영향을 미칩니다. 본 논문에서는 다양한 미사 및 점토 중량비(미사/점토 비율이라고 함)를 갖는 다양한 퇴적물 농도의 퇴적물 흐름을 수로 테스트를 통해 연구합니다.

우리의 테스트 결과는 특정 퇴적물 구성에 대해 퇴적물 흐름이 가장 빠르게 이동하는 임계 퇴적물 농도가 있음을 나타냅니다. 4가지 미사/점토 비율 각각에 대한 임계 퇴적물 농도와 이에 상응하는 최대 속도가 구해집니다. 결과는 점토 함량이 임계 퇴적물 농도와 선형적으로 음의 상관 관계가 있음을 나타냅니다.

퇴적물 농도가 증가함에 따라 퇴적물의 흐름 거동은 흐름 상태에서 붕괴된 상태로 변환되고 흐름 거동이 변화하는 두 탁한 현탁액의 유체 특성은 모두 Bingham 유체입니다.

또한 본 논문에서는 퇴적물 흐름 내 입자 배열을 분석하여 위에서 언급한 결과에 대한 미시적 설명도 제공합니다.

Submarine sediment flows is one of the main means for transporting sediment to the deep sea, often traveling long-distance and transporting significant volumes of sediment for tens or even hundreds of kilometers. Its strong destructive force often causes serious damage to submarine utilities on its course of movement. The sediment concentration of the sediment flow determines its density difference with the ambient seawater, and this density difference determines the flow ability of the sediment flow, and thus affects the final deposition locations of the transported sediment. In this paper, sediment flows of different sediment concentration with various silt and clay weight ratios (referred to as silt/clay ratio) are studied using flume tests. Our test results indicate that there is a critical sediment concentration at which sediment flows travel the fastest for a specific sediment composition. The critical sediment concentrations and their corresponding maximum velocities for each of the four silt/clay ratios are obtained. The results further indicate that the clay content is linearly negatively correlated with the critical sediment concentration. As the sediment concentration increases, the flow behaviors of sediment flows transform from the flow state to the collapsed state, and the fluid properties of the two turbid suspensions with changing flow behaviors are both Bingham fluids. Additionally, this paper also provides a microscopic explanation of the above-mentioned results by analyzing the arrangement of particles within the sediment flow.

Introduction

Submarine sediment flows are important carriers for sea floor sediment movement and may carry and transport significant volumes of sediment for tens or even hundreds of kilometers (Prior et al., 1987; Pirmez and Imran, 2003; Zhang et al., 2018). Earthquakes, storms, and floods may all trigger submarine sediment flow events (Hsu et al., 2008; Piper and Normark, 2009; Pope et al., 2017b; Gavey et al., 2017). Sediment flows have strong forces during the movement, which will cause great harm to submarine structures such as cables and pipelines (Pope et al., 2017a). It was first confirmed that the cable breaking event caused by the sediment flow occurred in 1929. The sediment flow triggered by the Grand Banks earthquake damaged 12 cables. According to the time sequence of the cable breaking, the maximum velocity of the sediment flow is as high as 28 m/s (Heezen and Ewing, 1952; Kuenen, 1952; Heezen et al., 1954). Subsequent research shows that the lowest turbidity velocity that can break the cable also needs to reach 19 m/s (Piper et al., 1988). Since then, there have been many damage events of submarine cables and oil and gas pipelines caused by sediment flows in the world (Hsu et al., 2008; Carter et al., 2012; Cattaneo et al., 2012; Carter et al., 2014). During its movement, the sediment flow will gradually deposit a large amount of sediment carried by it along the way, that is, the deposition process of the sediment flow. On the one hand, this process brings a large amount of terrestrial nutrients and other materials to the ocean, while on the other hand, it causes damage and burial to benthic organisms, thus forming the largest sedimentary accumulation on Earth – submarine fans, which are highly likely to become good reservoirs for oil and gas resources (Daly, 1936; Yuan et al., 2010; Wu et al., 2022). The study on sediment flows (such as, the study of flow velocity and the forces acting on seabed structures) can provide important references for the safe design of seabed structures, the protection of submarine ecosystems, and exploration of turbidity sediments related oil and gas deposits. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the movement of sediment flows.

The sediment flow, as a highly sediment-concentrated fluid flowing on the sea floor, has a dense bottom layer and a dilute turbulent cloud. Observations at the Monterey Canyon indicated that the sediment flow can maintain its movement over long distances if its bottom has a relatively high sediment concentration. This dense bottom layer can be very destructive along its movement path to any facilities on the sea floor (Paull et al., 2018; Heerema et al., 2020; Wang et al., 2020). The sediment flow mentioned in this research paper is the general term of sediment density flow.

The sediment flow, which occurs on the seafloor, has the potential to cause erosion along its path. In this process, the suspended sediment is replenished, allowing the sediment flow to maintain its continuous flow capacity (Zhao et al., 2018). The dynamic force of sediment flow movement stem from its own gravity and density difference with surrounding water. In cases that the gravity drive of the slope is absent (on a flat sea floor), the flow velocity and distance of sediment flows are essentially determined by the sediment composition and concentration of the sediment flows as previous studies have demonstrated. Ilstad et al. (2004) conducted underwater flow tests in a sloped tank and employed high speed video camera to perform particle tracking. The results indicated that the premixed sand-rich and clay-rich slurries demonstrated different flow velocity and flow behavior. Using mixed kaolinite(d50 = 6 μm) and silica flour(d50 = 9 μm) in three compositions with total volumetric concentration ranged 22% or 28%, Felix and Peakall (2006) carried out underwater flow tests in a 5° slope Perspex channel and found that the flow ability of sediment flows is different depending on sediment compositions and concentrations. Sumner et al. (2009) used annular flume experiments to investigate the depositional dynamics and deposits of waning sediment-laden flows, finding that decelerating fast flows with fixed sand content and variable mud content resulted in four different deposit types. Chowdhury and Testik (2011) used lock-exchange tank, and experimented the kaolin clay sediment flows in the concentration range of 25–350 g/L, and predicted the fluid mud sediment flows propagation characteristics, but this study focused on giving sediment flows propagate phase transition time parameters, and is limited to clay. Lv et al. (2017) found through experiments that the rheological properties and flow behavior of kaolin clay (d50 = 3.7 μm) sediment flows were correlated to clay concentrations. In the field monitoring conducted by Liu et al. (2023) at the Manila Trench in the South China Sea in 2021, significant differences in the velocity, movement distance, and flow morphology of turbidity currents were observed. These differences may be attributed to variations in the particle composition of the turbidity currents.

On low and gentle slopes, although sediment flow with sand as the main sediment composition moves faster, it is difficult to propagate over long distances because sand has greater settling velocity and subaqueous angle of repose. Whereas the sediment flows with silt and clay as main composition may maintain relatively stable currents. Although its movement speed is slow, it has the ability to propagate over long distances because of the low settling rate of the fine particles (Ilstad et al., 2004; Liu et al., 2023). In a field observation at the Gaoping submarine canyon, the sediments collected from the sediment flows exhibited grain size gradation and the sediment was mostly composed of silt and clay (Liu et al., 2012). At the largest deltas in the world, for instance, the Mississippi River Delta, the sediments are mainly composed of silt and clay, which generally distributed along the coast in a wide range and provided the sediment sources for further distribution. The sediment flows originated and transported sediment from the coast to the deep sea are therefore share the same sediment compositions as delta sediments. To study the sediment flows composed of silt and clay is of great importance.

The sediment concentration of the sediment flows determines the density difference between the sediment flows and the ambient water and plays a key role in its flow ability. For the sediment flow with sediment composed of silt and clay, low sediment concentration means low density and therefore leads to low flow ability; however, although high sediment concentration results in high density, since there is cohesion between fine particles, it changes fluid properties and leads to low flow ability as well. Therefore, there should be a critical sediment concentration with mixed composition of silt and clay, at which the sediment flow maintains its strongest flow capacity and have the highest movement speed. In other words, the two characteristics of particle diameter and concentration of the sediment flow determine its own motion ability, which, if occurs, may become the most destructive force to submarine structures.

The objectives of this work was to study how the sediment composition (measured in relative weight of silt and clay, and referred as silt/clay ratio) and sediment concentration affect flow ability and behavior of the sediment flows, and to quantify the critical sediment concentration at which the sediment flows reached the greatest flow velocity under the experiment setting. We used straight flume without slope and conducted a series of flume tests with varying sediment compositions (silt-rich or clay-rich) and concentrations (96 to 1212 g/L). Each sediment flow sample was tested and analyzed for rheological properties using a rheometer, in order to characterize the relationship between flow behavior and rheological properties. Combined with the particle diameter, density and viscosity characteristics of the sediment flows measured in the experiment, a numerical modeling study is conducted, which are mutually validated with the experimental results.

The sediment concentration determines the arrangements of the sediment particles in the turbid suspension, and the arrangement impacts the fluid properties of the turbid suspension. The microscopic mode of particle arrangement in the turbid suspension can be constructed to further analyze the relationship between the fluid properties of turbid suspension and the flow behaviors of the sediment flow, and then characterize the critical sediment concentration at which the sediment flow runs the fastest. A simplified microscopic model of particle arrangement in turbid suspension was constructed to analyze the microscopic arrangement characteristics of sediment particles in turbid suspension with the fastest velocity.

Section snippets

Equipment and materials

The sediment flows flow experiments were performed in a Perspex channel with smooth transparent walls. The layout and dimensions of the experimental set-up were shown in Fig. 1. The bottom of the channel was flat and straight, and a gate was arranged to separate the two tanks. In order to study the flow capacity of turbidity currents from the perspective of their own composition (particle size distribution and concentration), we used a straight channel instead of an inclined one, to avoid any

Relationship between sediment flow flow velocity and sediment concentration

After the sediment flow is generated, its movement in the first half (50 cm) of the channel is relatively stable, and there is obvious shock diffusion in the second half. The reason is that the excitation wave (similar to the surge) will be formed during the sediment flow movement, and its speed is much faster than the speed of the sediment flow head. When the excitation wave reaches the tail of the channel, it will be reflected, thus affecting the subsequent flow of the sediment flow.

Sediment flows motion simulation based on FLOW-3D

As a relatively mature 3D fluid simulation software, FLOW-3D can accurately predict the free surface flow, and has been used to simulate the movement process of sediment flows for many times (Heimsund, 2007). The model adopted in this paper is RNG turbulence model, which can better deal with the flow with high strain rate and is suitable for the simulation of sediment flows with variable shape during movement. The governing equations of the numerical model involved include continuity equation,

Conclusions

In this study, we conducted a series of sediment flow flume tests with mixed silt and clay sediment samples in four silt/clay ratios on a flat slope. Rheological measurements were carried out on turbid suspension samples and microstructure analysis of the sediment particle arrangements was conducted, we concluded that:

(1)The flow velocity of the sediment flow is controlled by the sediment concentration and its own particle diameter composition, the flow velocity increased with the increase of the

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant no. 42206055]; the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant no. 41976049]; and the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant no. 42272327].

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Received: 10 June 2023 / Revised: 19 June 2023 / Accepted: 27 June 2023 / Published: 1 July 2023(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)

일부 수식이 손상되어 표시될 수 있습니다. 이 경우 원문을 참조하시기 바랍니다.

Abstract

Local scouring might result in the spanning of submarine cables, endangering their mechanical and electrical properties. In this contribution, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation model is developed using FLOW-3D, and the scouring process of semi-exposed submarine cables is investigated. The effects of the sediment critical Shields number, sediment density, and ocean current velocity on local scouring are discussed, and variation rules for the submarine cables’ spanning time are provided. The results indicate that three scouring holes are formed around the submarine cables. The location of the bottom of the holes corresponds to that of the maximum shear velocity. The continuous development of scouring holes at the wake position leads to the spanning of the submarine cables. The increase in the sediment’s critical Shields number and sediment density, as well as the decrease in the ocean current velocity, will extend the time for maintaining the stability of the upstream scouring hole and retard the development velocity of the wake position and downstream scouring holes. The spanning time has a cubic relationship with the sediment’s critical Shields number, a linear relationship with the sediment density, and an exponential relationship with the ocean current velocity. In this paper, the local scouring process of semi-exposed submarine cables is studied, which provides a theoretical basis for the operation and maintenance of submarine cables.

As a key piece of equipment in cross-sea power grids, submarine cables are widely used to connect autonomous power grids, supply power to islands or offshore platforms, and transmit electric power generated by marine renewable energy installations to onshore substations [1]. Once submarine cables break down due to natural disasters or human-made damage, the normal operation of other marine electric power equipment connected to them may be affected. These chain reactions will cause great economic losses and serious social impacts [2].

To protect submarine cables, they are usually buried 1 to 3 m below the seabed [3]. However, submarine cables are still confronted with potential threats from the complex subsea environment. Under the influence of fishing, anchor damage, ocean current scouring, and other factors, the sediment above submarine cables will always inevitably migrate. When a submarine cable is partially exposed, the scouring at this position will be exacerbated; eventually, it will cause the submarine cable to span. According to a field investigation of the 500 kV oil-filled submarine cable that is part of the Hainan networking system, the total length of the span is 49 m [4]. Under strong ocean currents, spanning submarine cables may experience vortex-induced vibrations. Fatigue stress caused by vortex-induced vibrations may lead to metal sheath rupture [5], which endangers the mechanical and electrical properties of submarine cables. Therefore, understanding the local scouring processes of partially exposed submarine cables is crucial for predicting scouring patterns. This is the basis for developing effective operation and maintenance strategies for submarine cables.

The mechanism and influencing factors of sediment erosion have been examined by researchers around the world. In 1988, Sumer [6] conducted experiments to show that the shedding vortex in the wake of a pipeline would increase the Shields parameter by 3–4 times, which would result in severe scouring. In 1991, Chiew [7] performed experiments to prove that the maximum scouring depth could be obtained when the pipeline was located on a flat bed and was scoured by a unidirectional water flow. Based on the test results, they provided a prediction formula for the maximum scouring depth. In 2003, Mastbergen [8] proposed a one-dimensional, steady-state numerical model of turbidity currents, which considered the negative pore pressures in the seabed. The calculated results of this model were basically consistent with the actual scouring of a submarine canyon. In 2007, Dey [9] presented a semitheoretical model for the computation of the maximum clear-water scour depth below underwater pipelines in uniform sediments under a steady flow, and the predicted scour depth in clear water satisfactorily agreed with the observed values. In 2008, Dey [10] conducted experiments on clear-water scour below underwater pipelines under a steady flow and obtained a variation pattern of the depth of the scouring hole. In 2008, Liang [11] used a two-dimensional numerical simulation to study the scouring process of a tube bundle under the action of currents and waves. They discovered that, compared with the scouring of a single tube, the scouring depth of the tube bundle was deeper, and the scouring time was longer. In 2012, Yang [12] found that placing rubber sheets under pipes can greatly accelerate their self-burial. The rubber sheets had the best performance when their length was about 1.5 times the size of the pipe. In 2020, Li [13] investigated the two-dimensional local scour beneath two submarine pipelines in tandem under wave-plus-current conditions via numerical simulation. They found that for conditions involving waves plus a low-strength current, the scour pattern beneath the two pipelines behaved like that in the pure-wave condition. Conversely, when the current had equal strength to the wave-induced flow, the scour pattern beneath the two pipelines resembled that in the pure-current condition. In 2020, Guan [14] studied and discussed the interactive coupling effects among a vibrating pipeline, flow field, and scour process through experiments, and the experimental data showed that the evolution of the scour hole had significant influences on the pipeline vibrations. In 2021, Liu [15] developed a two-dimensional finite element numerical model and researched the local scour around a vibrating pipeline. The numerical results showed that the maximum vibration amplitude of the pipeline could reach about 1.2 times diameter, and the maximum scour depth occurred on the wake side of the vibrating pipeline. In 2021, Huang [16] carried out two-dimensional numerical simulations to investigate the scour beneath a single pipeline and piggyback pipelines subjected to an oscillatory flow condition at a KC number of 11 and captured typical steady-streaming structures around the pipelines due to the oscillatory flow condition. In 2021, Cui [17] investigated the characteristics of the riverbed scour profile for a pipeline buried at different depths under the condition of riverbed sediments with different particle sizes. The results indicated that, in general, the equilibrium scour depth changed in a spoon shape with the gradual increase in the embedment ratio. In 2022, Li [18] used numerical simulation to study the influence of the burial depth of partially buried pipelines on the surrounding flow field, but they did not investigate the scour depth. In 2022, Zhu [19] performed experiments to prove that the scour hole propagation rate under a pipeline decreases with an increasing pipeline embedment ratio and rises with the KC number. In 2022, Najafzadeh [20] proposed equations for the prediction of the scouring propagation rate around pipelines due to currents based on a machine learning model, and the prediction results were consistent with the experimental data. In 2023, Ma [21] used the computational fluid dynamics coarse-grained discrete element method to simulate the scour process around a pipeline. The results showed that this method can effectively reduce the considerable need for computing resources and excessive computation time. In 2023, through numerical simulations, Hu [22] discovered that the water velocity and the pipeline diameter had a significant effect on the depth of scouring.

In the preceding works, the researchers investigated the mechanism of sediment scouring and the effect of various factors on the local scouring of submarine pipelines. However, submarine cables are buried beneath the seabed, while submarine pipelines are erected above the seabed. The difference in laying methods leads to a large discrepancy between their local scouring processes. Therefore, the conclusions of the above investigations are not applicable to the local scouring of submarine cables. Currently, there is no report on the research of the local scouring of partially exposed submarine cables.

In this paper, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) finite element model, based on two-phase flow, is established using FLOW-3D. The local scouring process of semi-exposed submarine cables under steady-state ocean currents is studied, and the variation rules of the depth and the shape of the scouring holes, as well as the shear velocity with time, are obtained. By setting different critical Shields numbers of the sediment, different sediment densities, and different ocean current velocities, the change rule of the scouring holes’ development rate and the time required for the spanning of submarine cables are explored.

2. Sediment Scouring Model

In the sediment scouring model, the sediment is set as the dispersed particle, which is regarded as a kind of quasifluid. In this context, sediment scouring is considered as a two-phase flow process between the liquid phase and solid particle phase. The sediment in this process is further divided into two categories: one is suspended in the fluid, and the other is deposited on the bottom.When the local Shields number of sediment is greater than the critical Shields number, the deposited sediment will be transformed into the suspended sediment under the action of ocean currents. The calculation formulae of the local Shields numbers θ and the critical Shields numbers

ρ_{f} is the fluid density, g is the acceleration of gravity, d

_{50} is the median size of sediment, and μ is the dynamic viscosity of sediment.And each sediment particle suspended in the fluid obeys the equations for mass conservation and energy conservation

c_{s} is the concentration of the sediment particle,

𝑢�¯ is the mean velocity vector of the fluid and the sediment particle,

u_{s} is the velocity of the sediment particle,

f_{s} is the volume fraction of the sediment particle, P is the pressure, F is the volumetric and viscous force, K is the drag force, and

u_{r} is the relative velocity.

3. Numerical Setup and Modeling

In this paper, a three-dimensional submarine cable local scouring simulation model is established by FLOW-3D. Based on the numerical simulation, the process of the submarine cable, which gradually changes from semi-exposed to the spanning state under the steady-state ocean current, is studied. The geometric modeling, the mesh division, the physical field setup, and the grid independent test of CFD numerical model are as follows.

3.1. Geometric Modeling and Mesh Division

A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model of the local scouring of a semi-exposed submarine cable is established, which is shown in Figure 1. The dimensions of the model are marked in Figure 1. The inlet direction of the ocean current is defined as the upstream of the submarine cable (referred to as upstream), and the outlet direction of the ocean current is defined as the downstream of the submarine cable (referred to as downstream).

Figure 1. Three-dimensional finite element model of local scouring of semi-exposed submarine cable.

The submarine cable with a diameter of 0.2 m is positioned on sediment that is initially in a semi-exposed state. When the length of the span is short, the submarine cable will not show obvious deformation due to gravity or scouring from the ocean current. Therefore, the submarine cable surface is set as the fixed boundary. The model’s left boundary is set as the inlet, the right boundary is set as the outlet, the front and rear boundaries are set as symmetry, and the bottom boundary is set as the non-slip wall. Since the water depth above the submarine cable is more than 0.6 m in practice, the top boundary of the model is also set as symmetry. The sediment near the inlet and the outlet will be carried by ocean currents, which leads to the abnormal scouring terrain. At each end of the sediment, a baffle (thickness of 3 cm) is installed to ensure that the simulation results can reflect the real situation.

Due to the fact that the flow field around the semi-exposed submarine cable is not a simple two-dimensional symmetrical distribution, it should be solved by three-dimensional numerical simulation. Considering the accuracy and efficiency of the calculation, the size of mesh is set to 0.02 m. The total number of meshes after the dissection is 133,254.

3.2. Physical Field Setup

The CFD finite element model contains four physical field modules: sediment scouring module, gravity and non-inertial reference frame module, density evaluation module, and viscosity and turbulence module. In this paper, the renormalization group (RNG) k–ε turbulence model is used, which has high computational accuracy for turbulent vortices. Therefore, this turbulence model is suitable for calculating the sediment scouring process around the semi-exposed submarine cable [25]. The key parameters of the numerical simulation are referring to the survey results of submarine sediments in the Korean Peninsula [26], as listed in Table 1.Table 1. Key parameters of numerical simulation.

3.3. Mesh Independent Test

In order to eliminate errors caused by the quantity of grids in the calculation process, two sizes of mesh are set on the validation model, and the scour profiles under different mesh sizes are compared. The validation model is shown in Figure 2, and the scouring terrain under different mesh size is given in Figure 3.

Figure 2. Validation model.

Figure 3. Scouring terrain under different mesh sizes.

It can be seen from Figure 3 that with the increase in the number of meshes, the scouring terrain of the verification model changes slightly, and the scouring depth is basically unchanged. Considering the accuracy of the numerical simulation and the calculation’s time cost, it is reasonable to consider setting the mesh size to 0.02 m.

4. Results and Analysis

4.1. Analysis of Local Scouring Process

Based on the CFD finite element numerical simulation, the local scouring process of the submarine cable under the steady-state ocean current is analyzed. The end time of the simulation is 9 h, the initial time step is 0.01 s, and the fluid velocity is 0.40 m/s. Simulation results are saved every minute. Figure 4 illustrates the scouring terrain around the semi-exposed submarine cable, which has been scoured by the steady-state current for 5 h.

Figure 4. Scouring terrain around semi-exposed submarine cable (scour for 5 h).

As can be seen from Figure 4, three scouring holes were separately formed in the upstream wake position and downstream of the semi-exposed submarine cable. The scouring holes are labeled according to their locations. The variation of the scouring terrain around the semi-exposed submarine cable over time is given in Figure 5. The red circle in the picture corresponds to the position of the submarine cable, and the red box in the legend marks the time when the submarine cable is spanning.

Figure 5. Variation of scouring terrain around semi-exposed submarine cable adapted to time.

From Figure 5, in the first hour of scouring, the upstream (−0.5 m to −0.1 m) and downstream (0.43 m to 1.5 m) scouring holes appeared. The upstream scouring hole was relatively flat with depth of 0.04 m. The depth of the downstream scouring hole increased with the increase in distance, and the maximum depth was 0.13 m. The scouring hole that developed at the wake position was very shallow, and its depth was only 0.007 m.

In the second hour of scouring, the upstream scouring hole’s depth remained nearly constant. The depth of the downstream scouring hole only increased by 0.002 m. The scouring hole at the wake position developed steadily, and its depth increased from 0.007 m to 0.014 m.

The upstream and downstream scouring holes did not continue to develop during the third to the sixth hour. Compared to the first two hours, the development of scouring holes at the wake position accelerated significantly, with an average growth rate of 0.028 m/h. The growth rate in the fifth hour of the scouring hole at the wake position was slightly faster than the other times. After 6 h of scouring, the sediment on the right side of the submarine cable had been hollowed out.

In the seventh and the eighth hour of scouring, the upstream scouring hole’s depth increased slightly, the downstream scouring hole still remained stable, and the depth of the scouring hole at wake position increased by 0.019 m. The sediment under the submarine cable was gradually eroded as well. By the end of the eighth hour, the lower right part of the submarine cable had been exposed to water as well.

At 8 h 21 min of the scouring, the submarine cable was completely spanned, and the scouring holes were connected to each other. Within the next 10 min, the development of the scouring holes sped up significantly, and the maximum depth of scouring holes increased greatly to 0.27 m.

In reference [17], researchers have studied the local scouring process of semi-buried pipelines in sandy riverbeds through experiments. The test results show that the scouring process can be divided into a start-up stage, micropore formation stage, extension stage, and equilibrium stage. In this paper, the first three stages are simulated, and the results are in good agreement with the experiment, which proves the accuracy of the present numerical model.

In this research, the velocity of ocean currents at the sediment surface is defined as the shear velocity, which plays an important role in the process of local scouring. Figure 6 provides visual data on how the shear velocity varies over time.

Figure 6. Shear velocity changes in the scouring process.

The semi-exposed submarine cable protrudes from the seabed, which makes the shear velocity of its surface much higher than other locations. After the submarine cable is spanned, the shear velocity of the scouring hole surface below it is taken. This is the reason for the sudden change of shear velocity at the submarine cable’s location in Figure 6.The shear velocity in the initial state of the upstream scouring hole is obviously greater than in subsequent times. After 1 h of scouring, the shear velocity in the upstream scouring hole rapidly decreased from 1.1 × 10

^{−2} m/s to 3.98 × 10

^{−3} m/s and remained stable until the end of the sixth hour. This phenomenon explains why the upstream scouring hole developed rapidly in the first hour but remained stable for the following 5 h.The shear velocity in the downstream scouring hole reduced at first and then increased; its initial value was 1.41 × 10

^{−2} m/s. It took approximately 5 h for the shear velocity to stabilize, and the stable shear velocity was 2.26 × 10

^{−3} m/s. Therefore, compared with the upstream scouring hole, the downstream scouring hole was deeper and required more time to reach stability.The initial shear velocity in the scouring hole at the wake position was only 7.1 × 10

^{−3} m/s, which almost does not change in the first hour. This leads to a very slow development of the scouring hole at the wake position in the early stages. The maximum shear velocity in this scouring hole gradually increased to 1.05 × 10

^{−2} m/s from the second to the fifth hour, and then decreased to 6.61 × 10

^{−3} m/s by the end of the eighth hour. This is why the scouring hole at the wake position grows fastest around the fifth hour. Consistent with the pattern of change in the scouring hole’s terrain, the location of the maximal shear velocity also shifted to the right with time.

The shear velocity of all three scouring holes rose dramatically in the last hour. Combined with the terrain in Figure 5, this can be attributed to the complete spanning of the submarine cable.

From Equations (3)–(5), one can see the movement of the sediment is related directly with the sediment’s critical Shields number, sediment density, and ocean current velocity. Based on the parameters in Table 1, the influence of the above parameters on the local scouring process of semi-exposed submarine cables will be discussed.

4.2. Influence Factors

4.2.1. Sediment’s Critical Shields Number

The sediment’s critical Shields number

θ_{cr} is set as 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.06, and 0.07, and the variations of scouring terrain over time under each

Figure 7. Influence of sediment’s critical Shields number

θ_{cr} on local scouring around semi-exposed submarine cable: (a

) θ_{cr} = 0.02; (b

) θ_{cr} = 0.03; (c

) θ_{cr} = 0.04; (d

) θ_{cr} = 0.05; (e

) θ_{cr} = 0.06; and (f

) θ_{cr} = 0.07.From Figure 7, one can see that a change in

θ_{cr} will affect the depth of the upstream scouring hole and the development speed of the scouring hole at the wake position, but it will have no significant impact on the expansion of the downstream scouring hole.Under conditions of different

θ_{cr}, the upstream scouring hole will reach a temporary plateau within 1 h, at which time the stable depth will be about 0.04 m. When

θ_{cr} ≤ 0.05, the upstream scouring hole will continue to expand after a few hours. The stable time is obviously affected by

θ_{cr}, which will gradually increase from 1 h to 11 h with the increase in

θ_{cr}. The terrain of the upstream scouring hole will gradually convert to deep on the left and to shallow on the right. Since the scouring hole at the wake position has not been stable, its state at the time of submarine cable spanning is studied emphatically. In the whole process of scouring, the scouring hole at the wake position continues to develop and does not reach a stable state. With the increase in

θ_{cr}, the development velocity of the scouring hole at the wake position will decrease considerably. Its average evolution velocity decreases from 3.88 cm/h to 1.62 cm/h, and its depth decreases from 21.9 cm to 18.8 cm. Under the condition of each

θ_{cr}, the downstream scouring hole will stabilize within 1 h, and the stable depth will be basically unchanged (all about 13.5 cm).As

θ_{cr} increases, so does the sediment’s ability to withstand shearing forces, which will cause it to become increasingly difficult to be eroded or carried away by ocean currents. This effect has been directly reflected in the depth of scouring holes (upstream and wake position). Due to the blocking effect of semi-exposed submarine cables, the wake is elongated, which is why the downstream scouring hole develops before the scouring hole at the wake position and quickly reaches a stable state. However, due to the high wake intensity, this process is not significantly affected by the change of

θ_{cr}.

4.2.2. Sediment Density

The density of sediment

ρ_{s} is set as 1550 kg/m

^{3}, 1600 kg/m

^{3}, 1650 kg/m

^{3}, 1700 kg/m

^{3}, 1750 kg/m

^{3}, and 1800 kg/m

^{3}, and the variation of scouring terrain over time under each

ρ_{s} will also affect the depth of the upstream scouring hole and the development speed of the scouring hole at the wake position. In addition, it can even have an impact on the downstream scouring hole depth.Under different

ρ_{s} conditions, the upstream scouring hole will always reach a temporary stable state in 1 h, at which time the stable depth will be 0.04 m. When

ρ_{s} ≤ 1750 kg/m

^{3}, the upstream scouring hole will continue to expand after a few hours. The stabilization time of upstream scouring hole is more clearly affected by

ρ_{s}, which will gradually increase from 3 h to 13 h with the increase in

ρ_{s}. The terrain of the upstream scouring hole will gradually change to deep on the left and to shallow on the right. Since the scouring hole at the wake position has not been stable, its state at the time of the submarine cable spanning is studied emphatically, too. In the whole process of scouring, the scouring hole at the wake position continues to develop and does not reach a stable state. When

ρ_{s} is large, the development rate of scouring hole obviously decreased with time. With the increase in

ρ_{s}, the development velocity of the scouring hole at the wake position reduces from 3.38 cm/h to 1.14 cm/h, and the depth of this scouring hole declines from 20 cm to 15 cm. As

ρ_{s} increases, the stabilization time of the downstream scouring hole increases from less than 1 h to about 2 h, but the stabilization depth of the downstream scouring hole remains essentially the same (all around 13.5 cm).As can be seen from Equation (1), the increase in

ρ_{s} will reduce the Shields number, thus weakening the shear action of the sediment by the ocean current, which explains the extension of the stability time of the upstream scouring hole. At the same time, with the increase in the depth of scouring hole at the wake position, its shear velocity will decreases. Therefore, under a larger

ρ_{s} value, the development speed of scouring hole at the wake position will decrease significantly with time. Possibly for the same reason,

ρ_{s} can affect the development rate of downstream scouring hole.

4.2.3. Ocean Current Velocity

The ocean current velocity v is set as 0.35 m/s, 0.40 m/s, 0.45 m/s, 0.50 m/s, 0.55 m/s, and 0.60 m/s. Figure 9 presents the variation in scouring terrain with time for each v.

Figure 9. Influence of ocean current velocity v on local scouring around semi-exposed submarine cable: (a) v = 0.35 m/s; (b) v = 0.40 m/s; (c) v = 0.45 m/s; (d) v = 0.50 m/s; (e) v = 0.55 m/s; and (f) v = 0.60 m/s.

Changes in v affect the depth of the upstream and downstream scouring holes, as well as the development velocity of the wake position and downstream scouring holes.

When v ≤ 0.45 m/s, the upstream scouring hole will reach a temporary stable state within 1 h, at which point the stable depth will be 0.04 m. The stabilization time of the upstream scouring hole is affected by v, which will gradually decrease from 15 h to 3 h with the increase in v. When v > 0.45 m/s, the upstream scouring hole is going to expand continuously. With the increase in v, its average development velocity increases from 6.68 cm/h to 8.66 cm/h, and its terrain changes to deep on the left and to shallow on the right. When the submarine cable is spanning, special attention should be paid to the depth of the scouring hole at the wake position. Throughout whole scouring process, the scouring hole at the wake position continues to develop and does not reach a stable state. With the increase in v, the depth of scouring hole at the wake position will increase from 14 cm to 20 cm, and the average development velocity will increase from 0.91 cm/h to 10.43 cm/h. As v increases, the time required to stabilize the downstream scouring hole is shortened from 1to 2 h to less than 1 h, but the stable depth is remains nearly constant at 13.5 cm.

An increase in v will increase the shear velocity. Therefore, when the depth of the scouring hole increases, the shear velocity in the hole will also increase, which can deepen both the upstream and downstream scouring hole. According to Equation (1), the Shields number is proportional to the square of the shear velocity. The increase in shear velocity significantly intensifies local scouring, which increases the development rate of scouring holes at the wake position and downstream.

4.3. Variation Rule of Spanning Time

In this paper, the spanning time is defined as the time taken for a semi-exposed submarine cable (initial state) to become a spanning submarine cable. Figure 10 illustrates the effect of the above parameters on the spanning time of the semi-exposed submarine cable.

Figure 10. Influence of different parameters on spanning time of the semi-exposed submarine cable: (a) Sediment critical Shields number; (b) Sediment density; and (c) Ocean current velocity.From Figure 10a, the spanning time monotonically increases with the increase in the critical Shields number of sediment. However, the slope of the curve decreases first and then increases, and the inflection point is at

θ_{cr} = 4.59 × 10

^{−2}. The relationship between spanning time t and sediment’s critical Shields number

θ_{cr} can be formulated by a cubic function as shown in Equation (6):

𝑡=−2.98+6.76𝜃𝑐𝑟−1.45𝜃2𝑐𝑟+0.11𝜃3𝑐𝑟.�=−2.98+6.76���−1.45���2+0.11���3.(6)It can be seen from Figure 10b that with the increase in the sediment density, the spanning time increases monotonically and linearly. The relationship between the spanning time t and the sediment’s density

ρ_{s} can be formulated by the first order function as shown in Equation (7):

𝑡=−41.59+30.54𝜌𝑠.�=−41.59+30.54��.(7)Figure 10c shows that with the increase in the ocean current velocity, the spanning time decreases monotonically. The slope of the curve increases with the increase in the ocean current velocity, so it can be considered that there is saturation of the ocean current velocity effect. The relationship between the spanning time t and the ocean current velocity v can be formulated by the exponential function

𝑡=0.15𝑣−4.38.�=0.15�−4.38.(8)

5. Conclusions

In this paper, a three-dimensional CFD finite element numerical simulation model is established, which is used to research the local scouring process of the semi-exposed submarine cable under the steady-state ocean current. The relationship between shear velocity and scouring terrain is discussed, the influence of sediment critical Shields number, sediment density and ocean current velocity on the local scouring process is analyzed, and the variation rules of the spanning time of the semi-exposed submarine cable is given. The conclusions are as follows:

Under the steady-state ocean currents, scouring holes will be formed at the upstream, wake position and downstream of the semi-exposed submarine cable. The upstream and downstream scouring holes develop faster, which will reach a temporary stable state at about 1 h after the start of the scouring. The scouring hole at the wake position will continue to expand at a slower rate and eventually lead to the spanning of the submarine cable.

There is a close relationship between the distribution of shear velocity and the scouring terrain. As the local scouring process occurs, the location of the maximum shear velocity within the scouring hole shifts and causes the bottom of the hole to move as well.

When the sediment’s critical Shields number and density are significantly large and ocean current velocity is sufficiently low, the duration of the stable state of the upstream scouring hole will be prolonged, and the average development velocity of the scouring holes at the wake position and downstream will be reduced.

The relationship between the spanning time and the critical Shields number θ_{cr} can be formulated as a cubic function, in which the curve’s inflection point is θ_{cr} = 4.59 × 10^{−2}. The relationship between spanning time and sediment density can be formulated as a linear function. The relationship between spanning time and ocean current velocity can be formulated by exponential function.

Based on the conclusions of this paper, even when it is too late to take measures or when the exposed position of the submarine cable cannot be located, the degree of burial depth development still can be predicted. This prediction is important for the operation and maintenance of the submarine cable. However, the study still leaves something to be desired. Only the local scouring process under the steady-state ocean current was studied, which is an extreme condition. In practice, exposed submarine cables are more likely to be scoured by reciprocating ocean currents. In the future, we will investigate the local scouring of submarine cables under the reciprocating ocean current.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, Y.H. and Q.L.; methodology, Q.L., P.Z. and H.T.; software, Q.L.; validation, Q.L., L.C. and W.T.; writing—original draft preparation, Q.L.; writing—review and editing, Y.H. and Q.L.; supervision, Y.H. and L.Y. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

This research was funded by the [Smart Grid Joint Fund Key Project between National Natural Science Foundation of China and State Grid Corporation] grant number [U1766220].

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

The data supporting the reported results cannot be shared at this time, as they have been used in producing more publications on this research.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the Smart Grid Joint Fund Key Project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China and State Grid Corporation (Grant No. U1766220).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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A series of numerical simulation were conducted to study the local scour around umbrella suction anchor foundation (USAF) under random waves. In this study, the validation was carried out firstly to verify the accuracy of the present model. Furthermore, the scour evolution and scour mechanism were analyzed respectively. In addition, two revised models were proposed to predict the equilibrium scour depth S_{eq} around USAF. At last, a parametric study was carried out to study the effects of the Froude number F_{r} and Euler number E_{u} for the S_{eq.} The results indicate that the present numerical model is accurate and reasonable for depicting the scour morphology under random waves. The revised Raaijmakers’s model shows good agreement with the simulating results of the present study when KC_{s,p} < 8. The predicting results of the revised stochastic model are the most favorable for n = 10 when KC_{rms,a} < 4. The higher F_{r} and E_{u} both lead to the more intensive horseshoe vortex and larger S_{eq}.

The rapid expansion of cities tends to cause social and economic problems, such as environmental pollution and traffic jam. As a kind of clean energy, offshore wind power has developed rapidly in recent years. The foundation of offshore wind turbine (OWT) supports the upper tower, and suffers the cyclic loading induced by waves, tides and winds, which exerts a vital influence on the OWT system. The types of OWT foundation include the fixed and floating foundation, and the fixed foundation was used usually for nearshore wind turbine. After the construction of fixed foundation, the hydrodynamic field changes in the vicinity of the foundation, leading to the horseshoe vortex formation and streamline compression at the upside and sides of foundation respectively [1,2,3,4]. As a result, the neighboring soil would be carried away by the shear stress induced by vortex, and the scour hole would emerge in the vicinity of foundation. The scour holes increase the cantilever length, and weaken the lateral bearing capacity of foundation [5,6,7,8,9]. Moreover, the natural frequency of OWT system increases with the increase of cantilever length, causing the resonance occurs when the system natural frequency equals the wave or wind frequency [10,11,12]. Given that, an innovative foundation called umbrella suction anchor foundation (USAF) has been designed for nearshore wind power. The previous studies indicated the USAF was characterized by the favorable lateral bearing capacity with the low cost [6,13,14]. The close-up of USAF is shown in Figure 1, and it includes six parts: 1-interal buckets, 2-external skirt, 3-anchor ring, 4-anchor branch, 5-supporting rod, 6-telescopic hook. The detailed description and application method of USAF can be found in reference [13].

Figure 1. The close-up of umbrella suction anchor foundation (USAF).

Numerical and experimental investigations of scour around OWT foundation under steady currents and waves have been extensively studied by many researchers [1,2,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24]. The seabed scour can be classified as two types according to Shields parameter θ, i.e., clear bed scour (θ < θ_{cr}) or live bed scour (θ > θ_{cr}). Due to the set of foundation, the adverse hydraulic pressure gradient exists at upstream foundation edges, resulting in the streamline separation between boundary layer flow and seabed. The separating boundary layer ascended at upstream anchor edges and developed into the horseshoe vortex. Then, the horseshoe vortex moved downstream gradually along the periphery of the anchor, and the vortex shed off continually at the lee-side of the anchor, i.e., wake vortex. The core of wake vortex is a negative pressure center, liking a vacuum cleaner. Hence, the soil particles were swirled into the negative pressure core and carried away by wake vortexes. At the same time, the onset of scour at rear side occurred. Finally, the wake vortex became downflow when the turbulence energy could not support the survival of wake vortex. According to Tavouktsoglou et al. [25], the scale of pile wall boundary layer is proportional to 1/ln(R_{d}) (R_{d} is pile Reynolds), which means the turbulence intensity induced by the flow-structure interaction would decrease with R_{d} increases, but the effects of R_{d} can be neglected only if the flow around the foundation is fully turbulent [26]. According to previous studies [1,15,27,28,29,30,31,32], the scour development around pile foundation under waves was significantly influenced by Shields parameter θ and KC number simultaneously (calculated by Equation (1)). Sand ripples widely existed around pile under waves in the case of live bed scour, and the scour morphology is related with θ and KC. Compared with θ, KC has a greater influence on the scour morphology [21,27,28]. The influence mechanism of KC on the scour around the pile is reflected in two aspects: the horseshoe vortex at upstream and wake vortex shedding at downstream.

KC=UwmTD��=�wm��(1)

where, U_{wm} is the maximum velocity of the undisturbed wave-induced oscillatory flow at the sea bottom above the wave boundary layer, T is wave period, and D is pile diameter.

There are two prerequisites to satisfy the formation of horseshoe vortex at upstream pile edges: (1) the incoming flow boundary layer with sufficient thickness and (2) the magnitude of upstream adverse pressure gradient making the boundary layer separating [1,15,16,18,20]. The smaller KC results the lower adverse pressure gradient, and the boundary layer cannot separate, herein, there is almost no horseshoe vortex emerging at upside of pile. Sumer et al. [1,15] carried out several sets of wave flume experiments under regular and irregular waves respectively, and the experiment results show that there is no horseshoe vortex when KC is less than 6. While the scale and lifespan of horseshoe vortex increase evidently with the increase of KC when KC is larger than 6. Moreover, the wake vortex contributes to the scour at lee-side of pile. Similar with the case of horseshoe vortex, there is no wake vortex when KC is less than 6. The wake vortex is mainly responsible for scour around pile when KC is greater than 6 and less than O(100), while horseshoe vortex controls scour nearly when KC is greater than O(100).

Sumer et al. [1] found that the equilibrium scour depth was nil around pile when KC was less than 6 under regular waves for live bed scour, while the equilibrium scour depth increased with the increase of KC. Based on that, Sumer proposed an equilibrium scour depth predicting equation (Equation (2)). Carreiras et al. [33] revised Sumer’s equation with m = 0.06 for nonlinear waves. Different with the findings of Sumer et al. [1] and Carreiras et al. [33], Corvaro et al. [21] found the scour still occurred for KC ≈ 4, and proposed the revised equilibrium scour depth predicting equation (Equation (3)) for KC > 4.

Rudolph and Bos [2] conducted a series of wave flume experiments to investigate the scour depth around monopile under waves only, waves and currents combined respectively, indicting KC was one of key parameters in influencing equilibrium scour depth, and proposed the equilibrium scour depth predicting equation (Equation (4)) for low KC (1 < KC < 10). Through analyzing the extensive data from published literatures, Raaijmakers and Rudolph [34] developed the equilibrium scour depth predicting equation (Equation (5)) for low KC, which was suitable for waves only, waves and currents combined. Khalfin [35] carried out several sets of wave flume experiments to study scour development around monopile, and proposed the equilibrium scour depth predicting equation (Equation (6)) for low KC (0.1 < KC < 3.5). Different with above equations, the Khalfin’s equation considers the Shields parameter θ and KC number simultaneously in predicting equilibrium scour depth. The flow reversal occurred under through in one wave period, so sand particles would be carried away from lee-side of pile to upside, resulting in sand particles backfilled into the upstream scour hole [20,29]. Considering the backfilling effects, Zanke et al. [36] proposed the equilibrium scour depth predicting equation (Equation (7)) around pile by theoretical analysis, and the equation is suitable for the whole range of KC number under regular waves and currents combined.

where, γ is safety factor, depending on design process, typically γ = 1.5, K_{wave} is correction factor considering wave action, K_{hw} is correction factor considering water depth.

where, n is the 1/n’th highest wave for random waves

For predicting equilibrium scour depth under irregular waves, i.e., random waves, Sumer and Fredsøe [16] found it’s suitable to take Equation (2) to predict equilibrium scour depth around pile under random waves with the root-mean-square (RMS) value of near-bed orbital velocity amplitude U_{m} and peak wave period T_{P} to calculate KC. Khalfin [35] recommended the RMS wave height H_{rms} and peak wave period T_{P} were used to calculate KC for Equation (6). References [37,38,39,40] developed a series of stochastic theoretical models to predict equilibrium scour depth around pile under random waves, nonlinear random waves plus currents respectively. The stochastic approach thought the 1/n’th highest wave were responsible for scour in vicinity of pile under random waves, and the KC was calculated in Equation (8) with U_{m} and mean zero-crossing wave period T_{z}. The results calculated by Equation (8) agree well with experimental values of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] if the 1/10′th highest wave was used. To author’s knowledge, the stochastic approach proposed by Myrhaug and Rue [37] is the only theoretical model to predict equilibrium scour depth around pile under random waves for the whole range of KC number in published documents. Other methods of predicting scour depth under random waves are mainly originated from the equation for regular waves-only, waves and currents combined, which are limited to the large KC number, such as KC > 6 for Equation (2) and KC > 4 for Equation (3) respectively. However, situations with relatively low KC number (KC < 4) often occur in reality, for example, monopile or suction anchor for OWT foundations in ocean environment. Moreover, local scour around OWT foundations under random waves has not yet been investigated fully. Therefore, further study are still needed in the aspect of scour around OWT foundations with low KC number under random waves. Given that, this study presents the scour sediment model around umbrella suction anchor foundation (USAF) under random waves. In this study, a comparison of equilibrium scour depth around USAF between this present numerical models and the previous theoretical models and experimental results was presented firstly. Then, this study gave a comprehensive analysis for the scour mechanisms around USAF. After that, two revised models were proposed according to the model of Raaijmakers and Rudolph [34] and the stochastic model developed by Myrhaug and Rue [37] respectively to predict the equilibrium scour depth. Finally, a parametric study was conducted to study the effects of the Froude number (F_{r}) and Euler number (E_{u}) to equilibrium scour depth respectively.

2. Numerical Method

2.1. Governing Equations of Flow

The following equations adopted in present model are already available in Flow 3D software. The authors used these theoretical equations to simulate scour in random waves without modification. The incompressible viscous fluid motion satisfies the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation, so the present numerical model solves RANS equations:

where, V_{F} is the volume fraction; u, v, and w are the velocity components in x, y, z direction respectively with Cartesian coordinates; A_{i} is the area fraction; ρ_{f} is the fluid density, f_{i} is the viscous fluid acceleration, G_{i} is the fluid body acceleration (i = x, y, z).

2.2. Turbulent Model

The turbulence closure is available by the turbulent model, such as one-equation, the one-equation k-ε model, the standard k-ε model, RNG k-ε turbulent model and large eddy simulation (LES) model. The LES model requires very fine mesh grid, so the computational time is large, which hinders the LES model application in engineering. The RNG k-ε model can reduce computational time greatly with high accuracy in the near-wall region. Furthermore, the RNG k-ε model computes the maximum turbulent mixing length dynamically in simulating sediment scour model. Therefore, the RNG k-ε model was adopted to study the scour around anchor under random waves [41,42].

where, k_{T} is specific kinetic energy involved with turbulent velocity, G_{T} is the turbulent energy generated by buoyancy; ε_{T} is the turbulent energy dissipating rate, P_{T} is the turbulent energy, Diff_{ε} and Diff_{kT} are diffusion terms associated with V_{F}, A_{i}; CDIS1, CDIS2 and CDIS3 are dimensionless parameters, and CDIS1, CDIS3 have default values of 1.42, 0.2 respectively. CDIS2 can be obtained from P_{T} and k_{T}.

2.3. Sediment Scour Model

The sand particles may suffer four processes under waves, i.e., entrainment, bed load transport, suspended load transport, and deposition, so the sediment scour model should depict the above processes efficiently. In present numerical simulation, the sediment scour model includes the following aspects:

2.3.1. Entrainment and Deposition

The combination of entrainment and deposition determines the net scour rate of seabed in present sediment scour model. The entrainment lift velocity of sand particles was calculated as [43]:

where, α_{i} is the entrainment parameter, n_{s} is the outward point perpendicular to the seabed, d_{*} is the dimensionless diameter of sand particles, which was calculated by Equation (15), θ_{cr} is the critical Shields parameter, g is the gravity acceleration, d_{i} is the diameter of sand particles, ρ_{i} is the density of seabed species.

In Equation (14), the entrainment parameter α_{i} confirms the rate at which sediment erodes when the given shear stress is larger than the critical shear stress, and the recommended value 0.018 was adopted according to the experimental data of Mastbergen and Von den Berg [43]. n_{s} is the outward pointing normal to the seabed interface, and n_{s} = (0,0,1) according to the Cartesian coordinates used in present numerical model.

The shields parameter was obtained from the following equation:

θ=U2f,m(ρi/ρf−1)gd50�=�f,m2(��/�f−1)��50(16)

where, U_{f,m} is the maximum value of the near-bed friction velocity; d_{50} is the median diameter of sand particles. The detailed calculation procedure of θ was available in Soulsby [44].

The critical shields parameter θ_{cr} was obtained from the Equation (17) [44]

The sand particles begin to deposit on seabed when the turbulence energy weaken and cann’t support the particles suspending. The setting velocity of the particles was calculated from the following equation [44]:

This is called bed load transport when the sand particles roll or bounce over the seabed and always have contact with seabed. The bed load transport velocity was computed by [45]:

where, q_{b,i} is the bed load transport rate, which was obtained from Equation (20), δ_{i} is the bed load thickness, which was calculated by Equation (21), c_{b,i} is the volume fraction of sand i in the multiple species, f_{b} is the critical packing fraction of the seabed.

where, C_{s,i} is the suspended sand particles mass concentration of sand i in the multiple species, u_{s,i} is the sand particles velocity of sand i, D_{f} is the diffusivity.

The velocity of sand i in the multiple species could be obtained from the following equation:

where, u¯�¯ is the velocity of mixed fluid-particles, which can be calculated by the RANS equation with turbulence model, c_{s,i} is the suspended sand particles volume concentration, which was computed from Equation (24).

cs,i=Cs,iρi�s,�=�s,���(24)

3. Model Setup

The seabed-USAF-wave three-dimensional scour numerical model was built using Flow-3D software. As shown in Figure 2, the model includes sandy seabed, USAF model, sea water, two baffles and porous media. The dimensions of USAF are shown in Table 1. The sandy bed (210 m in length, 30 m in width and 11 m in height) is made up of uniform fine sand with median diameter d_{50} = 0.041 cm. The USAF model includes upper steel tube with the length of 20 m, which was installed in the middle of seabed. The location of USAF is positioned at 140 m from the upstream inflow boundary and 70 m from the downstream outflow boundary. Two baffles were installed at two ends of seabed. In order to eliminate the wave reflection basically, the porous media was set at the outflow side on the seabed.

Figure 2. (a) The sketch of seabed-USAF-wave three-dimensional model; (b) boundary condation:Wv-wave boundary, S-symmetric boundary, O-outflow boundary; (c) USAF model.

Table 1. Numerical simulating cases.

3.1. Mesh Geometric Dimensions

In the simulation of the scour under the random waves, the model includes the umbrella suction anchor foundation, seabed and fluid. As shown in Figure 3, the model mesh includes global mesh grid and nested mesh grid, and the total number of grids is 1,812,000. The basic procedure for building mesh grid consists of two steps. Step 1: Divide the global mesh using regular hexahedron with size of 0.6 × 0.6. The global mesh area is cubic box, embracing the seabed and whole fluid volume, and the dimensions are 210 m in length, 30 m in width and 32 m in height. The details of determining the grid size can see the following mesh sensitivity section. Step 2: Set nested fine mesh grid in vicinity of the USAF with size of 0.3 × 0.3 so as to shorten the computation cost and improve the calculation accuracy. The encryption range is −15 m to 15 m in x direction, −15 m to 15 m in y direction and 0 m to 32 m in z direction, respectively. In order to accurately capture the free-surface dynamics, such as the fluid-air interface, the volume of fluid (VOF) method was adopted for tracking the free water surface. One specific algorithm called FAVORTM (Fractional Area/Volume Obstacle Representation) was used to define the fractional face areas and fractional volumes of the cells which are open to fluid flow.

Figure 3. The sketch of mesh grid.

3.2. Boundary Conditions

As shown in Figure 2, the initial fluid length is 210 m as long as seabed. A wave boundary was specified at the upstream offshore end. The details of determining the random wave spectrum can see the following wave parameters section. The outflow boundary was set at the downstream onshore end. The symmetry boundary was used at the top and two sides of the model. The symmetric boundaries were the better strategy to improve the computation efficiency and save the calculation cost [46]. At the seabed bottom, the wall boundary was adopted, which means the u = v = w= 0. Besides, the upper steel tube of USAF was set as no-slip condition.

3.3. Wave Parameters

The random waves with JONSWAP wave spectrum were used for all simulations as realistic representation of offshore conditions. The unidirectional JONSWAP frequency spectrum was described as [47]:

where, α is wave energy scale parameter, which is calculated by Equation (26), ω is frequency, ω_{p} is wave spectrum peak frequency, which can be obtained from Equation (27). γ is wave spectrum peak enhancement factor, in this study γ = 3.3. σ is spectral width factor, σ equals 0.07 for ω ≤ ω_{p} and 0.09 for ω > ω_{p} respectively.

α=0.0076(gXU2)−0.22�=0.0076(���2)−0.22(26)

ωp=22(gU)(gXU2)−0.33�p=22(��)(���2)−0.33(27)

where, X is fetch length, U is average wind velocity at 10 m height from mean sea level.

In present numerical model, the input key parameters include X and U for wave boundary with JONSWAP wave spectrum. The objective wave height and period are available by different combinations of X and U. In this study, we designed 9 cases with different wave heights, periods and water depths for simulating scour around USAF under random waves (see Table 2). For random waves, the wave steepness ε and Ursell number U_{r} were acquired form Equations (28) and (29) respectively

ε=2πgHsT2a�=2���s�a2(28)

Ur=Hsk2h3w�r=�s�2ℎw3(29)

where, H_{s} is significant wave height, T_{a} is average wave period, k is wave number, h_{w} is water depth. The Shield parameter θ satisfies θ_{>}θ_{cr} for all simulations in current study, indicating the live bed scour prevails.

Table 2. Numerical simulating cases.

3.4. Mesh Sensitivity

In this section, a mesh sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of mesh grid size to results and make sure the calculation is mesh size independent and converged. Three mesh grid size were chosen: Mesh 1—global mesh grid size of 0.75 × 0.75, nested fine mesh grid size of 0.4 × 0.4, and total number of grids 1,724,000, Mesh 2—global mesh grid size of 0.6 × 0.6, nested fine mesh grid size of 0.3 × 0.3, and total number of grids 1,812,000, Mesh 3—global mesh grid size of 0.4 × 0.4, nested fine mesh grid size of 0.2 × 0.2, and total number of grids 1,932,000. The near-bed shear velocity U_{*} is an important factor for influencing scour process [1,15], so U_{*} at the position of (4,0,11.12) was evaluated under three mesh sizes. As the Figure 4 shown, the maximum error of shear velocity ∆U_{*1,2} is about 39.8% between the mesh 1 and mesh 2, and 4.8% between the mesh 2 and mesh 3. According to the mesh sensitivity criterion adopted by Pang et al. [48], it’s reasonable to think the results are mesh size independent and converged with mesh 2. Additionally, the present model was built according to prototype size, and the mesh size used in present model is larger than the mesh size adopted by Higueira et al. [49] and Corvaro et al. [50]. If we choose the smallest cell size, it will take too much time. For example, the simulation with Mesh3 required about 260 h by using a computer with Intel Xeon Scalable Gold 4214 CPU @24 Cores, 2.2 GHz and 64.00 GB RAM. Therefore, in this case, considering calculation accuracy and computation efficiency, the mesh 2 was chosen for all the simulation in this study.

Figure 4. Comparison of near-bed shear velocity U_{*} with different mesh grid size.

The nested mesh block was adopted for seabed in vicinity of the USAF, which was overlapped with the global mesh block. When two mesh blocks overlap each other, the governing equations are by default solved on the mesh block with smaller average cell size (i.e., higher grid resolution). It is should be noted that the Flow 3D software used the moving mesh captures the scour evolution and automatically adjusts the time step size to be as large as possible without exceeding any of the stability limits, affecting accuracy, or unduly increasing the effort required to enforce the continuity condition [51].

3.5. Model Validation

In order to verify the reliability of the present model, the results of present study were compared with the experimental data of Khosronejad et al. [52]. The experiment was conducted in an open channel with a slender vertical pile under unidirectional currents. The comparison of scour development between the present results and the experimental results is shown in Figure 5. The Figure 5 reveals that the present results agree well with the experimental data of Khosronejad et al. [52]. In the first stage, the scour depth increases rapidly. After that, the scour depth achieves a maximum value gradually. The equilibrium scour depth calculated by the present model is basically corresponding with the experimental results of Khosronejad et al. [52], although scour depth in the present model is slightly larger than the experimental results at initial stage.

Figure 5. Comparison of time evolution of scour between the present study and Khosronejad et al. [52], Petersen et al. [17].

Secondly, another comparison was further conducted between the results of present study and the experimental data of Petersen et al. [17]. The experiment was carried out in a flume with a circular vertical pile in combined waves and current. Figure 4 shows a comparison of time evolution of scour depth between the simulating and the experimental results. As Figure 5 indicates, the scour depth in this study has good overall agreement with the experimental results proposed in Petersen et al. [17]. The equilibrium scour depth calculated by the present model is 0.399 m, which equals to the experimental value basically. Overall, the above verifications prove the present model is accurate and capable in dealing with sediment scour under waves.

In addition, in order to calibrate and validate the present model for hydrodynamic parameters, the comparison of water surface elevation was carried out with laboratory experiments conducted by Stahlmann [53] for wave gauge No. 3. The Figure 6 depicts the surface wave profiles between experiments and numerical model results. The comparison indicates that there is a good agreement between the model results and experimental values, especially the locations of wave crest and trough. Comparison of the surface elevation instructs the present model has an acceptable relative error, and the model is a calibrated in terms of the hydrodynamic parameters.

Figure 6. Comparison of surface elevation between the present study and Stahlmann [53].

Finally, another comparison was conducted for equilibrium scour depth or maximum scour depth under random waves with the experimental data of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Schendel et al. [22]. The Figure 7 shows the comparison between the numerical results and experimental data of Run01, Run05, Run21 and Run22 in Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and test A05 and A09 in Schendel et al. [22]. As shown in Figure 7, the equilibrium scour depth or maximum scour depth distributed within the ±30 error lines basically, meaning the reliability and accuracy of present model for predicting equilibrium scour depth around foundation in random waves. However, compared with the experimental values, the present model overestimated the equilibrium scour depth generally. Given that, a calibration for scour depth was carried out by multiplying the mean reduced coefficient 0.85 in following section.

Figure 7. Comparison of equilibrium (or maximum) scour depth between the present study and Sumer and Fredsøe [16], Schendel et al. [22].

Through the various examination for hydrodynamic and morphology parameters, it can be concluded that the present model is a validated and calibrated model for scour under random waves. Thus, the present numerical model would be utilized for scour simulation around foundation under random waves.

4. Numerical Results and Discussions

4.1. Scour Evolution

Figure 8 displays the scour evolution for case 1–9. As shown in Figure 8a, the scour depth increased rapidly at the initial stage, and then slowed down at the transition stage, which attributes to the backfilling occurred in scour holes under live bed scour condition, resulting in the net scour decreasing. Finally, the scour reached the equilibrium state when the amount of sediment backfilling equaled to that of scouring in the scour holes, i.e., the net scour transport rate was nil. Sumer and Fredsøe [16] proposed the following formula for the scour development under waves

St=Seq(1−exp(−t/Tc))�t=�eq(1−exp(−�/�c))(30)

where T_{c} is time scale of scour process.

Figure 8. Time evolution of scour for case 1–9: (a) Case 1–5; (b) Case 6–9.

The computing time is 3600 s and the scour development curves in Figure 8 kept fluctuating, meaning it’s still not in equilibrium scour stage in these cases. According to Sumer and Fredsøe [16], the equilibrium scour depth can be acquired by fitting the data with Equation (30). From Figure 8, it can be seen that the scour evolution obtained from Equation (30) is consistent with the present study basically at initial stage, but the scour depth predicted by Equation (30) developed slightly faster than the simulating results and the Equation (30) overestimated the scour depth to some extent. Overall, the whole tendency of the results calculated by Equation (30) agrees well with the simulating results of the present study, which means the Equation (30) is applicable to depict the scour evolution around USAF under random waves.

4.2. Scour Mechanism under Random Waves

The scour morphology and scour evolution around USAF are similar under random waves in case 1~9. Taking case 7 as an example, the scour morphology is shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9. Scour morphology under different times for case 7.

From Figure 9, at the initial stage (t < 1200 s), the scour occurred at upstream foundation edges between neighboring anchor branches. The maximum scour depth appeared at the lee-side of the USAF. Correspondingly, the sediments deposited at the periphery of the USAF, and the location of the maximum accretion depth was positioned at an angle of about 45° symmetrically with respect to the wave propagating direction in the lee-side of the USAF. After that, when t > 2400 s, the location of the maximum scour depth shifted to the upside of the USAF at an angle of about 45° with respect to the wave propagating direction.

According to previous studies [1,15,16,19,30,31], the horseshoe vortex, streamline compression and wake vortex shedding were responsible for scour around foundation. The Figure 10 displays the distribution of flow velocity in vicinity of foundation, which reflects the evolving processes of horseshoe vertex.

Figure 10. Velocity profile around USAF: (a) Flow runup and down stream at upstream anchor edges; (b) Horseshoe vortex at upstream anchor edges; (c) Flow reversal during wave through stage at lee side.

As shown in Figure 10, the inflow tripped to the upstream edges of the USAF and it was blocked by the upper tube of USAF. Then, the downflow formed the horizontal axis clockwise vortex and rolled on the seabed bypassing the tube, that is, the horseshoe vortex (Figure 11). The Figure 12 displays the turbulence intensity around the tube on the seabed. From Figure 12, it can be seen that the turbulence intensity was high-intensity with respect to the region of horseshoe vortex. This phenomenon occurred because of drastic water flow momentum exchanging in the horseshoe vortex. As a result, it created the prominent shear stress on the seabed, causing the local scour at the upstream edges of USAF. Besides, the horseshoe vortex moved downstream gradually along the periphery of the tube and the wake vortex shed off continually at the lee-side of the USAF, i.e., wake vortex.

Figure 11. Sketch of scour mechanism around USAF under random waves.

Figure 12. Turbulence intensity: (a) Turbulence intensity of horseshoe vortex; (b) Turbulence intensity of wake vortex; (c) Turbulence intensity of accretion area.

The core of wake vortex is a negative pressure center, liking a vacuum cleaner [11,42]. Hence, the soil particles were swirled into the negative pressure core and carried away by wake vortex. At the same time, the onset of scour at rear side occurred. Finally, the wake vortex became downflow at the downside of USAF. As is shown in Figure 12, the turbulence intensity was low where the downflow occurred at lee-side, which means the turbulence energy may not be able to support the survival of wake vortex, leading to accretion happening. As mentioned in previous section, the formation of horseshoe vortex was dependent with adverse pressure gradient at upside of foundation. As shown in Figure 13, the evaluated range of pressure distribution is −15 m to 15 m in x direction. The t = 450 s and t = 1800 s indicate that the wave crest and trough arrived at the upside and lee-side of the foundation respectively, and the t = 350 s was neither the wave crest nor trough. The adverse gradient pressure reached the maximum value at t = 450 s corresponding to the wave crest phase. In this case, it’s helpful for the wave boundary separating fully from seabed, which leads to the formation of horseshoe vortex with high turbulence intensity. Therefore, the horseshoe vortex is responsible for the local scour between neighboring anchor branches at upside of USAF. What’s more, due to the combination of the horseshoe vortex and streamline compression, the maximum scour depth occurred at the upside of the USAF with an angle of about 45° corresponding to the wave propagating direction. This is consistent with the findings of Pang et al. [48] and Sumer et al. [1,15] in case of regular waves. At the wave trough phase (t = 1800 s), the pressure gradient became positive at upstream USAF edges, which hindered the separating of wave boundary from seabed. In the meantime, the flow reversal occurred (Figure 10) and the adverse gradient pressure appeared at downstream USAF edges, but the magnitude of adverse gradient pressure at lee-side was lower than the upstream gradient pressure under wave crest. In this way, the intensity of horseshoe vortex behind the USAF under wave trough was low, which explains the difference of scour depth at upstream and downstream, i.e., the scour asymmetry. In other words, the scour asymmetry at upside and downside of USAF was attributed to wave asymmetry for random waves, and the phenomenon became more evident for nonlinear waves [21]. Briefly speaking, the vortex system at wave crest phase was mainly related to the scour process around USAF under random waves.

Figure 13. Pressure distribution around USAF.

4.3. Equilibrium Scour Depth

The KC number is a key parameter for horseshoe vortex emerging and evolving under waves. According to Equation (1), when pile diameter D is fixed, the KC depends on the maximum near-bed velocity U_{wm} and wave period T. For random waves, the U_{wm} can be denoted by the root-mean-square (RMS) value of near-bed velocity amplitude U_{wm,rms} or the significant value of near-bed velocity amplitude U_{wm,s}. The U_{wm,rms} and U_{wm,s} for all simulating cases of the present study are listed in Table 3 and Table 4. The T can be denoted by the mean up zero-crossing wave period T_{a}, peak wave period T_{p}, significant wave period T_{s}, the maximum wave period T_{m}, 1/10′th highest wave period T_{n = 1/10} and 1/5′th highest wave period T_{n = 1/5} for random waves, so the different combinations of U_{wm} and T will acquire different KC. The Table 3 and Table 4 list 12 types of KC, for example, the KC_{rms,s} was calculated by U_{wm,rms} and T_{s}. Sumer and Fredsøe [16] conducted a series of wave flume experiments to investigate the scour depth around monopile under random waves, and found the equilibrium scour depth predicting equation (Equation (2)) for regular waves was applicable for random waves with KC_{rms,p}. It should be noted that the Equation (2) is only suitable for KC > 6 under regular waves or KC_{rms,p} > 6 under random waves.

Table 3.U_{wm,rms} and KC for case 1~9.

Table 4.U_{wm,s} and KC for case 1~9.

Raaijmakers and Rudolph [34] proposed the equilibrium scour depth predicting model (Equation (5)) around pile under waves, which is suitable for low KC. The format of Equation (5) is similar with the formula proposed by Breusers [54], which can predict the equilibrium scour depth around pile at different scour stages. In order to verify the applicability of Raaijmakers’s model for predicting the equilibrium scour depth around USAF under random waves, a validation of the equilibrium scour depth S_{eq} between the present study and Raaijmakers’s equation was conducted. The position where the scour depth S_{eq} was evaluated is the location of the maximum scour depth, and it was depicted in Figure 14. The Figure 15 displays the comparison of S_{eq} with different KC between the present study and Raaijmakers’s model.

Figure 14. Sketch of the position where the S_{eq} was evaluated.

Figure 15. Comparison of the equilibrium scour depth between the present model and the model of Raaijmakers and Rudolph [34]: (a) KC_{rms,s}, KC_{rms,a}; (b) KC_{rms,p}, KC_{rms,m}; (c) KC_{rms,n = 1/10}, KC_{rms,n = 1/5}; (d) KC_{s,s}, KC_{s,a}; (e) KC_{s,p}, KC_{s,m}; (f) KC_{s,n = 1/10}, KC_{s,n = 1/5}.

As shown in Figure 15, there is an error in predicting S_{eq} between the present study and Raaijmakers’s model, and Raaijmakers’s model underestimates the results generally. Although the error exists, the varying trend of S_{eq} with KC obtained from Raaijmakers’s model is consistent with the present study basically. What’s more, the error is minimum and the Raaijmakers’s model is of relatively high accuracy for predicting scour around USAF under random waves by using KC_{s,p}. Based on this, a further revision was made to eliminate the error as much as possible, i.e., add the deviation value ∆S/D in the Raaijmakers’s model. The revised equilibrium scour depth predicting equation based on Raaijmakers’s model can be written as

As the Figure 16 shown, through trial-calculation, when ∆S/D = 0.05, the results calculated by Equation (31) show good agreement with the simulating results of the present study. The maximum error is about 18.2% and the engineering requirements have been met basically. In order to further verify the accuracy of the revised model for large KC (KC_{s,p} > 4) under random waves, a validation between the revised model and the previous experimental results [21]. The experiment was conducted in a flume (50 m in length, 1.0 m in width and 1.3 m in height) with a slender vertical pile (D = 0.1 m) under random waves. The seabed is composed of 0.13 m deep layer of sand with d_{50} = 0.6 mm and the water depth is 0.5 m for all tests. The significant wave height is 0.12~0.21 m and the KC_{s,p} is 5.52~11.38. The comparison between the predicting results by Equation (31) and the experimental results of Corvaro et al. [21] is shown in Figure 17. From Figure 17, the experimental data evenly distributes around the predicted results and the prediction accuracy is favorable when KC_{s,p} < 8. However, the gap between the predicting results and experimental data becomes large and the Equation (31) overestimates the equilibrium scour depth to some extent when KC_{s,p} > 8.

Figure 16. Comparison of S_{eq} between the simulating results and the predicting values by Equation (31).

Figure 17. Comparison of S_{eq}/D between the Experimental results of Corvaro et al. [21] and the predicting values by Equation (31).

In ocean environment, the waves are composed of a train of sinusoidal waves with different frequencies and amplitudes. The energy of constituent waves with very large and very small frequencies is relatively low, and the energy of waves is mainly concentrated in a certain range of moderate frequencies. Myrhaug and Rue [37] thought the 1/n’th highest wave was responsible for scour and proposed the stochastic model to predict the equilibrium scour depth around pile under random waves for full range of KC. Noteworthy is that the KC was denoted by KC_{rms,a} in the stochastic model. To verify the application of the stochastic model for predicting scour depth around USAF, a validation between the simulating results of present study and predicting results by the stochastic model with n = 2,3,5,10,20,500 was carried out respectively.

As shown in Figure 18, compared with the simulating results, the stochastic model underestimates the equilibrium scour depth around USAF generally. Although the error exists, the varying trend of S_{eq} with KC_{rms,a} obtained from the stochastic model is consistent with the present study basically. What’s more, the gap between the predicting values by stochastic model and the simulating results decreases with the increase of n, but for large n, for example n = 500, the varying trend diverges between the predicting values and simulating results, meaning it’s not feasible only by increasing n in stochastic model to predict the equilibrium scour depth around USAF.

Figure 18. Comparison of S_{eq} between the simulating results and the predicting values by Equation (8).

The Figure 19 lists the deviation value ∆S_{eq}/D′ between the predicting values and simulating results with different KC_{rms,a} and n. Then, fitted the relationship between the ∆S′and n under different KC_{rms,a}, and the fitting curve can be written by Equation (32). The revised stochastic model (Equation (33)) can be acquired by adding ∆S_{eq}/D′ to Equation (8).

The comparison between the predicting results by Equation (33) and the simulating results of present study is shown in Figure 20. According to the Figure 20, the varying trend of S_{eq} with KC_{rms,a} obtained from the stochastic model is consistent with the present study basically. Compared with predicting results by the stochastic model, the results calculated by Equation (33) is favorable. Moreover, comparison with simulating results indicates that the predicting results are the most favorable for n = 10, which is consistent with the findings of Myrhaug and Rue [37] for equilibrium scour depth predicting around slender pile in case of random waves.

Figure 20. Comparison of S_{eq} between the simulating results and the predicting values by Equation (33).

In order to further verify the accuracy of the Equation (33) for large KC (KC_{rms,a} > 4) under random waves, a validation was conducted between the Equation (33) and the previous experimental results of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Corvaro et al. [21]. The details of experiments conducted by Corvaro et al. [21] were described in above section. Sumer and Fredsøe [16] investigated the local scour around pile under random waves. The experiments were conducted in a wave basin with a slender vertical pile (D = 0.032, 0.055 m). The seabed is composed of 0.14 m deep layer of sand with d_{50} = 0.2 mm and the water depth was maintained at 0.5 m. The JONSWAP wave spectrum was used and the KC_{rms,a} was 5.29~16.95. The comparison between the predicting results by Equation (33) and the experimental results of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Corvaro et al. [21] are shown in Figure 21. From Figure 21, contrary to the case of low KC_{rms,a} (KC_{rms,a} < 4), the error between the predicting values and experimental results increases with decreasing of n for KC_{rms,a} > 4. Therefore, the predicting results are the most favorable for n = 2 when KC_{rms,a} > 4.

Figure 21. Comparison of S_{eq} between the experimental results of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Corvaro et al. [21] and the predicting values by Equation (33).

Noteworthy is that the present model was built according to prototype size, so the errors between the numerical results and experimental data of References [16,21] may be attribute to the scale effects. In laboratory experiments on scouring process, it is typically impossible to ensure a rigorous similarity of all physical parameters between the model and prototype structure, leading to the scale effects in the laboratory experiments. To avoid a cohesive behaviour, the bed material was not scaled geometrically according to model scale. As a consequence, the relatively large-scaled sediments sizes may result in the overestimation of bed load transport and underestimation of suspended load transport compared with field conditions. What’s more, the disproportional scaled sediment presumably lead to the difference of bed roughness between the model and prototype, and thus large influences for wave boundary layer on the seabed and scour process. Besides, according to Corvaro et al. [21] and Schendel et al. [55], the pile Reynolds numbers and Froude numbers both affect the scour depth for the condition of non fully developed turbulent flow in laboratory experiments.

4.4. Parametric Study

4.4.1. Influence of Froude Number

As described above, the set of foundation leads to the adverse pressure gradient appearing at upstream, leading to the wave boundary layer separating from seabed, then horseshoe vortex formatting and the horseshoe vortex are mainly responsible for scour around foundation (see Figure 22). The Froude number F_{r} is the key parameter to influence the scale and intensity of horseshoe vortex. The F_{r} under waves can be calculated by the following formula [42]

Fr=UwgD−−−√�r=�w��(34)

where U_{w} is the mean water particle velocity during 1/4 cycle of wave oscillation, obtained from the following formula. Noteworthy is that the root-mean-square (RMS) value of near-bed velocity amplitude U_{wm,rms} is used for calculating U_{wm}.

Figure 22. Sketch of flow field at upstream USAF edges.

Tavouktsoglou et al. [25] proposed the following formula between F_{r} and the vertical location of the stagnation y

yh∝Fer�ℎ∝�r�(36)

where e is constant.

The Figure 23 displays the relationship between S_{eq}/D and F_{r} of the present study. In order to compare with the simulating results, the experimental data of Corvaro et al. [21] was also depicted in Figure 23. As shown in Figure 23, the equilibrium scour depth appears a logarithmic increase as F_{r} increases and approaches the mathematical asymptotic value, which is also consistent with the experimental results of Corvaro et al. [21]. According to Figure 24, the adverse pressure gradient pressure at upstream USAF edges increases with the increase of F_{r}, which is benefit for the wave boundary layer separating from seabed, resulting in the high-intensity horseshoe vortex, hence, causing intensive scour around USAF. Based on the previous study of Tavouktsoglou et al. [25] for scour around pile under currents, the high F_{r} leads to the stagnation point is closer to the mean sea level for shallow water, causing the stronger downflow kinetic energy. As mentioned in previous section, the energy of downflow at upstream makes up the energy of the subsequent horseshoe vortex, so the stronger downflow kinetic energy results in the more intensive horseshoe vortex. Therefore, the higher F_{r} leads to the more intensive horseshoe vortex by influencing the position of stagnation point y presumably. Qi and Gao [19] carried out a series of flume tests to investigate the scour around pile under regular waves, and proposed the fitting formula between S_{eq}/D and F_{r} as following

lg(Seq/D)=Aexp(B/Fr)+Clg(�eq/�)=�exp(�/�r)+�(37)

where A, B and C are constant.

Figure 23. The fitting curve between S_{eq}/D and F_{r}.

Figure 24. Sketch of adverse pressure gradient at upstream USAF edges.

Took the Equation (37) to fit the simulating results with A = −0.002, B = 0.686 and C = −0.808, and the results are shown in Figure 23. From Figure 23, the simulating results evenly distribute around the Equation (37) and the varying trend of S_{eq}/D and F_{r} in present study is consistent with Equation (37) basically, meaning the Equation (37) is applicable to express the relationship of S_{eq}/D with F_{r} around USAF under random waves.

4.4.2. Influence of Euler Number

The Euler number E_{u} is the influencing factor for the hydrodynamic field around foundation. The E_{u} under waves can be calculated by the following formula. The E_{u} can be represented by the Equation (38) for uniform cylinders [25]. The root-mean-square (RMS) value of near-bed velocity amplitude U_{m,rms} is used for calculating U_{m}.

Eu=U2mgD�u=�m2��(38)

where U_{m} is depth-averaged flow velocity.

The Figure 25 displays the relationship between S_{eq}/D and E_{u} of the present study. In order to compare with the simulating results, the experimental data of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Corvaro et al. [21] were also plotted in Figure 25. As shown in Figure 25, similar with the varying trend of S_{eq}/D and F_{r}, the equilibrium scour depth appears a logarithmic increase as E_{u} increases and approaches the mathematical asymptotic value, which is also consistent with the experimental results of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Corvaro et al. [21]. According to Figure 24, the adverse pressure gradient pressure at upstream USAF edges increases with the increasing of E_{u}, which is benefit for the wave boundary layer separating from seabed, inducing the high-intensity horseshoe vortex, hence, causing intensive scour around USAF.

Figure 25. The fitting curve between S_{eq}/D and E_{u}.

Therefore, the variation of F_{r} and E_{u} reflect the magnitude of adverse pressure gradient pressure at upstream. Given that, the Equation (37) also was used to fit the simulating results with A = 8.875, B = 0.078 and C = −9.601, and the results are shown in Figure 25. From Figure 25, the simulating results evenly distribute around the Equation (37) and the varying trend of S_{eq}/D and E_{u} in present study is consistent with Equation (37) basically, meaning the Equation (37) is also applicable to express the relationship of S_{eq}/D with E_{u} around USAF under random waves. Additionally, according to the above description of F_{r}, it can be inferred that the higher F_{r} and E_{u} both lead to the more intensive horseshoe vortex by influencing the position of stagnation point y presumably.

5. Conclusions

A series of numerical models were established to investigate the local scour around umbrella suction anchor foundation (USAF) under random waves. The numerical model was validated for hydrodynamic and morphology parameters by comparing with the experimental data of Khosronejad et al. [52], Petersen et al. [17], Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Schendel et al. [22]. Based on the simulating results, the scour evolution and scour mechanisms around USAF under random waves were analyzed respectively. Two revised models were proposed according to the model of Raaijmakers and Rudolph [34] and the stochastic model developed by Myrhaug and Rue [37] to predict the equilibrium scour depth around USAF under random waves. Finally, a parametric study was carried out with the present model to study the effects of the Froude number F_{r} and Euler number E_{u} to the equilibrium scour depth around USAF under random waves. The main conclusions can be described as follows.(1)

The packed sediment scour model and the RNG k−ε turbulence model were used to simulate the sand particles transport processes and the flow field around UASF respectively. The scour evolution obtained by the present model agrees well with the experimental results of Khosronejad et al. [52], Petersen et al. [17], Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Schendel et al. [22], which indicates that the present model is accurate and reasonable for depicting the scour morphology around UASF under random waves.(2)

The vortex system at wave crest phase is mainly related to the scour process around USAF under random waves. The maximum scour depth appeared at the lee-side of the USAF at the initial stage (t < 1200 s). Subsequently, when t > 2400 s, the location of the maximum scour depth shifted to the upside of the USAF at an angle of about 45° with respect to the wave propagating direction.(3)

The error is negligible and the Raaijmakers’s model is of relatively high accuracy for predicting scour around USAF under random waves when KC is calculated by KC_{s,p}. Given that, a further revision model (Equation (31)) was proposed according to Raaijmakers’s model to predict the equilibrium scour depth around USAF under random waves and it shows good agreement with the simulating results of the present study when KC_{s,p} < 8.(4)

Another further revision model (Equation (33)) was proposed according to the stochastic model established by Myrhaug and Rue [37] to predict the equilibrium scour depth around USAF under random waves, and the predicting results are the most favorable for n = 10 when KC_{rms,a} < 4. However, contrary to the case of low KC_{rms,a}, the predicting results are the most favorable for n = 2 when KC_{rms,a} > 4 by the comparison with experimental results of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Corvaro et al. [21].(5)

The same formula (Equation (37)) is applicable to express the relationship of S_{eq}/D with E_{u} or F_{r}, and it can be inferred that the higher F_{r} and E_{u} both lead to the more intensive horseshoe vortex and larger S_{eq.}

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, H.L. (Hongjun Liu); Data curation, R.H. and P.Y.; Formal analysis, X.W. and H.L. (Hao Leng); Funding acquisition, X.W.; Writing—original draft, R.H. and P.Y.; Writing—review & editing, X.W. and H.L. (Hao Leng); The final manuscript has been approved by all the authors. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

This research was funded by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (grant number 202061027) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 41572247).

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Hu, R.; Liu, H.; Leng, H.; Yu, P.; Wang, X. Scour Characteristics and Equilibrium Scour Depth Prediction around Umbrella Suction Anchor Foundation under Random Waves. J. Mar. Sci. Eng.2021, 9, 886. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080886

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Hu, Ruigeng, Hongjun Liu, Hao Leng, Peng Yu, and Xiuhai Wang. 2021. “Scour Characteristics and Equilibrium Scour Depth Prediction around Umbrella Suction Anchor Foundation under Random Waves” Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 8: 886. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080886

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Mahdi Feizbahr,^{1}Navid Tonekaboni,^{2}Guang-Jun Jiang,^{3,4}and Hong-Xia Chen^{3,4} Academic Editor: Mohammad Yazdi

Abstract

강을 따라 식생은 조도를 증가시키고 평균 유속을 감소시키며, 유동 에너지를 감소시키고 강 횡단면의 유속 프로파일을 변경합니다. 자연의 많은 운하와 강은 홍수 동안 초목으로 덮여 있습니다. 운하의 조도는 식물의 영향을 많이 받기 때문에 홍수시 유동저항에 큰 영향을 미친다. 식물로 인한 흐름에 대한 거칠기 저항은 흐름 조건과 식물에 따라 달라지므로 모델은 유속, 유속 깊이 및 수로를 따라 식생 유형의 영향을 고려하여 유속을 시뮬레이션해야 합니다. 총 48개의 모델을 시뮬레이션하여 근관의 거칠기 효과를 조사했습니다. 결과는 속도를 높임으로써 베드 속도를 감소시키는 식생의 영향이 무시할만하다는 것을 나타냅니다.

Abstract

Vegetation along the river increases the roughness and reduces the average flow velocity, reduces flow energy, and changes the flow velocity profile in the cross section of the river. Many canals and rivers in nature are covered with vegetation during the floods. Canal’s roughness is strongly affected by plants and therefore it has a great effect on flow resistance during flood. Roughness resistance against the flow due to the plants depends on the flow conditions and plant, so the model should simulate the current velocity by considering the effects of velocity, depth of flow, and type of vegetation along the canal. Total of 48 models have been simulated to investigate the effect of roughness in the canal. The results indicated that, by enhancing the velocity, the effect of vegetation in decreasing the bed velocity is negligible, while when the current has lower speed, the effect of vegetation on decreasing the bed velocity is obviously considerable.

1. Introduction

Considering the impact of each variable is a very popular field within the analytical and statistical methods and intelligent systems [1–14]. This can help research for better modeling considering the relation of variables or interaction of them toward reaching a better condition for the objective function in control and engineering [15–27]. Consequently, it is necessary to study the effects of the passive factors on the active domain [28–36]. Because of the effect of vegetation on reducing the discharge capacity of rivers [37], pruning plants was necessary to improve the condition of rivers. One of the important effects of vegetation in river protection is the action of roots, which cause soil consolidation and soil structure improvement and, by enhancing the shear strength of soil, increase the resistance of canal walls against the erosive force of water. The outer limbs of the plant increase the roughness of the canal walls and reduce the flow velocity and deplete the flow energy in vicinity of the walls. Vegetation by reducing the shear stress of the canal bed reduces flood discharge and sedimentation in the intervals between vegetation and increases the stability of the walls [38–41].

One of the main factors influencing the speed, depth, and extent of flood in this method is Manning’s roughness coefficient. On the other hand, soil cover [42], especially vegetation, is one of the most determining factors in Manning’s roughness coefficient. Therefore, it is expected that those seasonal changes in the vegetation of the region will play an important role in the calculated value of Manning’s roughness coefficient and ultimately in predicting the flood wave behavior [43–45]. The roughness caused by plants’ resistance to flood current depends on the flow and plant conditions. Flow conditions include depth and velocity of the plant, and plant conditions include plant type, hardness or flexibility, dimensions, density, and shape of the plant [46]. In general, the issue discussed in this research is the optimization of flood-induced flow in canals by considering the effect of vegetation-induced roughness. Therefore, the effect of plants on the roughness coefficient and canal transmission coefficient and in consequence the flow depth should be evaluated [47, 48].

Current resistance is generally known by its roughness coefficient. The equation that is mainly used in this field is Manning equation. The ratio of shear velocity to average current velocity is another form of current resistance. The reason for using the ratio is that it is dimensionless and has a strong theoretical basis. The reason for using Manning roughness coefficient is its pervasiveness. According to Freeman et al. [49], the Manning roughness coefficient for plants was calculated according to the Kouwen and Unny [50] method for incremental resistance. This method involves increasing the roughness for various surface and plant irregularities. Manning’s roughness coefficient has all the factors affecting the resistance of the canal. Therefore, the appropriate way to more accurately estimate this coefficient is to know the factors affecting this coefficient [51].

To calculate the flow rate, velocity, and depth of flow in canals as well as flood and sediment estimation, it is important to evaluate the flow resistance. To determine the flow resistance in open ducts, Manning, Chézy, and Darcy–Weisbach relations are used [52]. In these relations, there are parameters such as Manning’s roughness coefficient (n), Chézy roughness coefficient (C), and Darcy–Weisbach coefficient (f). All three of these coefficients are a kind of flow resistance coefficient that is widely used in the equations governing flow in rivers [53].

The three relations that express the relationship between the average flow velocity (V) and the resistance and geometric and hydraulic coefficients of the canal are as follows:where n, f, and c are Manning, Darcy–Weisbach, and Chézy coefficients, respectively. V = average flow velocity, R = hydraulic radius, S_{f} = slope of energy line, which in uniform flow is equal to the slope of the canal bed, = gravitational acceleration, and K_{n} is a coefficient whose value is equal to 1 in the SI system and 1.486 in the English system. The coefficients of resistance in equations (1) to (3) are related as follows:

Based on the boundary layer theory, the flow resistance for rough substrates is determined from the following general relation:where f = Darcy–Weisbach coefficient of friction, y = flow depth, K_{s} = bed roughness size, and A = constant coefficient.

On the other hand, the relationship between the Darcy–Weisbach coefficient of friction and the shear velocity of the flow is as follows:

By using equation (6), equation (5) is converted as follows:

Investigation on the effect of vegetation arrangement on shear velocity of flow in laboratory conditions showed that, with increasing the shear Reynolds number (), the numerical value of the ratio also increases; in other words the amount of roughness coefficient increases with a slight difference in the cases without vegetation, checkered arrangement, and cross arrangement, respectively [54].

Roughness in river vegetation is simulated in mathematical models with a variable floor slope flume by different densities and discharges. The vegetation considered submerged in the bed of the flume. Results showed that, with increasing vegetation density, canal roughness and flow shear speed increase and with increasing flow rate and depth, Manning’s roughness coefficient decreases. Factors affecting the roughness caused by vegetation include the effect of plant density and arrangement on flow resistance, the effect of flow velocity on flow resistance, and the effect of depth [45, 55].

One of the works that has been done on the effect of vegetation on the roughness coefficient is Darby [56] study, which investigates a flood wave model that considers all the effects of vegetation on the roughness coefficient. There are currently two methods for estimating vegetation roughness. One method is to add the thrust force effect to Manning’s equation [47, 57, 58] and the other method is to increase the canal bed roughness (Manning-Strickler coefficient) [45, 59–61]. These two methods provide acceptable results in models designed to simulate floodplain flow. Wang et al. [62] simulate the floodplain with submerged vegetation using these two methods and to increase the accuracy of the results, they suggested using the effective height of the plant under running water instead of using the actual height of the plant. Freeman et al. [49] provided equations for determining the coefficient of vegetation roughness under different conditions. Lee et al. [63] proposed a method for calculating the Manning coefficient using the flow velocity ratio at different depths. Much research has been done on the Manning roughness coefficient in rivers, and researchers [49, 63–66] sought to obtain a specific number for n to use in river engineering. However, since the depth and geometric conditions of rivers are completely variable in different places, the values of Manning roughness coefficient have changed subsequently, and it has not been possible to choose a fixed number. In river engineering software, the Manning roughness coefficient is determined only for specific and constant conditions or normal flow. Lee et al. [63] stated that seasonal conditions, density, and type of vegetation should also be considered. Hydraulic roughness and Manning roughness coefficient n of the plant were obtained by estimating the total Manning roughness coefficient from the matching of the measured water surface curve and water surface height. The following equation is used for the flow surface curve:where is the depth of water change, S_{0} is the slope of the canal floor, Sf is the slope of the energy line, and Fr is the Froude number which is obtained from the following equation:where D is the characteristic length of the canal. Flood flow velocity is one of the important parameters of flood waves, which is very important in calculating the water level profile and energy consumption. In the cases where there are many limitations for researchers due to the wide range of experimental dimensions and the variety of design parameters, the use of numerical methods that are able to estimate the rest of the unknown results with acceptable accuracy is economically justified.

FLOW-3D software uses Finite Difference Method (FDM) for numerical solution of two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow. This software is dedicated to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and is provided by Flow Science [67]. The flow is divided into networks with tubular cells. For each cell there are values of dependent variables and all variables are calculated in the center of the cell, except for the velocity, which is calculated at the center of the cell. In this software, two numerical techniques have been used for geometric simulation, FAVOR™ (Fractional-Area-Volume-Obstacle-Representation) and the VOF (Volume-of-Fluid) method. The equations used at this model for this research include the principle of mass survival and the magnitude of motion as follows. The fluid motion equations in three dimensions, including the Navier–Stokes equations with some additional terms, are as follows:where are mass accelerations in the directions x, y, z and are viscosity accelerations in the directions x, y, z and are obtained from the following equations:

Shear stresses in equation (11) are obtained from the following equations:

The standard model is used for high Reynolds currents, but in this model, RNG theory allows the analytical differential formula to be used for the effective viscosity that occurs at low Reynolds numbers. Therefore, the RNG model can be used for low and high Reynolds currents.

Weather changes are high and this affects many factors continuously. The presence of vegetation in any area reduces the velocity of surface flows and prevents soil erosion, so vegetation will have a significant impact on reducing destructive floods. One of the methods of erosion protection in floodplain watersheds is the use of biological methods. The presence of vegetation in watersheds reduces the flow rate during floods and prevents soil erosion. The external organs of plants increase the roughness and decrease the velocity of water flow and thus reduce its shear stress energy. One of the important factors with which the hydraulic resistance of plants is expressed is the roughness coefficient. Measuring the roughness coefficient of plants and investigating their effect on reducing velocity and shear stress of flow is of special importance.

Roughness coefficients in canals are affected by two main factors, namely, flow conditions and vegetation characteristics [68]. So far, much research has been done on the effect of the roughness factor created by vegetation, but the issue of plant density has received less attention. For this purpose, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of vegetation density on flow velocity changes.

In a study conducted using a software model on three density modes in the submerged state effect on flow velocity changes in 48 different modes was investigated (Table 1).

Table 1

The studied models.

The number of cells used in this simulation is equal to 1955888 cells. The boundary conditions were introduced to the model as a constant speed and depth (Figure 1). At the output boundary, due to the presence of supercritical current, no parameter for the current is considered. Absolute roughness for floors and walls was introduced to the model (Figure 1). In this case, the flow was assumed to be nonviscous and air entry into the flow was not considered. After seconds, this model reached a convergence accuracy of .

Figure 1

The simulated model and its boundary conditions.

Due to the fact that it is not possible to model the vegetation in FLOW-3D software, in this research, the vegetation of small soft plants was studied so that Manning’s coefficients can be entered into the canal bed in the form of roughness coefficients obtained from the studies of Chow [69] in similar conditions. In practice, in such modeling, the effect of plant height is eliminated due to the small height of herbaceous plants, and modeling can provide relatively acceptable results in these conditions.

48 models with input velocities proportional to the height of the regular semihexagonal canal were considered to create supercritical conditions. Manning coefficients were applied based on Chow [69] studies in order to control the canal bed. Speed profiles were drawn and discussed.

Any control and simulation system has some inputs that we should determine to test any technology [70–77]. Determination and true implementation of such parameters is one of the key steps of any simulation [23, 78–81] and computing procedure [82–86]. The input current is created by applying the flow rate through the VFR (Volume Flow Rate) option and the output flow is considered Output and for other borders the Symmetry option is considered.

Simulation of the models and checking their action and responses and observing how a process behaves is one of the accepted methods in engineering and science [87, 88]. For verification of FLOW-3D software, the results of computer simulations are compared with laboratory measurements and according to the values of computational error, convergence error, and the time required for convergence, the most appropriate option for real-time simulation is selected (Figures 2 and 3 ).

Figure 2

Modeling the plant with cylindrical tubes at the bottom of the canal.

Figure 3

Velocity profiles in positions 2 and 5.

The canal is 7 meters long, 0.5 meters wide, and 0.8 meters deep. This test was used to validate the application of the software to predict the flow rate parameters. In this experiment, instead of using the plant, cylindrical pipes were used in the bottom of the canal.

The conditions of this modeling are similar to the laboratory conditions and the boundary conditions used in the laboratory were used for numerical modeling. The critical flow enters the simulation model from the upstream boundary, so in the upstream boundary conditions, critical velocity and depth are considered. The flow at the downstream boundary is supercritical, so no parameters are applied to the downstream boundary.

The software well predicts the process of changing the speed profile in the open canal along with the considered obstacles. The error in the calculated speed values can be due to the complexity of the flow and the interaction of the turbulence caused by the roughness of the floor with the turbulence caused by the three-dimensional cycles in the hydraulic jump. As a result, the software is able to predict the speed distribution in open canals.

2. Modeling Results

After analyzing the models, the results were shown in graphs (Figures 4–14 ). The total number of experiments in this study was 48 due to the limitations of modeling.

Flow velocity profiles for canals with a depth of 1 m and flow velocities of 3–3.3 m/s. Canal with a depth of 1 meter and a flow velocity of (a) 3 meters per second, (b) 3.1 meters per second, (c) 3.2 meters per second, and (d) 3.3 meters per second.

Figure 5

Canal diagram with a depth of 1 meter and a flow rate of 3 meters per second.

Figure 6

Canal diagram with a depth of 1 meter and a flow rate of 3.1 meters per second.

Figure 7

Canal diagram with a depth of 1 meter and a flow rate of 3.2 meters per second.

Figure 8

Canal diagram with a depth of 1 meter and a flow rate of 3.3 meters per second.

Flow velocity profiles for canals with a depth of 2 m and flow velocities of 4–4.3 m/s. Canal with a depth of 2 meters and a flow rate of (a) 4 meters per second, (b) 4.1 meters per second, (c) 4.2 meters per second, and (d) 4.3 meters per second.

Figure 10

Canal diagram with a depth of 2 meters and a flow rate of 4 meters per second.

Figure 11

Canal diagram with a depth of 2 meters and a flow rate of 4.1 meters per second.

Figure 12

Canal diagram with a depth of 2 meters and a flow rate of 4.2 meters per second.

Figure 13

Canal diagram with a depth of 2 meters and a flow rate of 4.3 meters per second.

Flow velocity profiles for canals with a depth of 3 m and flow velocities of 5–5.3 m/s. Canal with a depth of 2 meters and a flow rate of (a) 4 meters per second, (b) 4.1 meters per second, (c) 4.2 meters per second, and (d) 4.3 meters per second.

To investigate the effects of roughness with flow velocity, the trend of flow velocity changes at different depths and with supercritical flow to a Froude number proportional to the depth of the section has been obtained.

According to the velocity profiles of Figure 5, it can be seen that, with the increasing of Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases.

According to Figures 5 to 8, it can be found that, with increasing the Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases. But this deceleration is more noticeable than the deceleration of the models 1 to 12, which can be justified by increasing the speed and of course increasing the Froude number.

According to Figure 10, we see that, with increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases.

According to Figure 11, we see that, with increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases. But this deceleration is more noticeable than the deceleration of Figures 5–10, which can be justified by increasing the speed and, of course, increasing the Froude number.

With increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases (Figure 12). But this deceleration is more noticeable than the deceleration of the higher models (Figures 5–8 and 10, 11), which can be justified by increasing the speed and, of course, increasing the Froude number.

According to Figure 13, with increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases. But this deceleration is more noticeable than the deceleration of Figures 5 to 12, which can be justified by increasing the speed and, of course, increasing the Froude number.

According to Figure 15, with increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases.

Figure 15

Canal diagram with a depth of 3 meters and a flow rate of 5 meters per second.

According to Figure 16, with increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases. But this deceleration is more noticeable than the deceleration of the higher model, which can be justified by increasing the speed and, of course, increasing the Froude number.

Figure 16

Canal diagram with a depth of 3 meters and a flow rate of 5.1 meters per second.

According to Figure 17, it is clear that, with increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases. But this deceleration is more noticeable than the deceleration of the higher models, which can be justified by increasing the speed and, of course, increasing the Froude number.

Figure 17

Canal diagram with a depth of 3 meters and a flow rate of 5.2 meters per second.

According to Figure 18, with increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases. But this deceleration is more noticeable than the deceleration of the higher models, which can be justified by increasing the speed and, of course, increasing the Froude number.

Figure 18

Canal diagram with a depth of 3 meters and a flow rate of 5.3 meters per second.

According to Figure 19, it can be seen that the vegetation placed in front of the flow input velocity has negligible effect on the reduction of velocity, which of course can be justified due to the flexibility of the vegetation. The only unusual thing is the unexpected decrease in floor speed of 3 m/s compared to higher speeds.

Comparison of velocity profiles with the same plant densities (depth 1 m). Comparison of velocity profiles with (a) plant densities of 25%, depth 1 m; (b) plant densities of 50%, depth 1 m; and (c) plant densities of 75%, depth 1 m.

According to Figure 20, by increasing the speed of vegetation, the effect of vegetation on reducing the flow rate becomes more noticeable. And the role of input current does not have much effect in reducing speed.

Comparison of velocity profiles with the same plant densities (depth 2 m). Comparison of velocity profiles with (a) plant densities of 25%, depth 2 m; (b) plant densities of 50%, depth 2 m; and (c) plant densities of 75%, depth 2 m.

According to Figure 21, it can be seen that, with increasing speed, the effect of vegetation on reducing the bed flow rate becomes more noticeable and the role of the input current does not have much effect. In general, it can be seen that, by increasing the speed of the input current, the slope of the profiles increases from the bed to the water surface and due to the fact that, in software, the roughness coefficient applies to the channel floor only in the boundary conditions, this can be perfectly justified. Of course, it can be noted that, due to the flexible conditions of the vegetation of the bed, this modeling can show acceptable results for such grasses in the canal floor. In the next directions, we may try application of swarm-based optimization methods for modeling and finding the most effective factors in this research [2, 7, 8, 15, 18, 89–94]. In future, we can also apply the simulation logic and software of this research for other domains such as power engineering [95–99].

Comparison of velocity profiles with the same plant densities (depth 3 m). Comparison of velocity profiles with (a) plant densities of 25%, depth 3 m; (b) plant densities of 50%, depth 3 m; and (c) plant densities of 75%, depth 3 m.

3. Conclusion

The effects of vegetation on the flood canal were investigated by numerical modeling with FLOW-3D software. After analyzing the results, the following conclusions were reached:(i)Increasing the density of vegetation reduces the velocity of the canal floor but has no effect on the velocity of the canal surface.(ii)Increasing the Froude number is directly related to increasing the speed of the canal floor.(iii)In the canal with a depth of one meter, a sudden increase in speed can be observed from the lowest speed and higher speed, which is justified by the sudden increase in Froude number.(iv)As the inlet flow rate increases, the slope of the profiles from the bed to the water surface increases.(v)By reducing the Froude number, the effect of vegetation on reducing the flow bed rate becomes more noticeable. And the input velocity in reducing the velocity of the canal floor does not have much effect.(vi)At a flow rate between 3 and 3.3 meters per second due to the shallow depth of the canal and the higher landing number a more critical area is observed in which the flow bed velocity in this area is between 2.86 and 3.1 m/s.(vii)Due to the critical flow velocity and the slight effect of the roughness of the horseshoe vortex floor, it is not visible and is only partially observed in models 1-2-3 and 21.(viii)As the flow rate increases, the effect of vegetation on the rate of bed reduction decreases.(ix)In conditions where less current intensity is passing, vegetation has a greater effect on reducing current intensity and energy consumption increases.(x)In the case of using the flow rate of 0.8 cubic meters per second, the velocity distribution and flow regime show about 20% more energy consumption than in the case of using the flow rate of 1.3 cubic meters per second.

Nomenclature

n:

Manning’s roughness coefficient

C:

Chézy roughness coefficient

f:

Darcy–Weisbach coefficient

V:

Flow velocity

R:

Hydraulic radius

g:

Gravitational acceleration

y:

Flow depth

Ks:

Bed roughness

A:

Constant coefficient

:

Reynolds number

∂y/∂x:

Depth of water change

S_{0}:

Slope of the canal floor

Sf:

Slope of energy line

Fr:

Froude number

D:

Characteristic length of the canal

G:

Mass acceleration

:

Shear stresses.

Data Availability

All data are included within the paper.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Contract no. 71761030 and Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia under Contract no. 2019LH07003.

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SYAFIQ ZIKRYAND FITRIADHY* Faculty of Ocean Engineering Technology and Informatics, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia * Corresponding author: naoe.afit@gmail.com http://doi.org/10.46754/umtjur.2021.07.017

Abstract

수중익선은 일반적으로 열악한 환경 조건으로 인해 승객의 편안함에 영향을 미칠 수 있는 높은 저항과 과도한 수직 운동(히브 및 피치)을 경험합니다. 따라서 복잡한 유체역학적 현상이 존재하기 때문에 파랑에서 수중익선의 내항성능을 규명할 필요가 있다.

이를 위해 수중익선 운동에 대한 CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamic) 해석을 제안한다. Froude Number 및 포일 받음각과 같은 여러 매개변수가 고려되었습니다.

그 결과 Froude Number의 후속 증가는 히브 및 피치 운동에 반비례한다는 것이 밝혀졌습니다. 본질적으로 이것은 높은 응답 진폭 연산자(RAO)의 형태로 제공되는 수중익선 항해 성능의 업그레이드로 이어졌습니다.

또한 포일 선수의 증가하는 각도는 히브 운동에 비례하는 반면, 포일 선미는 7.5o에서 낮은 히브 운동을 보였고, 그 다음으로 5o, 10o 순으로 나타났다. 피치모션의 경우 포일 보우의 증가는 5o에서 더 낮았고, 그 다음이 10o, 7.5o 순이었다. 포일 선미의 증가는 수중익선에 의한 피치 모션 경험에 비례했습니다.

일반적으로 이 CFD 시뮬레이션은 앞서 언급한 설계 매개변수와 관련하여 공해 상태에서 수중익선 설계의 운영 효율성을 보장하는 데 매우 유용합니다.

Keywords

CFD, hydrofoil, foil angle of attack, heave, pitch.

References

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인공어초(Artificial Reef, ARs)는 연안 어업 자원을 복원하고 생태 환경을 복원하기 위한 핵심 인공 구조물 중 하나입니다. 그러나 많은 AR이 세굴로 인해 안정성과 기능을 상실한 것으로 밝혀졌다.

AR의 기능적 효과를 보장하기 위해서는 서로 다른 흐름 조건에서 세굴로 인한 매장과 같은 AR의 불안정성을 연구하는 것이 매우 중요합니다.

FLOW-3D에 의해 확립된 3차원 수치 모델은 정상류에서 AR 주변의 국부 세굴 특성을 연구하는 데 사용됩니다. RNG k-ε 난류 모델로 닫힌 RANS 방정식은 하나의 AR 주변의 안정적인 유동장을 시뮬레이션하기 위해 설정됩니다.

시뮬레이션 결과는 이전 실험 결과와 비교되었으며 좋은 일치를 보여줍니다. 그 다음에, 세굴 특성, 평형 세굴 깊이 및 최대 세굴 체적에 대한 AR의 개구수 및 입사각의 영향을 조사하였다. 결과는 개구수가 증가함에 따라 세굴 깊이와 세굴 부피가 감소함을 나타냅니다.

또한 수치적 결과를 바탕으로 AR의 개구수가 평형 세굴깊이와 최대 세굴량에 미치는 영향에 대한 실증식을 제시하였다. 입사각의 변화는 AR의 가장 상류 코너에서 베드 전단 응력의 변화에 영향을 미칠 것입니다. 베드 전단 응력이 클수록 세굴이 더 강해집니다.

본 연구는 증강현실의 최적화된 공학적 설계 및 구축을 위한 이론적 지원과 실질적인 지침을 제공할 것이다. 결과는 개구수가 증가함에 따라 세굴 깊이와 세굴 부피가 감소함을 나타냅니다. 또한 수치적 결과를 바탕으로 AR의 개구수가 평형 세굴깊이와 최대 세굴량에 미치는 영향에 대한 실증식을 제시하였다.

입사각의 변화는 AR의 가장 상류 코너에서 베드 전단 응력의 변화에 영향을 미칠 것입니다. 베드 전단 응력이 클수록 세굴이 더 강해집니다. 본 연구는 증강현실의 최적화된 공학적 설계 및 구축을 위한 이론적 지원과 실질적인 지침을 제공할 것이다.

결과는 개구수가 증가함에 따라 세굴 깊이와 세굴 부피가 감소함을 나타냅니다. 또한 수치적 결과를 바탕으로 AR의 개구수가 평형 세굴깊이와 최대 세굴량에 미치는 영향에 대한 실증식을 제시하였다. 입사각의 변화는 AR의 가장 상류 코너에서 베드 전단 응력의 변화에 영향을 미칠 것입니다.

베드 전단 응력이 클수록 세굴이 더 강해집니다. 본 연구는 증강현실의 최적화된 공학적 설계 및 구축을 위한 이론적 지원과 실질적인 지침을 제공할 것이다. 입사각의 변화는 AR의 가장 상류 코너에서 베드 전단 응력의 변화에 영향을 미칠 것입니다.

베드 전단 응력이 클수록 세굴이 더 강해집니다. 본 연구는 증강현실의 최적화된 공학적 설계 및 구축을 위한 이론적 지원과 실질적인 지침을 제공할 것이다. 입사각의 변화는 AR의 가장 상류 코너에서 베드 전단 응력의 변화에 영향을 미칠 것입니다. 베드 전단 응력이 클수록 세굴이 더 강해집니다.

본 연구는 증강현실의 최적화된 공학적 설계 및 구축을 위한 이론적 지원과 실질적인 지침을 제공할 것이다.

Artificial reefs (ARs) are one of the key man-made constructs to restore the offshore fishery resources and recover the ecological environment. However, it is found that many ARs lost their stability and function due to scour. In order to ensure the functional effect of ARs, it is of great significance to study the instability of ARs, like burying caused by scour in different flow conditions. The three-dimensional numerical model established by FLOW-3D is used to study the local scour characteristics around the AR in steady currents. The RANS equations, closed with the RNG k-ε turbulence model, are established for simulating a stable flow field around one AR. The simulation results are compared with previous experimental results and shows good agreement. Then, the effect of the opening number and the incident angles of ARs on the scour characteristics, the equilibrium scour depth and maximum scour volume are investigated. The results indicate that the scour depth and scour volume decrease with the increasing opening number. Moreover, the empirical equations of the effect of the opening number of the AR on the equilibrium scour depth and maximum scour volume are proposed based on the numerical results. The change of the incident angles will affect the change of bed shear stress at the most upstream corner of the AR. The greater bed shear stress results in a more intense scour. This study will provide theoretical support, and practical guidance for the optimized engineering design and construction of ARs.

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in renewable energies in view of the fact that fossil fuels are the leading cause of catastrophic environmental consequences. Ocean wave energy is a renewable energy source that is particularly prevalent in coastal areas. Since many countries have tremendous potential to extract this type of energy, a number of researchers have sought to determine certain effective factors on wave converters’ performance, with a primary emphasis on ambient factors. In this study, we used metaheuristic optimization methods to investigate the effects of geometric factors on the performance of an Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter (OSWEC), in addition to the effects of hydrodynamic parameters. To do so, we used CATIA software to model different geometries which were then inserted into a numerical model developed in Flow3D software. A Ribed-surface design of the converter’s flap is also introduced in this study to maximize wave-converter interaction. Besides, a Bi-level Hill Climbing Multi-Verse Optimization (HCMVO) method was also developed for this application. The results showed that the converter performs better with greater wave heights, flap freeboard heights, and shorter wave periods. Additionally, the added ribs led to more wave-converter interaction and better performance, while the distance between the flap and flume bed negatively impacted the performance. Finally, tracking the changes in the five-dimensional objective function revealed the optimum value for each parameter in all scenarios. This is achieved by the newly developed optimization algorithm, which is much faster than other existing cutting-edge metaheuristic approaches.

Keywords

Wave Energy Converter

OSWEC

Hydrodynamic Effects

Geometric Design

Metaheuristic Optimization

Multi-Verse Optimizer

^{1}. ^{Introduction}

The increase in energy demand, the limitations of fossil fuels, as well as environmental crises, such as air pollution and global warming, are the leading causes of calling more attention to harvesting renewable energy recently [1], [2], [3]. While still in its infancy, ocean wave energy has neither reached commercial maturity nor technological convergence. In recent decades, remarkable progress has been made in the marine energy domain, which is still in the early stage of development, to improve the technology performance level (TPL) [4], [5]and technology readiness level (TRL) of wave energy converters (WECs). This has been achieved using novel modeling techniques [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14] to gain the following advantages [15]: (i) As a source of sustainable energy, it contributes to the mix of energy resources that leads to greater diversity and attractiveness for coastal cities and suppliers. [16] (ii) Since wave energy can be exploited offshore and does not require any land, in-land site selection would be less expensive and undesirable visual effects would be reduced. [17] (iii) When the best layout and location of offshore site are taken into account, permanent generation of energy will be feasible (as opposed to using solar energy, for example, which is time-dependent) [18].

In general, the energy conversion process can be divided into three stages in a WEC device, including primary, secondary, and tertiary stages [19], [20]. In the first stage of energy conversion, which is the subject of this study, the wave power is converted to mechanical power by wave-structure interaction (WSI) between ocean waves and structures. Moreover, the mechanical power is transferred into electricity in the second stage, in which mechanical structures are coupled with power take-off systems (PTO). At this stage, optimal control strategies are useful to tune the system dynamics to maximize power output [10], [13], [12]. Furthermore, the tertiary energy conversion stage revolves around transferring the non-standard AC power into direct current (DC) power for energy storage or standard AC power for grid integration [21], [22]. We discuss only the first stage regardless of the secondary and tertiary stages. While Page 1 of 16 WECs include several categories and technologies such as terminators, point absorbers, and attenuators [15], [23], we focus on oscillating surge wave energy converters (OSWECs) in this paper due to its high capacity for industrialization [24].

Over the past two decades, a number of studies have been conducted to understand how OSWECs’ structures and interactions between ocean waves and flaps affect converters performance. Henry et al.’s experiment on oscillating surge wave energy converters is considered as one of the most influential pieces of research [25], which demonstrated how the performance of oscillating surge wave energy converters (OSWECs) is affected by seven different factors, including wave period, wave power, flap’s relative density, water depth, free-board of the flap, the gap between the tubes, gap underneath the flap, and flap width. These parameters were assessed in their two models in order to estimate the absorbed energy from incoming waves [26], [27]. In addition, Folly et al. investigated the impact of water depth on the OSWECs performance analytically, numerically, and experimentally. According to this and further similar studies, the average annual incident wave power is significantly reduced by water depth. Based on the experimental results, both the surge wave force and the power capture of OSWECs increase in shallow water [28], [29]. Following this, Sarkar et al. found that under such circumstances, the device that is located near the coast performs much better than those in the open ocean [30]. On the other hand, other studies are showing that the size of the converter, including height and width, is relatively independent of the location (within similar depth) [31]. Subsequently, Schmitt et al. studied OSWECs numerically and experimentally. In fact, for the simulation of OSWEC, OpenFOAM was used to test the applicability of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers. Then, the experimental model reproduced the numerical results with satisfying accuracy [32]. In another influential study, Wang et al. numerically assessed the effect of OSWEC’s width on their performance. According to their findings, as converter width increases, its efficiency decreases in short wave periods while increases in long wave periods [33]. One of the main challenges in the analysis of the OSWEC is the coupled effect of hydrodynamic and geometric variables. As a result, numerous cutting-edge geometry studies have been performed in recent years in order to find the optimal structure that maximizes power output and minimizes costs. Garcia et al. reviewed hull geometry optimization studies in the literature in [19]. In addition, Guo and Ringwood surveyed geometric optimization methods to improve the hydrodynamic performance of OSWECs at the primary stage [14]. Besides, they classified the hull geometry of OSWECs based on Figure 1. Subsequently, Whittaker et al. proposed a different design of OSWEC called Oyster2. There have been three examples of different geometries of oysters with different water depths. Based on its water depth, they determined the width and height of the converter. They also found that in the constant wave period the less the converter’s width, the less power captures the converter has [34]. Afterward, O’Boyle et al. investigated a type of OSWEC called Oyster 800. They compared the experimental and numerical models with the prototype model. In order to precisely reproduce the shape, mass distribution, and buoyancy properties of the prototype, a 40th-scale experimental model has been designed. Overall, all the models were fairly accurate according to the results [35].

Inclusive analysis of recent research avenues in the area of flap geometry has revealed that the interaction-based designs of such converters are emerging as a novel approach. An initiative workflow is designed in the current study to maximizing the wave energy extrication by such systems. To begin with, a sensitivity analysis plays its role of determining the best hydrodynamic values for installing the converter’s flap. Then, all flap dimensions and characteristics come into play to finalize the primary model. Following, interactive designs is proposed to increase the influence of incident waves on the body by adding ribs on both sides of the flap as a novel design. Finally, a new bi-level metaheuristic method is proposed to consider the effects of simultaneous changes in ribs properties and other design parameters. We hope this novel approach will be utilized to make big-scale projects less costly and justifiable. The efficiency of the method is also compared with four well known metaheuristic algorithms and out weight them for this application.

This paper is organized as follows. First, the research methodology is introduced by providing details about the numerical model implementation. To that end, we first introduced the primary model’s geometry and software details. That primary model is later verified with a benchmark study with regard to the flap angle of rotation and water surface elevation. Then, governing equations and performance criteria are presented. In the third part of the paper, we discuss the model’s sensitivity to lower and upper parts width (we proposed a two cross-sectional design for the flap), bottom elevation, and freeboard. Finally, the novel optimization approach is introduced in the final part and compared with four recent metaheuristic algorithms.

2. Numerical Methods

In this section, after a brief introduction of the numerical software, Flow3D, boundary conditions are defined. Afterwards, the numerical model implementation, along with primary model properties are described. Finally, governing equations, as part of numerical process, are discussed.

^{2.1}. ^{Model Setup}

FLOW-3D is a powerful and comprehensive CFD simulation platform for studying fluid dynamics. This software has several modules to solve many complex engineering problems. In addition, modeling complex flows is simple and effective using FLOW-3D’s robust meshing capabilities [36]. Interaction between fluid and moving objects might alter the computational range. Dynamic meshes are used in our modeling to take these changes into account. At each time step, the computational node positions change in order to adapt the meshing area to the moving object. In addition, to choose mesh dimensions, some factors are taken into account such as computational accuracy, computational time, and stability. The final grid size is selected based on the detailed procedure provided in [37]. To that end, we performed grid-independence testing on a CFD model using three different mesh grid sizes of 0.01, 0.015, and 0.02 meters. The problem geometry and boundary conditions were defined the same, and simulations were run on all three grids under the same conditions. The predicted values of the relevant variable, such as velocity, was compared between the grids. The convergence behavior of the numerical solution was analyzed by calculating the relative L2 norm error between two consecutive grids. Based on the results obtained, it was found that the grid size of 0.02 meters showed the least error, indicating that it provided the most accurate and reliable solution among the three grids. Therefore, the grid size of 0.02 meters was selected as the optimal spatial resolution for the mesh grid.

In this work, the flume dimensions are 10 meters long, 0.1 meters wide, and 2.2 meters high, which are shown in figure2. In addition, input waves with linear characteristics have a height of 0.1 meters and a period of 1.4 seconds. Among the linear wave methods included in this software, RNGk-ε and k- ε are appropriate for turbulence model. The research of Lopez et al. shows that RNGk- ε provides the most accurate simulation of turbulence in OSWECs [21]. We use CATIA software to create the flap primary model and other innovative designs for this project. The flap measures 0.1 m x 0.65 m x 0.360 m in x, y and z directions, respectively. In Figure 3, the primary model of flap and its dimensions are shown. In this simulation, five boundaries have been defined, including 1. Inlet, 2. Outlet, 3. Converter flap, 4. Bed flume, and 5. Water surface, which are shown in figure 2. Besides, to avoid wave reflection in inlet and outlet zones, Flow3D is capable of defining some areas as damping zones, the length of which has to be one to one and a half times the wavelength. Therefore, in the model, this length is considered equal to 2 meters. Furthermore, there is no slip in all the boundaries. In other words, at every single time step, the fluid velocity is zero on the bed flume, while it is equal to the flap velocity on the converter flap. According to the wave theory defined in the software, at the inlet boundary, the water velocity is called from the wave speed to be fed into the model.

^{2.2}. ^{Verification}

In the current study, we utilize the Schmitt experimental model as a benchmark for verification, which was developed at the Queen’s University of Belfast. The experiments were conducted on the flap of the converter, its rotation, and its interaction with the water surface. Thus, the details of the experiments are presented below based up on the experimental setup’s description [38]. In the experiment, the laboratory flume has a length of 20m and a width of 4.58m. Besides, in order to avoid incident wave reflection, a wave absorption source is devised at the end of the left flume. The flume bed, also, includes two parts with different slops. The flap position and dimensions of the flume can be seen in Figure4. In addition, a wave-maker with 6 paddles is installed at one end. At the opposite end, there is a beach with wire meshes. Additionally, there are 6 indicators to extract the water level elevation. In the flap model, there are three components: the fixed support structure, the hinge, and the flap. The flap measures 0.1m x 0.65m x 0.341m in x, y and z directions, respectively. In Figure5, the details are given [32]. The support structure consists of a 15 mm thick stainless steel base plate measuring 1m by 1.4m, which is screwed onto the bottom of the tank. The hinge is supported by three bearing blocks. There is a foam centerpiece on the front and back of the flap which is sandwiched between two PVC plates. Enabling changes of the flap, three metal fittings link the flap to the hinge. Moreover, in this experiment, the selected wave is generated based on sea wave data at scale 1:40. The wave height and the wave period are equal to 0.038 (m) and 2.0625 (s), respectively, which are tantamount to a wave with a period of 13 (s) and a height of 1.5 (m).

Two distinct graphs illustrate the numerical and experi-mental study results. Figure6 and Figure7 are denoting the angle of rotation of flap and surface elevation in computational and experimental models, respectively. The two figures roughly represent that the numerical and experimental models are a good match. However, for the purpose of verifying the match, we calculated the correlation coefficient (C) and root mean square error (RMSE). According to Figure6, correlation coefficient and RMSE are 0.998 and 0.003, respectively, and in Figure7 correlation coefficient and RMSE are respectively 0.999 and 0.001. Accordingly, there is a good match between the numerical and empirical models. It is worth mentioning that the small differences between the numerical and experimental outputs may be due to the error of the measuring devices and the calibration of the data collection devices.

Including continuity equation and momentum conserva- tion for incompressible fluid are given as [32], [39]:(1)

where P represents the pressure, g denotes gravitational acceleration, u represents fluid velocity, and Di is damping coefficient. Likewise, the model uses the same equation. to calculate the fluid velocity in other directions as well. Considering the turbulence, we use the two-equation model of RNGK- ε. These equations are:

(3)��t(��)+����(����)=����[�eff�������]+��-��and(4)���(��)+����(����)=����[�eff�������]+�1�∗����-��2��2�Where �2� and �1� are constants. In addition, �� and �� represent the turbulent Prandtl number of � and k, respectively.

�� also denote the production of turbulent kinetic energy of k under the effect of velocity gradient, which is calculated as follows:(5)��=�eff[�����+�����]�����(6)�eff=�+��(7)�eff=�+��where � is molecular viscosity,�� represents turbulence viscosity, k denotes kinetic energy, and ∊∊ is energy dissipation rate. The values of constant coefficients in the two-equation RNGK ∊-∊ model is as shown in the Table 1[40].Table 2.

Table 1. Constant coefficients in RNGK-∊ model

Factors

�

�0

�1

�2

��

��

��

Quantity

0.012

4.38

1.42

1.68

1.39

1.39

0.084

Table 2. Flap properties

Joint height (m)

0.476

Height of the center of mass (m)

0.53

Weight (Kg)

10.77

It is worth mentioning that the volume of fluid method is used to separate water and air phases in this software [41]. Below is the equation of this method [40].(8)����+����(���)=0where α and 1 − _{α} are portion of water phase and air phase, respectively. As a weighting factor, each fluid phase portion is used to determine the mixture properties. Finally, using the following equations, we calculate the efficiency of converters [42], [34], [43]:(9)�=14|�|2�+�2+(�+�a)2(�n2-�2)2where �� represents natural frequency, I denotes the inertia of OSWEC, Ia is the added inertia, F is the complex wave force, and B denotes the hydrodynamic damping coefficient. Afterward, the capture factor of the converter is calculated by [44]:(10)��=�1/2��2����gw where �� represents the capture factor, which is the total efficiency of device per unit length of the wave crest at each time step [15], �� represent the dimensional amplitude of the incident wave, w is the flap’s width, and Cg is the group velocity of the incident wave, as below:(11)��=��0·121+2�0ℎsinh2�0ℎwhere �0 denotes the wave number, h is water depth, and H is the height of incident waves.

According to previous sections ∊,����-∊ modeling is used for all models simulated in this section. For this purpose, the empty boundary condition is used for flume walls. In order to preventing wave reflection at the inlet and outlet of the flume, the length of wave absorption is set to be at least one incident wavelength. In addition, the structured mesh is chosen, and the mesh dimensions are selected in two distinct directions. In each model, all grids have a length of 2 (cm) and a height of 1 (cm). Afterwards, as an input of the software for all of the models, we define the time step as 0.001 (s). Moreover, the run time of every simulation is 30 (s). As mentioned before, our primary model is Schmitt model, and the flap properties is given in table2. For all simulations, the flume measures 15 meters in length and 0.65 meters in width, and water depth is equal to 0.335 (m). The flap is also located 7 meters from the flume’s inlet.

Finally, in order to compare the results, the capture factor is calculated for each simulation and compared to the primary model. It is worth mentioning that capture factor refers to the ratio of absorbed wave energy to the input wave energy.

According to primary model simulation and due to the decreasing horizontal velocity with depth, the wave crest has the highest velocity. Considering the fact that the wave’s orbital velocity causes the flap to move, the contact between the upper edge of the flap and the incident wave can enhance its performance. Additionally, the numerical model shows that the dynamic pressure decreases as depth increases, and the hydrostatic pressure increases as depth increases.

To determine the OSWEC design, it is imperative to understand the correlation between the capture factor, wave period, and wave height. Therefore, as it is shown in Figure8, we plot the change in capture factor over the variations in wave period and wave height in 3D and 2D. In this diagram, the first axis features changes in wave period, the second axis displays changes in wave height, and the third axis depicts changes in capture factor. According to our wave properties in the numerical model, the wave period and wave height range from 2 to 14 seconds and 2 to 8 meters, respectively. This is due to the fact that the flap does not oscillate if the wave height is less than 2 (m), and it does not reverse if the wave height is more than 8 (m). In addition, with wave periods more than 14 (s), the wavelength would be so long that it would violate the deep-water conditions, and with wave periods less than 2 (s), the flap would not oscillate properly due to the shortness of wavelength. The results of simulation are shown in Figure 8. As it can be perceived from Figure 8, in a constant wave period, the capture factor is in direct proportion to the wave height. It is because of the fact that waves with more height have more energy to rotate the flap. Besides, in a constant wave height, the capture factor increases when the wave period increases, until a given wave period value. However, the capture factor falls after this point. These results are expected since the flap’s angular displacement is not high in lower wave periods, while the oscillating motion of that is not fast enough to activate the power take-off system in very high wave periods.

As is shown in Figure 9, we plot the change in capture factor over the variations in wave period (s) and water depth (m) in 3D. As it can be seen in this diagram, the first axis features changes in water depth (m), the second axis depicts the wave period (s), and the third axis displays OSWEC’s capture factor. The wave period ranges from 0 to 10 seconds based on our wave properties, which have been adopted from Schmitt’s model, while water depth ranges from 0 to 0.5 meters according to the flume and flap dimensions and laboratory limitations. According to Figure9, for any specific water depth, the capture factor increases in a varying rate when the wave period increases, until a given wave period value. However, the capture factor falls steadily after this point. In fact, the maximum capture factor occurs when the wave period is around 6 seconds. This trend is expected since, in a specific water depth, the flap cannot oscillate properly when the wavelength is too short. As the wave period increases, the flap can oscillate more easily, and consequently its capture factor increases. However, the capture factor drops in higher wave periods because the wavelength is too large to move the flap. Furthermore, in a constant wave period, by changing the water depth, the capture factor does not alter. In other words, the capture factor does not depend on the water depth when it is around its maximum value.

^{3}. ^{Sensitivity Analysis}

Based on previous studies, in addition to the flap design, the location of the flap relative to the water surface (freeboard) and its elevation relative to the flume bed (flap bottom elevation) play a significant role in extracting energy from the wave energy converter. This study measures the sensitivity of the model to various parameters related to the flap design including upper part width of the flap, lower part width of the flap, the freeboard, and the flap bottom elevation. Moreover, as a novel idea, we propose that the flap widths differ in the lower and upper parts. In Figure10, as an example, a flap with an upper thickness of 100 (mm) and a lower thickness of 50 (mm) and a flap with an upper thickness of 50 (mm) and a lower thickness of 100 (mm) are shown. The influence of such discrepancy between the widths of the upper and lower parts on the interaction between the wave and the flap, or in other words on the capture factor, is evaluated. To do so, other parameters are remained constant, such as the freeboard, the distance between the flap and the flume bed, and the wave properties.

In Figure11, models are simulated with distinct upper and lower widths. As it is clear in this figure, the first axis depicts the lower part width of the flap, the second axis indicates the upper part width of the flap, and the colors represent the capture factor values. Additionally, in order to consider a sufficient range of change, the flap thickness varies from half to double the value of the primary model for each part.

According to this study, the greater the discrepancy in these two parts, the lower the capture factor. It is on account of the fact that when the lower part of the flap is thicker than the upper part, and this thickness difference in these two parts is extremely conspicuous, the inertia against the motion is significant at zero degrees of rotation. Consequently, it is difficult to move the flap, which results in a low capture factor. Similarly, when the upper part of the flap is thicker than the lower part, and this thickness difference in these two parts is exceedingly noticeable, the inertia is so great that the flap can not reverse at the maximum degree of rotation. As the results indicate, the discrepancy can enhance the performance of the converter if the difference between these two parts is around 20%. As it is depicted in the Figure11, the capture factor reaches its own maximum amount, when the lower part thickness is from 5 to 6 (cm), and the upper part thickness is between 6 and 7 (cm). Consequently, as a result of this discrepancy, less material will be used, and therefore there will be less cost.

As illustrated in Figure12, this study examines the effects of freeboard (level difference between the flap top and water surface) and the flap bottom elevation (the distance between the flume bed and flap bottom) on the converter performance. In this diagram, the first axis demonstrates the freeboard and the second axis on the left side displays the flap bottom elevation, while the colors indicate the capture factor. In addition, the feasible range of freeboard is between -15 to 15 (cm) due to the limitation of the numerical model, so that we can take the wave slamming and the overtopping into consideration. Additionally, based on the Schmitt model and its scaled model of 1:40 of the base height, the flap bottom should be at least 9 (cm) high. Since the effect of surface waves is distributed over the depth of the flume, it is imperative to maintain a reasonable flap height exposed to incoming waves. Thus, the maximum flap bottom elevation is limited to 19 (cm). As the Figure12 pictures, at constant negative values of the freeboard, the capture factor is in inverse proportion with the flap bottom elevation, although slightly.

Furthermore, at constant positive values of the freeboard, the capture factor fluctuates as the flap bottom elevation decreases while it maintains an overall increasing trend. This is on account of the fact that increasing the flap bottom elevation creates turbulence flow behind the flap, which encumbers its rotation, as well as the fact that the flap surface has less interaction with the incoming waves. Furthermore, while keeping the flap bottom elevation constant, the capture factor increases by raising the freeboard. This is due to the fact that there is overtopping with adverse impacts on the converter performance when the freeboard is negative and the flap is under the water surface. Besides, increasing the freeboard makes the wave slam more vigorously, which improves the converter performance.

Adding ribs to the flap surface, as shown in Figure13, is a novel idea that is investigated in the next section. To achieve an optimized design for the proposed geometry of the flap, we determine the optimal number and dimensions of ribs based on the flap properties as our decision variables in the optimization process. As an example, Figure13 illustrates a flap with 3 ribs on each side with specific dimensions.

Figure14 shows the flow velocity field around the flap jointed to the flume bed. During the oscillation of the flap, the pressure on the upper and lower surfaces of the flap changes dynamically due to the changing angle of attack and the resulting change in the direction of fluid flow. As the flap moves upwards, the pressure on the upper surface decreases, and the pressure on the lower surface increases. Conversely, as the flap moves downwards, the pressure on the upper surface increases, and the pressure on the lower surface decreases. This results in a cyclic pressure variation around the flap. Under certain conditions, the pressure field around the flap can exhibit significant variations in magnitude and direction, forming vortices and other flow structures. These flow structures can affect the performance of the OSWEC by altering the lift and drag forces acting on the flap.

^{4}. ^{Design Optimization}

We consider optimizing the design parameters of the flap of converter using a nature-based swarm optimization method, that fall in the category of metaheuristic algorithms [45]. Accordingly, we choose four state-of-the-art algorithms to perform an optimization study. Then, based on their performances to achieve the highest capture factor, one of them will be chosen to be combined with the Hill Climb algorithm to carry out a local search. Therefore, in the remainder of this section, we discuss the search process of each algorithm and visualize their performance and convergence curve as they try to find the best values for decision variables.

4.1. Metaheuristic Approaches

As the first considered algorithm, the Gray Wolf Optimizer (GWO) algorithm simulates the natural leadership and hunting performance of gray wolves which tend to live in colonies. Hunters must obey the alpha wolf, the leader, who is responsible for hunting. Then, the beta wolf is at the second level of the gray wolf hierarchy. A subordinate of alpha wolf, beta stands under the command of the alpha. At the next level in this hierarchy, there are the delta wolves. They are subordinate to the alpha and beta wolves. This category of wolves includes scouts, sentinels, elders, hunters, and caretakers. In this ranking, omega wolves are at the bottom, having the lowest level and obeying all other wolves. They are also allowed to eat the prey just after others have eaten. Despite the fact that they seem less important than others, they are really central to the pack survival. Since, it has been shown that without omega wolves, the entire pack would experience some problems like fighting, violence, and frustration. In this simulation, there are three primary steps of hunting including searching, surrounding, and finally attacking the prey. Mathematically model of gray wolves’ hunting technique and their social hierarchy are applied in determined by optimization. this study. As mentioned before, gray wolves can locate their prey and surround them. The alpha wolf also leads the hunt. Assuming that the alpha, beta, and delta have more knowledge about prey locations, we can mathematically simulate gray wolf hunting behavior. Hence, in addition to saving the top three best solutions obtained so far, we compel the rest of the search agents (also the omegas) to adjust their positions based on the best search agent. Encircling behavior can be mathematically modeled by the following equations: [46].(12)�→=|�→·��→(�)-�→(�)|(13)�→(�+1)=��→(�)-�→·�→(14)�→=2.�2→(15)�→=2�→·�1→-�→Where �→indicates the position vector of gray wolf, ��→ defines the vector of prey, t indicates the current iteration, and �→and �→are coefficient vectors. To force the search agent to diverge from the prey, we use �→ with random values greater than 1 or less than -1. In addition, C→ contains random values in the range [0,2], and �→ _{1} and �2→ are random vectors in [0,1]. The second considered technique is the Moth Flame Optimizer (MFO) algorithm. This method revolves around the moths’ navigation mechanism, which is realized by positioning themselves and maintaining a fixed angle relative to the moon while flying. This effective mechanism helps moths to fly in a straight path. However, when the source of light is artificial, maintaining an angle with the light leads to a spiral flying path towards the source that causes the moth’s death [47]. In MFO algorithm, moths and flames are both solutions. The moths are actual search agents that fly in hyper-dimensional space by changing their position vectors, and the flames are considered pins that moths drop when searching the search space [48]. The problem’s variables are the position of moths in the space. Each moth searches around a flame and updates it in case of finding a better solution. The fitness value is the return value of each moth’s fitness (objective) function. The position vector of each moth is passed to the fitness function, and the output of the fitness function is assigned to the corresponding moth. With this mechanism, a moth never loses its best solution [49]. Some attributes of this algorithm are as follows:

•It takes different values to converge moth in any point around the flame.

•Distance to the flame is lowered to be eventually minimized.

•When the position gets closer to the flame, the updated positions around the flame become more frequent.

As another method, the Multi-Verse Optimizer is based on a multiverse theory which proposes there are other universes besides the one in which we all live. According to this theory, there are more than one big bang in the universe, and each big bang leads to the birth of a new universe [50]. Multi-Verse Optimizer (MVO) is mainly inspired by three phenomena in cosmology: white holes, black holes, and wormholes. A white hole has never been observed in our universe, but physicists believe the big bang could be considered a white hole [51]. Black holes, which behave completely in contrast to white holes, attract everything including light beams with their extremely high gravitational force [52]. In the multiverse theory, wormholes are time and space tunnels that allow objects to move instantly between any two corners of a universe (or even simultaneously from one universe to another) [53]. Based on these three concepts, mathematical models are designed to perform exploration, exploitation, and local search, respectively. The concept of white and black holes is implied as an exploration phase, while the concept of wormholes is considered as an exploitation phase by MVO. Additionally, each solution is analogous to a universe, and each variable in the solution represents an object in that universe. Furthermore, each solution is assigned an inflation rate, and the time is used instead of iterations. Following are the universe rules in MVO:

•The possibility of having white hole increases with the inflation rate.

•The possibility of having black hole decreases with the inflation rate.

•Objects tend to pass through black holes more frequently in universes with lower inflation rates.

•Regardless of inflation rate, wormholes may cause objects in universes to move randomly towards the best universe. [54]

Modeling the white/black hole tunnels and exchanging objects of universes mathematically was accomplished by using the roulette wheel mechanism. With every iteration, the universes are sorted according to their inflation rates, then, based on the roulette wheel, the one with the white hole is selected as the local extremum solution. This is accomplished through the following steps:

Assume that

(16)���=����1<��(��)����1≥��(��)

Where ��� represents the jth parameter of the ith universe, Ui indicates the ith universe, NI(Ui) is normalized inflation rate of the ith universe, r1 is a random number in [0,1], and j x_{k} shows the jth parameter of the kth universe selected by a roulette wheel selection mechanism [54]. It is assumed that wormhole tunnels always exist between a universe and the best universe formed so far. This mechanism is as follows:(17)���=if�2<���:��+���×((���-���)×�4+���)�3<0.5��-���×((���-���)×�4+���)�3≥0.5����:���where Xj indicates the jth parameter of the best universe formed so far, TDR and WEP are coefficients, where Xj indicates the jth parameter of the best universelbjshows the lower bound of the jth variable, ubj is the upper bound of the jth variable, and r2, r3, and r4 are random numbers in [1], [54].

Finally, one of the newest optimization algorithms is WOA. The WOA algorithm simulates the movement of prey and the whale’s discipline when looking for their prey. Among several species, Humpback whales have a specific method of hunting [55]. Humpback whales can recognize the location of prey and encircle it before hunting. The optimal design position in the search space is not known a priori, and the WOA algorithm assumes that the best candidate solution is either the target prey or close to the optimum. This foraging behavior is called the bubble-net feeding method. Two maneuvers are associated with bubbles: upward spirals and double loops. A unique behavior exhibited only by humpback whales is bubble-net feeding. In fact, The WOA algorithm starts with a set of random solutions. At each iteration, search agents update their positions for either a randomly chosen search agent or the best solution obtained so far [56], [55]. When the best search agent is determined, the other search agents will attempt to update their positions toward that agent. It is important to note that humpback whales swim around their prey simultaneously in a circular, shrinking circle and along a spiral-shaped path. By using a mathematical model, the spiral bubble-net feeding maneuver is optimized. The following equation represents this behavior:(18)�→(�+1)=�′→·�bl·cos(2��)+�∗→(�)

Where:(19)�′→=|�∗→(�)-�→(�)|

X→_{(t}_{+ 1)} indicates the distance of the it h whale to the prey (best solution obtained so far),� is a constant for defining the shape of the logarithmic spiral, l is a random number in [−1_{,}_{1]}, and dot (.) is an element-by-element multiplication [55].

Comparing the four above-mentioned methods, simulations are run with 10 search agents for 400 iterations. In Figure 15, there are 20 plots the optimal values of different parameters in optimization algorithms. The five parameters of this study are freeboard, bottom elevations, number of ribs on the converter, rib thickness, and rib Height. The optimal value for each was found by optimization algorithms, naming WOA, MVO, MFO, and GWO. By looking through the first row, the freeboard parameter converges to its maximum possible value in the optimization process of GWO after 300 iterations. Similarly, MFO finds the same result as GWO. In contrast, the freeboard converges to its minimum possible value in MVO optimizing process, which indicates positioning the converter under the water. Furthermore, WOA found the optimal value of freeboard as around 0.02 after almost 200 iterations. In the second row, the bottom elevation is found at almost 0.11 (m) in all algorithms; however, the curves follow different trends in each algorithm. The third row shows the number of ribs, where results immediately reveal that it should be over 4. All algorithms coincide at 5 ribs as the optimal number in this process. The fourth row displays the trends of algorithms to find optimal rib thickness. MFO finds the optimal value early and sets it to around 0.022, while others find the same value in higher iterations. Finally, regarding the rib height, MVO, MFO, and GWO state that the optimal value is 0.06 meters, but WOA did not find a higher value than 0.039.

4.2. HCMVO Bi-level Approach

Despite several strong search characteristics of MVO and its high performance in various optimization problems, it suffers from a few deficiencies in local and global search mechanisms. For instance, it is trapped in the local optimum when wormholes stochastically generate many solutions near the best universe achieved throughout iterations, especially in solving complex multimodal problems with high dimensions [57]. Furthermore, MVO needs to be modified by an escaping strategy from the local optima to enhance the global search abilities. To address these shortages, we propose a fast and effective meta-algorithm (HCMVO) to combine MVO with a Random-restart hill-climbing local search. This meta-algorithm uses MVO on the upper level to develop global tracking and provide a range of feasible and proper solutions. The hill-climbing algorithm is designed to develop a comprehensive neighborhood search around the best-found solution proposed by the upper-level (MVO) when MVO is faced with a stagnation issue or falling into a local optimum. The performance threshold is formulated as follows.(20)Δ����THD=∑�=1�����TH��-����TH��-1�where BestTHDis the best-found solution per generation, andM is related to the domain of iterations to compute the average performance of MVO. If the proposed best solution by the local search is better than the initial one, the global best of MVO will be updated. HCMVO iteratively runs hill climbing when the performance of MVO goes down, each time with an initial condition to prepare for escaping such undesirable situations. In order to get a better balance between exploration and exploitation, the search step size linearly decreases as follows:(21)��=��-����Ma�iter��+1where iter and Maxiter are the current iteration and maximum number of evaluation, respectively. �� stands for the step size of the neighborhood search. Meanwhile, this strategy can improve the convergence rate of MVO compared with other algorithms.

Algorithm 1 shows the technical details of the proposed optimization method (HCMVO). The initial solution includes freeboard (�), bottom elevation (�), number of ribs (Nr), rib thickness (�), and rib height(�).

5. Conclusion

The high trend of diminishing worldwide energy resources has entailed a great crisis upon vulnerable societies. To withstand this effect, developing renewable energy technologies can open doors to a more reliable means, among which the wave energy converters will help the coastal residents and infrastructure. This paper set out to determine the optimized design for such devices that leads to the highest possible power output. The main goal of this research was to demonstrate the best design for an oscillating surge wave energy converter using a novel metaheuristic optimization algorithm. In this regard, the methodology was devised such that it argued the effects of influential parameters, including wave characteristics, WEC design, and interaction criteria.

To begin with, a numerical model was developed in Flow 3D software to simulate the response of the flap of a wave energy converter to incoming waves, followed by a validation study based upon a well-reputed experimental study to verify the accuracy of the model. Secondly, the hydrodynamics of the flap was investigated by incorporating the turbulence. The effect of depth, wave height, and wave period are also investigated in this part. The influence of two novel ideas on increasing the wave-converter interaction was then assessed: i) designing a flap with different widths in the upper and lower part, and ii) adding ribs on the surface of the flap. Finally, four trending single-objective metaheuristic optimization methods

Empty Cell

Algorithm 1:Hill Climb Multiverse Optimization

01:

procedure HCMVO

02:

�=30,�=5▹���������������������������������

03:

�=〈F1,B1,N,R,H1〉,…〈FN,B2,N,R,HN〉⇒lb1N⩽�⩽ubN

04:

Initialize parameters�ER,�DR,�EP,Best�,���ite��▹Wormhole existence probability (WEP)

05:

��=����(��)

06:

��=Normalize the inflation rate��

07:

for iter in[1,⋯,���iter]do

08:

for�in[1,⋯,�]do

09:

Update�EP,�DR,Black����Index=�

10:

for���[1,⋯,�]��

11:

�1=����()

12:

if�1≤��(��)then

13:

White HoleIndex=Roulette�heelSelection(-��)

14:

�(Black HoleIndex,�)=��(White HoleIndex,�)

15:

end if

16:

�2=����([0,�])

17:

if�2≤�EPthen

18:

�3=����(),�4=����()

19:

if�3<0.5then

20:

�1=((��(�)-��(�))×�4+��(�))

21:

�(�,�)=Best�(�)+�DR×�

22:

else

23:

�(�,�)=Best�(�)-�DR×�

24:

end if

25:

end if

26:

end for

27:

end for

28:

�HD=����([�1,�2,⋯,�Np])

29:

Bes�TH�itr=����HD

30:

ΔBestTHD=∑�=1�BestTII��-BestTII��-1�

31:

ifΔBestTHD<��then▹Perform hill climbing local search

32:

BestTHD=����-�lim��������THD

33:

end if

34:

end for

35:

return�,BestTHD▹Final configuration

36:

end procedure

The implementation details of the hill-climbing algorithm applied in HCMPA can be seen in Algorithm 2. One of the critical parameters isg, which denotes the resolution of the neighborhood search around the proposed global best by MVO. If we set a small step size for hill-climbing, the convergence speed will be decreased. On the other hand, a large step size reinforces the exploration ability. Still, it may reduce the exploitation ability and in return increase the act of jumping from a global optimum or surfaces with high-potential solutions. Per each decision variable, the neighborhood search evaluates two different direct searches, incremental or decremental. After assessing the generated solutions, the best candidate will be selected to iterate the search algorithm. It is noted that the hill-climbing algorithm should not be applied in the initial iteration of the optimization process due to the immense tendency for converging to local optima. Meanwhile, for optimizing largescale problems, hill-climbing is not an appropriate selection. In order to improve understanding of the proposed hybrid optimization algorithm’s steps, the flowchart of HCMVO is designed and can be seen in Figure 16.

Figure 17 shows the observed capture factor (which is the absorbed energy with respect to the available energy) by each optimization algorithm from iterations 1 to 400. The algorithms use ten search agents in their modified codes to find the optimal solutions. While GWO and MFO remain roughly constant after iterations 54 and 40, the other three algorithms keep improving the capture factor. In this case, HCMVO and MVO worked very well in the optimizing process with a capture factor obtained by the former as 0.594 and by the latter as 0.593. MFO almost found its highest value before the iteration 50, which means the exploration part of the algorithm works out well. Similarly, HCMVO does the same. However, it keeps finding the better solution during the optimization process until the last iteration, indicating the strong exploitation part of the algorithm. GWO reveals a weakness in exploration and exploitation because not only does it evoke the least capture factor value, but also the curve remains almost unchanged throughout 350 iterations.

Figure 18 illustrates complex interactions between the five optimization parameters and the capture factor for HCMVO (a), MPA (b), and MFO (c) algorithms. The first interesting observation is that there is a high level of nonlinear relationships among the setting parameters that can make a multi-modal search space. The dark blue lines represent the best-found configuration throughout the optimisation process. Based on both HCMVO (a) and MVO (b), we can infer that the dark blue lines concentrate in a specific range, showing the high convergence ability of both HCMVO and MVO. However, MFO (c) could not find the exact optimal range of the decision variables, and the best-found solutions per generation distribute mostly all around the search space.

Empty Cell

Algorithm 1:Hill Climb Multiverse Optimization

01:

procedure HCMVO

02:

Initialization

03:

Initialize the constraints��1�,��1�

04:

�1�=Mi�1�+���1�/�▹Compute the step size,�is search resolution

were utilized to illuminate the optimum values of the design parameters, and the best method was chosen to develop a new algorithm that performs both local and global search methods.

The correlation between hydrodynamic parameters and the capture factor of the converter was supported by the results. For any given water depth, the capture factor increases as the wave period increases, until a certain wave period value (6 seconds) is reached, after which the capture factor gradually decreases. It is expected since the flap cannot oscillate effectively when the wavelength is too short for a certain water depth. Conversely, when the wavelength is too long, the capture factor decreases. Furthermore, under a constant wave period, increasing the water depth does not affect the capture factor. Regarding the sensitivity analysis, the study found that increasing the flap bottom elevation causes turbulence flow behind the flap and limitation of rotation, which leads to less interaction with the incoming waves. Furthermore, while keeping the flap bottom elevation constant, increasing the freeboard improves the capture factor. Overtopping happens when the freeboard is negative and the flap is below the water surface, which has a detrimental influence on converter performance. Furthermore, raising the freeboard causes the wave impact to become more violent, which increases converter performance.

In the last part, we discussed the search process of each algorithm and visualized their performance and convergence curves as they try to find the best values for decision variables. Among the four selected metaheuristic algorithms, the Multi-verse Optimizer proved to be the most effective in achieving the best answer in terms of the WEC capture factor. However, the MVO needed modifications regarding its escape approach from the local optima in order to improve its global search capabilities. To overcome these constraints, we presented a fast and efficient meta-algorithm (HCMVO) that combines MVO with a Random-restart hill-climbing local search. On a higher level, this meta-algorithm employed MVO to generate global tracking and present a range of possible and appropriate solutions. Taken together, the results demonstrated that there is a significant degree of nonlinearity among the setup parameters that might result in a multimodal search space. Since MVO was faced with a stagnation issue or fell into a local optimum, we constructed a complete neighborhood search around the best-found solution offered by the upper level. In sum, the newly-developed algorithm proved to be highly effective for the problem compared to other similar optimization methods. The strength of the current findings may encourage future investigation on design optimization of wave energy converters using developed geometry as well as the novel approach.

CRediT authorship contribution statement

Erfan Amini: Conceptualization, Methodology, Validation, Data curation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing, Visualization. Mahdieh Nasiri: Conceptualization, Methodology, Validation, Data curation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing, Visualization. Navid Salami Pargoo: Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing. Zahra Mozhgani: Conceptualization, Methodology. Danial Golbaz: Writing – original draft. Mehrdad Baniesmaeil: Writing – original draft. Meysam Majidi Nezhad: . Mehdi Neshat: Supervision, Conceptualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing, Visualization. Davide Astiaso Garcia: Supervision. Georgios Sylaios: Supervision.

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Acknowledgement

This research has been carried out within ILIAD (Inte-grated Digital Framework for Comprehensive Maritime Data and Information Services) project that received funding from the European Union’s H2020 programme.

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Due to their high efficiency, low heat loss and associated sustainability advantages, impinging jets have been used extensively in marine engineering, geotechnical engineering and other engineering practices. In this paper, the flow structure and impact characteristics of impinging jets with different Reynolds numbers and impact distances are systematically studied by Flow-3D based on PIV experiments. In the study, the relevant state parameters of the jets are dimensionlessly treated, obtaining not only the linear relationship between the length of the potential nucleation zone and the impinging distance, but also the linear relationship between the axial velocity and the axial distance in the impinging zone. In addition, after the jet impinges on the flat plate, the vortex action range caused by the wall-attached flow of the jet gradually decreases inward with the increase of the impinging distance. By examining the effect of Reynolds number Re on the hydraulic characteristics of the submerged impact jet, it can be found that the structure of the continuous submerged impact jet is relatively independent of the Reynolds number. At the same time, the final simulation results demonstrate the applicability of the linear relationship between the length of the potential core region and the impact distance. This study provides methodological guidance and theoretical support for relevant engineering practice and subsequent research on impinging jets, which has strong theoretical and practical significance.

Figure 3. (a) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup; (b) PIV images of vertical impinging jets with velocity fields.

Figure 4. (a) Velocity distribution verification at the outlet of the jet pipe; (b) Distribution of flow angle in the mid-axis of the jet [39].

Figure 5. Along-range distribution of the dimensionless axial velocity of the jet at different impact distances.Figure 6 shows the variation of H

Figure 6. Relationship between the distribution of potential core region and the impact height H/D.

Figure 7. The relationship between the potential core length

Figure 8. Along-range distribution of the flow angle φ of the jet at different impact distances.

Figure 9. Velocity distribution along the axis of the jet at different impinging regions.

Figure 10. The absolute value distribution of slope under different impact distances.

Figure 11. Velocity distribution of impinging jet on wall under different impinging distances.

Figure 12. Along-range distribution of the dimensionless axial velocity of the jet at different Reynolds numbers.

Figure 13. Along-range distribution of the flow angle φ of the jet at different Reynolds numbers.

Figure 14. Velocity distribution along the jet axis at different Reynolds numbers.

Figure 15. Velocity distribution of impinging jet on a wall under different Reynolds numbers.

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Mi, H.; Wang, C.; Jia, X.; Hu, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Zhu, Y. Hydraulic Characteristics of Continuous Submerged Jet Impinging on a Wall by Using Numerical Simulation and PIV Experiment. Sustainability2023, 15, 5159. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15065159

AMA Style

Mi H, Wang C, Jia X, Hu B, Wang H, Wang H, Zhu Y. Hydraulic Characteristics of Continuous Submerged Jet Impinging on a Wall by Using Numerical Simulation and PIV Experiment. Sustainability. 2023; 15(6):5159. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15065159Chicago/Turabian Style

Mi, Hongbo, Chuan Wang, Xuanwen Jia, Bo Hu, Hongliang Wang, Hui Wang, and Yong Zhu. 2023. “Hydraulic Characteristics of Continuous Submerged Jet Impinging on a Wall by Using Numerical Simulation and PIV Experiment” Sustainability 15, no. 6: 5159. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15065159

Paula Beceiro (corresponding author) Maria do Céu Almeida Hydraulic and Environment Department (DHA), National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Avenida do Brasil 101, 1700-066 Lisbon, Portugal E-mail: pbeceiro@lnec.pt Jorge Matos Department of Civil Engineering, Arquitecture and Geosources, Technical University of Lisbon (IST), Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal

ABSTRACT

물 흐름에 용존 산소(DO)의 존재는 해로운 영향의 발생을 방지하는 데 유익한 것으로 인식되는 호기성 조건을 보장하는 중요한 요소입니다.

하수도 시스템에서 흐르는 폐수에 DO를 통합하는 것은 공기-액체 경계면 또는 방울이나 접합부와 같은 특이점의 존재로 인해 혼입된 공기를 통한 연속 재방출의 영향을 정량화하기 위해 광범위하게 조사된 프로세스입니다. 공기 혼입 및 후속 환기를 향상시키기 위한 하수구 드롭의 위치는 하수구의 호기성 조건을 촉진하는 효과적인 방법입니다.

본 논문에서는 수직 낙하, 배경 및 계단식 낙하를 CFD(전산유체역학) 코드 FLOW-3D®를 사용하여 모델링하여 이러한 유형의 구조물의 존재로 인해 발생하는 난류로 인한 공기-물 흐름을 평가했습니다. 이용 가능한 실험적 연구에 기초한 수력학적 변수의 평가와 공기 혼입의 분석이 수행되었습니다.

이러한 구조물에 대한 CFD 모델의 결과는 Soares(2003), Afonso(2004) 및 Azevedo(2006)가 개발한 해당 물리적 모델에서 얻은 방류, 압력 헤드 및 수심의 측정을 사용하여 검증되었습니다.

유압 거동에 대해 매우 잘 맞았습니다. 수치 모델을 검증한 후 공기 연행 분석을 수행했습니다.

The presence of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water flows is an important factor to ensure the aerobic conditions recognised as beneficial to prevent the occurrence of detrimental effects. The incorporation of DO in wastewater flowing in sewer systems is a process widely investigated in order to quantify the effect of continuous reaeration through the air-liquid interface or air entrained due the presence of singularities such as drops or junctions. The location of sewer drops to enhance air entrainment and subsequently reaeration is an effective practice to promote aerobic conditions in sewers. In the present paper, vertical drops, backdrops and stepped drop was modelled using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLOW-3D® to evaluate the air-water flows due to the turbulence induced by the presence of this type of structures. The assessment of the hydraulic variables and an analysis of the air entrainment based in the available experimental studies were carried out. The results of the CFD models for these structures were validated using measurements of discharge, pressure head and water depth obtained in the corresponding physical models developed by Soares (2003), Afonso (2004) and Azevedo (2006). A very good fit was obtained for the hydraulic behaviour. After validation of numerical models, analysis of the air entrainment was carried out.

Key words | air entrainment, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), sewer drops

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일본원자력연구소(JAERI) 산하 삼중수소공정연구소(TPL)에서는 핵융합로의 안전성 확인 및 강화를 위해 12m3의 대형 밀폐용기(Caisson)로 삼중수소 안전 연구(CATS)용 케이슨 조립체를 제작하여 추정 삼중수소 누출 이벤트가 발생해야 하는 경우 삼중수소 거동. 본 연구의 주요 목적 중 하나는 환기실에서 삼중수소 누출 사건이 발생한 후 삼중수소 거동을 예측하기 위한 시뮬레이션 방법을 확립하는 것입니다.

RNG 모델은 허용 가능한 엔지니어링 정밀도로 50m3/h 환기 케이슨에서 맴돌이 흐름 계산에 유효한 것으로 밝혀졌습니다. 의도된 삼중수소 방출 후 계산된 초기 및 제거 삼중수소 농도 이력은 50m3/h 환기 케이슨에서 실험 관찰과 일치했습니다.

환기실의 삼중수소 수송에는 벽 근처의 흐름이 중요한 역할을 하는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 한편, 3,000m3의 삼중수소 취급실에서 의도적으로 방출된 삼중수소 거동은 미일 협력하에 실험적으로 조사되었습니다. 동일한 방법으로 계산된 삼중수소 농도 이력은 실험적 관찰과 일치하였으며, 이는 현재 개발된 방법이 삼중수소 취급실의 실제 규모에 적용될 수 있음을 입증한다.

At the Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Caisson Assembly for Tritium Safety study (CATS) with 12 m^{3} of large airtight vessel (Caisson) was fabricated for confirmation and enhancement of fusion reactor safety to estimate tritium behavior in the case where a tritium leak event should happen. One of the principal objectives of the present studies is the establishment of simulation method to predict the tritium behavior after the tritium leak event should happen in a ventilated room. The RNG model was found to be valid for eddy flow calculation in the 50m^{3}/h ventilated Caisson with acceptable engineering precision. The calculated initial and removal tritium concentration histories after intended tritium release were consistent with the experimental observations in the 50 m^{3}/h ventilated Caisson. It is found that the flow near a wall plays an important role for the tritium transport in the ventilated room. On the other hand, tritium behavior intentionally released in the 3,000 m^{3} of tritium handling room was investigated experimentally under a US-Japan collaboration. The tritium concentration history calculated with the same method was consistent with the experimental observations, which proves that the present developed method can be applied to the actual scale of tritium handling room.

(1) Los Alamos National Laboratory: Final Safety Analysis Report of Tritium Systems Test Assembly at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, TSTA-SAR, (1996). (2) Naruse, Y., Matsuda, Y., Tanaka, K.: Fusion Eng. Des., 12, 293 (1990). (3) Schira, P., Hutter, E., Jourdan, G., Penzhone, R.: Fu-VOL. 38, NO. 1, JANUARY 2001 sion Eng. Des., 18, 19 (1991). (4) Bartlit, J. R., Anderson, J. L., Jalbert, R. A., Carl-son, R. V., Okuno, K., Ide, T., Fukui, H., Enoeda, M., Naruse, Y.: Proc. 13th SOFE, Knoxville, TN., U.S.A., 798 (1989). (5) Hayashi, T., Kobayashi, K., Iwai, Y., Yamanishi, T., Nishi, M., Okuno, K., Carlson, R. V., Willms, R. S., Hyatt, D., Roybal, B.: Fusion Thecnol., 34, 521 (1998). (6) Hayashi, T., Kobayashi, K., Iwai, Y., Yamada, M., Suzuki, T., O’hira, S., Nakamura, H., Shu, W., Yama-nishi, T., Kawamura, Y., Isobe, K., Konishi, S., Nishi, M.: Submitted to Fusion Eng. Des. (1999). (7) Yakhot, V., Orgazag, S. A.: J. Sci. Comput., 1, 3 (1986). (8) Hirt, C. W., Cook, J. L.: J. Comp. Phys., 10, 324 (1972). (9) Daiguji, H., Miyake, Y., Yoshizawa, A.: “Computa-tional Fluid Dynamics of Turbulent Flow-Models and Numerical Methods”, Univ. of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 183 (1998), [in Japanese]. (10) Hinze, J. 0.: “Turbulence”, McGraw-Hill, New York, 227 (1959). (11) Launder, B. E., Spalding, D. B.: “Mathematical Models of Turbulence”, Academics, London, (1972). (12) Jones, W. P., Launder, B. E.: Int. J. Heat Mass Trans-fer, 15, 301 (1972). (13) Jones, W. P., Launder, B. E.: Int. J. Heat Mass Trans-fer, 16, 1119 (1973). (14) Hanjalic, K., Launder, B. E.: J. Fluid Mech., 52, 609 (1972). (15) Harlow, F. W., Nakayama, P. I.: Phys. Fluids, 10, 2303 (1967). (16) Nakayama, P. I.: 8th Aerospace Science Meeting, AIAA paper No. 70-3, (1970). (17) Boussinesq, J.: “Theorie Analytique de la chaleur”, Ganthier-Villars, Paris, 157 (1903). (18) Hashimoto, K.: “Chemical Reaction Engineering”, (1st ed.), Baifuukan, Tokyo, 173 (1979), [in Japanese]. (19) Iwai, Y., Hayashi, T., Kobayashi, K., O’hira, S., Nishi, M.: Submitted to Fusion Eng. Des. (2000).

이 프로젝트의 주요 목표는 FLOW-3D를 사용하여 계단식 여수로에서 스키밍 흐름의 수치 모델링을 개발하는 것입니다. 이러한 구조의 설계는 물리적 모델링에서 얻은 경험적 표현과 CFD 코드를 지원하는 계단식 여수로를 통한 흐름의 수치 모델링에서 보완 연구를 기반으로 합니다. 수치 모델은 균일한 영역의 유속과 계단 여수로의 마찰 계수를 추정하는 데 사용됩니다(ϴ = 45º, Hd=4.61m). 흐름에 대한 자동 통기의 표현은 복잡하므로 프로그램은 공기 연행 모델을 사용하여 특정 제한이 있는 솔루션에 근접합니다.

The main objective of this project is to develop the numerical modeling of the skimming flow in a stepped spillway using FLOW-3D. The design of these structures is based on the use of empirical expressions obtained from physical modeling and complementary studies in the numerical modeling of flow over the stepped spillway with support of CFD code. The numerical model is used to estimate the flow velocity in the uniform region and the friction coefficient of the stepped spillway (ϴ = 45º, Hd=4.61m). The representation of auto aeration a flow is complex, so the program approximates the solution with certain limitations, using an air entrainment model; drift flux model and turbulence model k-ԑ RNG. The results obtained with numerical modeling and physical modeling at the beginning of natural auto aeration of flow and depth of the biphasic flow in the uniform region presents deviations above to 10% perhaps the flow is highly turbulent.

ARAGUA. (2013). “Modelación numérica y experimental de flujos aire-agua en caídas en colectores.”, Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, I. P. Av do Brasil 101 • 1700-066 Lisboa. Bombardelli, F.A., Meireles, I. and Matos, J., (2010), “Laboratory measurement and multi-block numerical simulations of the mean flow and turbulence in the non-aerated skimming flow region of steep stepped spillways”, Environ Fluid Mechanics. Castro M. (2015) “Análisis Dimensional y Modelación física en Hidráulica”. Escuela Politécnica Nacional. Quito Ecuador. 50 p. Chanson H., D. B. Bung., J. Matos (2015). “Stepped spillways and cascades”. IAHR Monograph. School of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Chanson H. (1993). “Stepped Spillway Flows and Air Entrainment.” Can. Jl of Civil Eng., Vol. 20, No. 3, June, pp. 422-435 (ISSN 0315-1468). CIERHI, EPN TECH, (2016). “Estudio experimental en modelo físico de las rápidas con perfil escalonado y liso de la quebrada el Batán Fase I y Fase II”, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito Ecuador. Fernández Oro J. M. (2012)., “Técnicas Numéricas en Ingeniería de Fluidos: Introducción a la Dinámica de Fluidos Computacional (CFD) por el Método de Volúmenes Finitos”. Barcelona: Reverté. Flow Science, Inc. (2012). “FLOW 3D 10.1.0 Documentation Release. Manual de Usuario”, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Santa Fe, New México Khatsuria, R.M., (2005)., “Hydraulics of Spillways and Energy Dissipators”. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta. Lucio I., Matos J., Meireles I. (2015). “Stepped spillway flow over small embankment dams: some computational experiments”. 15th FLOW-3D European users conference. Mohammad S., Jalal A. and Michael P., (2012). “Numerical Computation of Inception Point Location for Steeply Sloping Stepped Spillways” 9th International Congress on Civil Engineering. Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan, Iran Pfister M., Chanson H., (2013), “Scale Effects in Modelling Two-phase Airwater Flows”, Proceedings of 2013 IAHR World Congress. Sarfaraz, M. and Attari, J. (2011), “Numerical Simulation of Uniform Flow Region over a Steeply Sloping Stepped Spillway”, 6th National Congress on Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran. Valero, D., Bung, D., (2015), “Hybrid investigation of air transport processes in moderately sloped stepped spillway flows”, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands.

Analysis of behavior and hydraulic characteristics of flow over the dam spillway is a complicated task that takes lots of money and time in water engineering projects planning. To model those hydraulic characteristics, several methods such as physical and numerical methods can be used. Nowadays, by utilizing new methods in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and by the development of fast computers, the numerical methods have become accessible for use in the analysis of such sophisticated flows. The CFD softwares have the capability to analyze two- and three-dimensional flow fields. In this paper, the flow pattern at the guide wall of the Kamal-Saleh dam was modeled by Flow 3D. The results show that the current geometry of the left wall causes instability in the flow pattern and making secondary and vortex flow at beginning approach channel. This shape of guide wall reduced the performance of weir to remove the peak flood discharge.

댐 여수로 흐름의 거동 및 수리학적 특성 분석은 물 공학 프로젝트 계획에 많은 비용과 시간이 소요되는 복잡한 작업입니다. 이러한 수력학적 특성을 모델링하기 위해 물리적, 수치적 방법과 같은 여러 가지 방법을 사용할 수 있습니다. 요즘에는 전산유체역학(CFD)의 새로운 방법을 활용하고 빠른 컴퓨터의 개발로 이러한 정교한 흐름의 해석에 수치 방법을 사용할 수 있게 되었습니다. CFD 소프트웨어에는 2차원 및 3차원 유동장을 분석하는 기능이 있습니다. 본 논문에서는 Kamal-Saleh 댐 유도벽의 흐름 패턴을 Flow 3D로 모델링하였다. 결과는 왼쪽 벽의 현재 형상이 흐름 패턴의 불안정성을 유발하고 시작 접근 채널에서 2차 및 와류 흐름을 만드는 것을 보여줍니다. 이러한 형태의 안내벽은 첨두방류량을 제거하기 위해 둑의 성능을 저하시켰다.

Introduction

Spillways are one of the main structures used in the dam projects. Design of the spillway in all types of dams, specifically earthen dams is important because the inability of the spillway to remove probable maximum flood (PMF) discharge may cause overflow of water which ultimately leads to destruction of the dam (Das and Saikia et al. 2009; E 2013 and Novak et al. 2007). So study on the hydraulic characteristics of this structure is important. Hydraulic properties of spillway including flow pattern at the entrance of the guide walls and along the chute. Moreover, estimating the values of velocity and pressure parameters of flow along the chute is very important (Chanson 2004; Chatila and Tabbara 2004). The purpose of the study on the flow pattern is the effect of wall geometry on the creation transverse waves, flow instability, rotating and reciprocating flow through the inlet of spillway and its chute (Parsaie and Haghiabi 2015a, b; Parsaie et al. 2015; Wang and Jiang 2010). The purpose of study on the values of velocity and pressure is to calculate the potential of the structure to occurrence of phenomena such as cavitation (Fattor and Bacchiega 2009; Ma et al. 2010). Sometimes, it can be seen that the spillway design parameters of pressure and velocity are very suitable, but geometry is considered not suitable for conducting walls causing unstable flow pattern over the spillway, rotating flows at the beginning of the spillway and its design reduced the flood discharge capacity (Fattor and Bacchiega 2009). Study on spillway is usually conducted using physical models (Su et al. 2009; Suprapto 2013; Wang and Chen 2009; Wang and Jiang 2010). But recently, with advances in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), study on hydraulic characterist–ics of this structure has been done with these techniques (Chatila and Tabbara 2004; Zhenwei et al. 2012). Using the CFD as a powerful technique for modeling the hydraulic structures can reduce the time and cost of experiments (Tabbara et al. 2005). In CFD field, the Navier–Stokes equation is solved by powerful numerical methods such as finite element method and finite volumes (Kim and Park 2005; Zhenwei et al. 2012). In order to obtain closed-form Navier–Stokes equations turbulence models, such k − ε and Re-Normalisation Group (RNG) models have been presented. To use the technique of computational fluid dynamics, software packages such as Fluent and Flow 3D, etc., are provided. Recently, these two software packages have been widely used in hydraulic engineering because the performance and their accuracy are very suitable (Gessler 2005; Kim 2007; Kim et al. 2012; Milési and Causse 2014; Montagna et al. 2011). In this paper, to assess the flow pattern at Kamal-Saleh guide wall, numerical method has been used. All the stages of numerical modeling were conducted in the Flow 3D software.

Materials and methods

Firstly, a three-dimensional model was constructed according to two-dimensional map that was prepared for designing the spillway. Then a small model was prepared with scale of 1:80 and entered into the Flow 3D software; all stages of the model construction was conducted in AutoCAD 3D. Flow 3D software numerically solved the Navier–Stokes equation by finite volume method. Below is a brief reference on the equations that used in the software. Figure 1 shows the 3D sketch of Kamal-Saleh spillway and Fig. 2 shows the uploading file of the Kamal-Saleh spillway in Flow 3D software.

Review of the governing equations in software Flow 3D

Continuity equation at three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates is given as Eq (1).

where u, v, z are velocity component in the x, y, z direction; A_{x}, A_{y}, A_{z} cross-sectional area of the flow; ρ fluid density; PSOR the source term; v_{f} is the volume fraction of the fluid and three-dimensional momentum equations given in Eq (2).

where P is the fluid pressure; G_{x}, G_{y}, G_{z} the acceleration created by body fluids; f_{x}, f_{y}, f_{z} viscosity acceleration in three dimensions and v_{f} is related to the volume of fluid, defined by Eq. (3). For modeling of free surface profile the VOF technique based on the volume fraction of the computational cells has been used. Since the volume fraction F represents the amount of fluid in each cell, it takes value between 0 and 1.

Flow 3D offers five types of turbulence models: Prantl mixing length, k − ε equation, RNG models, Large eddy simulation model. Turbulence models that have been proposed recently are based on Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. This approach involves statistical methods to extract an averaged equation related to the turbulence quantities.

Steps of solving a problem in Flow 3D software

(1) Preparing the 3D model of spillway by AutoCAD software. (2) Uploading the file of 3D model in Flow 3D software and defining the problem in the software and checking the final mesh. (3) Choosing the basic equations that should be solved. (4) Defining the characteristics of fluid. (5) Defining the boundary conditions; it is notable that this software has a wide range of boundary conditions. (6) Initializing the flow field. (7) Adjusting the output. (8) Adjusting the control parameters, choice of the calculation method and solution formula. (9) Start of calculation. Figure 1 shows the 3D model of the Kamal-Saleh spillway; in this figure, geometry of the left and right guide wall is shown.

Figure 2 shows the uploading of the 3D spillway dam in Flow 3D software. Moreover, in this figure the considered boundary condition in software is shown. At the entrance and end of spillway, the flow rate or fluid elevation and outflow was considered as BC. The bottom of spillway was considered as wall and left and right as symmetry.

Model calibration

Calibration of the Flow 3D for modeling the effect of geometry of guide wall on the flow pattern is included for comparing the results of Flow 3D with measured water surface profile. Calibration the Flow 3D software could be conducted in two ways: first, changing the value of upstream boundary conditions is continued until the results of water surface profile of the Flow 3D along the spillway successfully covered the measurement water surface profile; second is the assessment the mesh sensitivity. Analyzing the size of mesh is a trial-and-error process where the size of mesh is evaluated form the largest to the smallest. With fining the size of mesh the accuracy of model is increased; whereas, the cost of computation is increased. In this research, the value of upstream boundary condition was adjusted with measured data during the experimental studies on the scaled model and the mesh size was equal to 1 × 1 × 1 cm^{3}.

Results and discussion

The behavior of water in spillway is strongly affected by the flow pattern at the entrance of the spillway, the flow pattern formation at the entrance is affected by the guide wall, and choice of an optimized form for the guide wall has a great effect on rising the ability of spillway for easy passing the PMF, so any nonuniformity in flow in the approach channel can cause reduction of spillway capacity, reduction in discharge coefficient of spillway, and even probability of cavitation. Optimizing the flow guiding walls (in terms of length, angle and radius) can cause the loss of turbulence and flow disturbances on spillway. For this purpose, initially geometry proposed for model for the discharge of spillway dam, Kamal-Saleh, 80, 100, and 120 (L/s) were surveyed. These discharges of flow were considered with regard to the flood return period, 5, 100 and 1000 years. Geometric properties of the conducting guidance wall are given in Table 1.Table 1 Characteristics and dimensions of the guidance walls tested

Results of the CFD simulation for passing the flow rate 80 (L/s) are shown in Fig. 3. Figure 3 shows the secondary flow and vortex at the left guide wall.

For giving more information about flow pattern at the left and right guide wall, Fig. 4 shows the flow pattern at the right side guide wall and Fig. 5 shows the flow pattern at the left side guide wall.

With regard to Figs. 4 and 5 and observing the streamlines, at discharge equal to 80 (L/s), the right wall has suitable performance but the left wall has no suitable performance and the left wall of the geometric design creates a secondary and circular flow, and vortex motion in the beginning of the entrance of spillway that creates cross waves at the beginning of spillway. By increasing the flow rate (Q = 100 L/s), at the inlet spillway secondary flows and vortex were removed, but the streamline is severely distorted. Results of the guide wall performances at the Q = 100 (L/s) are shown in Fig. 6.

Also more information about the performance of each guide wall can be derived from Figs. 7 and 8. These figures uphold that the secondary and vortex flows were removed, but the streamlines were fully diverted specifically near the left side guide wall.

As mentioned in the past, these secondary and vortex flows and diversion in streamline cause nonuniformity and create cross wave through the spillway. Figure 9 shows the cross waves at the crest of the spillway.

The performance of guide walls at the Q = 120 (L/s) also was assessed. The result of simulation is shown in Fig. 10. Figures 11 and 12 show a more clear view of the streamlines near to right and left side guide wall, respectively. As seen in Fig. 12, the left side wall still causes vortex flow and creation of and diversion in streamline.

The results of the affected left side guide wall shape on the cross wave creation are shown in Fig. 13. As seen from Fig. 3, the left side guide wall also causes cross wave at the spillway crest.

As can be seen clearly in Figs. 9 and 13, by moving from the left side to the right side of the spillway, the cross waves and the nonuniformity in flow is removed. By reviewing Figs. 9 and 13, it is found that the right side guide wall removes the cross waves and nonuniformity. With this point as aim, a geometry similar to the right side guide wall was considered instead of the left side guide wall. The result of simulation for Q = 120 (L/s) is shown in Fig. 14. As seen from this figure, the proposed geometry for the left side wall has suitable performance smoothly passing the flow through the approach channel and spillway.

More information about the proposed shape for the left guide wall is shown in Fig. 15. As seen from this figure, this shape has suitable performance for removing the cross waves and vortex flows.

Figure 16 shows the cross section of flow at the crest of spillway. As seen in this figure, the proposed shape for the left side guide wall is suitable for removing the cross waves and secondary flows.

Conclusion

Analysis of behavior and hydraulic properties of flow over the spillway dam is a complicated task which is cost and time intensive. Several techniques suitable to the purposes of study have been undertaken in this research. Physical modeling, usage of expert experience, usage of mathematical models on simulation flow in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional techniques, are some of the techniques utilized to study this phenomenon. The results of the modeling show that the CFD technique is a suitable tool for simulating the flow pattern in the guide wall. Using this tools helps the designer for developing the optimal shape for hydraulic structure which the flow pattern through them are important.

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본 연구에서는 범람으로 인한 토사댐 붕괴에 대한 테일워터 깊이의 영향을 실험적으로 조사하였다. 테일워터 깊이의 네 가지 다른 값을 검사합니다. 각 실험에 대해 댐 수심 측량 프로파일의 진화, 고장 기간, 침식 체적 및 유출 수위곡선을 관찰하고 기록합니다.

결과는 tailwater 깊이를 늘리면 고장 시간이 최대 57% 감소하고 상대적으로 침식된 마루 높이가 최대 77.6% 감소한다는 것을 보여줍니다. 또한 상대 배수 깊이가 3, 4, 5인 경우 누적 침식 체적의 감소는 각각 23, 36.5 및 75%인 반면 최대 유출량의 감소는 각각 7, 14 및 17.35%입니다.

실험 결과는 침식 과정을 복제할 때 Flow 3D 소프트웨어의 성능을 평가하는 데 활용됩니다. 수치 모델은 비응집성 흙댐의 침식 과정을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션합니다.

The influence of tailwater depth on earth dam failure due to overtopping is investigated experimentally in this work. Four different values of tailwater depths are examined. For each experiment, the evolution of the dam bathymetry profile, the duration of failure, the eroded volume, and the outflow hydrograph are observed and recorded. The results reveal that increasing the tailwater depth reduces the time of failure by up to 57% and decreases the relative eroded crest height by up to 77.6%. In addition, for relative tailwater depths equal to 3, 4, and 5, the reduction in the cumulative eroded volume is 23, 36.5, and 75%, while the reduction in peak discharge is 7, 14, and 17.35%, respectively. The experimental results are utilized to evaluate the performance of the Flow 3D software in replicating the erosion process. The numerical model successfully simulates the erosion process of non-cohesive earth dams.

Eroded height of the dam measured at distance of 0.7 m from the dam heel (cm)t

Total time of failure (sec)t_{1}

Time of crest width erosion (sec)Z_{crest}

The crest height (cm)V_{total}

Total volume of the dam (m^{3})V_{eroded}

Cumulative eroded volume (m^{3})RMSE

The statistical variable root- mean- square errord

Degree of agreement indexy_{u.s.}

The upstream water depth (cm)y_{d.s}

The downstream water depth (cm)H

Water surface elevation over sharp crested weir (cm)Q

Outflow discharge (liter/sec)Q_{peak}

Peak discharge (liter/sec)

1. Introduction

Earth dams are compacted structures composed of natural materials that are usually mined or quarried from local locations. The failures of the earth dams have proven to be deadly, destructive, and costly. According to People’s Daily, two earthen dams, Yong’an Dam and Xinfa Dam located in Hulun Buir City in North China’s Inner Mongolia failed on 2021, due to a surge in the water level of the Nuomin River caused by heavy rain. The dam breach affected 16,660 people, flooded 325,622 mu of farmland (21708.1 ha), and destroyed 22 bridges, 124 culverts, and 15.6 km of roadways. Also, the failure of south fork dam (earth and rock fill dam) near Johnstown on 1889 is considered the worst U.S dam disaster in terms of loss of life. The dam was overtopped and washed away due to unexpected heavy rains, releasing 20 million tons of water which destroyed Johnstown and resulted in 2209 deaths, [1], [2]. Piping or shear sliding, failure due to natural factors, and failure due to overtopping are all possible causes of earth dam failure. However, overtopping failure is the most frequent cause of dam failure. According to The International Committee on Large Dams (ICOLD, 1995), and [3], more than one-third of the total known dam failures were caused by dam overtopping.

Overtopping occurs as the result of insufficient flood design or freeboard in some cases. Extreme rainstorms can cause floods which can overtop the dam and cause it to fail. The size and geometry of the reservoir or the dam (side slopes, top width, height, etc.), the homogeneity of the material used in the construction of the dam, overtopping depth, and the presence or absence of tailwater are all elements that influence this type of failure which will be illustrated in the following literature. Overtopping failures of earth dams may be divided into several failure mechanisms based on the material composition and the inner structure of the dam. For cohesive earth dams because of low permeability, no seepage exists on the slopes. Erosion often begins at the earth dam toe during turbulent erosion and moves upstream, undercutting the slope, causing the removal of large chunks of materials. While for non-cohesive earth dams the downstream face of the dam flattens progressively and is often said to rotate around a point near the downstream toe [4], [5], [6] In the last few decades, the study of failures due to overtopping has gained popularity among researchers. The overtopping failure, in fact, has been widely investigated in coastal and river hydraulics and morpho dynamic. In addition, several laboratory experimental studies have been conducted in this field in order to better understand different involved factors. Also, many numerical types of research have been conducted to investigate the process of overtopping failure as well as the elements that influence this type of failure.

Tabrizi et al. [5] conducted a series of embankment overtopping tests to find the effect of compaction on the failure of a homogenous sand embankment. A plane breach process occurred across the flume width due to the narrow flume width. They measured the downstream hydrographs and embankment surface profile for every case. They concluded that the peak discharge decreased with a high compaction level, while the time to peak increased. Kansoh et al. [6] studied experimentally the failure of compacted homogeneous non-cohesive earthen embankment due to overtopping. They investigated the influence of different shape parameters including the downstream slope, the crest width, and the height of the embankment on the erosion process. The erosion process was initiated by carving a pilot channel into the embankment crest. They evaluated the time of embankment failure for different shape parameters. They concluded that the failure time increases with increasing the downstream slope and the crest width. Zhu et al. [7] investigated experimentally the breaching of five embankments, one constructed with pure sand, and four with different sand-silt–clay mixtures. The erosion pattern was similar across the flume width. They stated that for cohesive soil mixtures the head cut erosion was the most important factor that affected the breach growth, while for non-cohesive soil the breach erosion was affected by shear erosion.

Amaral et al. [8] studied experimentally the failure by overtopping for two embankments built from silt sand material. They studied the effect of the degree of compaction of the embankment and the geometry of the pilot channel carved at the centre of the dam crest. They studied two shapes of pilot channel a rectangular shape and triangular shape. They stated that the breach development is influenced by a higher degree of compaction, however, the pilot channel geometry did not influence the breach’s final form. Bereta et al. [9] studied experimentally the breach formation of five dam models, three of them were homogenous clay soil while two were sandy-clay mixtures. The erosion process was initiated by cutting a pilot channel at the centre of the dam crest. They observed the initiation of erosion, flow shear erosion, sidewall bottom erosion, and distinguished the soil mechanical slope mass failure from the head cut vertically and laterally during these tests. Verma et al. [10] investigated experimentally a two-dimensional erosion phenomenon due to overtopping by using a wooden fuse plug model and five different soils. They concluded that the erosion process was affected mostly by cohesiveness and degree of compaction. For cohesive soils, a head cut erosion was observed, while for non-cohesive soils surface erosion occurred gradually. Also, the dimensions of fuse plug, type of fill material, reservoir capacity, and inflow were found to affect the behaviour of the overall breaching process.

Wu and Qin [11] studied the effect of adding coarse grains to the downstream face of a non-cohesive dam as a result of tailings deposition. The process of overtopping during tailings dam failures is analyzed and its effect on delaying the dam-break process and disaster mitigation are investigated. They found that the tested protective measures decreased the breach area, the maximum breaching flow discharge and flow velocity, and the downstream inundated area. Khankandi et al. [12] studied experimentally the effect of reservoir geometry on dam break flow in case of dry and wet bed conditions. They considered four different reservoir shapes, a long reservoir, a wide, a trapezoidal shaped and one with a 90◦ bend all with identical water volume and horizontal bed. The dam break is simulated by the sudden gate removal using a pneumatic jack. They measured the variation of water level over time with ultrasonic sensors and flow velocity component with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. Also, the experimental results of water level variation are compared with Ritters solution (1892) [13]. They stated that for dry bed condition the long and 90 bend reservoirs results are close to the analytical solution by ritter also in these two shapes a 1D flow is noticed. However, for wide and trapezoidal reservoirs a 2D effect is significant due to flow contraction at channel entrance.

Rifai et al. [14] conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of tailwater depth on the outflow discharge and breach geometry during non-cohesive homogenous fluvial dikes overtopping failure. They cut an initial notch in the crest at 0.8 m from the upstream end of the dike to initiate overtopping. They compared their results to previous experiments under different main channel inflow discharges combined with a free floodplain. They divided the dike breaching process into three stages: gradual start of overtopping flow resulting in slow initiation of dike erosion, deepening and widening breach due to large flow depth and velocity, finally the flow depth starts stabilizing at its minimal level with or without sustained breach expansion. They stated that breach discharge has lower values than in free floodplain tests. Jiang [15] studied the effect of bed slope on breach parameters and peak discharge in non-cohesive embankment failure. An initial triangular breach with a depth and width of 4 cm was pre-set on one side of the dam. He stated that peak discharge increases with the increase of bed slope and then decreases.

Ozmen-cagatay et al. [16] studied experimentally flood wave propagation resulted from a sudden dam break event. For dam-break modelling, they used a mechanism that permitted the rapid removal of a vertical plate with a thickness of 4 mm and made of rigid plastic. They conducted three tests, one with dry bed condition and two tests with tailwater depths equal 0.025 m and 0.1 m respectively. They recorded the free surface profile during initial stages of dam break by using digital image processing. Finally, they compared the experimental results with the with a commercially available VOF-based CFD program solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier –Stokes equations (RANS) with the k– Ɛ turbulence model and the shallow water equations (SWEs). They concluded that Wave breaking was delayed with increasing the tailwater depth to initial reservoir depth ratio. They also stated that the SWE approach is sufficient more to represent dam break flows for wet bed condition. Evangelista [17] investigated experimentally and numerically using a depth-integrated two-phase model, the erosion of sand dike caused by the impact of a dam break wave. The dam break is simulated by a sudden opening of an upstream reservoir gate resulting in the overtopping of a downstream trapezoidal sand dike. The evolution of the water wave caused from the gate opening and dike erosion process are recorded by using a computer-controlled camera. The experimental results demonstrated that the progression of the wave front and dike erosion have a considerable influence on each other during the process. In addition, the dike constructed from fine sands was more resistant to erosion than the one built with coarse sand. They also stated that the numerical model can is capable of accurately predicting wave front position and dike erosion. Also, Di Cristo et al. [18] studied the effect of dam break wave propagation on a sand embankment both experimentally and numerically using a two-phase shallow-water model. The evolution of free surface and of the embankment bottom are recorded and used in numerical model assessment. They stated that the model allows reasonable simulation of the experimental trends of the free surface elevation regardeless of the geofailure operator.

Lots of numerical models have been developed over the past few years to simulate the dam break flooding problem. A one-dimensional model, such as Hec-Ras, DAMBRK and MIKE 11, ect. A two-dimensional model such as iRIC Nay2DH is used in earth embankment breach simulation. Other researchers studied the failure process numerically using (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models, such as FLOW-3D, and FLUENT. Goharnejad et al. [19] determined the outflow hydrograph which results from the embankment dam break due to overtopping. Hu et al. [20] performed a comparison between Flow-3D and MIKE3 FM numerical models in simulating a dam break event under dry and wet bed conditions with different tailwater depths. Kaurav et al. [21] simulated a planar dam breach process due to overtopping. They conducted a sensitivity analysis to find the effect of dam material, dam height, downstream slope, crest width, and inlet discharge on the erosion process and peak discharge through breach. They concluded that downstream slope has a significant influence on breaching process. Yusof et al. [22] studied the effect of embankment sediment sizes and inflow rates on breaching geometric and hydrodynamic parameters. They stated that the peak outflow hydrograph increases with increasing sediment size and inflow rates while time of failure decreases.

In the present work, the effect of tailwater depth on earth dam failure during overtopping is studied experimentally. The relation between the eroded volume of the dam and the tailwater depth is presented. Also, the percentage of reduction in peak discharge due to tailwater existence is calculated. An assessment of Flow 3D software performance in simulating the erosion process during earth dam failure is introduced. The statistical variable root- mean- square error, RMSE, and the agreement degree index, d, are used in model assessment.

2. Material and methods

The tests are conducted in a straight rectangular flume in the laboratory of Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt. The flume dimensions are 10 m long, 0.86 m wide, and 0.5 m deep. The front part of the flume is connected to a storage basin 1 m long by 0.86 m wide. The storage basin is connected to a collecting tank for water recirculation during the experiments as shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 2. A sharp-crested weir is placed at a distance of 4 m downstream the constructed dam to keep a constant tailwater depth in each experiment and to measure the outflow discharge.

To measure the eroded volume with time a rods technique is used. This technique consists of two parallel wooden plates with 10 cm distance in between and five rows of stainless-steel rods passing vertically through the wooden plates at a spacing of 20 cm distributed across flume width. Each row consists of four rods with 15 cm spacing between them. Also, a graph board is provided to measure the drop in each rod with time as shown in Fig. 3, Fig. 4. After dam construction the rods are carefully rested on the dam, with the first line of rods resting in the middle of the dam crest and then a constant distance of 15 cm between rods lines is maintained.

A soil sample is taken and tested in the laboratory of the soil mechanics to find the soil geotechnical parameters. The soil particle size distribution is also determined by sieve analysis as shown in Fig. 5. The soil mean diameter d_{50},equals 0.38 mm and internal friction angle equals 32.6°.

2.1. Experimental procedures

To investigate the effect of the tailwater depth (d_{o}), the tailwater depth is changed four times 5, 15, 20, and 25 cm on the sand dam model. The dam profile is 35 cm height, with crest width = 15 cm, the dam base width is 155 cm, and the upstream and downstream slopes are 2:1 as shown in Fig. 6. The dam dimensions are set as the flume permitted to allow observation of the dam erosion process under the available flume dimensions and conditions. All of the conducted experiments have the same dimensions and configurations.

The optimum water content, W_{c}, from the standard proctor test is found to be 8 % and the maximum dry unit weight is 19.42 kN/m^{3}. The soil and water are mixed thoroughly to ensure consistency and then placed on three horizontal layers. Each layer is compacted according to ASTM standard with 25 blows by using a rammer (27 cm × 20.5 cm) weighing 4 kg. Special attention is paid to the compaction of the soil to guarantee the repeatability of the tests.

After placing and compacting the three layers, the dam slopes are trimmed carefully to form the trapezoidal shape of the dam. A small triangular pilot channel with 1 cm height and 1:1 side slopes is cut into the dam crest to initiate the erosion process. The position of triangular pilot channel is presented in Fig. 1. Three digital video cameras with a resolution of 1920 × 1080 pixels and a frame rate of 60 fps are placed in three different locations. One camera on one side of the flume to record the progress of the dam profile during erosion. Another to track the water level over the sharp-crested rectangular weir placed at the downstream end of the flume. And the third camera is placed above the flume at the downstream side of the dam and in front of the rods to record the drop of the tip of the rods with time as shown previously in Fig. 1.

Before starting the experiment, the water is pumped into the storage basin by using pump with capacity 360 m^{3}/hr, and then into the upstream section of the flume. The upstream boundary is an inflow condition. The flow discharge provided to the storage basin is kept at a constant rate of 6 L/sec for all experiments, while the downstream boundary is an outflow boundary condition.

Also, the required tailwater depth for each experiment is filled to the desired depth. A dye container valve is opened to color the water upstream of the dam to make it easy to distinguish the dam profile from the water profile. A wooden board is placed just upstream of the dam to prevent water from overtopping the dam until the water level rises to a certain level above the dam crest and then the wooden board is removed slowly to start the experiment.

2.2. Repeatability

To verify the accuracy of the results, each experiment is repeated two times under the same conditions. Fig. 7 shows the relative eroded crest height, Z_{eroded} / Z_{o}, with time for 5 cm tailwater depth. From the Figure, it can be noticed that results for all runs are consistent, and accuracy is achieved.

3. Numerical model

The commercially available numerical model, Flow 3D is used to simulate the dam failure due to overtopping for the cases of 15 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm tailwater depths. For numerical model calibration, experimental results for dam surface evolution are used. The numerical model is calibrated for selection of the optimal turbulence model (RNG, K-e, and k-w) and sediment scour equations (Van Rin, Meyer- peter and Muller, and Nielsen) that produce the best results. In this, the flow field is solved by the RNG turbulence model, and the van Rijn equation is used for the sediment scour model. A geometry file is imported before applying the mesh.

A Mesh sensitivity is analyzed and checked for various cell sizes, and it is found that decreasing the cell size significantly increases the simulation time with insignificant differences in the result. It is noticed that the most important factor influencing cell size selection is the value of the dam’s upstream and downstream slopes. For example, the slopes in the dam model are 2:1, thus the cell size ratio in X and Z directions should be 2:1 as well. The cell size in a mesh block is set to be 0.02 m, 0.025 m, and 0.01 m in X, Y and Z directions respectively.

In the numerical computations, the boundary conditions employed are the walls for sidewalls and the channel bottom. The pressure boundary condition is applied at the top, at the air–water interface, to account for atmospheric pressure on the free surface. The upstream boundary is volume flow rate while the downstream boundary is outflow discharge.

The initial condition is a fluid region, which is used to define fluid areas both upstream and downstream of the dam. To assess the model accuracy, the statistical variable root- mean- square error, RMSE, and the agreement degree index, d, are calculated as(1)RMSE=1N∑i=1N(Pi-Mi)2(2)d=1-∑Mi-Pi2∑Mi-M¯+Pi-P¯2

where N is the number of samples, P_{i} and M_{i} are the models and experimental values, P and M are the means of the model and experimental values. The best fit between the experimental and model results would have an RMSE = 0 and degree of agreement, d = 1.

4. Results of experimental work

The results of the total time of failure, t (defined as the time from when the water begins to overtop the dam crest until the erosion reaches a steady state, when no erosion occurs), time of crest width erosion t_{1}, cumulative eroded volume V_{eroded}, and peak discharge Q_{peak} for each experiment are listed in Table 1. The case of 5 cm tailwater depth is considered as a reference case in this work.

Table 1. Results of experimental work.

Tailwater depth, d_{o} (cm)

Total time of failure, t (sec)

Time of crest width erosion, t_{1} (sec)

cumulative eroded volume, V_{eroded} (m^{3})

Peak discharge, Q_{peak} (liter/sec)

5

255

22

0.21

13.12

15

165

30

0.16

12.19

20

140

34

0.13

11.29

25

110

39

0.05

10.84

5. Discussion

5.1. Side erosion

The evolution of the bathymetry of the erosion line recorded by the video camera1. The videos are split into frames (60 frames/sec) by the Free Video to JPG Converter v.5.063 build and then converted into an excel spreadsheet using MATLAB code as shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 9 shows a sample of numerical model output. Fig. 10, Fig. 11, Fig. 12 show a dam profile development for different time steps from both experimental and numerical model, for tailwater depths equal 15 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm. Also, the values of RMSE and d for each figure are presented. The comparison shows that the Flow 3D software can simulate the erosion process of non-cohesive earth dam during overtopping with an RMSE value equals 0.023, 0.0218, and 0.0167 and degree of agreement, d, equals 0.95, 0.968, and 0.988 for relative tailwater depths, d_{o}/(d_{o})_{ref}, = 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The low values of RMSE and high values of d show that the Flow 3D can effectively simulate the erosion process. From Fig. 10, Fig. 11, Fig. 12, it can be noticed that the model is not capable of reproducing the head cut, while it can simulate well the degradation of the crest height with a minor difference from experimental work. The reason of this could be due to inability of simulation of all physical conditions which exists in the experimental work, such as channel friction and the grain size distribution of the dam soil which is surely has a great effect on the erosion process and breach development. In the experimental work the grain size distribution is shown in Fig. 5, while the numerical model considers that the soil is uniform and exactly 50 % of the dam particles diameter are equal to the d_{50} value. Another reason is that the model is not considering the increased resistance of the dam due to the apparent cohesion which happens due to dam saturation [23].

It is clear from both the experimental and numerical results that for a 5 cm tailwater depth, d_{o}/(d_{o})_{ref} = 1.0, erosion begins near the dam toe and continues upward on the downstream slope until it reaches the crest. After eroding the crest width, the crest is lowered, resulting in increased flow rates and the speeding up of the erosion process. While for relative tailwater depths, d_{o}/(d_{o})_{ref} = 3, 4, and 5 erosion starts at the point of intersection between the downstream slope and tailwater. The existence of tailwater works as an energy dissipater for the falling water which reduces the erosion process and prevents the dam from failure as shown in Fig. 13. It is found that the time of the failure decreases with increasing the tailwater depth because most of the dam height is being submerged with water which decreases the erosion process. The reduction in time of failure from the referenced case is found to be 35.3, 45, and 57 % for relative tailwater depth, d_{o} /(d_{o})_{ref} equals 3, 4, and 5, respectively.

The relation between the relative eroded crest height, Z_{eroded} /Z_{o}, with time is drawn as shown in Fig. 14. It is found that the relative eroded crest height decreases with increasing tailwater depth by 10, 41, and 77.6 % for relative tailwater depth, d_{o} /(d_{o})_{ref} equals 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The time required for the erosion of the crest width, t_{1}, is calculated for each experiment. The relation between relative tailwater depth and relative time of crest width erosion is shown in Fig. 15. It is found that the time of crest width erosion increases linearly with increasing, d_{o} /Z_{o}. The percent of increase is 36.4, 54.5 and 77.3 % for relative tailwater depth, d_{o} /(d_{o})_{ref} = 3, 4 and 5, respectively.

Crest height, Z_{crest} is calculated from the experimental results and the Flow 3D results for relative tailwater depths, d_{o}/(d_{o})_{ref}, = 3, 4, and 5. A relation between relative crest height, Z_{crest}/Z_{o} with time from experimental and numerical results is presented in Fig. 16. From Fig. 16, it is seen that there is a good consistency between the results of numerical model and the experimental results in the case of tracking the erosion of the crest height with time.

5.2. Upstream and downstream water depths

It is noticed that at the beginning of the erosion process, both upstream and downstream water depths increase linearly with time as long as erosion of the crest height did not take place. However, when the crest height starts to lower the upstream water depth decreases with time while the downstream water depth increases. At the end of the experiment, the two depths are nearly equal. A relation between relative downstream and upstream water depths with time is drawn for each experiment as shown in Fig. 17.

5.3. Eroded volume

A MATLAB code is used to calculate the cumulative eroded volume every time interval for each experiment. The total volume of the dam, V_{total} is 0.256 m^{3}. The cumulative eroded volume, V_{eroded} is 0.21, 0.16, 0.13, and 0.05 m^{3} for tailwater depths, d_{o} = 5, 15, 20, and 25 cm, respectively. Fig. 18 presents the relation between cumulative eroded volume, V_{eroded} and time. From Fig. 18, it is observed that the cumulative eroded volume decreases with increasing the tailwater depth. The reduction in cumulative eroded volume is 23, 36.5, and 75 % for relative tailwater depth, d_{o} /(d_{o})_{ref} = 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The relative remained volume of the dam equals 0.18, 0.375, 0.492, and 0.8 for tailwater depths = 5, 15, 20, and 25 cm, respectively. Fig. 19 shows a relation between relative tailwater depth and relative cumulative eroded volume from experimental results. From that figure, it is noticed that the eroded volume decreases exponentially with increasing relative tailwater depth.

5.4. The outflow discharge

The inflow discharge provided to the storage tank is maintained constant for all experiments. The water surface elevation, H, over the sharp-crested weir placed at the downstream side is recorded by the video camera 2. For each experiment, the outflow discharge is then calculated by using the sharp-crested rectangular weir equation every 10 sec.

The outflow discharge is found to increase rapidly until it reaches its peak then it decreases until it is constant. For high values of tailwater depths, the peak discharge becomes less than that in the case of small tailwater depth as shown in Fig. 20 which agrees well with the results of Rifai et al. [14] The reduction in peak discharge is 7, 14, and 17.35 % for relative tailwater depth, d_{o} /(d_{o})_{ref} = 3, 4, and 5, respectively.

The scenario presented in this article in which the tailwater depth rises due to unexpected heavy rainfall, is investigated to find the effect of rising tailwater depth on earth dam failure. The results revealed that rising tailwater depth positively affects the process of dam failure in terms of preventing the dam from complete failure and reducing the outflow discharge.

6. Conclusions

The effect of tailwater depth on earth dam failure due to overtopping is investigated experimentally in this work. The study focuses on the effect of tailwater depth on side erosion, upstream and downstream water depths, eroded volume, outflow hydrograph, and duration of the failure process. The Flow 3D numerical software is used to simulate the dam failure, and a comparison is made between the experimental and numerical results to find the ability of this software to simulate the erosion process. The following are the results of the investigation:

The existence of tailwater with high depths prevents the dam from completely collapsing thereby turning it into a broad crested weir. The failure time decreases with increasing the tailwater depth and the reduction from the reference case is found to be 35.3, 45, and 57 % for relative tailwater depth, d_{o} /(d_{o})_{ref} = 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The difference between the upstream and downstream water depths decreases with time till it became almost negligible at the end of the experiment. The reduction in cumulative eroded volume is 23, 36.5, and 75 % for relative tailwater depth, d_{o} /(d_{o})_{ref} = 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The peak discharge decreases by 7, 14, and 17.35 % for relative tailwater depth, d_{o} /(d_{o})_{ref} = 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The relative eroded crest height decreases linearly with increasing the tailwater depth by 10, 41, and 77.6 % for relative tailwater depth, d_{o} /(d_{o})_{ref} = 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The numerical model can reproduce the erosion process with a minor deviation from the experimental results, particularly in terms of tracking the degradation of the crest height with time.

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

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My name is Shaimaa Ibrahim Mohamed Aman and I am a teaching assistant in Irrigation and Hydraulics department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. I graduated from the Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University in 2013. I had my MSc in Irrigation and Hydraulic Engineering in 2017. My research interests lie in the area of earth dam Failures.

Peer review under responsibility of Ain Shams University.

Hyung Ju Yoo^{1}, Sung Sik Joo^{2}, Beom Jae Kwon^{3}, Seung Oh Lee^{4*}

유 형주^{1}, 주 성식^{2}, 권 범재^{3}, 이 승오^{4*}

^{1}Ph.D Student, Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hongik University ^{2}Director, Water Resources & Environment Department, HECOREA ^{3}Director, Water Resources Department, ISAN ^{4}Professor, Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hongik University

^{1}홍익대학교 건설환경공학과 박사과정 ^{2}㈜헥코리아 수자원환경사업부 이사 ^{3}㈜이산 수자원부 이사 ^{4}홍익대학교 건설환경공학과 교수

ABSTRACT

최근 기후변화로 인해 강우강도 및 빈도의 증가에 따른 집중호우의 영향 및 기존 여수로의 노후화에 대비하여 홍수 시 하류 하천의 영향을 최소화할 수 있는 보조 여수로 활용방안 구축이 필요한 실정이다. 이를 위해, 수리모형 실험 및 수치모형 실험을 통하여 보조 여수로 운영에 따른 흐름특성 변화 검토에 관한 연구가 많이 진행되어 왔다. 그러나 대부분의 연구는 여수로에서의 흐름특성 및 기능성에 대한 검토를 수행하였을 뿐 보조 여수로의 활용방안에 따른 하류하천 영향 검토 및 호안 안정성 검토에 관한 연구는 미비한 실정이다. 이에 본 연구에서는 기존 여수로 및 보조 여수로 방류 조건에 따른 하류영향 분석 및 호안 안정성 측면에서 최적 방류 시나리오 검토를 3차원 수치모형인 FLOW-3D를 사용하여 검토하였다. 또한 FLOW-3D 수치모의 수행을 통한 유속, 수위 결과와 소류력 산정 결과를 호안 설계허용 기준과 비교하였다. 수문 완전 개도 조건으로 가정하고 계획홍수량 유입 시 다양한 보조 여수로 활용방안에 대하여 수치모의를 수행한 결과, 보조 여수로 단독 운영 시 기존 여수로 단독운영에 비하여 최대유속 및 최대 수위의 감소효과를 확인하였다. 다만 계획홍수량의 45% 이하 방류 조건에서 대안부의 호안 안정성을 확보하였고 해당 방류량 초과 경우에는 처오름 현상이 발생하여 월류에 대한 위험성 증가를 확인하였다. 따라서 기존 여수로와의 동시 운영 방안 도출이 중요하다고 판단하였다. 여수로의 배분 비율 및 총 허용 방류량에 대하여 검토한 결과 보조 여수로의 방류량이 기존 여수로의 방류량보다 큰 경우 하류하천의 흐름이 중심으로 집중되어 대안부의 유속 저감 및 수위 감소를 확인하였고, 계획 홍수량의 77% 이하의 조건에서 호안의 허용 유속 및 허용 소류력 조건을 만족하였다. 이를 통하여 본 연구에서 제안한 보조 여수로 활용방안으로는 기존 여수로와 동시 운영 시 총 방류량에 대하여 보조 여수로의 배분량이 기존 여수로의 배분량보다 크게 설정하는 것이 하류하천의 영향을 최소화 할 수 있는 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 본 연구는 여수로 방류에 따른 대안부에서의 영향에 대해서만 검토하였고 수문 전면 개도 조건에서 검토하였다는 한계점은 분명히 있다. 이에 향후에는 다양한 수문 개도 조건 및 방류 시나리오를 적용 및 검토한다면 보다 효율적이고, 효과적인 보조 여수로 활용방안을 도출이 가능할 것으로 기대 된다.

키워드 : 보조 여수로, FLOW-3D, 수치모의, 호안 안정성, 소류력

1. 서 론

최근 기후변화로 인한 집중호우의 영향으로 홍수 시 댐으로 유입되는 홍수량이 설계 홍수량보다 증가하여 댐 안정성 확보가 필요한 실정이다(Office for Government Policy Coordination, 2003). MOLIT & K-water(2004)에서는 기존댐의 수문학적 안정성 검토를 수행하였으며 이상홍수 발생 시 24개 댐에서 월류 등으로 인한 붕괴위험으로 댐 하류지역의 극심한 피해를 예상하여 보조여수로 신설 및 기존여수로 확장 등 치수능력 증대 기본계획을 수립하였고 이를 통하여 극한홍수 발생 시 홍수량 배제능력을 증대하여 기존댐의 안전성 확보 및 하류지역의 피해를 방지하고자 하였다. 여기서 보조 여수로는 기존 여수로와 동시 또는 별도 운영하는 여수로로써 비상상황 시 방류 기능을 포함하고 있고(K-water, 2021), 최근에는 기존 여수로의 노후화에 따라 보조여수로의 활용방안에 대한 관심이 증가하고 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 3차원 수치해석을 수행하여 기존 및 보조 여수로의 방류량 조합에 따른 하류 영향을 분석하고 하류 호안 안정성 측면에서 최적 방류 시나리오를 검토하고자 한다.

기존의 댐 여수로 검토에 관한 연구는 주로 수리실험을 통하여 방류조건 별 흐름특성을 검토하였으나 최근에는 수치모형 실험결과가 수리모형실험과 비교하여 근사한 것을 확인하는 등 점차 수치모형실험을 수리모형실험의 대안으로 활용하고 있다(Jeon et al., 2006; Kim, 2007; Kim et al., 2008). 국내의 경우, Jeon et al.(2006)은 수리모형 실험과 수치모의를 이용하여 임하댐 바상여수로의 기본설계안을 도출하였고, Kim et al.(2008)은 가능최대홍수량 유입 시 비상여수로 방류에 따른 수리학적 안정성과 기능성을 3차원 수치모형인 FLOW-3D를 활용하여 검토하였다. 또한 Kim and Kim(2013)은 충주댐의 홍수조절 효과 검토 및 방류량 변화에 따른 상·하류의 수위 변화를 수치모형을 통하여 검토하였다. 국외의 경우 Zeng et al.(2017)은 3차원 수치모형인 Fluent를 활용한 여수로 방류에 따른 흐름특성 결과와 측정결과를 비교하여 수치모형 결과의 신뢰성을 검토하였다. Li et al.(2011)은 가능 최대 홍수량(Probable Maximum Flood, PMF)조건에서 기존 여수로와 신규 보조 여수로 유입부 주변의 흐름특성에 대하여 3차원 수치모형 Fluent를 활용하여 검토하였고, Lee et al.(2019)는 서로 근접해있는 기존 여수로와 보조여수로 동시 운영 시 방류능 검토를 수리모형 실험 및 수치모형 실험(FLOW-3D)을 통하여 수행하였으며 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로를 동시운영하게 되면 배수로 간섭으로 인하여 총 방류량이 7.6%까지 감소되어 댐의 방류능력이 감소하였음을 확인하였다.

그러나 대부분의 여수로 검토에 대한 연구는 여수로 내에서의 흐름특성 및 기능성에 대한 검토를 수행하였고. 이에 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로 방류운영에 따른 하류하천의 흐름특성 변화 및 호안 안정성 평가에 관한 추가적인 검토가 필요한 실정이다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 기존 여수로 및 보조 여수로 방류 조건에 따른 하류하천의 흐름특성 및 호안 안정성분석을 3차원 수치모형인 FLOW-3D를 이용하여 검토하였다. 또한 다양한 방류 배분 비율 및 허용 방류량 조건 변화에 따른 하류하천의 흐름특성 및 소류력 분석결과를 호안 설계 허용유속 및 허용 소류력 기준과 비교하여 하류하천의 영향을 최소화 할 수 있는 최적의 보조 여수로 활용방안을 도출하고자 한다.

^{}2. 본 론

2.1 이론적 배경

2.1.1 3차원 수치모형의 기본이론

FLOW-3D는 미국 Flow Science, Inc에서 개발한 범용 유체역학 프로그램(CFD, Computational Fluid Dynamics)으로 자유 수면을 갖는 흐름모의에 사용되는 3차원 수치해석 모형이다. 난류모형을 통해 난류 해석이 가능하고, 댐 방류에 따른 하류 하천의 흐름 해석에도 많이 사용되어 왔다(Flow Science, 2011). 본 연구에서는 FLOW-3D(version 12.0)을 이용하여 홍수 시 기존 여수로의 노후화에 대비하여 보조 여수로의 활용방안에 대한 검토를 하류하천의 호안 안정성 측면에서 검토하였다.

2.1.2 유동해석의 지배방정식

1) 연속 방정식(Continuity Equation)

FLOW-3D는 비압축성 유체에 대하여 연속방정식을 사용하며, 밀도는 상수항으로 적용된다. 연속 방정식은 Eqs. (1), (2)와 같다.

(1)

∇·v=0

(2)

∂∂x(uAx)+∂∂y(vAy)+∂∂z(wAz)=RSORρ

여기서, ρ는 유체 밀도(kg/m^{3}), u, v, w는 x, y, z방향의 유속(m/s), Ax, Ay, Az는 각 방향의 요소면적(m^{2}), RSOR는 질량 생성/소멸(mass source/sink)항을 의미한다.

2) 운동량 방정식(Momentum Equation)

각 방향 속도성분 u, v, w에 대한 운동방정식은 Navier-Stokes 방정식으로 다음 Eqs. (3), (4), (5)와 같다.

여기서, Gx, Gy, Gz는 체적력에 의한 가속항, fx, fy, fz는 점성에 의한 가속항, bx, by, bz는 다공성 매체에서의 흐름손실을 의미한다.

2.1.3 소류력 산정

호안설계 시 제방사면 호안의 안정성 확보를 위해서는 하천의 흐름에 의하여 호안에 작용하는 소류력에 저항할 수 있는 재료 및 공법 선택이 필요하다. 국내의 경우 하천공사설계실무요령(MOLIT, 2016)에서 계획홍수량 유하 시 소류력 산정 방법을 제시하고 있다. 소류력은 하천의 평균유속을 이용하여 산정할 수 있으며, 소류력 산정식은 Eqs. (6), (7)과 같다.

여기서, τ는 소류력(N/m^{2}), R은 동수반경(m), γ는 물의 단위중량(10.0 kN/m^{3}), I는 에너지경사, C는 Chezy 유속계수, V는 평균유속(m/s)을 의미한다.

2) Manning 조도계수를 고려한 공식

Chezy 유속계수를 대신하여 Manning의 조도계수를 고려하여 소류력을 산정할 수 있다.

(7)

τ=γn2V2R1/3

여기서, τ는 소류력(N/m^{2}), R은 동수반경(m), γ는 물의 단위중량(10.0 kN/m^{3}), n은 Manning의 조도계수, V는 평균유속(m/s)을 의미한다.

FLOW-3D 수치모의 수행을 통하여 하천의 바닥 유속을 도출할 수 있으며, 본 연구에서는 Maning 조도계수롤 고려하여 소류력을 산정하고자 한다. 소류력을 산정하기 위해서 여수로 방류에 따른 대안부의 바닥유속 변화를 검토하여 최대 유속 값을 이용하였다. 최종적으로 산정한 소류력과 호안의 재료 및 공법에 따른 허용 소류력과 비교하여 제방사면 호안의 안정성 검토를 수행하게 된다.

2.2 하천호안 설계기준

하천 호안은 계획홍수위 이하의 유수작용에 대하여 안정성이 확보되도록 계획하여야 하며, 호안의 설계 시에는 사용재료의 확보용이성, 시공상의 용이성, 세굴에 대한 굴요성(flexibility) 등을 고려하여 호안의 형태, 시공방법 등을 결정한다(MOLIT, 2019). 국내의 경우, 하천공사설계실무요령(MOLIT, 2016)에서는 다양한 호안공법에 대하여 비탈경사에 따라 설계 유속을 비교하거나, 허용 소류력을 비교함으로써 호안의 안정성을 평가한다. 호안에 대한 국외의 설계기준으로 미국의 경우, ASTM(미국재료시험학회)에서 호안블록 및 식생매트 시험방법을 제시하였고 제품별로 ASTM 시험에 의한 허용유속 및 허용 소류력을 제시하였다. 일본의 경우, 호안 블록에 대한 축소실험을 통하여 항력을 측정하고 이를 통해서 호안 블록에 대한 항력계수를 제시하고 있다. 설계 시에는 항력계수에 의한 블록의 안정성을 평가하고 있으나, 최근에는 세굴의 영향을 고려할 수 있는 호안 안정성 평가의 필요성을 제기하고 있다(MOLIT, 2019). 관련된 국내·외의 하천호안 설계기준은 Table 1에 정리하여 제시하였고, 본 연구에서 하천 호안 안정성 평가 시 하천공사설계실무요령(MOLIT, 2016)과 ASTM 시험에서 제시한 허용소류력 및 허용유속 기준을 비교하여 각각 0.28 kN/m^{2}, 5.0 m/s 미만일 경우 호안 안정성을 확보하였다고 판단하였다.

Table 1.

Standard of Permissible Velocity and Shear on Revetment

Country (Reference)

Material

Permissible velocity (Vp, m/s)

Permissible Shear (τp, kN/m^{2})

Korea

River Construction Design Practice Guidelines (MOLIT, 2016)

Vegetated

5.0

0.50

Stone

5.0

0.80

USA

ASTM D’6460

Vegetated

6.1

0.81

Unvegetated

5.0

0.28

JAPAN

Dynamic Design Method of Revetment

–

5.0

–

2.3. 보조여수로 운영에 따른 하류하천 영향 분석

2.3.1 모형의 구축 및 경계조건

본 연구에서는 기존 여수로의 노후화에 대비하여 홍수 시 보조여수로의 활용방안에 따른 하류하천의 흐름특성 및 호안안정성 평가를 수행하기 위해 FLOW-3D 모형을 이용하였다. 기존 여수로 및 보조 여수로는 치수능력 증대사업(MOLIT & K-water, 2004)을 통하여 완공된 ○○댐의 제원을 이용하여 구축하였다. ○○댐은 설계빈도(100년) 및 200년빈도 까지는 계획홍수위 이내로 기존 여수로를 통하여 운영이 가능하나 그 이상 홍수조절은 보조여수로를 통하여 조절해야 하며, 또한 2011년 기존 여수로 정밀안전진단 결과 사면의 표층 유실 및 옹벽 밀림현상 등이 확인되어 노후화에 따른 보수·보강이 필요한 상태이다. 이에 보조여수로의 활용방안 검토가 필요한 것으로 판단하여 본 연구의 대상댐으로 선정하였다. 하류 하천의 흐름특성을 예측하기 위하여 격자간격을 0.99 ~ 8.16 m의 크기로 하여 총 격자수는 49,102,500개로 구성하였으며, 여수로 방류에 따른 하류하천의 흐름해석을 위한 경계조건으로 상류는 유입유량(inflow), 바닥은 벽면(wall), 하류는 수위(water surface elevation)조건으로 적용하도록 하였다(Table 2, Fig. 1 참조). FLOW-3D 난류모형에는 혼합길이 모형, 난류에너지 모형, k-ϵ모형, RNG(Renormalized Group Theory) k-ϵ모형, LES 모형 등이 있으며, 본 연구에서는 여수로 방류에 따른 복잡한 난류 흐름 및 높은 전단흐름을 정확하게 모의(Flow Science, 2011)할 수 있는 RNG k-ϵ모형을 사용하였고, 하류하천 호안의 안정성 측면에서 보조여수로의 활용방안을 검토하기 위하여 방류시나리오는 Table 3에 제시된 것 같이 설정하였다. Case 1 및 Case 2를 통하여 계획홍수량에 대하여 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 단독 운영이 하류하천에 미치는 영향을 확인하였고 보조 여수로의 방류량 조절을 통하여 호안 안정성 측면에서 보조 여수로 방류능 검토를 수행하였다(Case 3 ~ Case 6). 또한 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 방류량 배분에 따른 하류하천의 영향 검토(Case 7 ~ Case 10) 및 방류 배분에 따른 허용 방류량을 호안 안정성 측면에서 검토를 수행하였다(Case 11 ~ Case 14).

수문은 완전개도 조건으로 가정하였으며 하류하천의 계획홍수량에 대한 기존 여수로와 보조여수로의 배분량을 조절하여 모의를 수행하였다. 여수로는 콘크리트의 조도계수 값(Chow, 1959)을 채택하였고, 댐 하류하천의 조도계수는 하천기본계획(Busan Construction and Management Administration, 2009) 제시된 조도계수 값을 채택하였으며 FLOW-3D의 적용을 위하여 Manning-Strickler 공식(Vanoni, 2006)을 이용하여 조도계수를 조고값으로 변환하여 사용하였다. Manning-Strickler 공식은 Eq. (8)과 같으며, FLOW-3D에 적용한 조도계수 및 조고는 Table 4와 같다.

(8)

n=ks1/68.1g1/2

여기서, kS는 조고 (m), n은 Manning의 조도계수, g는 중력가속도(m/s^{2})를 의미한다.

시간에 따라 동일한 유량이 일정하게 유입되도록 모의를 수행하였으며, 시간간격(Time Step)은 0.0001초로 설정(CFL number < 1.0) 하였다. 또한 여수로 수문을 통한 유량의 변동 값이 1.0%이내일 경우는 연속방정식을 만족하고 있다고 가정하였다. 이는, 유량의 변동 값이 1.0%이내일 경우 유속의 변동 값 역시 1.0%이내이며, 수치모의 결과 1.0%의 유속변동은 호안의 유속설계기준에 크게 영향을 미치지 않는다고 판단하였다. 그 결과 모든 수치모의 Case에서 2400초 이내에 결과 값이 수렴하는 것을 확인하였다.

Table 2.

Mesh sizes and numerical conditions

Mesh

Numbers

49,102,500 EA

Increment (m)

Direction

Existing Spillway

Auxiliary Spillway

∆X

0.99 ~ 4.30

1.00 ~ 4.30

∆Y

0.99 ~ 8.16

1.00 ~ 5.90

∆Z

0.50 ~ 1.22

0.50 ~ 2.00

Boundary Conditions

X_{min} / Y_{max}

Inflow / Water Surface Elevation

X_{max}, Y_{min}, Z_{min} / Z_{max}

Wall / Symmetry

Turbulence Model

RNG model

Table 3.

Case of numerical simulation (Qp : Design flood discharge)

Case

Existing Spillway (Q_{e}, m^{3}/s)

Auxiliary Spillway (Q_{a}, m^{3}/s)

Remarks

1

Q_{p}

0

Reference case

2

0

Q_{p}

3

0

0.58Q_{p}

Review of discharge capacity on auxiliary spillway

4

0

0.48Q_{p}

5

0

0.45Q_{p}

6

0

0.32Q_{p}

7

0.50Q_{p}

0.50Q_{p}

Determination of optimal division ratio on Spillways

8

0.61Q_{p}

0.39Q_{p}

9

0.39Q_{p}

0.61Q_{p}

10

0.42Q_{p}

0.58Q_{p}

11

0.32Q_{p}

0.45Q_{p}

Determination of permissible division on Spillways

12

0.35Q_{p}

0.48Q_{p}

13

0.38Q_{p}

0.53Q_{p}

14

0.41Q_{p}

0.56Q_{p}

Table 4.

Roughness coefficient and roughness height

Criteria

Roughness coefficient (n)

Roughness height (ks, m)

Structure (Concrete)

0.014

0.00061

River

0.033

0.10496

Fig. 1

Layout of spillway and river in this study

2.3.2 보조 여수로의 방류능 검토

본 연구에서는 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 방류량 배분에 따른 하류하천 대안부의 유속분포 및 수위분포를 검토하기 위해 수치모의 Case 별 다음과 같이 관심구역을 설정하였다(Fig. 2 참조). 관심구역(대안부)의 길이(L)는 총 1.3 km로 10 m 등 간격으로 나누어 검토하였으며, Section 1(0 < X/L < 0.27)은 기존 여수로 방류에 따른 영향이 지배적인 구간, Section 2(0.27 < X/L < 1.00)는 보조 여수로 방류에 따른 영향이 지배적인 구간으로 각 구간에서의 수위, 유속, 수심결과를 확인하였다. 기존 여수로의 노후화에 따른 보조 여수로의 방류능 검토를 위하여 Case 1 – Case 6까지의 결과를 비교하였다.

보조 여수로의 단독 운영 시 기존 여수로 운영 시 보다 하류하천의 대안부의 최대 유속(Vmax)은 약 3% 감소하였으며, 이는 보조 여수로의 하천 유입각이 기존 여수로 보다 7°작으며 유입하천의 폭이 증가하여 유속이 감소한 것으로 판단된다. 대안부의 최대 유속 발생위치는 하류 쪽으로 이동하였으며 교량으로 인한 단면의 축소로 최대유속이 발생하는 것으로 판단된다. 또한 보조 여수로의 배분량(Qa)이 증가함에 따라 하류하천 대안부의 최대 유속이 증가하였다. 하천호안 설계기준에서 제시하고 있는 허용유속(Vp)과 비교한 결과, 계획홍수량(Qp)의 45% 이하(Case 5 & 6)를 보조 여수로에서 방류하게 되면 허용 유속(5.0 m/s)조건을 만족하여 호안안정성을 확보하였다(Fig. 3 참조). 허용유속 외에도 대안부에서의 소류력을 산정하여 하천호안 설계기준에서 제시한 허용 소류력(τp)과 비교한 결과, 유속과 동일하게 보조 여수로의 방류량이 계획홍수량의 45% 이하일 경우 허용소류력(0.28 kN/m^{2}) 조건을 만족하였다(Fig. 4 참조). 각 Case 별 호안설계조건과 비교한 결과는 Table 5에 제시하였다.

하류하천의 수위도 기존 여수로 운영 시 보다 보조 여수로 단독 운영 시 최대 수위(ηmax)가 약 2% 감소하는 효과를 보였으며 최대 수위 발생위치는 수충부로 여수로 방류시 처오름에 의한 수위 상승으로 판단된다. 기존 여수로의 단독운영(Case 1)의 수위(ηref)를 기준으로 보조 여수로의 방류량이 증가함에 따라 수위는 증가하였으나 계획홍수량의 58%까지 방류할 경우 월류에 대한 안정성(ηmax/ηref<0.97(=기설제방고))은 확보되었다(Fig. 5 참조). 그러나 계획홍수량 조건에서는 월류에 대한 위험성이 존재하기 때문에 기존여수로와 보조여수로의 적절한 방류량 배분 조합을 도출하는 것이 중요하다고 판단되어 진다.

Fig. 2

Region of interest in this study

Fig. 3

Maximum velocity and location of Vmax according to Q_{a}

Fig. 4

Maximum shear according to Q_{a}

Fig. 5

Maximum water surface elevation and location of ηmax according to Q_{a}

Table 5.

Numerical results for each cases (Case 1 ~ Case 6)

Case

Maximum Velocity (Vmax, m/s)

Maximum Shear (τmax, kN/m^{2})

Evaluation in terms of Vp

Evaluation in terms of τp

1 (Q_{a} = 0)

9.15

0.54

No Good

No Good

2 (Q_{a} = Q_{p})

8.87

0.56

No Good

No Good

3 (Q_{a} = 0.58Q_{p})

6.53

0.40

No Good

No Good

4 (Q_{a} = 0.48Q_{p})

6.22

0.36

No Good

No Good

5 (Q_{a} = 0.45Q_{p})

4.22

0.12

Accpet

Accpet

6 (Q_{a} = 0.32Q_{p})

4.04

0.14

Accpet

Accpet

2.3.3 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로 방류량 배분 검토

기존 여수로 및 보조 여수로 단독운영에 따른 하류하천 및 호안의 안정성 평가를 수행한 결과 계획홍수량 방류 시 하류하천 대안부에서 호안 설계 조건(허용유속 및 허용 소류력)을 초과하였으며, 처오름에 의한 수위 상승으로 월류에 대한 위험성 증가를 확인하였다. 따라서 계획 홍수량 조건에서 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 방류량 배분을 통하여 호안 안정성을 확보하고 하류하천에 방류로 인한 피해를 최소화할 수 있는 배분조합(Case 7 ~ Case 10)을 검토하였다. Case 7은 기존 여수로와 보조여수로의 배분 비율을 균등하게 적용한 경우이고, Case 8은 기존 여수로의 배분량이 보조 여수로에 비하여 많은 경우, Case 9는 보조 여수로의 배분량이 기존 여수로에 비하여 많은 경우를 의미한다. 최대유속을 비교한 결과 보조 여수로의 배분 비율이 큰 경우 기존 여수로의 배분량에 의하여 흐름이 하천 중심에 집중되어 대안부의 유속을 저감하는 효과를 확인하였다. 보조여수로의 방류량 배분 비율이 증가할수록 기존 여수로 대안부 측(0.00<X/L<0.27, Section 1) 유속 분포는 감소하였으나, 신규여수로 대안부 측(0.27<X/L<1.00, Section 2) 유속은 증가하는 것을 확인하였다(Fig. 6 참조). 그러나 유속 저감 효과에도 대안부 전구간에서 설계 허용유속 조건을 초과하여 제방의 안정성을 확보하지는 못하였다. 소류력 산정 결과 유속과 동일하게 보조 여수로의 방류량이 기존 여수로의 방류량 보다 크면 감소하는 것을 확인하였고 일부 구간에서는 허용 소류력 조건을 만족하는 것을 확인하였다(Fig. 7 참조).

따라서 유속 저감효과가 있는 배분 비율 조건(Qa>Qe)에서 Section 2에 유속 저감에 영향을 미치는 기존 여수로 방류량 배분 비율을 증가시켜 추가 검토(Case 10)를 수행하였다. 단독운영과 비교 시 하류하천에 유입되는 유량은 증가하였음에도 불구하고 기존 여수로 방류량에 의해 흐름이 하천 중심으로 집중되는 현상에 따라 대안부의 유속은 단독 운영에 비하여 감소하는 것을 확인하였고(Fig. 8 참조), 호안 설계 허용유속 및 허용 소류력 조건을 만족하는 구간이 발생하여 호안 안정성도 확보한 것으로 판단되었다. 최종적으로 각 Case 별 수위 결과의 경우 여수로 동시 운영을 수행하게 되면 대안부 전 구간에서 월류에 대한 안정성(ηmax/ηref<0.97(=기설제방고))은 확보하였다(Fig. 9 참조). 각 Case 별 대안부에서 최대 유속결과 및 산정한 소류력은 Table 6에 제시하였다.

Fig. 6

Maximum velocity on section 1 & 2 according to Q_{a}

Fig. 7

Maximum shear on section 1 & 2 according to Q_{a}

Fig. 8

Velocity results of FLOW-3D (a: auxiliary spillway operation only , b : simultaneous operation of spillways)

Fig. 9

Maximum water surface elevation on section 1 & 2 according to Q_{a}

Table 6.

Numerical results for each cases (Case 7 ~ Case 10)

Case (Q_{e} & Q_{a})

Maximum Velocity (Vmax, m/s)

Maximum Shear (τmax, kN/m^{2})

Evaluation in terms of Vp

Evaluation in terms of τp

Section 1

Section 2

Section 1

Section 2

Section 1

Section 2

Section 1

Section 2

7 Qe : 0.50QpQa : 0.50Qp

8.10

6.23

0.64

0.30

No Good

No Good

No Good

No Good

8 Qe : 0.61QpQa : 0.39Qp

8.88

6.41

0.61

0.34

No Good

No Good

No Good

No Good

9 Qe : 0.39QpQa : 0.61Qp

6.22

7.33

0.24

0.35

No Good

No Good

Accept

No Good

10 Qe : 0.42QpQa : 0.58Qp

6.39

4.79

0.30

0.19

No Good

Accept

No Good

Accept

2.3.4 방류량 배분 비율의 허용 방류량 검토

계획 홍수량 방류 시 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 배분 비율 검토 결과 Case 10(Q_{e} = 0.42Q_{p}, Q_{a} = 0.58Q_{p})에서 방류에 따른 하류 하천의 피해를 최소화시킬 수 있는 것을 확인하였다. 그러나 대안부 전 구간에 대하여 호안 설계조건을 만족하지 못하였다. 따라서 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 방류 배분 비율을 고정시킨 후 총 방류량을 조절하여 허용 방류량을 검토하였다(Case 11 ~ Case 14).

호안 안정성 측면에서 검토한 결과 계획홍수량 대비 총 방류량이 감소하면 최대 유속 및 최대 소류력이 감소하고 최종적으로 계획 홍수량의 77%를 방류할 경우 하류하천의 대안부에서 호안 설계조건을 모두 만족하는 것을 확인하였다(Fig. 10, Fig. 11 참조). 각 Case 별 대안부에서 최대 유속결과 및 산정한 소류력은 Table 7에 제시하였다. 또한 Case 별 수위 검토 결과 처오름으로 인한 대안부 전 구간에서 월류에 대한 안정성(ηmax/ηref<0.97(=기설제방고))은 확보하였다(Fig. 12 참조).

Table 7.

Numerical results for each cases (Case 11 ~ Case 14)

Case (Qe & Qa)

Maximum Velocity (Vmax, m/s)

Maximum Shear (τmax, kN/m^{2})

Evaluation in terms of Vp

Evaluation in terms of τp

Section 1

Section 2

Section 1

Section 2

Section 1

Section 2

Section 1

Section 2

11 Qe : 0.32QpQa : 0.45Qp

3.63

4.53

0.09

0.26

Accept

Accept

Accept

Accept

12 Qe : 0.35QpQa : 0.48Qp

5.74

5.18

0.23

0.22

No Good

No Good

Accept

Accept

13 Qe : 0.38QpQa : 0.53Qp

6.70

4.21

0.28

0.11

No Good

Accept

Accept

Accept

14 Qe : 0.41QpQa : 0.56Qp

6.54

5.24

0.28

0.24

No Good

No Good

Accept

Accept

Fig. 10

Maximum velocity on section 1 & 2 according to total outflow

Fig. 11

Maximum shear on section 1 & 2 according to total outflow

Fig. 12

Maximum water surface elevation on section 1 & 2 according to total outflow

^{}3. 결 론

본 연구에서는 홍수 시 기존 여수로의 노후화로 인한 보조 여수로의 활용방안에 대하여 하류하천의 호안 안정성 측면에서 검토하였다. 여수로 방류로 인한 하류하천의 흐름특성을 검토하기 위하여 3차원 수치모형인 FLOW-3D를 활용하였고, 여수로 지형은 치수능력 증대사업을 통하여 완공된 ○○댐의 제원을 이용하였다. 하류하천 조도 계수 및 여수로 방류량은 하천기본계획을 참고하여 적용하였다. 최종적으로 여수로 방류로 인한 하류하천의 피해를 최소화 시킬 수 있는 적절한 보조 여수로의 활용방안을 도출하기 위하여 보조 여수로 단독 운영과 기존 여수로와의 동시 운영에 따른 하류 하천의 흐름특성 및 소류력의 변화를 검토하였다.

수문은 완전 개도 상태에서 방류한다는 가정으로 계획 홍수량 조건에서 보조 여수로 단독 운영 시 하류하천 대안부의 유속 및 수위를 검토한 결과 기존 여수로 단독운영에 비하여 최대 유속 및 최대 수위가 감소하는 것을 확인할 수 있었으며, 이는 보조 여수로 단독 운영 시 하류하천으로 유입각도가 작아지고, 유입되는 하천의 폭이 증가되기 때문이다. 그러나 계획 홍수량 조건에서 하천호안 설계기준에서 제시한 허용 유속(5.0 m/s)과 허용 소류력(0.28 kN/m^{2})과 비교하였을 때 호안 안정성을 확보하지 못하였으며, 계획홍수량의 45% 이하 방류 시에 대안부의 호안 안정성을 확보하였다. 수위의 경우 여수로 방류에 따른 대안부에서 처오름 현상이 발생하여 월류에 대한 위험성을 확인하였고 이를 통하여 기존 여수로와의 동시 운영 방안을 도출하는 것이 중요하다고 판단된다. 따라서 기존 여수로와의 동시 운영 측면에서 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 배분 비율 및 총 방류량을 변화시켜가며 하류 하천의 흐름특성 및 소류력의 변화를 검토하였다. 배분 비율의 경우 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 균등 배분(Case 7) 및 편중 배분(Case 8 & Case 9)을 검토하여 보조 여수로의 방류량이 기존 여수로의 방류량보다 큰 경우 하류하천의 중심부로 집중되어 대안부의 최대유속, 최대소류력 및 최대수위가 감소하는 것을 확인하였다. 이를 근거로 기존 여수로의 방류 비율을 증가(Q_{e}=0.42Q_{p}, Q_{a}=0.58Q_{p})시켜 검토한 결과 대안부 일부 구간에서 허용 유속 및 허용소류력 조건을 만족하는 것을 확인하였다. 이를 통하여 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 동시 운영을 통하여 적절한 방류량 배분 비율을 도출하는 것이 방류로 인한 하류하천의 피해를 저감하는데 효과적인 것으로 판단된다. 그러나 설계홍수량 방류 시 전 구간에서 허용 유속 및 소류력 조건을 만족하지 못하였다. 최종적으로 전체 방류량에서 기존 여수로의 방류 비율을 42%, 보조 여수로의 방류 비율을 58%로 설정하여 허용방류량을 검토한 결과, 계획홍수량의 77%이하로 방류 시 대안부의 최대유속은 기존여수로 방류의 지배영향구간(section 1)에서 3.63 m/s, 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로 방류의 영향구간(section 2)에서 4.53 m/s로 허용유속 조건을 만족하였고, 산정한 소류력도 각각 0.09 kN/m^{2} 및 0.26 kN/m^{2}로 허용 소류력 조건을 만족하여 대안부 호안의 안정성을 확보하였다고 판단된다.

본 연구 결과는 기후변화 및 기존여수로의 노후화로 인하여 홍수 시 기존여수로의 단독운영으로 하류하천의 피해가 발생할 수 있는 현시점에서 치수증대 사업으로 완공된 보조 여수로의 활용방안에 대한 기초자료로 활용될 수 있고, 향후 계획 홍수량 유입 시 최적의 배분 비율 및 허용 방류량 도출에 이용할 수 있다. 다만 본 연구는 여수로 방류에 따른 제방에 작용하는 수충력은 검토하지 못하고, 허용 유속 및 허용소류력은 제방과 유수의 방향이 일정한 구간에 대하여 검토하였다. 또한 여수로 방류에 따른 대안부에서의 영향에 대해서만 검토하였고 수문 전면 개도 조건에서 검토하였다는 한계점은 분명히 있다. 이에 향후에는 다양한 수문 개도 조건 및 방류 시나리오를 적용 및 검토하여 보다 효율적이고, 효과적인 보조 여수로 활용방안을 도출하고자 한다.

Acknowledgements

본 결과물은 K-water에서 수행한 기존 및 신규 여수로 효율적 연계운영 방안 마련(2021-WR-GP-76-149)의 지원을 받아 연구되었습니다.

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Simulation of Dam-Break Flood Wave and Inundation Mapping: A Case study of Attabad Lake

Wasim Karam1, Fayaz A. Khan2, Muhammad Alam3, Sajjad Ali4 1Lab. Engineer, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Mardan, Pakistan, wasim10karam@gmail.com 2Assistant Professor, National Institute of Urban Infrastructure Planning, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan, fayazuet@yahoo.com 3,4Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Mardan, Pakistan, emalam82@gmail.com, sajjadali@uetmardan.edu.pk

ABSTRACT

산사태 또는 제방 댐의 파손 연구는 구성이 불확실하고 자연적이며 재해에 대해 적절하게 설계되지 않았기 때문에 다른 자연적 사건에 대한 대응 지식이 부족하기 때문에 더 중요합니다. 이 논문은 댐 파괴의 수력학적 모델링의 다양한 방법을 개선하는 것을 목표로 합니다.

현재 이 연구에서 Attabad 호수의 댐 붕괴는 전산 유체 역학 기술을 사용하여 시뮬레이션됩니다. 수치 모델(FLOW-3D)은 Reynolds 평균 Navier-Stoke 방정식을 완전히 3D로 풀어서 다양한 단면에서의 피크 유량 깊이, 피크 속도, 피크 방전, 피크 깊이까지의 시간 및 피크 방전까지의 시간을 예측하기 위해 개발되었습니다.

표준 RNG 난류 모델을 사용하여 난류를 시뮬레이션한 다음 마을의 흐름에 대한 홍수 범람 지도와 속도 벡터를 그립니다. 결과는 Hunza 강의 수로를 통해 모델링된 홍수파의 대부분이 Hunza 강의 범람원에 포함되지만 Hunza 강의 범람원 내부에 위치한 Miaun 및 chalat와 같은 일부 마을의 경우 더 높은 위험에 있음을 보여줍니다.

그러나 이들 마을의 예상 홍수 도달 시간은 각각 31분과 44분으로 인구를 안전한 지역으로 대피시키기에 충분한 시간인 반면, 알리 아바드에 인접한 하산 아바드와 같은 일부 마을의 경우 침수 위험이 더 높은 반면 마을의 예상 홍수 도착 시간은 12분으로 인구 대피에 충분하지 않으므로 홍수 억제를 위한 추가 홍수 보호 구조가 필요합니다.

최고속도의 추정치는 하천평야의 더 높은 전단응력, 심한 침식의 위험, 농경지 피해, 주거지 및 형태학적 변화가 예상됨을 의미한다. 댐 파손 분석(예: 최고 깊이, 최고 속도, 홍수 도달 시간 및 홍수 범람 지도)은 향후 위험 분석 및 홍수 관리의 지침으로만 사용해야 합니다.

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Investigating the breach outflow hydrograph is an essential task to conduct mitigation plans and flood warnings. In the present study, the spatial dam breach is simulated by using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model, FLOW-3D. The model parameters were adjusted by making a comparison with a previous experimental model. The different parameters (initial breach shape, dimensions, location, and dam slopes) are studied to investigate their effects on dam breaching. The results indicate that these parameters have a significant impact. The maximum erosion rate and peak outflow for the rectangular shape are higher than those for the V-notch by 8.85% and 5%, respectively. Increasing breach width or decreasing depth by 5% leads to increasing maximum erosion rate by 11% and 15%, respectively. Increasing the downstream slope angle by 4° leads to an increase in both peak outflow and maximum erosion rate by 2.0% and 6.0%, respectively.

유출 유출 수문곡선을 조사하는 것은 완화 계획 및 홍수 경보를 수행하는 데 필수적인 작업입니다. 본 연구에서는 3차원 전산유체역학 모델인 FLOW-3D를 사용하여 공간 댐 붕괴를 시뮬레이션합니다. 이전 실험 모델과 비교하여 모델 매개변수를 조정했습니다.

다양한 매개변수(초기 붕괴 형태, 치수, 위치 및 댐 경사)가 댐 붕괴에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위해 연구됩니다. 결과는 이러한 매개변수가 상당한 영향을 미친다는 것을 나타냅니다. 직사각형 형태의 최대 침식율과 최대 유출량은 V-notch보다 각각 8.85%, 5% 높게 나타났습니다.

위반 폭을 늘리거나 깊이를 5% 줄이면 최대 침식률이 각각 11% 및 15% 증가합니다. 하류 경사각을 4° 증가시키면 최대 유출량과 최대 침식률이 각각 2.0% 및 6.0% 증가합니다.

Keywords

Spatial dam breach; FLOW-3D; Overtopping erosion; Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

1. Introduction

There are many purposes for dam construction, such as protection from flood disasters, water storage, and power generation. Embankment failures may have a catastrophic impact on lives and infrastructure in the downstream regions. One of the most common causes of embankment dam failure is overtopping. Once the overtopping of the dam begins, the breach formation will start in the dam body then end with the dam failure. This failure occurs within a very short time, which threatens to be very dangerous. Therefore, understanding and modeling the embankment breaching processes is essential for conducting mitigation plans, flood warnings, and forecasting flood damage.

The analysis of the dam breaching process is implemented by different techniques: comparative methods, empirical models with dimensional and dimensionless solutions, physical-based models, and parametric models. These models were described in detail [1]. Parametric modeling is commonly used to simulate breach growth as a time-dependent linear process and calculate outflow discharge from the breach using hydraulics principles [2]. Alhasan et al. [3] presented a simple one-dimensional mathematical model and a computer code to simulate the dam breaching process. These models were validated by small dams breaching during the floods in 2002 in the Czech Republic. Fread [4] developed an erosion model (BREACH) based on hydraulics principles, sediment transport, and soil mechanics to estimate breach size, time of formation, and outflow discharge. Říha et al. [5] investigated the dam break process for a cascade of small dams using a simple parametric model for piping and overtopping erosion, as well as a 2D shallow-water flow model for the flood in downstream areas. Goodarzi et al. [6] implemented mathematical and statistical methods to assess the effect of inflows and wind speeds on the dam’s overtopping failure.

Dam breaching studies can be divided into two main modes of erosion. The first mode is called “planar dam breach” where the flow overtops the whole dam width. While the second mode is called “spatial dam breach” where the flow overtops through the initial pilot channel (i.e., a channel created in the dam body). Therefore, the erosion will be in both vertical and horizontal directions [7].

The erosion process through the embankment dams occurs due to the shear stress applied by water flows. The dam breaching evolution can be divided into three stages [8], [9], but Y. Yang et al. [10] divided the breach development into five stages: Stage I, the seepage erosion; Stage II, the initial breach formation; Stage III, the head erosion; Stage IV, the breach expansion; and Stage V, the re-equilibrium of the river channel through the breach. Many experimental tests have been carried out on non-cohesive embankment dams with an initial breach to examine the effect of upstream inflow discharges on the longitudinal profile evolution and the time to inflection point[11].

Zhang et al. [12] studied the effect of changing downstream slope angle, sediment grain size, and dam crest length on erosion rates. They noticed that increasing dam crest length and decreasing downstream slope angle lead to decreasing sediment transport rate. While the increase in sediment grain size leads to an increased sediment transport rate at the initial stages. Höeg et al. [13] presented a series of field tests to investigate the stability of embankment dams made of various materials. Overtopping and piping were among the failure tests carried out for the dams composed of homogeneous rock-fill, clay, or gravel with a height of up to 6.0 m. Hakimzadeh et al. [14] constructed 40 homogeneous cohesive and non-cohesive embankment dams to study the effect of changing sediment diameter and dam height on the breaching process. They also used genetic programming (GP) to estimate the breach outflow. Refaiy et al. [15] studied different scenarios for the downstream drain geometry, such as length, height, and angle, to minimize the effect of piping phenomena and therefore increase dam safety.

Zhu et al. [16] examined the effect of headcut erosion on dam breach growth, especially in the case of cohesive dams. They found that the breach growth in non-cohesive embankments is slower than cohesive embankments due to the little effect of headcut. Schmocker and Hager [7] proposed a relationship for estimating peak outflow from the dam breach process.(1)QpQin-1=1.7exp-20hc23d5013H0

where: Q_{p} = peak outflow discharge.

Q_{in} = inflow discharge.

h_{c} = critical flow depth.

d_{50} = mean sediment diameter.

H_{o} = initial dam height.

Yu et al. [17] carried out an experimental study for homogeneous non-cohesive embankment dams in a 180° bending rectangular flume to determine the effect of overtopping flows on breaching formation. They found that the main factors influencing breach formation are water level, river discharge, and embankment material diameter.

Wu et al. [18] carried out a series of experiments to investigate the effect of breaching geometry on both non-cohesive and cohesive embankment dams in a U-bend flume due to overtopping flows. In the case of non-cohesive embankments, the non-symmetrical lateral expansion was noticed during the breach formation. This expansion was described by a coefficient ranging from 2.7 to 3.3.

The numerical models of the dam breach can be categorized according to different parameters, such as flow dimensions (1D, 2D, or 3D), flow governing equations, and solution methods. The 1D models are mainly used to predict the outflow hydrograph from the dam breach. Saberi et al. [19] applied the 1D Saint-Venant equation, which is solved by the finite difference method to investigate the outflow hydrograph during dam overtopping failure. Because of the ability to study dam profile evolution and breach formation, 2D models are more applicable than 1D models. Guan et al. [20] and Wu et al. [21] employed both 2D shallow water equations (SWEs) and sediment erosion equations, which are solved by the finite volume method to study the effect of the dam’s geometry parameters on outflow hydrograph and dam profile evolution. Wang et al. [22] also proposed a second-order hybrid-type of total variation diminishing (TVD) finite-difference to estimate the breach outflow by solving the 2D (SWEs). The accuracy of (SWEs) for both vertical flow contraction and surface roughness has been assessed [23]. They noted that the accuracy of (SWEs) is acceptable for milder slopes, but in the case of steeper slopes, modelers should be more careful. Generally, the accuracy of 2D models is still low, especially with velocity distribution over the flow depth, lateral momentum exchange, density-driven flows, and bottom friction[24]. Therefore, 3D models are preferred. Larocque et al. [25] and Yang et al. [26] started to use three-dimensional (3D) models that depend on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations.

Previous experimental studies concluded that there is no clear relationship between the peak outflow from the dam breach and the initial breach characteristics. Some of these studies depend on the sharp-crested weir fixed at the end of the flume to determine the peak outflow from the breach, which leads to a decrease in the accuracy of outflow calculations at the microscale. The main goals of this study are to carry out a numerical simulation for a spatial dam breach due to overtopping flows by using (FLOW-3D) software to find an empirical equation for the peak outflow discharge from the breach and determine the worst-case that leads to accelerating the dam breaching process.

2. Numerical simulation

The current study for spatial dam breach is simulated by using (FLOW-3D) software [27], which is a powerful computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program.

2.1. Geometric presentations

A stereolithographic (STL) file is prepared for each change in the initial breach geometry and dimensions. The CAD program is useful for creating solid objects and converting them to STL format, as shown in Fig. 1.

2.2. Governing equations

The governing equations for water flow are three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS).

The momentum equation:(3)∂ui∂t+1VFuj∂ui∂xj=1ρ∂∂xj-pδij+ν∂ui∂xj+∂uj∂xi-ρu`iu`j¯

where u is time-averaged velocity,ν is kinematic viscosity, VF is fractional volume open to flow, p is averaged pressure and -u`iu`j¯ are components of Reynold’s stress. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique is used to simulate the free surface profile. Hirt et al. [28] presented the VOF algorithm, which employs the function (F) to express the occupancy of each grid cell with fluid. The value of (F) varies from zero to unity. Zero value refers to no fluid in the grid cell, while the unity value refers to the grid cell being fully occupied with fluid. The free surface is formed in the grid cells having (F) values between zero and unity.(4)∂F∂t+1VF∂∂xFAxu+∂∂yFAyv+∂∂zFAzw=0

where (u, v, w) are the velocity components in (x, y, z) coordinates, respectively, and (A_{x}, A_{y}, A_{z}) are the area fractions.

2.3. Boundary and initial conditions

To improve the accuracy of the results, the boundary conditions should be carefully determined. In this study, two mesh blocks are used to minimize the time consumed in the simulation. The boundary conditions for mesh block 1 are as follows: The inlet and sides b