## 수치모델링을 이용한 측면 유입특성이 본류에 미치는 영향 조사

Mohammad Raze Raeisi Dehkordi1*, Amir Hossein Yeganeh Mazhar1
1– PhD. Student in the Department of Construction and Water Management, Science and Research Unit, Islamic Azad
University, Tehran, Iran
2– M.Sc. Graduate Water resource management, Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Ghiaseddin Jamshid
Kashani University, Qazvin, Iran

## Keywords

Channel Confluence, Channel cross, sectional area, Cross channel angles, Modelling, Flow-3D

## Abstract

Introduction

One of the key issues in river engineering is analyzing the flow properties at the intersection of natural rivers and canals. The flow of the side channel moves away from the intersection of the two channels as a result of the exchange of input force from the side channel with the main flow after coming into contact with it. One of the most evident properties of the flow in these sections is the development of a revolving region with low pressure and even negative pressure close to the inner wall of the side channel. One advantage of the whirling flow in this low-pressure region is that it gives the flow enough space to sediment, but it also increases flow speed near the channel’s bottom and outside wall by lowering the intersectional area of the flow. One of the most crucial considerations in the design of these intersections is minimizing sedimentation in the rotating region and scouring in the area above the shear plane.

Materials and methods:

The channel (flume) created in the laboratory based on Weber et al., (2001) model, was employed in the current investigation to confirm the validity and examine other study objectives. The main channel is 21. 95 meters long, while the side channel, which is at a 90-degree angle to the main channel, is 3. 66 meters long. The total downstream discharge is approximately 0. 17 m3/s, with the upstream velocities of the main channel being 0. 166 m/s and the side channel being 0. 5 m/s. In both channels, the flow depth and width are 0. 91 meters and 0. 296 meters, respectively. In this study, 6 various models’ angles of intersection between the main and side channels, inlet flow velocity, intersectional area, and side channel length have been examined. Models 2 and 3 have intersection angles of 60 and 30 degrees, respectively, and share the rest of their attributes with the fundamental model, or model number 1. Model 1 is the same as Weber’s experimental model. The length of the side channel in model 4 is different from model 1. The only difference between model 6 and the basic model is the side channel intake speed.

Results and Discussion

Analyzing the intersection angle The angle between the main channel and the side channel is investigated in this section of the findings. Models 1, 2, and 3 are assessed using the intersection angles of 90, 60, and 30 degrees, respectively. In some studies, the impact of the intersection angle has been examined, but in this study, three-dimensional investigation in transverse and longitudinal sections as well as the plan of the intersection is discussed, as can be observed from the literature review. Considering three models with intersection angles of 90, 60, and 30 degrees, the kinetic energy contours at the channel’s middle height can be obtained for each model. The channel with a 30-degree intersection angle (model 3) has the maximum kinetic energy in the flow. The channel with a 60-degree intersection has the minimum kinetic energy. As a result of the maximum deviation of the flow in the main channel caused by the flow of the side channel, the channel with a 90-degree intersection also has the maximum kinetic energy near the wall in front of the side channel.

Examining the side channel length In model 1, the side channel is 3. 66 meters long, whereas in model 4, it is 5. 52 meters long. This study aims to determine how changing the side channel’s length affects the flow pattern where two channels intersect. The kinetic energy contours were obtained for two states of the channel length, which are known to extend the lateral channel, increase the energy of the flow after the intersection, and shorten the length of the high-kinetic energy zone. When compared to model 1 with a shorter length of the side channel, the width of the flow separation zone is reduced by approximately 20%, which results in less flow sedimentation. Figure 12 illustrates the rotating zones in the flow separation area. The flow separation region’s length is essentially unchanged. Studying the intersection of the lateral channel After determining the lateral channel’s length, its width and, consequently, its intersectional area should be evaluated.

This section compares model 1 width of 0. 91 meters to model 5 width of 1. 40 meters. One of the most recent topics related to the intersection of the main and side channels is examining the intersection of the side channel. In model 5, the side channel’s flow rate has also increased due to an increase in the width or intersection of the channel. The flow rate through the intersection and the momentum of the flow from the side channel and the main channel increase when the side channel flow rate rises. The findings indicate that when flow width and side channel flow rise, energy increases after the inlet.

Investigating the value of inlet speed in the side channel Unlike the preceding sections, which were all concerned with the channel geometry, the inlet velocity in the side channel is one of the hydraulic parameters of the flow. In this section, models 1 and 6 with inlet velocities of the side channel of 0. 5 and 0. 75 m/s are evaluated. According to the modeling, the flow is somewhat horst before and immediately on the intersection of the flow level, but it undergoes a substantial prolapse just after the intersection. Model 6 has a larger volume and height of flow, but a smaller and softer prolapse after the intersection.

Conclusion

Some hydraulic and geometric properties of the intersection of channels have been examined using Flow-3D software. The RNG turbulence model was used for three-dimensional modeling. Some of the results are listed below. The flow is uniform upstream of the main and minor channels and only slightly becomes horst at the intersection. The analysis of the lengthening of the side channel revealed a 20% reduction in the separation zone’s width and a considerable reduction in the kinetic energy at the intersection. The input flow rate of this channel to the intersection increases with the speed and width of the side channel, which accounts for the local drop in the width of the main channel flow.

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