Figure 2. Different PKW Types.

A review of Piano Key Weir as a superior alternative for dam rehabilitation

댐 복구를 위한 우수한 대안으로서의 Piano Key Weir에 대한 검토

Amiya Abhash &

K. K. Pandey

Pages 541-551 | Received 03 Mar 2020, Accepted 07 May 2020, Published online: 21 May 2020

ABSTRACT

Dams fall in ‘installations containing dangerous forces’ because of their massive impact on the environment and civilian life and property as per International humanitarian law. As such, it becomes vital for hydraulic engineers to refurbish various solutions for dam rehabilitation. This paper presents a review of a new type of weir installation called Piano Key Weir (PKW), which is becoming popular around the world for its higher spillway capacity both for existing and new dam spillway installations. This paper reviews the geometry along with structural integrity, discharging capacity, economic aspects, aeration requirements, sediment transport and erosion aspects of Piano Key Weir (PKW) as compared with other traditional spillway structures and alternatives from literature. The comparison with other alternatives shows PKW to be an excellent alternative for dam risk mitigation owing to its high spillway capabilities and economy, along with its use in both existing and new hydraulic structures.

댐은 국제 인도법에 따라 환경과 민간인 생활 및 재산에 막대한 영향을 미치기 때문에 ‘위험한 힘을 포함하는 시설물’에 속합니다. 따라서 유압 엔지니어는 댐 복구를 위한 다양한 솔루션을 재정비해야 합니다.

이 백서에서는 PKW(Piano Key Weir)라는 새로운 유형의 둑 설치에 대한 검토를 제공합니다. PKW는 기존 및 신규 댐 방수로 설치 모두에서 더 높은 방수로 용량으로 전 세계적으로 인기를 얻고 있습니다.

이 백서에서는 구조적 무결성, 배출 용량, 경제적 측면, 폭기 요구 사항, 퇴적물 운반 및 PKW(Piano Key Weir)의 침식 측면과 함께 다른 전통적인 여수로 구조 및 문헌의 대안과 비교하여 기하학을 검토합니다.

다른 대안과의 비교는 PKW가 높은 여수로 기능과 경제성으로 인해 댐 위험 완화를 위한 탁월한 대안이며 기존 및 새로운 수력 구조물 모두에 사용됨을 보여줍니다.

KEYWORDS: 

Figure 2. Different PKW Types.
Figure 2. Different PKW Types.

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Figure 3. FLOW-3D results for Strathcona Dam spillway with all gates fully open at an elevated reservoir level during passage of a large flood. Note the effects of poor approach conditions and pier overtopping at the leftmost bay.

BC Hydro Assesses Spillway Hydraulics with FLOW-3D

by Faizal Yusuf, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.
Specialist Engineer in the Hydrotechnical Department at BC Hydro

BC Hydro, a public electric utility in British Columbia, uses FLOW-3D to investigate complex hydraulics issues at several existing dams and to assist in the design and optimization of proposed facilities.

Faizal Yusuf, M.A.Sc., P.Eng., Specialist Engineer in the Hydrotechnical department at BC Hydro, presents three case studies that highlight the application of FLOW-3D to different types of spillways and the importance of reliable prototype or physical hydraulic model data for numerical model calibration.

W.A.C. Bennett Dam
At W.A.C. Bennett Dam, differences in the spillway geometry between the physical hydraulic model from the 1960s and the prototype make it difficult to draw reliable conclusions on shock wave formation and chute capacity from physical model test results. The magnitude of shock waves in the concrete-lined spillway chute are strongly influenced by a 44% reduction in the chute width downstream of the three radial gates at the headworks, as well as the relative openings of the radial gates. The shock waves lead to locally higher water levels that have caused overtopping of the chute walls under certain historical operations.Prototype spill tests for discharges up to 2,865 m3/s were performed in 2012 to provide surveyed water surface profiles along chute walls, 3D laser scans of the water surface in the chute and video of flow patterns for FLOW-3D model calibration. Excellent agreement was obtained between the numerical model and field observations, particularly for the location and height of the first shock wave at the chute walls (Figure 1).

W.A.C에서 Bennett Dam, 1960년대의 물리적 수력학 모델과 프로토타입 사이의 여수로 형상의 차이로 인해 물리적 모델 테스트 결과에서 충격파 형성 및 슈트 용량에 대한 신뢰할 수 있는 결론을 도출하기 어렵습니다. 콘크리트 라이닝 방수로 낙하산의 충격파 크기는 방사형 게이트의 상대적인 개구부뿐만 아니라 헤드워크에 있는 3개의 방사형 게이트 하류의 슈트 폭이 44% 감소함에 따라 크게 영향을 받습니다. 충격파는 특정 역사적 작업에서 슈트 벽의 범람을 야기한 국부적으로 더 높은 수위로 이어집니다. 최대 2,865m3/s의 배출에 대한 프로토타입 유출 테스트가 2012년에 수행되어 슈트 벽을 따라 조사된 수면 프로필, 3D 레이저 스캔을 제공했습니다. FLOW-3D 모델 보정을 위한 슈트의 수면 및 흐름 패턴 비디오. 특히 슈트 벽에서 첫 번째 충격파의 위치와 높이에 대해 수치 모델과 현장 관찰 간에 탁월한 일치가 이루어졌습니다(그림 1).
Figure 1. Comparison between prototype observations and FLOW-3D for a spill discharge of 2,865 m^3/s at Bennett Dam spillway.
Figure 1. Comparison between prototype observations and FLOW-3D for a spill discharge of 2,865 m^3/s at Bennett Dam spillway.

The calibrated FLOW-3D model confirmed that the design flood could be safely passed without overtopping the spillway chute walls as long as all three radial gates are opened as prescribed in existing operating orders with the outer gates open more than the inner gate.

The CFD model also provided insight into the concrete damage in the spillway chute. Cavitation indices computed from FLOW-3D simulation results were compared with empirical data from the USBR and found to be consistent with the historical performance of the spillway. The numerical analysis supported field inspections, which concluded that deterioration of the concrete conditions in the chute is likely not due to cavitation.

Strathcona Dam
FLOW-3D was used to investigate poor approach conditions and uncertainties with the rating curves for Strathcona Dam spillway, which includes three vertical lift gates on the right abutment of the dam. The rating curves for Strathcona spillway were developed from a combination of empirical adjustments and limited physical hydraulic model testing in a flume that did not include geometry of the piers and abutments.

Numerical model testing and calibration was based on comparisons with prototype spill observations from 1982 when all three gates were fully open, resulting in a large depression in the water surface upstream of the leftmost bay (Figure 2). The approach flow to the leftmost bay is distorted by water flowing parallel to the dam axis and plunging over the concrete retaining wall adjacent to the upstream slope of the earthfill dam. The flow enters the other two bays much more smoothly. In addition to very similar flow patterns produced in the numerical model compared to the prototype, simulated water levels at the gate section matched 1982 field measurements to within 0.1 m.

보정된 FLOW-3D 모델은 외부 게이트가 내부 게이트보다 더 많이 열려 있는 기존 운영 명령에 규정된 대로 3개의 방사형 게이트가 모두 열리는 한 여수로 낙하산 벽을 넘지 않고 설계 홍수를 안전하게 통과할 수 있음을 확인했습니다.

CFD 모델은 방수로 낙하산의 콘크리트 손상에 대한 통찰력도 제공했습니다. FLOW-3D 시뮬레이션 결과에서 계산된 캐비테이션 지수는 USBR의 경험적 데이터와 비교되었으며 여수로의 역사적 성능과 일치하는 것으로 나타났습니다. 수치 분석은 현장 검사를 지원했으며, 슈트의 콘크리트 상태 악화는 캐비테이션 때문이 아닐 가능성이 높다고 결론지었습니다.

Strathcona 댐
FLOW-3D는 Strathcona Dam 여수로에 대한 등급 곡선을 사용하여 열악한 접근 조건과 불확실성을 조사하는 데 사용되었습니다. 여기에는 댐의 오른쪽 접합부에 3개의 수직 리프트 게이트가 포함되어 있습니다. Strathcona 여수로에 대한 등급 곡선은 경험적 조정과 교각 및 교대의 형상을 포함하지 않는 수로에서 제한된 물리적 수리 모델 테스트의 조합으로 개발되었습니다.

수치 모델 테스트 및 보정은 세 개의 수문이 모두 완전히 개방된 1982년의 프로토타입 유출 관측과의 비교를 기반으로 했으며, 그 결과 가장 왼쪽 만의 상류 수면에 큰 함몰이 발생했습니다(그림 2). 최좌단 만으로의 접근 흐름은 댐 축과 평행하게 흐르는 물과 흙채움댐의 상류 경사면에 인접한 콘크리트 옹벽 위로 떨어지는 물에 의해 왜곡됩니다. 흐름은 훨씬 더 원활하게 다른 두 베이로 들어갑니다. 프로토타입과 비교하여 수치 모델에서 생성된 매우 유사한 흐름 패턴 외에도 게이트 섹션에서 시뮬레이션된 수위는 1982년 현장 측정과 0.1m 이내로 일치했습니다.

Figure 2. Prototype observations and FLOW-3D results for a Strathcona Dam spill in 1982 with all three gates fully open.
Figure 2. Prototype observations and FLOW-3D results for a Strathcona Dam spill in 1982 with all three gates fully open.

The calibrated CFD model produces discharges within 5% of the spillway rating curve for the reservoir’s normal operating range with all gates fully open. However, at higher reservoir levels, which may occur during passage of large floods (as shown in Figure 3), the difference between simulated discharges and the rating curves are greater than 10% as the physical model testing with simplified geometry and empirical corrections did not adequately represent the complex approach flow patterns. The FLOW-3D model provided further insight into the accuracy of rating curves for individual bays, gated conditions and the transition between orifice and free surface flow.

보정된 CFD 모델은 모든 게이트가 완전히 열린 상태에서 저수지의 정상 작동 범위에 대한 여수로 등급 곡선의 5% 이내에서 배출을 생성합니다. 그러나 대규모 홍수가 통과하는 동안 발생할 수 있는 더 높은 저수지 수위에서는(그림 3 참조) 단순화된 기하학과 경험적 수정을 사용한 물리적 모델 테스트가 그렇지 않았기 때문에 모의 배출과 등급 곡선 간의 차이는 10% 이상입니다. 복잡한 접근 흐름 패턴을 적절하게 표현합니다. FLOW-3D 모델은 개별 베이, 게이트 조건 및 오리피스와 자유 표면 흐름 사이의 전환에 대한 등급 곡선의 정확도에 대한 추가 통찰력을 제공했습니다.

Figure 3. FLOW-3D results for Strathcona Dam spillway with all gates fully open at an elevated reservoir level during passage of a large flood. Note the effects of poor approach conditions and pier overtopping at the leftmost bay.
Figure 3. FLOW-3D results for Strathcona Dam spillway with all gates fully open at an elevated reservoir level during passage of a large flood. Note the effects of poor approach conditions and pier overtopping at the leftmost bay.

John Hart Dam
The John Hart concrete dam will be modified to include a new free crest spillway to be situated between an existing gated spillway and a low level outlet structure that is currently under construction. Significant improvements in the design of the proposed spillway were made through a systematic optimization process using FLOW-3D.

The preliminary design of the free crest spillway was based on engineering hydraulic design guides. Concrete apron blocks are intended to protect the rock at the toe of the dam. A new right training wall will guide the flow from the new spillway towards the tailrace pool and protect the low level outlet structure from spillway discharges.

FLOW-3D model results for the initial and optimized design of the new spillway are shown in Figure 4. CFD analysis led to a 10% increase in discharge capacity, significant decrease in roadway impingement above the spillway crest and improved flow patterns including up to a 5 m reduction in water levels along the proposed right wall. Physical hydraulic model testing will be used to confirm the proposed design.

존 하트 댐
John Hart 콘크리트 댐은 현재 건설 중인 기존 배수로와 저층 배수로 사이에 위치할 새로운 자유 마루 배수로를 포함하도록 수정될 것입니다. FLOW-3D를 사용한 체계적인 최적화 프로세스를 통해 제안된 여수로 설계의 상당한 개선이 이루어졌습니다.

자유 마루 여수로의 예비 설계는 엔지니어링 수력학 설계 가이드를 기반으로 했습니다. 콘크리트 앞치마 블록은 댐 선단부의 암석을 보호하기 위한 것입니다. 새로운 오른쪽 훈련 벽은 새 여수로에서 테일레이스 풀로 흐름을 안내하고 여수로 배출로부터 낮은 수준의 배출구 구조를 보호합니다.

새 여수로의 초기 및 최적화된 설계에 대한 FLOW-3D 모델 결과는 그림 4에 나와 있습니다. CFD 분석을 통해 방류 용량이 10% 증가하고 여수로 마루 위의 도로 충돌이 크게 감소했으며 최대 제안된 오른쪽 벽을 따라 수위가 5m 감소합니다. 제안된 설계를 확인하기 위해 물리적 수압 모델 테스트가 사용됩니다.

Figure 4. FLOW-3D model results for the preliminary and optimized layout of the proposed spillway at John Hart Dam.
Figure 4. FLOW-3D model results for the preliminary and optimized layout of the proposed spillway at John Hart Dam.

Conclusion

BC Hydro has been using FLOW-3D to investigate a wide range of challenging hydraulics problems for different types of spillways and water conveyance structures leading to a greatly improved understanding of flow patterns and performance. Prototype data and reliable physical hydraulic model testing are used whenever possible to improve confidence in the numerical model results.

다양한 유형의 여수로 및 물 수송 구조로 인해 흐름 패턴 및 성능에 대한 이해가 크게 향상되었습니다. 프로토타입 데이터와 신뢰할 수 있는 물리적 유압 모델 테스트는 수치 모델 결과의 신뢰도를 향상시키기 위해 가능할 때마다 사용됩니다.

About Flow Science, Inc.
Based in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, Flow Science was founded in 1980 by Dr. C. W. (Tony) Hirt, who was one of the principals in pioneering the “Volume-of-Fluid” or VOF method while working at the Los Alamos National Lab. FLOW-3D is a direct descendant of this work, and in the subsequent years, we have increased its sophistication with TruVOF, boasting pioneering improvements in the speed and accuracy of tracking distinct liquid/gas interfaces. Today, Flow Science products offer complete multiphysics simulation with diverse modeling capabilities including fluid-structure interaction, 6-DoF moving objects, and multiphase flows. From inception, our vision has been to provide our customers with excellence in flow modeling software and services.

Effect of tailwater depth on non-cohesive earth dam failure due to overtopping

Effect of tailwater depth on non-cohesive earth dam failure due to overtopping

범람으로 인한 비점착성 흙댐 붕괴에 대한 테일워터 깊이의 영향

ShaimaaAmanaMohamedAbdelrazek RezkbRabieaNasrc

Abstract

본 연구에서는 범람으로 인한 토사댐 붕괴에 대한 테일워터 깊이의 영향을 실험적으로 조사하였다. 테일워터 깊이의 네 가지 다른 값을 검사합니다. 각 실험에 대해 댐 수심 측량 프로파일의 진화, 고장 기간, 침식 체적 및 유출 수위곡선을 관찰하고 기록합니다.

결과는 tailwater 깊이를 늘리면 고장 시간이 최대 57% 감소하고 상대적으로 침식된 마루 높이가 최대 77.6% 감소한다는 것을 보여줍니다. 또한 상대 배수 깊이가 3, 4, 5인 경우 누적 침식 체적의 감소는 각각 23, 36.5 및 75%인 반면 최대 유출량의 감소는 각각 7, 14 및 17.35%입니다.

실험 결과는 침식 과정을 복제할 때 Flow 3D 소프트웨어의 성능을 평가하는 데 활용됩니다. 수치 모델은 비응집성 흙댐의 침식 과정을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션합니다.

The influence of tailwater depth on earth dam failure due to overtopping is investigated experimentally in this work. Four different values of tailwater depths are examined. For each experiment, the evolution of the dam bathymetry profile, the duration of failure, the eroded volume, and the outflow hydrograph are observed and recorded. The results reveal that increasing the tailwater depth reduces the time of failure by up to 57% and decreases the relative eroded crest height by up to 77.6%. In addition, for relative tailwater depths equal to 3, 4, and 5, the reduction in the cumulative eroded volume is 23, 36.5, and 75%, while the reduction in peak discharge is 7, 14, and 17.35%, respectively. The experimental results are utilized to evaluate the performance of the Flow 3D software in replicating the erosion process. The numerical model successfully simulates the erosion process of non-cohesive earth dams.

Keywords

Earth dam, Eroded volume, Flow 3D model, Non-cohesive soil, Overtopping failure, Tailwater depth

Notation

d50

Mean partical diameterWc

Optimum water contentZo

Dam height (cm)do

Tailwater depth (cm)Zeroded

Eroded height of the dam measured at distance of 0.7 m from the dam heel (cm)t

Total time of failure (sec)t1

Time of crest width erosion (sec)Zcrest

The crest height (cm)Vtotal

Total volume of the dam (m3)Veroded

Cumulative eroded volume (m3)RMSE

The statistical variable root- mean- square errord

Degree of agreement indexyu.s.

The upstream water depth (cm)yd.s

The downstream water depth (cm)H

Water surface elevation over sharp crested weir (cm)Q

Outflow discharge (liter/sec)Qpeak

Peak discharge (liter/sec)

1. Introduction

Earth dams are compacted structures composed of natural materials that are usually mined or quarried from local locations. The failures of the earth dams have proven to be deadly, destructive, and costly. According to People’s Daily, two earthen dams, Yong’an Dam and Xinfa Dam located in Hulun Buir City in North China’s Inner Mongolia failed on 2021, due to a surge in the water level of the Nuomin River caused by heavy rain. The dam breach affected 16,660 people, flooded 325,622 mu of farmland (21708.1 ha), and destroyed 22 bridges, 124 culverts, and 15.6 km of roadways. Also, the failure of south fork dam (earth and rock fill dam) near Johnstown on 1889 is considered the worst U.S dam disaster in terms of loss of life. The dam was overtopped and washed away due to unexpected heavy rains, releasing 20 million tons of water which destroyed Johnstown and resulted in 2209 deaths, [1][2]. Piping or shear sliding, failure due to natural factors, and failure due to overtopping are all possible causes of earth dam failure. However, overtopping failure is the most frequent cause of dam failure. According to The International Committee on Large Dams (ICOLD, 1995), and [3], more than one-third of the total known dam failures were caused by dam overtopping.

Overtopping occurs as the result of insufficient flood design or freeboard in some cases. Extreme rainstorms can cause floods which can overtop the dam and cause it to fail. The size and geometry of the reservoir or the dam (side slopes, top width, height, etc.), the homogeneity of the material used in the construction of the dam, overtopping depth, and the presence or absence of tailwater are all elements that influence this type of failure which will be illustrated in the following literature. Overtopping failures of earth dams may be divided into several failure mechanisms based on the material composition and the inner structure of the dam. For cohesive earth dams because of low permeability, no seepage exists on the slopes. Erosion often begins at the earth dam toe during turbulent erosion and moves upstream, undercutting the slope, causing the removal of large chunks of materials. While for non-cohesive earth dams the downstream face of the dam flattens progressively and is often said to rotate around a point near the downstream toe [4][5][6] In the last few decades, the study of failures due to overtopping has gained popularity among researchers. The overtopping failure, in fact, has been widely investigated in coastal and river hydraulics and morpho dynamic. In addition, several laboratory experimental studies have been conducted in this field in order to better understand different involved factors. Also, many numerical types of research have been conducted to investigate the process of overtopping failure as well as the elements that influence this type of failure.

Tabrizi et al. [5] conducted a series of embankment overtopping tests to find the effect of compaction on the failure of a homogenous sand embankment. A plane breach process occurred across the flume width due to the narrow flume width. They measured the downstream hydrographs and embankment surface profile for every case. They concluded that the peak discharge decreased with a high compaction level, while the time to peak increased. Kansoh et al. [6] studied experimentally the failure of compacted homogeneous non-cohesive earthen embankment due to overtopping. They investigated the influence of different shape parameters including the downstream slope, the crest width, and the height of the embankment on the erosion process. The erosion process was initiated by carving a pilot channel into the embankment crest. They evaluated the time of embankment failure for different shape parameters. They concluded that the failure time increases with increasing the downstream slope and the crest width. Zhu et al. [7] investigated experimentally the breaching of five embankments, one constructed with pure sand, and four with different sand-silt–clay mixtures. The erosion pattern was similar across the flume width. They stated that for cohesive soil mixtures the head cut erosion was the most important factor that affected the breach growth, while for non-cohesive soil the breach erosion was affected by shear erosion.

Amaral et al. [8] studied experimentally the failure by overtopping for two embankments built from silt sand material. They studied the effect of the degree of compaction of the embankment and the geometry of the pilot channel carved at the centre of the dam crest. They studied two shapes of pilot channel a rectangular shape and triangular shape. They stated that the breach development is influenced by a higher degree of compaction, however, the pilot channel geometry did not influence the breach’s final form. Bereta et al. [9] studied experimentally the breach formation of five dam models, three of them were homogenous clay soil while two were sandy-clay mixtures. The erosion process was initiated by cutting a pilot channel at the centre of the dam crest. They observed the initiation of erosion, flow shear erosion, sidewall bottom erosion, and distinguished the soil mechanical slope mass failure from the head cut vertically and laterally during these tests. Verma et al. [10] investigated experimentally a two-dimensional erosion phenomenon due to overtopping by using a wooden fuse plug model and five different soils. They concluded that the erosion process was affected mostly by cohesiveness and degree of compaction. For cohesive soils, a head cut erosion was observed, while for non-cohesive soils surface erosion occurred gradually. Also, the dimensions of fuse plug, type of fill material, reservoir capacity, and inflow were found to affect the behaviour of the overall breaching process.

Wu and Qin [11] studied the effect of adding coarse grains to the downstream face of a non-cohesive dam as a result of tailings deposition. The process of overtopping during tailings dam failures is analyzed and its effect on delaying the dam-break process and disaster mitigation are investigated. They found that the tested protective measures decreased the breach area, the maximum breaching flow discharge and flow velocity, and the downstream inundated area. Khankandi et al. [12] studied experimentally the effect of reservoir geometry on dam break flow in case of dry and wet bed conditions. They considered four different reservoir shapes, a long reservoir, a wide, a trapezoidal shaped and one with a 90◦ bend all with identical water volume and horizontal bed. The dam break is simulated by the sudden gate removal using a pneumatic jack. They measured the variation of water level over time with ultrasonic sensors and flow velocity component with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. Also, the experimental results of water level variation are compared with Ritters solution (1892) [13]. They stated that for dry bed condition the long and 90 bend reservoirs results are close to the analytical solution by ritter also in these two shapes a 1D flow is noticed. However, for wide and trapezoidal reservoirs a 2D effect is significant due to flow contraction at channel entrance.

Rifai et al. [14] conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of tailwater depth on the outflow discharge and breach geometry during non-cohesive homogenous fluvial dikes overtopping failure. They cut an initial notch in the crest at 0.8 m from the upstream end of the dike to initiate overtopping. They compared their results to previous experiments under different main channel inflow discharges combined with a free floodplain. They divided the dike breaching process into three stages: gradual start of overtopping flow resulting in slow initiation of dike erosion, deepening and widening breach due to large flow depth and velocity, finally the flow depth starts stabilizing at its minimal level with or without sustained breach expansion. They stated that breach discharge has lower values than in free floodplain tests. Jiang [15] studied the effect of bed slope on breach parameters and peak discharge in non-cohesive embankment failure. An initial triangular breach with a depth and width of 4 cm was pre-set on one side of the dam. He stated that peak discharge increases with the increase of bed slope and then decreases.

Ozmen-cagatay et al. [16] studied experimentally flood wave propagation resulted from a sudden dam break event. For dam-break modelling, they used a mechanism that permitted the rapid removal of a vertical plate with a thickness of 4 mm and made of rigid plastic. They conducted three tests, one with dry bed condition and two tests with tailwater depths equal 0.025 m and 0.1 m respectively. They recorded the free surface profile during initial stages of dam break by using digital image processing. Finally, they compared the experimental results with the with a commercially available VOF-based CFD program solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier –Stokes equations (RANS) with the k– Ɛ turbulence model and the shallow water equations (SWEs). They concluded that Wave breaking was delayed with increasing the tailwater depth to initial reservoir depth ratio. They also stated that the SWE approach is sufficient more to represent dam break flows for wet bed condition. Evangelista [17] investigated experimentally and numerically using a depth-integrated two-phase model, the erosion of sand dike caused by the impact of a dam break wave. The dam break is simulated by a sudden opening of an upstream reservoir gate resulting in the overtopping of a downstream trapezoidal sand dike. The evolution of the water wave caused from the gate opening and dike erosion process are recorded by using a computer-controlled camera. The experimental results demonstrated that the progression of the wave front and dike erosion have a considerable influence on each other during the process. In addition, the dike constructed from fine sands was more resistant to erosion than the one built with coarse sand. They also stated that the numerical model can is capable of accurately predicting wave front position and dike erosion. Also, Di Cristo et al. [18] studied the effect of dam break wave propagation on a sand embankment both experimentally and numerically using a two-phase shallow-water model. The evolution of free surface and of the embankment bottom are recorded and used in numerical model assessment. They stated that the model allows reasonable simulation of the experimental trends of the free surface elevation regardeless of the geofailure operator.

Lots of numerical models have been developed over the past few years to simulate the dam break flooding problem. A one-dimensional model, such as Hec-Ras, DAMBRK and MIKE 11, ect. A two-dimensional model such as iRIC Nay2DH is used in earth embankment breach simulation. Other researchers studied the failure process numerically using (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models, such as FLOW-3D, and FLUENT. Goharnejad et al. [19] determined the outflow hydrograph which results from the embankment dam break due to overtopping. Hu et al. [20] performed a comparison between Flow-3D and MIKE3 FM numerical models in simulating a dam break event under dry and wet bed conditions with different tailwater depths. Kaurav et al. [21] simulated a planar dam breach process due to overtopping. They conducted a sensitivity analysis to find the effect of dam material, dam height, downstream slope, crest width, and inlet discharge on the erosion process and peak discharge through breach. They concluded that downstream slope has a significant influence on breaching process. Yusof et al. [22] studied the effect of embankment sediment sizes and inflow rates on breaching geometric and hydrodynamic parameters. They stated that the peak outflow hydrograph increases with increasing sediment size and inflow rates while time of failure decreases.

In the present work, the effect of tailwater depth on earth dam failure during overtopping is studied experimentally. The relation between the eroded volume of the dam and the tailwater depth is presented. Also, the percentage of reduction in peak discharge due to tailwater existence is calculated. An assessment of Flow 3D software performance in simulating the erosion process during earth dam failure is introduced. The statistical variable root- mean- square error, RMSE, and the agreement degree index, d, are used in model assessment.

2. Material and methods

The tests are conducted in a straight rectangular flume in the laboratory of Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt. The flume dimensions are 10 m long, 0.86 m wide, and 0.5 m deep. The front part of the flume is connected to a storage basin 1 m long by 0.86 m wide. The storage basin is connected to a collecting tank for water recirculation during the experiments as shown in Fig. 1Fig. 2. A sharp-crested weir is placed at a distance of 4 m downstream the constructed dam to keep a constant tailwater depth in each experiment and to measure the outflow discharge.

To measure the eroded volume with time a rods technique is used. This technique consists of two parallel wooden plates with 10 cm distance in between and five rows of stainless-steel rods passing vertically through the wooden plates at a spacing of 20 cm distributed across flume width. Each row consists of four rods with 15 cm spacing between them. Also, a graph board is provided to measure the drop in each rod with time as shown in Fig. 3Fig. 4. After dam construction the rods are carefully rested on the dam, with the first line of rods resting in the middle of the dam crest and then a constant distance of 15 cm between rods lines is maintained.

A soil sample is taken and tested in the laboratory of the soil mechanics to find the soil geotechnical parameters. The soil particle size distribution is also determined by sieve analysis as shown in Fig. 5. The soil mean diameter d50,equals 0.38 mm and internal friction angle equals 32.6°.

2.1. Experimental procedures

To investigate the effect of the tailwater depth (do), the tailwater depth is changed four times 5, 15, 20, and 25 cm on the sand dam model. The dam profile is 35 cm height, with crest width = 15 cm, the dam base width is 155 cm, and the upstream and downstream slopes are 2:1 as shown in Fig. 6. The dam dimensions are set as the flume permitted to allow observation of the dam erosion process under the available flume dimensions and conditions. All of the conducted experiments have the same dimensions and configurations.

The optimum water content, Wc, from the standard proctor test is found to be 8 % and the maximum dry unit weight is 19.42 kN/m3. The soil and water are mixed thoroughly to ensure consistency and then placed on three horizontal layers. Each layer is compacted according to ASTM standard with 25 blows by using a rammer (27 cm × 20.5 cm) weighing 4 kg. Special attention is paid to the compaction of the soil to guarantee the repeatability of the tests.

After placing and compacting the three layers, the dam slopes are trimmed carefully to form the trapezoidal shape of the dam. A small triangular pilot channel with 1 cm height and 1:1 side slopes is cut into the dam crest to initiate the erosion process. The position of triangular pilot channel is presented in Fig. 1. Three digital video cameras with a resolution of 1920 × 1080 pixels and a frame rate of 60 fps are placed in three different locations. One camera on one side of the flume to record the progress of the dam profile during erosion. Another to track the water level over the sharp-crested rectangular weir placed at the downstream end of the flume. And the third camera is placed above the flume at the downstream side of the dam and in front of the rods to record the drop of the tip of the rods with time as shown previously in Fig. 1.

Before starting the experiment, the water is pumped into the storage basin by using pump with capacity 360 m3/hr, and then into the upstream section of the flume. The upstream boundary is an inflow condition. The flow discharge provided to the storage basin is kept at a constant rate of 6 L/sec for all experiments, while the downstream boundary is an outflow boundary condition.

Also, the required tailwater depth for each experiment is filled to the desired depth. A dye container valve is opened to color the water upstream of the dam to make it easy to distinguish the dam profile from the water profile. A wooden board is placed just upstream of the dam to prevent water from overtopping the dam until the water level rises to a certain level above the dam crest and then the wooden board is removed slowly to start the experiment.

2.2. Repeatability

To verify the accuracy of the results, each experiment is repeated two times under the same conditions. Fig. 7 shows the relative eroded crest height, Zeroded / Zo, with time for 5 cm tailwater depth. From the Figure, it can be noticed that results for all runs are consistent, and accuracy is achieved.

3. Numerical model

The commercially available numerical model, Flow 3D is used to simulate the dam failure due to overtopping for the cases of 15 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm tailwater depths. For numerical model calibration, experimental results for dam surface evolution are used. The numerical model is calibrated for selection of the optimal turbulence model (RNG, K-e, and k-w) and sediment scour equations (Van Rin, Meyer- peter and Muller, and Nielsen) that produce the best results. In this, the flow field is solved by the RNG turbulence model, and the van Rijn equation is used for the sediment scour model. A geometry file is imported before applying the mesh.

A Mesh sensitivity is analyzed and checked for various cell sizes, and it is found that decreasing the cell size significantly increases the simulation time with insignificant differences in the result. It is noticed that the most important factor influencing cell size selection is the value of the dam’s upstream and downstream slopes. For example, the slopes in the dam model are 2:1, thus the cell size ratio in X and Z directions should be 2:1 as well. The cell size in a mesh block is set to be 0.02 m, 0.025 m, and 0.01 m in X, Y and Z directions respectively.

In the numerical computations, the boundary conditions employed are the walls for sidewalls and the channel bottom. The pressure boundary condition is applied at the top, at the air–water interface, to account for atmospheric pressure on the free surface. The upstream boundary is volume flow rate while the downstream boundary is outflow discharge.

The initial condition is a fluid region, which is used to define fluid areas both upstream and downstream of the dam. To assess the model accuracy, the statistical variable root- mean- square error, RMSE, and the agreement degree index, d, are calculated as(1)RMSE=1N∑i=1N(Pi-Mi)2(2)d=1-∑Mi-Pi2∑Mi-M¯+Pi-P¯2

where N is the number of samples, Pi and Mi are the models and experimental values, P and M are the means of the model and experimental values. The best fit between the experimental and model results would have an RMSE = 0 and degree of agreement, d = 1.

4. Results of experimental work

The results of the total time of failure, t (defined as the time from when the water begins to overtop the dam crest until the erosion reaches a steady state, when no erosion occurs), time of crest width erosion t1, cumulative eroded volume Veroded, and peak discharge Qpeak for each experiment are listed in Table 1. The case of 5 cm tailwater depth is considered as a reference case in this work.

Table 1. Results of experimental work.

Tailwater depth, do (cm)Total time of failure, t (sec)Time of crest width erosion, t1 (sec)cumulative eroded volume, Veroded (m3)Peak discharge, Qpeak (liter/sec)
5255220.2113.12
15165300.1612.19
20140340.1311.29
25110390.0510.84

5. Discussion

5.1. Side erosion

The evolution of the bathymetry of the erosion line recorded by the video camera1. The videos are split into frames (60 frames/sec) by the Free Video to JPG Converter v.5.063 build and then converted into an excel spreadsheet using MATLAB code as shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 9 shows a sample of numerical model output. Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 show a dam profile development for different time steps from both experimental and numerical model, for tailwater depths equal 15 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm. Also, the values of RMSE and d for each figure are presented. The comparison shows that the Flow 3D software can simulate the erosion process of non-cohesive earth dam during overtopping with an RMSE value equals 0.023, 0.0218, and 0.0167 and degree of agreement, d, equals 0.95, 0.968, and 0.988 for relative tailwater depths, do/(do)ref, = 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The low values of RMSE and high values of d show that the Flow 3D can effectively simulate the erosion process. From Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12, it can be noticed that the model is not capable of reproducing the head cut, while it can simulate well the degradation of the crest height with a minor difference from experimental work. The reason of this could be due to inability of simulation of all physical conditions which exists in the experimental work, such as channel friction and the grain size distribution of the dam soil which is surely has a great effect on the erosion process and breach development. In the experimental work the grain size distribution is shown in Fig. 5, while the numerical model considers that the soil is uniform and exactly 50 % of the dam particles diameter are equal to the d50 value. Another reason is that the model is not considering the increased resistance of the dam due to the apparent cohesion which happens due to dam saturation [23].

It is clear from both the experimental and numerical results that for a 5 cm tailwater depth, do/(do)ref = 1.0, erosion begins near the dam toe and continues upward on the downstream slope until it reaches the crest. After eroding the crest width, the crest is lowered, resulting in increased flow rates and the speeding up of the erosion process. While for relative tailwater depths, do/(do)ref = 3, 4, and 5 erosion starts at the point of intersection between the downstream slope and tailwater. The existence of tailwater works as an energy dissipater for the falling water which reduces the erosion process and prevents the dam from failure as shown in Fig. 13. It is found that the time of the failure decreases with increasing the tailwater depth because most of the dam height is being submerged with water which decreases the erosion process. The reduction in time of failure from the referenced case is found to be 35.3, 45, and 57 % for relative tailwater depth, do /(do)ref equals 3, 4, and 5, respectively.

The relation between the relative eroded crest height, Zeroded /Zo, with time is drawn as shown in Fig. 14. It is found that the relative eroded crest height decreases with increasing tailwater depth by 10, 41, and 77.6 % for relative tailwater depth, do /(do)ref equals 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The time required for the erosion of the crest width, t1, is calculated for each experiment. The relation between relative tailwater depth and relative time of crest width erosion is shown in Fig. 15. It is found that the time of crest width erosion increases linearly with increasing, do /Zo. The percent of increase is 36.4, 54.5 and 77.3 % for relative tailwater depth, do /(do)ref = 3, 4 and 5, respectively.

Crest height, Zcrest is calculated from the experimental results and the Flow 3D results for relative tailwater depths, do/(do)ref, = 3, 4, and 5. A relation between relative crest height, Zcrest/Zo with time from experimental and numerical results is presented in Fig. 16. From Fig. 16, it is seen that there is a good consistency between the results of numerical model and the experimental results in the case of tracking the erosion of the crest height with time.

5.2. Upstream and downstream water depths

It is noticed that at the beginning of the erosion process, both upstream and downstream water depths increase linearly with time as long as erosion of the crest height did not take place. However, when the crest height starts to lower the upstream water depth decreases with time while the downstream water depth increases. At the end of the experiment, the two depths are nearly equal. A relation between relative downstream and upstream water depths with time is drawn for each experiment as shown in Fig. 17.

5.3. Eroded volume

A MATLAB code is used to calculate the cumulative eroded volume every time interval for each experiment. The total volume of the dam, Vtotal is 0.256 m3. The cumulative eroded volume, Veroded is 0.21, 0.16, 0.13, and 0.05 m3 for tailwater depths, do = 5, 15, 20, and 25 cm, respectively. Fig. 18 presents the relation between cumulative eroded volume, Veroded and time. From Fig. 18, it is observed that the cumulative eroded volume decreases with increasing the tailwater depth. The reduction in cumulative eroded volume is 23, 36.5, and 75 % for relative tailwater depth, do /(do)ref = 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The relative remained volume of the dam equals 0.18, 0.375, 0.492, and 0.8 for tailwater depths = 5, 15, 20, and 25 cm, respectively. Fig. 19 shows a relation between relative tailwater depth and relative cumulative eroded volume from experimental results. From that figure, it is noticed that the eroded volume decreases exponentially with increasing relative tailwater depth.

5.4. The outflow discharge

The inflow discharge provided to the storage tank is maintained constant for all experiments. The water surface elevation, H, over the sharp-crested weir placed at the downstream side is recorded by the video camera 2. For each experiment, the outflow discharge is then calculated by using the sharp-crested rectangular weir equation every 10 sec.

The outflow discharge is found to increase rapidly until it reaches its peak then it decreases until it is constant. For high values of tailwater depths, the peak discharge becomes less than that in the case of small tailwater depth as shown in Fig. 20 which agrees well with the results of Rifai et al. [14] The reduction in peak discharge is 7, 14, and 17.35 % for relative tailwater depth, do /(do)ref = 3, 4, and 5, respectively.

The scenario presented in this article in which the tailwater depth rises due to unexpected heavy rainfall, is investigated to find the effect of rising tailwater depth on earth dam failure. The results revealed that rising tailwater depth positively affects the process of dam failure in terms of preventing the dam from complete failure and reducing the outflow discharge.

6. Conclusions

The effect of tailwater depth on earth dam failure due to overtopping is investigated experimentally in this work. The study focuses on the effect of tailwater depth on side erosion, upstream and downstream water depths, eroded volume, outflow hydrograph, and duration of the failure process. The Flow 3D numerical software is used to simulate the dam failure, and a comparison is made between the experimental and numerical results to find the ability of this software to simulate the erosion process. The following are the results of the investigation:

The existence of tailwater with high depths prevents the dam from completely collapsing thereby turning it into a broad crested weir. The failure time decreases with increasing the tailwater depth and the reduction from the reference case is found to be 35.3, 45, and 57 % for relative tailwater depth, do /(do)ref = 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The difference between the upstream and downstream water depths decreases with time till it became almost negligible at the end of the experiment. The reduction in cumulative eroded volume is 23, 36.5, and 75 % for relative tailwater depth, do /(do)ref = 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The peak discharge decreases by 7, 14, and 17.35 % for relative tailwater depth, do /(do)ref = 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The relative eroded crest height decreases linearly with increasing the tailwater depth by 10, 41, and 77.6 % for relative tailwater depth, do /(do)ref = 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The numerical model can reproduce the erosion process with a minor deviation from the experimental results, particularly in terms of tracking the degradation of the crest height with time.

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

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Cited by (0)

My name is Shaimaa Ibrahim Mohamed Aman and I am a teaching assistant in Irrigation and Hydraulics department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. I graduated from the Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University in 2013. I had my MSc in Irrigation and Hydraulic Engineering in 2017. My research interests lie in the area of earth dam Failures.

Peer review under responsibility of Ain Shams University.

© 2022 THE AUTHORS. Published by Elsevier BV on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University.

Extratropical cyclone damage to the seawall in Dawlish, UK: eyewitness accounts, sea level analysis and numerical modelling

영국 Dawlish의 방파제에 대한 온대 저기압 피해: 목격자 설명, 해수면 분석 및 수치 모델링

Extratropical cyclone damage to the seawall in Dawlish, UK: eyewitness accounts, sea level analysis and numerical modelling

Natural Hazards (2022)Cite this article

Abstract

2014년 2월 영국 해협(영국)과 특히 Dawlish에 영향을 미친 온대 저기압 폭풍 사슬은 남서부 지역과 영국의 나머지 지역을 연결하는 주요 철도에 심각한 피해를 입혔습니다.

이 사건으로 라인이 두 달 동안 폐쇄되어 5천만 파운드의 피해와 12억 파운드의 경제적 손실이 발생했습니다. 이 연구에서는 폭풍의 파괴력을 해독하기 위해 목격자 계정을 수집하고 해수면 데이터를 분석하며 수치 모델링을 수행합니다.

우리의 분석에 따르면 이벤트의 재난 관리는 성공적이고 효율적이었으며 폭풍 전과 도중에 인명과 재산을 구하기 위해 즉각적인 조치를 취했습니다. 파도 부이 분석에 따르면 주기가 4–8, 8–12 및 20–25초인 복잡한 삼중 봉우리 바다 상태가 존재하는 반면, 조위계 기록에 따르면 최대 0.8m의 상당한 파도와 최대 1.5m의 파도 성분이 나타났습니다.

이벤트에서 가능한 기여 요인으로 결합된 진폭. 최대 286 KN의 상당한 임펄스 파동이 손상의 시작 원인일 가능성이 가장 높았습니다. 수직 벽의 반사는 파동 진폭의 보강 간섭을 일으켜 파고가 증가하고 최대 16.1m3/s/m(벽의 미터 너비당)의 상당한 오버탑핑을 초래했습니다.

이 정보와 우리의 공학적 판단을 통해 우리는 이 사고 동안 다중 위험 계단식 실패의 가장 가능성 있는 순서는 다음과 같다고 결론을 내립니다. 조적 파괴로 이어지는 파도 충격력, 충전물 손실 및 연속적인 조수에 따른 구조물 파괴.

The February 2014 extratropical cyclonic storm chain, which impacted the English Channel (UK) and Dawlish in particular, caused significant damage to the main railway connecting the south-west region to the rest of the UK. The incident caused the line to be closed for two months, £50 million of damage and an estimated £1.2bn of economic loss. In this study, we collate eyewitness accounts, analyse sea level data and conduct numerical modelling in order to decipher the destructive forces of the storm. Our analysis reveals that the disaster management of the event was successful and efficient with immediate actions taken to save lives and property before and during the storm. Wave buoy analysis showed that a complex triple peak sea state with periods at 4–8, 8–12 and 20–25 s was present, while tide gauge records indicated that significant surge of up to 0.8 m and wave components of up to 1.5 m amplitude combined as likely contributing factors in the event. Significant impulsive wave force of up to 286 KN was the most likely initiating cause of the damage. Reflections off the vertical wall caused constructive interference of the wave amplitudes that led to increased wave height and significant overtopping of up to 16.1 m3/s/m (per metre width of wall). With this information and our engineering judgement, we conclude that the most probable sequence of multi-hazard cascading failure during this incident was: wave impact force leading to masonry failure, loss of infill and failure of the structure following successive tides.

Introduction

The progress of climate change and increasing sea levels has started to have wide ranging effects on critical engineering infrastructure (Shakou et al. 2019). The meteorological effects of increased atmospheric instability linked to warming seas mean we may be experiencing more frequent extreme storm events and more frequent series or chains of events, as well as an increase in the force of these events, a phenomenon called storminess (Mölter et al. 2016; Feser et al. 2014). Features of more extreme weather events in extratropical latitudes (30°–60°, north and south of the equator) include increased gusting winds, more frequent storm squalls, increased prolonged precipitation and rapid changes in atmospheric pressure and more frequent and significant storm surges (Dacre and Pinto 2020). A recent example of these events impacting the UK with simultaneous significant damage to coastal infrastructure was the extratropical cyclonic storm chain of winter 2013/2014 (Masselink et al. 2016; Adams and Heidarzadeh 2021). The cluster of storms had a profound effect on both coastal and inland infrastructure, bringing widespread flooding events and large insurance claims (RMS 2014).

The extreme storms of February 2014, which had a catastrophic effect on the seawall of the south Devon stretch of the UK’s south-west mainline, caused a two-month closure of the line and significant disruption to the local and regional economy (Fig. 1b) (Network Rail 2014; Dawson et al. 2016; Adams and Heidarzadeh 2021). Restoration costs were £35 m, and economic effects to the south-west region of England were estimated up to £1.2bn (Peninsula Rail Taskforce 2016). Adams and Heidarzadeh (2021) investigated the disparate cascading failure mechanisms which played a part in the failure of the railway through Dawlish and attempted to put these in the context of the historical records of infrastructure damage on the line. Subsequent severe storms in 2016 in the region have continued to cause damage and disruption to the line in the years since 2014 (Met Office 2016). Following the events of 2014, Network Rail Footnote1 who owns the network has undertaken a resilience study. As a result, it has proposed a £400 m refurbishment of the civil engineering assets that support the railway (Fig. 1) (Network Rail 2014). The new seawall structure (Fig. 1a,c), which is constructed of pre-cast concrete sections, encases the existing Brunel seawall (named after the project lead engineer, Isambard Kingdom Brunel) and has been improved with piled reinforced concrete foundations. It is now over 2 m taller to increase the available crest freeboard and incorporates wave return features to minimise wave overtopping. The project aims to increase both the resilience of the assets to extreme weather events as well as maintain or improve amenity value of the coastline for residents and visitors.

figure 1
Fig. 1

In this work, we return to the Brunel seawall and the damage it sustained during the 2014 storms which affected the assets on the evening of the 4th and daytime of the 5th of February and eventually resulted in a prolonged closure of the line. The motivation for this research is to analyse and model the damage made to the seawall and explain the damage mechanisms in order to improve the resilience of many similar coastal structures in the UK and worldwide. The innovation of this work is the multidisciplinary approach that we take comprising a combination of analysis of eyewitness accounts (social science), sea level and wave data analysis (physical science) as well as numerical modelling and engineering judgement (engineering sciences). We investigate the contemporary wave climate and sea levels by interrogating the real-time tide gauge and wave buoys installed along the south-west coast of the English Channel. We then model a typical masonry seawall (Fig. 2), applying the computational fluid dynamics package FLOW3D-Hydro,Footnote2 to quantify the magnitude of impact forces that the seawall would have experienced leading to its failure. We triangulate this information to determine the probable sequence of failures that led to the disaster in 2014.

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Fig. 2

Data and methods

Our data comprise eyewitness accounts, sea level records from coastal tide gauges and offshore wave buoys as well as structural details of the seawall. As for methodology, we analyse eyewitness data, process and investigate sea level records through Fourier transform and conduct numerical simulations using the Flow3D-Hydro package (Flow Science 2022). Details of the data and methodology are provided in the following.

Eyewitness data

The scale of damage to the seawall and its effects led the local community to document the first-hand accounts of those most closely affected by the storms including residents, local businesses, emergency responders, politicians and engineering contractors involved in the post-storm restoration work. These records now form a permanent exhibition in the local museum in DawlishFootnote3, and some of these accounts have been transcribed into a DVD account of the disaster (Dawlish Museum 2015). We have gathered data from the Dawlish Museum, national and international news reports, social media tweets and videos. Table 1 provides a summary of the eyewitness accounts. Overall, 26 entries have been collected around the time of the incident. Our analysis of the eyewitness data is provided in the third column of Table 1 and is expanded in Sect. 3.Table 1 Eyewitness accounts of damage to the Dawlish railway due to the February 2014 storm and our interpretations

Full size table

Sea level data and wave environment

Our sea level data are a collection of three tide gauge stations (Newlyn, Devonport and Swanage Pier—Fig. 5a) owned and operated by the UK National Tide and Sea Level FacilityFootnote4 for the Environment Agency and four offshore wave buoys (Dawlish, West Bay, Torbay and Chesil Beach—Fig. 6a). The tide gauge sites are all fitted with POL-EKO (www.pol-eko.com.pl) data loggers. Newlyn has a Munro float gauge with one full tide and one mid-tide pneumatic bubbler system. Devonport has a three-channel data pneumatic bubbler system, and Swanage Pier consists of a pneumatic gauge. Each has a sampling interval of 15 min, except for Swanage Pier which has a sampling interval of 10 min. The tide gauges are located within the port areas, whereas the offshore wave buoys are situated approximately 2—3.3 km from the coast at water depths of 10–15 m. The wave buoys are all Datawell Wavemaker Mk III unitsFootnote5 and come with sampling interval of 0.78 s. The buoys have a maximum saturation amplitude of 20.5 m for recording the incident waves which implies that every wave larger than this threshold will be recorded at 20.5 m. The data are provided by the British Oceanographic Data CentreFootnote6 for tide gauges and the Channel Coastal ObservatoryFootnote7 for wave buoys.

Sea level analysis

The sea level data underwent quality control to remove outliers and spikes as well as gaps in data (e.g. Heidarzadeh et al. 2022; Heidarzadeh and Satake 2015). We processed the time series of the sea level data using the Matlab signal processing tool (MathWorks 2018). For calculations of the tidal signals, we applied the tidal package TIDALFIT (Grinsted 2008), which is based on fitting tidal harmonics to the observed sea level data. To calculate the surge signals, we applied a 30-min moving average filter to the de-tided data in order to remove all wind, swell and infra-gravity waves from the time series. Based on the surge analysis and the variations of the surge component before the time period of the incident, an error margin of approximately ± 10 cm is identified for our surge analysis. Spectral analysis of the wave buoy data is performed using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of Matlab package (Mathworks 2018).

Numerical modelling

Numerical modelling of wave-structure interaction is conducted using the computational fluid dynamics package Flow3D-Hydro version 1.1 (Flow Science 2022). Flow3D-Hydro solves the transient Navier–Stokes equations of conservation of mass and momentum using a finite difference method and on Eulerian and Lagrangian frameworks (Flow Science 2022). The aforementioned governing equations are:

∇.u=0∇.u=0

(1)

∂u∂t+u.∇u=−∇Pρ+υ∇2u+g∂u∂t+u.∇u=−∇Pρ+υ∇2u+g

(2)

where uu is the velocity vector, PP is the pressure, ρρ is the water density, υυ is the kinematic viscosity and gg is the gravitational acceleration. A Fractional Area/Volume Obstacle Representation (FAVOR) is adapted in Flow3D-Hydro, which applies solid boundaries within the Eulerian grid and calculates the fraction of areas and volume in partially blocked volume in order to compute flows on corresponding boundaries (Hirt and Nichols 1981). We validated the numerical modelling through comparing the results with Sainflou’s analytical equation for the design of vertical seawalls (Sainflou 1928; Ackhurst 2020), which is as follows:

pd=ρgHcoshk(d+z)coshkdcosσtpd=ρgHcoshk(d+z)coshkdcosσt

(3)

where pdpd is the hydrodynamic pressure, ρρ is the water density, gg is the gravitational acceleration, HH is the wave height, dd is the water depth, kk is the wavenumber, zz is the difference in still water level and mean water level, σσ is the angular frequency and tt is the time. The Sainflou’s equation (Eq. 3) is used to calculate the dynamic pressure from wave action, which is combined with static pressure on the seawall.

Using Flow3D-Hydro, a model of the Dawlish seawall was made with a computational domain which is 250.0 m in length, 15.0 m in height and 0.375 m in width (Fig. 3a). The computational domain was discretised using a single uniform grid with a mesh size of 0.125 m. The model has a wave boundary at the left side of the domain (x-min), an outflow boundary on the right side (x-max), a symmetry boundary at the bottom (z-min) and a wall boundary at the top (z-max). A wall boundary implies that water or waves are unable to pass through the boundary, whereas a symmetry boundary means that the two edges of the boundary are identical and therefore there is no flow through it. The water is considered incompressible in our model. For volume of fluid advection for the wave boundary (i.e. the left-side boundary) in our simulations, we utilised the “Split Lagrangian Method”, which guarantees the best accuracy (Flow Science, 2022).

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Fig. 3

The stability of the numerical scheme is controlled and maintained through checking the Courant number (CC) as given in the following:

C=VΔtΔxC=VΔtΔx

(4)

where VV is the velocity of the flow, ΔtΔt is the time step and ΔxΔx is the spatial step (i.e. grid size). For stability and convergence of the numerical simulations, the Courant number must be sufficiently below one (Courant et al. 1928). This is maintained by a careful adjustment of the ΔxΔx and ΔtΔt selections. Flow3D-Hydro applies a dynamic Courant number, meaning the program adjusts the value of time step (ΔtΔt) during the simulations to achieve a balance between accuracy of results and speed of simulation. In our simulation, the time step was in the range ΔtΔt = 0.0051—0.051 s.

In order to achieve the most efficient mesh resolution, we varied cell size for five values of ΔxΔx = 0.1 m, 0.125 m, 0.15 m, 0.175 m and 0.20 m. Simulations were performed for all mesh sizes, and the results were compared in terms of convergence, stability and speed of simulation (Fig. 3). A linear wave with an amplitude of 1.5 m and a period of 6 s was used for these optimisation simulations. We considered wave time histories at two gauges A and B and recorded the waves from simulations using different mesh sizes (Fig. 3). Although the results are close (Fig. 3), some limited deviations are observed for larger mesh sizes of 0.20 m and 0.175 m. We therefore selected mesh size of 0.125 m as the optimum, giving an extra safety margin as a conservative solution.

The pressure from the incident waves on the vertical wall is validated in our model by comparing them with the analytical equation of Sainflou (1928), Eq. (3), which is one of the most common set of equations for design of coastal structures (Fig. 4). The model was tested by running a linear wave of period 6 s and wave amplitude of 1.5 m against the wall, with a still water level of 4.5 m. It can be seen that the model results are very close to those from analytical equations of Sainflou (1928), indicating that our numerical model is accurately modelling the wave-structure interaction (Fig. 4).

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Fig. 4

Eyewitness account analysis

Contemporary reporting of the 4th and 5th February 2014 storms by the main national news outlets in the UK highlights the extreme nature of the events and the significant damage and disruption they were likely to have on the communities of the south-west of England. In interviews, this was reinforced by Network Rail engineers who, even at this early stage, were forecasting remedial engineering works to last for at least 6 weeks. One week later, following subsequent storms the cascading nature of the events was obvious. Multiple breaches of the seawall had taken place with up to 35 separate landslide events and significant damage to parapet walls along the coastal route also were reported. Residents of the area reported extreme effects of the storm, one likening it to an earthquake and reporting water ingress through doors windows and even through vertical chimneys (Table 1). This suggests extreme wave overtopping volumes and large wave impact forces. One resident described the structural effects as: “the house was jumping up and down on its footings”.

Disaster management plans were quickly and effectively put into action by the local council, police service and National Rail. A major incident was declared, and decisions regarding evacuation of the residents under threat were taken around 2100 h on the night of 4th February when reports of initial damage to the seawall were received (Table 1). Local hotels were asked to provide short-term refuge to residents while local leisure facilities were prepared to accept residents later that evening. Initial repair work to the railway line was hampered by successive high spring tides and storms in the following days although significant progress was still made when weather conditions permitted (Table 1).

Sea level observations and spectral analysis

The results of surge and wave analyses are presented in Figs. 5 and 6. A surge height of up to 0.8 m was recorded in the examined tide gauge stations (Fig. 5b-d). Two main episodes of high surge heights are identified: the first surge started on 3rd February 2014 at 03:00 (UTC) and lasted until 4th of February 2014 at 00:00; the second event occurred in the period 4th February 2014 15:00 to 5th February 2014 at 17:00 (Fig. 5b-d). These data imply surge durations of 21 h and 26 h for the first and the second events, respectively. Based on the surge data in Fig. 5, we note that the storm event of early February 2014 and the associated surges was a relatively powerful one, which impacted at least 230 km of the south coast of England, from Land’s End to Weymouth, with large surge heights.

figure 5
Fig. 5
figure 6
Fig. 6

Based on wave buoy records, the maximum recorded amplitudes are at least 20.5 m in Dawlish and West Bay, 1.9 m in Tor Bay and 4.9 m in Chesil (Fig. 6a-b). The buoys at Tor Bay and Chesil recorded dual peak period bands of 4–8 and 8–12 s, whereas at Dawlish and West Bay registered triple peak period bands at 4–8, 8–12 and 20–25 s (Fig. 6c, d). It is important to note that the long-period waves at 20–25 s occur with short durations (approximately 2 min) while the waves at the other two bands of 4–8 and 8–12 s appear to be present at all times during the storm event.

The wave component at the period band of 4–8 s can be most likely attributed to normal coastal waves while the one at 8–12 s, which is longer, is most likely the swell component of the storm. Regarding the third component of the waves with long period of 20 -25 s, which occurs with short durations of 2 min, there are two hypotheses; it is either the result of a local (port and harbour) and regional (the Lyme Bay) oscillations (eg. Rabinovich 1997; Heidarzadeh and Satake 2014; Wang et al. 1992), or due to an abnormally long swell. To test the first hypothesis, we consider various water bodies such as Lyme Bay (approximate dimensions of 70 km × 20 km with an average water depth of 30 m; Fig. 6), several local bays (approximate dimensions of 3.6 km × 0.6 km with an average water depth of 6 m) and harbours (approximate dimensions of 0.5 km × 0.5 km with an average water depth of 4 m). Their water depths are based on the online Marine navigation website.Footnote8 According to Rabinovich (2010), the oscillation modes of a semi-enclosed rectangle basin are given by the following equation:

Tmn=2gd−−√[(m2L)2+(nW)2]−1/2Tmn=2gd[(m2L)2+(nW)2]−1/2

(5)

where TmnTmn is the oscillation period, gg is the gravitational acceleration, dd is the water depth, LL is the length of the basin, WW is the width of the basin, m=1,2,3,…m=1,2,3,… and n=0,1,2,3,…n=0,1,2,3,…; mm and nn are the counters of the different modes. Applying Eq. (5) to the aforementioned water bodies results in oscillation modes of at least 5 min, which is far longer than the observed period of 20–25 s. Therefore, we rule out the first hypothesis and infer that the long period of 20–25 s is most likely a long swell wave coming from distant sources. As discussed by Rabinovich (1997) and Wang et al. (2022), comparison between sea level spectra before and after the incident is a useful method to distinguish the spectrum of the weather event. A visual inspection of Fig. 6 reveals that the forcing at the period band of 20–25 s is non-existent before the incident.

Numerical simulations of wave loading and overtopping

Based on the results of sea level data analyses in the previous section (Fig. 6), we use a dual peak wave spectrum with peak periods of 10.0 s and 25.0 s for numerical simulations because such a wave would be comprised of the most energetic signals of the storm. For variations of water depth (2.0–4.0 m), coastal wave amplitude (0.5–1.5 m) (Fig. 7) and storm surge height (0.5–0.8 m) (Fig. 5), we developed 20 scenarios (Scn) which we used in numerical simulations (Table 2). Data during the incident indicated that water depth was up to the crest level of the seawall (approximately 4 m water depth); therefore, we varied water depth from 2 to 4 m in our simulation scenarios. Regarding wave amplitudes, we referred to the variations at a nearby tide gauge station (West Bay) which showed wave amplitude up to 1.2 m (Fig. 7). Therefore, wave amplitude was varied from 0.5 m to 1.5 m by considering a factor a safety of 25% for the maximum wave amplitude. As for the storm surge component, time series of storm surges calculated at three coastal stations adjacent to Dawlish showed that it was in the range of 0.5 m to 0.8 m (Fig. 5). These 20 scenarios would help to study uncertainties associated with wave amplitudes and pressures. Figure 8 shows snapshots of wave propagation and impacts on the seawall at different times.

figure 7
Fig. 7

Table 2 The 20 scenarios considered for numerical simulations in this study

Full size table

figure 8
Fig. 8

Results of wave amplitude simulations

Large wave amplitudes can induce significant wave forcing on the structure and cause overtopping of the seawall, which could eventually cascade to other hazards such as erosion of the backfill and scour (Adams and Heidarzadeh, 2021). The first 10 scenarios of our modelling efforts are for the same incident wave amplitudes of 0.5 m, which occur at different water depths (2.0–4.0 m) and storm surge heights (0.5–0.8 m) (Table 2 and Fig. 9). This is because we aim at studying the impacts of effective water depth (deff—the sum of mean sea level and surge height) on the time histories of wave amplitudes as the storm evolves. As seen in Fig. 9a, by decreasing effective water depth, wave amplitude increases. For example, for Scn-1 with effective depth of 4.5 m, the maximum amplitude of the first wave is 1.6 m, whereas it is 2.9 m for Scn-2 with effective depth of 3.5 m. However, due to intensive reflections and interferences of the waves in front of the vertical seawall, such a relationship is barely seen for the second and the third wave peaks. It is important to note that the later peaks (second or third) produce the largest waves rather than the first wave. Extraordinary wave amplifications are seen for the Scn-2 (deff = 3.5 m) and Scn-7 (deff = 3.3 m), where the corresponding wave amplitudes are 4.5 m and 3.7 m, respectively. This may indicate that the effective water depth of deff = 3.3–3.5 m is possibly a critical water depth for this structure resulting in maximum wave amplitudes under similar storms. In the second wave impact, the combined wave height (i.e. the wave amplitude plus the effective water depth), which is ultimately an indicator of wave overtopping, shows that the largest wave heights are generated by Scn-2, 7 and 8 (Fig. 9a) with effective water depths of 3.5 m, 3.3 m and 3.8 m and combined heights of 8.0 m, 7.0 m and 6.9 m (Fig. 9b). Since the height of seawall is 5.4 m, the combined wave heights for Scn-2, 7 and 8 are greater than the crest height of the seawall by 2.6 m, 1.6 m and 1.5 m, respectively, which indicates wave overtopping.

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Fig. 9

For scenarios 11–20 (Fig. 10), with incident wave amplitudes of 1.5 m (Table 2), the largest wave amplitudes are produced by Scn-17 (deff = 3.3 m), Scn-13 (deff = 2.5 m) and Scn-12 (deff = 3.5 m), which are 5.6 m, 5.1 m and 4.5 m. The maximum combined wave heights belong to Scn-11 (deff = 4.5 m) and Scn-17 (deff = 3.3 m), with combined wave heights of 9.0 m and 8.9 m (Fig. 10b), which are greater than the crest height of the seawall by 4.6 m and 3.5 m, respectively.

figure 10
Fig. 10

Our simulations for all 20 scenarios reveal that the first wave is not always the largest and wave interactions, reflections and interferences play major roles in amplifying the waves in front of the seawall. This is primarily because the wall is fully vertical and therefore has a reflection coefficient of close to one (i.e. full reflection). Simulations show that the combined wave height is up to 4.6 m higher than the crest height of the wall, implying that severe overtopping would be expected.

Results of wave loading calculations

The pressure calculations for scenarios 1–10 are given in Fig. 11 and those of scenarios 11–20 in Fig. 12. The total pressure distribution in Figs. 1112 mostly follows a triangular shape with maximum pressure at the seafloor as expected from the Sainflou (1928) design equations. These pressure plots comprise both static (due to mean sea level in front of the wall) and dynamic (combined effects of surge and wave) pressures. For incident wave amplitudes of 0.5 m (Fig. 11), the maximum wave pressure varies in the range of 35–63 kPa. At the sea surface, it is in the range of 4–20 kPa (Fig. 11). For some scenarios (Scn-2 and 7), the pressure distribution deviates from a triangular shape and shows larger pressures at the top, which is attributed to the wave impacts and partial breaking at the sea surface. This adds an additional triangle-shaped pressure distribution at the sea surface elevation consistent with the design procedure developed by Goda (2000) for braking waves. The maximum force on the seawall due to scenarios 1–10, which is calculated by integrating the maximum pressure distribution over the wave-facing surface of the seawall, is in the range of 92–190 KN (Table 2).

figure 11
Fig. 11
figure 12
Fig. 12

For scenarios 11–20, with incident wave amplitude of 1.5 m, wave pressures of 45–78 kPa and 7–120 kPa, for  the bottom and top of the wall, respectively, were observed (Fig. 12). Most of the plots show a triangular pressure distribution, except for Scn-11 and 15. A significant increase in wave impact pressure is seen for Scn-15 at the top of the structure, where a maximum pressure of approximately 120 kPa is produced while other scenarios give a pressure of 7–32 kPa for the sea surface. In other words, the pressure from Scn-15 is approximately four times larger than the other scenarios. Such a significant increase of the pressure at the top is most likely attributed to the breaking wave impact loads as detailed by Goda (2000) and Cuomo et al. (2010). The wave simulation snapshots in Fig. 8 show that the wave breaks before reaching the wall. The maximum force due to scenarios 11–20 is 120–286 KN.

The breaking wave impacts peaking at 286 KN in our simulations suggest destabilisation of the upper masonry blocks, probably by grout malfunction. This significant impact force initiated the failure of the seawall which in turn caused extensive ballast erosion. Wave impact damage was proposed by Adams and Heidarzadeh (2021) as one of the primary mechanisms in the 2014 Dawlish disaster. In the multi-hazard risk model proposed by these authors, damage mechanism III (failure pathway 5 in Adams and Heidarzadeh, 2021) was characterised by wave impact force causing damage to the masonry elements, leading to failure of the upper sections of the seawall and loss of infill material. As blocks were removed, access to the track bed was increased for inbound waves allowing infill material from behind the seawall to be fluidised and subsequently removed by backwash. The loss of infill material critically compromised the stability of the seawall and directly led to structural failure. In parallel, significant wave overtopping (discussed in the next section) led to ballast washout and cascaded, in combination with masonry damage, to catastrophic failure of the wall and suspension of the rails in mid-air (Fig. 1b), leaving the railway inoperable for two months.

Wave Overtopping

The two most important factors contributing to the 2014 Dawlish railway catastrophe were wave impact forces and overtopping. Figure 13 gives the instantaneous overtopping rates for different scenarios, which experienced overtopping. It can be seen that the overtopping rates range from 0.5 m3/s/m to 16.1 m3/s/m (Fig. 13). Time histories of the wave overtopping rates show that the phenomenon occurs intermittently, and each time lasts 1.0–7.0 s. It is clear that the longer the overtopping time, the larger the volume of the water poured on the structure. The largest wave overtopping rates of 16.1 m3/s/m and 14.4 m3/s/m belong to Scn-20 and 11, respectively. These are the two scenarios that also give the largest combined wave heights (Fig. 10b).

figure 13
Fig. 13

The cumulative overtopping curves (Figs. 1415) show the total water volume overtopped the structure during the entire simulation time. This is an important hazard factor as it determines the level of soil saturation, water pore pressure in the soil and soil erosion (Van der Meer et al. 2018). The maximum volume belongs to Scn-20, which is 65.0 m3/m (m-cubed of water per metre length of the wall). The overtopping volumes are 42.7 m3/m for Scn-11 and 28.8 m3/m for Scn-19. The overtopping volume is in the range of 0.7–65.0 m3/m for all scenarios.

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Fig. 14
figure 15
Fig. 15

For comparison, we compare our modelling results with those estimated using empirical equations. For the case of the Dawlish seawall, we apply the equation proposed by Van Der Meer et al. (2018) to estimate wave overtopping rates, based on a set of decision criteria which are the influence of foreshore, vertical wall, possible breaking waves and low freeboard:

qgH3m−−−−√=0.0155(Hmhs)12e(−2.2RcHm)qgHm3=0.0155(Hmhs)12e(−2.2RcHm)

(6)

where qq is the mean overtopping rate per metre length of the seawall (m3/s/m), gg is the acceleration due to gravity, HmHm is the incident wave height at the toe of the structure, RcRc is the wall crest height above mean sea level, hshs is the deep-water significant wave height and e(x)e(x) is the exponential function. It is noted that Eq. (6) is valid for 0.1<RcHm<1.350.1<RcHm<1.35. For the case of the Dawlish seawall and considering the scenarios with larger incident wave amplitude of 1.5 m (hshs= 1.5 m), the incident wave height at the toe of the structure is HmHm = 2.2—5.6 m, and the wall crest height above mean sea level is RcRc = 0.6–2.9 m. As a result, Eq. (6) gives mean overtopping rates up to approximately 2.9 m3/s/m. A visual inspection of simulated overtopping rates in Fig. 13 for Scn 11–20 shows that the mean value of the simulated overtopping rates (Fig. 13) is close to estimates using Eq. (6).

Discussion and conclusions

We applied a combination of eyewitness account analysis, sea level data analysis and numerical modelling in combination with our engineering judgement to explain the damage to the Dawlish railway seawall in February 2014. Main findings are:

  • Eyewitness data analysis showed that the extreme nature of the event was well forecasted in the hours prior to the storm impact; however, the magnitude of the risks to the structures was not well understood. Multiple hazards were activated simultaneously, and the effects cascaded to amplify the damage. Disaster management was effective, exemplified by the establishment of an emergency rendezvous point and temporary evacuation centre during the storm, indicating a high level of hazard awareness and preparedness.
  • Based on sea level data analysis, we identified triple peak period bands at 4–8, 8–12 and 20–25 s in the sea level data. Storm surge heights and wave oscillations were up to 0.8 m and 1.5 m, respectively.
  • Based on the numerical simulations of 20 scenarios with different water depths, incident wave amplitudes, surge heights and peak periods, we found that the wave oscillations at the foot of the seawall result in multiple wave interactions and interferences. Consequently, large wave amplitudes, up to 4.6 m higher than the height of the seawall, were generated and overtopped the wall. Extreme impulsive wave impact forces of up to 286 KN were generated by the waves interacting with the seawall.
  • We measured maximum wave overtopping rates of 0.5–16.1 m3/s/m for our scenarios. The cumulative overtopping water volumes per metre length of the wall were 0.7–65.0 m3/m.
  • Analysis of all the evidence combined with our engineering judgement suggests that the most likely initiating cause of the failure was impulsive wave impact forces destabilising one or more grouted joints between adjacent masonry blocks in the wall. Maximum observed pressures of 286 KN in our simulations are four times greater in magnitude than background pressures leading to block removal and initiating failure. Therefore, the sequence of cascading events was :1) impulsive wave impact force causing damage to masonry, 2) failure of the upper sections of the seawall, 3) loss of infill resulting in a reduction of structural strength in the landward direction, 4) ballast washout as wave overtopping and inbound wave activity increased and 5) progressive structural failure following successive tides.

From a risk mitigation point of view, the stability of the seawall in the face of future energetic cyclonic storm events and sea level rise will become a critical factor in protecting the rail network. Mitigation efforts will involve significant infrastructure investment to strengthen the civil engineering assets combined with improved hazard warning systems consisting of meteorological forecasting and real-time wave observations and instrumentation. These efforts must take into account the amenity value of coastal railway infrastructure to local communities and the significant number of tourists who visit every year. In this regard, public awareness and active engagement in the planning and execution of the project will be crucial in order to secure local stakeholder support for the significant infrastructure project that will be required for future resilience.

Notes

  1. https://www.networkrail.co.uk/..
  2. https://www.flow3d.com/products/flow-3d-hydro/.
  3. https://www.devonmuseums.net/Dawlish-Museum/Devon-Museums/.
  4. https://ntslf.org/.
  5. https://www.datawell.nl/Products/Buoys/DirectionalWaveriderMkIII.aspx.
  6. https://www.bodc.ac.uk/.
  7. https://coastalmonitoring.org/cco/.
  8. https://webapp.navionics.com/#boating@8&key=iactHlwfP.

References

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Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Brunel University London for administering the scholarship awarded to KA. The Flow3D-Hydro used in this research for numerical modelling is licenced to Brunel University London through an academic programme contract. We sincerely thank Prof Harsh Gupta (Editor-in-Chief) and two anonymous reviewers for their constructive review comments.

Funding

This project was funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) through a PhD scholarship to Keith Adams.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Brunel University London, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH, UKKeith Adams
  2. Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UKMohammad Heidarzadeh

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Correspondence to Keith Adams.

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Adams, K., Heidarzadeh, M. Extratropical cyclone damage to the seawall in Dawlish, UK: eyewitness accounts, sea level analysis and numerical modelling. Nat Hazards (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-022-05692-2

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  • Received17 May 2022
  • Accepted17 October 2022
  • Published14 November 2022
  • DOIhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-022-05692-2

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Keywords

  • Storm surge
  • Cyclone
  • Railway
  • Climate change
  • Infrastructure
  • Resilience
Fig. 5. The predicted shapes of initial breach (a) Rectangular (b) V-notch. Fig. 6. Dam breaching stages.

Investigating the peak outflow through a spatial embankment dam breach

공간적 제방댐 붕괴를 통한 최대 유출량 조사

Mahmoud T.GhonimMagdy H.MowafyMohamed N.SalemAshrafJatwaryFaculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt

Abstract

Investigating the breach outflow hydrograph is an essential task to conduct mitigation plans and flood warnings. In the present study, the spatial dam breach is simulated by using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model, FLOW-3D. The model parameters were adjusted by making a comparison with a previous experimental model. The different parameters (initial breach shape, dimensions, location, and dam slopes) are studied to investigate their effects on dam breaching. The results indicate that these parameters have a significant impact. The maximum erosion rate and peak outflow for the rectangular shape are higher than those for the V-notch by 8.85% and 5%, respectively. Increasing breach width or decreasing depth by 5% leads to increasing maximum erosion rate by 11% and 15%, respectively. Increasing the downstream slope angle by 4° leads to an increase in both peak outflow and maximum erosion rate by 2.0% and 6.0%, respectively.

유출 유출 수문곡선을 조사하는 것은 완화 계획 및 홍수 경보를 수행하는 데 필수적인 작업입니다. 본 연구에서는 3차원 전산유체역학 모델인 FLOW-3D를 사용하여 공간 댐 붕괴를 시뮬레이션합니다. 이전 실험 모델과 비교하여 모델 매개변수를 조정했습니다.

다양한 매개변수(초기 붕괴 형태, 치수, 위치 및 댐 경사)가 댐 붕괴에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위해 연구됩니다. 결과는 이러한 매개변수가 상당한 영향을 미친다는 것을 나타냅니다. 직사각형 형태의 최대 침식율과 최대 유출량은 V-notch보다 각각 8.85%, 5% 높게 나타났습니다.

위반 폭을 늘리거나 깊이를 5% 줄이면 최대 침식률이 각각 11% 및 15% 증가합니다. 하류 경사각을 4° 증가시키면 최대 유출량과 최대 침식률이 각각 2.0% 및 6.0% 증가합니다.

Keywords

Spatial dam breach; FLOW-3D; Overtopping erosion; Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

1. Introduction

There are many purposes for dam construction, such as protection from flood disasters, water storage, and power generationEmbankment failures may have a catastrophic impact on lives and infrastructure in the downstream regions. One of the most common causes of embankment dam failure is overtopping. Once the overtopping of the dam begins, the breach formation will start in the dam body then end with the dam failure. This failure occurs within a very short time, which threatens to be very dangerous. Therefore, understanding and modeling the embankment breaching processes is essential for conducting mitigation plans, flood warnings, and forecasting flood damage.

The analysis of the dam breaching process is implemented by different techniques: comparative methods, empirical models with dimensional and dimensionless solutions, physical-based models, and parametric models. These models were described in detail [1]Parametric modeling is commonly used to simulate breach growth as a time-dependent linear process and calculate outflow discharge from the breach using hydraulics principles [2]. Alhasan et al. [3] presented a simple one-dimensional mathematical model and a computer code to simulate the dam breaching process. These models were validated by small dams breaching during the floods in 2002 in the Czech Republic. Fread [4] developed an erosion model (BREACH) based on hydraulics principles, sediment transport, and soil mechanics to estimate breach size, time of formation, and outflow discharge. Říha et al. [5] investigated the dam break process for a cascade of small dams using a simple parametric model for piping and overtopping erosion, as well as a 2D shallow-water flow model for the flood in downstream areas. Goodarzi et al. [6] implemented mathematical and statistical methods to assess the effect of inflows and wind speeds on the dam’s overtopping failure.

Dam breaching studies can be divided into two main modes of erosion. The first mode is called “planar dam breach” where the flow overtops the whole dam width. While the second mode is called “spatial dam breach” where the flow overtops through the initial pilot channel (i.e., a channel created in the dam body). Therefore, the erosion will be in both vertical and horizontal directions [7].

The erosion process through the embankment dams occurs due to the shear stress applied by water flows. The dam breaching evolution can be divided into three stages [8][9], but Y. Yang et al. [10] divided the breach development into five stages: Stage I, the seepage erosion; Stage II, the initial breach formation; Stage III, the head erosion; Stage IV, the breach expansion; and Stage V, the re-equilibrium of the river channel through the breach. Many experimental tests have been carried out on non-cohesive embankment dams with an initial breach to examine the effect of upstream inflow discharges on the longitudinal profile evolution and the time to inflection point [11].

Zhang et al. [12] studied the effect of changing downstream slope angle, sediment grain size, and dam crest length on erosion rates. They noticed that increasing dam crest length and decreasing downstream slope angle lead to decreasing sediment transport rate. While the increase in sediment grain size leads to an increased sediment transport rate at the initial stages. Höeg et al. [13] presented a series of field tests to investigate the stability of embankment dams made of various materials. Overtopping and piping were among the failure tests carried out for the dams composed of homogeneous rock-fill, clay, or gravel with a height of up to 6.0 m. Hakimzadeh et al. [14] constructed 40 homogeneous cohesive and non-cohesive embankment dams to study the effect of changing sediment diameter and dam height on the breaching process. They also used genetic programming (GP) to estimate the breach outflow. Refaiy et al. [15] studied different scenarios for the downstream drain geometry, such as length, height, and angle, to minimize the effect of piping phenomena and therefore increase dam safety.

Zhu et al. [16] examined the effect of headcut erosion on dam breach growth, especially in the case of cohesive dams. They found that the breach growth in non-cohesive embankments is slower than cohesive embankments due to the little effect of headcut. Schmocker and Hager [7] proposed a relationship for estimating peak outflow from the dam breach process.(1)QpQin-1=1.7exp-20hc23d5013H0

where: Qp = peak outflow discharge.

Qin = inflow discharge.

hc = critical flow depth.

d50 = mean sediment diameter.

Ho = initial dam height.

Yu et al. [17] carried out an experimental study for homogeneous non-cohesive embankment dams in a 180° bending rectangular flume to determine the effect of overtopping flows on breaching formation. They found that the main factors influencing breach formation are water level, river discharge, and embankment material diameter.

Wu et al. [18] carried out a series of experiments to investigate the effect of breaching geometry on both non-cohesive and cohesive embankment dams in a U-bend flume due to overtopping flows. In the case of non-cohesive embankments, the non-symmetrical lateral expansion was noticed during the breach formation. This expansion was described by a coefficient ranging from 2.7 to 3.3.

The numerical models of the dam breach can be categorized according to different parameters, such as flow dimensions (1D, 2D, or 3D), flow governing equations, and solution methods. The 1D models are mainly used to predict the outflow hydrograph from the dam breach. Saberi et al. [19] applied the 1D Saint-Venant equation, which is solved by the finite difference method to investigate the outflow hydrograph during dam overtopping failure. Because of the ability to study dam profile evolution and breach formation, 2D models are more applicable than 1D models. Guan et al. [20] and Wu et al. [21] employed both 2D shallow water equations (SWEs) and sediment erosion equations, which are solved by the finite volume method to study the effect of the dam’s geometry parameters on outflow hydrograph and dam profile evolution. Wang et al. [22] also proposed a second-order hybrid-type of total variation diminishing (TVD) finite-difference to estimate the breach outflow by solving the 2D (SWEs). The accuracy of (SWEs) for both vertical flow contraction and surface roughness has been assessed [23]. They noted that the accuracy of (SWEs) is acceptable for milder slopes, but in the case of steeper slopes, modelers should be more careful. Generally, the accuracy of 2D models is still low, especially with velocity distribution over the flow depth, lateral momentum exchange, density-driven flows, and bottom friction [24]. Therefore, 3D models are preferred. Larocque et al. [25] and Yang et al. [26] started to use three-dimensional (3D) models that depend on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations.

Previous experimental studies concluded that there is no clear relationship between the peak outflow from the dam breach and the initial breach characteristics. Some of these studies depend on the sharp-crested weir fixed at the end of the flume to determine the peak outflow from the breach, which leads to a decrease in the accuracy of outflow calculations at the microscale. The main goals of this study are to carry out a numerical simulation for a spatial dam breach due to overtopping flows by using (FLOW-3D) software to find an empirical equation for the peak outflow discharge from the breach and determine the worst-case that leads to accelerating the dam breaching process.

2. Numerical simulation

The current study for spatial dam breach is simulated by using (FLOW-3D) software [27], which is a powerful computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program.

2.1. Geometric presentations

A stereolithographic (STL) file is prepared for each change in the initial breach geometry and dimensions. The CAD program is useful for creating solid objects and converting them to STL format, as shown in Fig. 1.

2.2. Governing equations

The governing equations for water flow are three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS).

The continuity equation:(2)∂ui∂xi=0

The momentum equation:(3)∂ui∂t+1VFuj∂ui∂xj=1ρ∂∂xj-pδij+ν∂ui∂xj+∂uj∂xi-ρu`iu`j¯

where u is time-averaged velocity,ν is kinematic viscosity, VF is fractional volume open to flow, p is averaged pressure and -u`iu`j¯ are components of Reynold’s stress. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique is used to simulate the free surface profile. Hirt et al. [28] presented the VOF algorithm, which employs the function (F) to express the occupancy of each grid cell with fluid. The value of (F) varies from zero to unity. Zero value refers to no fluid in the grid cell, while the unity value refers to the grid cell being fully occupied with fluid. The free surface is formed in the grid cells having (F) values between zero and unity.(4)∂F∂t+1VF∂∂xFAxu+∂∂yFAyv+∂∂zFAzw=0

where (u, v, w) are the velocity components in (x, y, z) coordinates, respectively, and (AxAyAz) are the area fractions.

2.3. Boundary and initial conditions

To improve the accuracy of the results, the boundary conditions should be carefully determined. In this study, two mesh blocks are used to minimize the time consumed in the simulation. The boundary conditions for mesh block 1 are as follows: The inlet and sides boundaries are defined as a wall boundary condition (wall boundary condition is usually used for bound fluid by solid regions. In the case of viscous flows, no-slip means that the tangential velocity is equal to the wall velocity and the normal velocity is zero), the outlet is defined as a symmetry boundary condition (symmetry boundary condition is usually used to reduce computational effort during CFD simulation. This condition allows the flow to be transferred from one mesh block to another. No inputs are required for this boundary condition except that its location should be defined accurately), the bottom boundary is defined as a uniform flow rate boundary condition, and the top boundary is defined as a specific pressure boundary condition with assigned atmospheric pressure. The boundary conditions for mesh block 2 are as follows: The inlet is defined as a symmetry boundary condition, the outlet is defined as a free flow boundary condition, the bottom and sides boundaries are defined as a wall boundary condition, and the top boundary is defined as a specific pressure boundary condition with assigned atmospheric pressure as shown in Fig. 2. The initial conditions required to be set for the fluid (i.e., water) inside of the domain include configuration, temperature, velocities, and pressure distribution. The configuration of water depends on the dimensions and shape of the dam reservoir. While the other conditions have been assigned as follows: temperature is normal water temperature (25 °c) and pressure distribution is hydrostatic with no initial velocity.

2.4. Numerical method

FLOW-3D uses the finite volume method (FVM) to solve the governing equation (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) over the computational domain. A finite-volume method is an Eulerian approach for representing and evaluating partial differential equations in algebraic equations form [29]. At discrete points on the mesh geometry, values are determined. Finite volume expresses a small volume surrounding each node point on a mesh. In this method, the divergence theorem is used to convert volume integrals with a divergence term to surface integrals. After that, these terms are evaluated as fluxes at each finite volume’s surfaces.

2.5. Turbulent models

Turbulence is the chaotic, unstable motion of fluids that occurs when there are insufficient stabilizing viscous forces. In FLOW-3D, there are six turbulence models available: the Prandtl mixing length model, the one-equation turbulent energy model, the two-equation (k – ε) model, the Renormalization-Group (RNG) model, the two-equation (k – ω) models, and a large eddy simulation (LES) model. For simulating flow motion, the RNG model is adopted to simulate the motion behavior better than the k – ε and k – ω.

models [30]. The RNG model consists of two main equations for the turbulent kinetic energy KT and its dissipation.εT(5)∂kT∂t+1VFuAx∂kT∂x+vAy∂kT∂y+wAz∂kT∂z=PT+GT+DiffKT-εT(6)∂εT∂t+1VFuAx∂εT∂x+vAy∂εT∂y+wAz∂εT∂z=C1.εTKTPT+c3.GT+Diffε-c2εT2kT

where KT is the turbulent kinetic energy, PT is the turbulent kinetic energy production, GT is the buoyancy turbulence energy, εT is the turbulent energy dissipation rate, DiffKT and Diffε are terms of diffusion, c1, c2 and c3 are dimensionless parameters, in which c1 and c3 have a constant value of 1.42 and 0.2, respectively, c2 is computed from the turbulent kinetic energy (KT) and turbulent production (PT) terms.

2.6. Sediment scour model

The sediment scour model available in FLOW-3D can calculate all the sediment transport processes including Entrainment transport, Bedload transport, Suspended transport, and Deposition. The erosion process starts once the water flows remove the grains from the packed bed and carry them into suspension. It happens when the applied shear stress by water flows exceeds critical shear stress. This process is represented by entrainment transport in the numerical model. After entrained, the grains carried by water flow are represented by suspended load transport. After that, some suspended grains resort to settling because of the combined effect of gravity, buoyancy, and friction. This process is described through a deposition. Finally, the grains sliding motions are represented by bedload transport in the model. For the entrainment process, the shear stress applied by the fluid motion on the packed bed surface is calculated using the standard wall function as shown in Eq.7.(7)ks,i=Cs,i∗d50

where ks,i is the Nikuradse roughness and Cs,i is a user-defined coefficient. The critical bed shear stress is defined by a dimensionless parameter called the critical shields number as expressed in Eq.8.(8)θcr,i=τcr,i‖g‖diρi-ρf

where θcr,i is the critical shields number, τcr,i is the critical bed shear stress, g is the absolute value of gravity acceleration, di is the diameter of the sediment grain, ρi is the density of the sediment species (i) and ρf is the density of the fluid. The value of the critical shields number is determined according to the Soulsby-Whitehouse equation.(9)θcr,i=0.31+1.2d∗,i+0.0551-exp-0.02d∗,i

where d∗,i is the dimensionless diameter of the sediment, given by Eq.10.(10)d∗,i=diρfρi-ρf‖g‖μf213

where μf is the fluid dynamic viscosity. For the sloping bed interface, the value of the critical shields number is modified according to Eq.11.(11)θ`cr,i=θcr,icosψsinβ+cos2βtan2φi-sin2ψsin2βtanφi

where θ`cr,i is the modified critical shields number, φi is the angle of repose for the sediment, β is the angle of bed slope and ψ is the angle between the flow and the upslope direction. The effects of the rolling, hopping, and sliding motions of grains along the packed bed surface are taken by the bedload transport process. The volumetric bedload transport rate (qb,i) per width of the bed is expressed in Eq.12.(12)qb,i=Φi‖g‖ρi-ρfρfdi312

where Φi is the dimensionless bedload transport rate is calculated by using Meyer Peter and Müller equation.(13)Φi=βMPM,iθi-θ`cr,i1.5cb,i

where βMPM,i is the Meyer Peter and Müller user-defined coefficient and cb,i is the volume fraction of species i in the bed material. The suspended load transport is calculated as shown in Eq.14.(14)∂Cs,i∂t+∇∙Cs,ius,i=∇∙∇DCs,i

where Cs,i is the suspended sediment mass concentration, D is the diffusivity, and us,i is the grain velocity of species i. Entrainment and deposition are two opposing processes that take place at the same time. The lifting and settling velocities for both entrainment and deposition processes are calculated according to Eq.15 and Eq.16, respectively.(15)ulifting,i=αid∗,i0.3θi-θ`cr,igdiρiρf-1(16)usettling,i=υfdi10.362+1.049d∗,i3-10.36

where αi is the entrainment coefficient of species i and υf is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid.

2.7. Grid type

Using simple rectangular orthogonal elements in planes and hexahedral in volumes in the (FLOW-3D) program makes the mesh generation process easier, decreases the required memory, and improves numerical accuracy. Two mesh blocks were used in a joined form with a size ratio of 2:1. The first mesh block is coarser, which contains the reservoir water, and the second mesh block is finer, which contains the dam. For achieving accuracy and efficiency in results, the mesh size is determined by using a grid convergence test. The optimum uniform cell size for the first mesh block is 0.012 m and for the second mesh block is 0.006 m.

2.8. Time step

The maximum time step size is determined by using a Courant number, which controls the distance that the flow will travel during the simulation time step. In this study, the Courant number was taken equal to 0.25 to prevent the flow from traveling through more than one cell in the time step. Based on the Courant number, a maximum time step value of 0.00075 s was determined.

2.9. Numerical model validation

The numerical model accuracy was achieved by comparing the numerical model results with previous experimental results. The experimental study of Schmocker and Hager [7] was based on 31 tests with changes in six parameters (d50, Ho, Bo, Lk, XD, and Qin). All experimental tests were conducted in a straight open glass-sided flume. The horizontal flume has a rectangular cross-section with a width of 0.4 m and a height of 0.7 m. The flume was provided with a flow straightener and an intake with a length of 0.66 m. All tested dams were inserted at various distances (XD) from the intake. Test No.1 from this experimental program was chosen to validate the numerical model. The different parameters used in test No.1 are as follows:

(1) uniform sediment with a mean diameter (d50 = 0.31 mm), (2) Ho = 0.2 m, (3) Bo = 0.2 m, (4) Lk = 0.1 m,

(5) XD = 1.0 m, (6) Qin = 6.0 lit/s, (7) Su and Sd = 2:1, (8) mass density (ρs = 2650 kg/m3(9) Homogenous and non-cohesive embankment dam. As shown in Fig. 2, the simulation is contained within a rectangular grid with dimensions: 3.56 m in the x-direction (where 0.66 m is used as inlet, 0.9 m as dam base width, and 1.0 m as outlet), in y-direction 0.2 m (dam length), and in the z-direction 0.3 m, which represents the dam height (0.2 m) with a free distance (0.1 m) above the dam. There are two main reasons that this experimental program is preferred for the validation process. The first reason is that this program deals with homogenous, non-cohesive soil, which is available in FLOW-3D. The second reason is that this program deals with small-scale models which saves time for numerical simulation. Finally, some important assumptions were considered during the validation process. The flow is assumed to be incompressible, viscous, turbulent, and three-dimensional.

By comparing dam profiles at different time instants for the experimental test with the current numerical model, it appears that the numerical model gives good agreement as shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, with an average error percentage of 9% between the experimental results and the numerical model.

3. Analysis and discussions

The current model is used to study the effects of different parameters such as (initial breach shapes, dimensions, locations, upstream and downstream dam slopes) on the peak outflow discharge, QP, time of peak outflow, tP, and rate of erosion, E.

This study consists of a group of scenarios. The first scenario is changing the shapes of the initial breach according to Singh [1], the most predicted shapes are rectangular and V-notch as shown in Fig. 5. The second scenario is changing the initial breach dimensions (i.e., width and depth). While the third scenario is changing the location of the initial breach. Eventually, the last scenario is changing the upstream and downstream dam slopes.

All scenarios of this study were carried out under the same conditions such as inflow discharge value (Qin=1.0lit/s), dimensions of the tested dam, where dam height (Ho=0.20m), crest width.

(Lk=0.1m), dam length (Bo=0.20m), and homogenous & non-cohesive soil with a mean diameter (d50=0.31mm).

3.1. Dam breaching process evolution

The dam breaching process is a very complex process due to the quick changes in hydrodynamic conditions during dam failure. The dam breaching process starts once water flows reach the downstream face of the dam. During the initial stage of dam breaching, the erosion process is relatively quiet due to low velocities of flow. As water flows continuously, erosion rates increase, especially in two main zones: the crest and the downstream face. As soon as the dam crest is totally eroded, the water levels in the dam reservoir decrease rapidly, accompanied by excessive erosion in the dam body. The erosion process continues until the water levels in the dam reservoir equal the remaining height of the dam.

According to Zhou et al. [11], the breaching process consists of three main stages. The first stage starts with beginning overtopping flow, then ends when the erosion point directed upstream and reached the inflection point at the inflection time (ti). The second stage starts from the end of the stage1 until the occurrence of peak outflow discharge at the peak outflow time (tP). The third stage starts from the end of the stage2 until the value of outflow discharge becomes the same as the value of inflow discharge at the final time (tf). The outflow discharge from the dam breach increases rapidly during stage1 and stage2 because of the large dam storage capacity (i.e., the dam reservoir is totally full of water) and excessive erosion. While at stage3, the outflow values start to decrease slowly because most of the dam’s storage capacity was run out. The end of stage3 indicates that the dam storage capacity was totally run out, so the outflow equalized with the inflow discharge as shown in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7.

3.2. The effect of initial breach shape

To identify the effect of the initial breach shape on the evolution of the dam breaching process. Three tests were carried out with different cross-section areas for each shape. The initial breach is created at the center of the dam crest. Each test had an ID to make the process of arranging data easier. The rectangular shape had an ID (Rec5h & 5b), which means that its depth and width are equal to 5% of the dam height, and the V-notch shape had an ID (V-noch5h & 1:1) which means that its depth is equal to 5% of the dam height and its side slope is equal to 1:1. The comparison between rectangular and V-notch shapes is done by calculating the ratio between maximum dam height at different times (ZMax) to the initial dam height (Ho), rate of erosion, and hydrograph of outflow discharge for each test. The rectangular shape achieves maximum erosion rate and minimum inflection time, in addition to a rapid decrease in the dam reservoir levels. Therefore, the dam breaching is faster in the case of a rectangular shape than in a V-notch shape, which has the same cross-section area as shown in Fig. 8.

Also, by comparing the hydrograph for each test, the peak outflow discharge value in the case of a rectangular shape is higher than the V-notch shape by 5% and the time of peak outflow for the rectangular shape is shorter than the V-notch shape by 9% as shown in Fig. 9.

3.3. The effect of initial breach dimensions

The results of the comparison between the different initial breach shapes indicate that the worst initial breach shape is rectangular, so the second scenario from this study concentrated on studying the effect of a change in the initial rectangular breach dimensions. Groups of tests were carried out with different depths and widths for the rectangular initial breach. The first group had a depth of 5% from the dam height and with three different widths of 5,10, and 15% from the dam height, the second group had a depth of 10% with three different widths of 5,10, and 15%, the third group had a depth of 15% with three different widths of 5,10, and 15% and the final group had a width of 15% with three different heights of 5, 10, and 15% for a rectangular breach shape. The comparison was made as in the previous section to determine the worst case that leads to the quick dam failure as shown in Fig. 10.

The results show that the (Rec 5 h&15b) test achieves a maximum erosion rate for a shorter period of time and a minimum ratio for (Zmax / Ho) as shown in Fig. 10, which leads to accelerating the dam failure process. The dam breaching process is faster with the minimum initial breach depth and maximum initial breach width. In the case of a minimum initial breach depth, the retained head of water in the dam reservoir is high and the crest width at the bottom of the initial breach (L`K) is small, so the erosion point reaches the inflection point rapidly. While in the case of the maximum initial breach width, the erosion perimeter is large.

3.4. The effect of initial breach location

The results of the comparison between the different initial rectangular breach dimensions indicate that the worst initial breach dimension is (Rec 5 h&15b), so the third scenario from this study concentrated on studying the effect of a change in the initial breach location. Three locations were checked to determine the worst case for the dam failure process. The first location is at the center of the dam crest, which was named “Center”, the second location is at mid-distance between the dam center and dam edge, which was named “Mid”, and the third location is at the dam edge, which was named “Edge” as shown in Fig. 11. According to this scenario, the results indicate that the time of peak outflow discharge (tP) is the same in the three cases, but the maximum value of the peak outflow discharge occurs at the center location. The difference in the peak outflow values between the three cases is relatively small as shown in Fig. 12.

The rates of erosion were also studied for the three cases. The results show that the maximum erosion rate occurs at the center location as shown in Fig. 13. By making a comparison between the three cases for the dam storage volume. The results show that the center location had the minimum values for the dam storage volume, which means that a large amount of water has passed to the downstream area as shown in Fig. 14. According to these results, the center location leads to increased erosion rate and accelerated dam failure process compared with the two other cases. Because the erosion occurs on both sides, but in the case of edge location, the erosion occurs on one side.

3.5. The effect of upstream and downstream dam slopes

The results of the comparison between the different initial rectangular breach locations indicate that the worst initial breach location is the center location, so the fourth scenario from this study concentrated on studying the effect of a change in the upstream (Su) and downstream (Sd) dam slopes. Three slopes were checked individually for both upstream and downstream slopes to determine the worst case for the dam failure process. The first slope value is (2H:1V), the second slope value is (2.5H:1V), and the third slope value is (3H:1V). According to this scenario, the results show that the decreasing downstream slope angle leads to increasing time of peak outflow discharge (tP) and decreasing value of peak outflow discharge. The difference in the peak outflow values between the three cases for the downstream slope is 2%, as shown in Fig. 15, but changing the upstream slope has a negligible impact on the peak outflow discharge and its time as shown in Fig. 16.

The rates of erosion were also studied in the three cases for both upstream and downstream slopes. The results show that the maximum erosion rate increases by 6.0% with an increasing downstream slope angle by 4°, as shown in Fig. 17. The results also indicate that the erosion rates aren’t affected by increasing or decreasing the upstream slope angle, as shown in Fig. 18. According to these results, increasing the downstream slope angle leads to increased erosion rate and accelerated dam failure process compared with the upstream slope angle. Because of increasing shear stress applied by water flows in case of increasing downstream slope.

According to all previous scenarios, the dimensionless peak outflow discharge QPQin is presented for a fixed dam height (Ho) and inflow discharge (Qin). Fig. 19 illustrates the relationship between QP∗=QPQin and.

Lr=ho2/3∗bo2/3Ho. The deduced relationship achieves R2=0.96.(17)QP∗=2.2807exp-2.804∗Lr

4. Conclusions

A spatial dam breaching process was simulated by using FLOW-3D Software. The validation process was performed by making a comparison between the simulated results of dam profiles and the dam profiles obtained by Schmocker and Hager [7] in their experimental study. And also, the peak outflow value recorded an error percentage of 12% between the numerical model and the experimental study. This model was used to study the effect of initial breach shape, dimensions, location, and dam slopes on peak outflow discharge, time of peak outflow, and the erosion process. By using the parameters obtained from the validation process, the results of this study can be summarized in eight points as follows.1.

The rectangular initial breach shape leads to an accelerating dam failure process compared with the V-notch.2.

The value of peak outflow discharge in the case of a rectangular initial breach is higher than the V-notch shape by 5%.3.

The time of peak outflow discharge for a rectangular initial breach is shorter than the V-notch shape by 9%.4.

The minimum depth and maximum width for the initial breach achieve maximum erosion rates (increasing breach width, b0, or decreasing breach depth, h0, by 5% from the dam height leads to an increase in the maximum rate of erosion by 11% and 15%, respectively), so the dam failure is rapid.5.

The center location of the initial breach leads to an accelerating dam failure compared with the edge location.6.

The initial breach location has a negligible effect on the peak outflow discharge value and its time.7.

Increasing the downstream slope angle by 4° leads to an increase in both peak outflow discharge and maximum rate of erosion by 2.0% and 6.0%, respectively.8.

The upstream slope has a negligible effect on the dam breaching process.

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3D Numerical Modeling of a Side-Channel Spillway

3D Numerical Modeling of a Side-Channel Spillway

Géraldine MilésiStéphane Causse

Abstract

Electricité de Tahiti(GDF Suez) 댐의 재건이라는 틀 내에서 Coyne et Bellier는 진단과 Tahiti 댐의 전반적인 연구를 수행했습니다.

Tahinu는 프랑스령 폴리네시아의 Tahiti 섬에 위치한 37m 높이의 수력 발전 댐입니다. 수문학적 연구의 검토와 프랑스 표준의 적용은 최대 설계 홍수를 500에서 644 m3/s(+30%)로 증가시켰습니다.

먼저 측수로 여수로(마루 길이 60m)의 1D 수치 모델링을 수행하여 배수 용량을 평가했습니다. 결론은 마루댐과 배수로 수로 측벽의 오버토핑을 유발할 수 있는 배수로의 용량이 충분하지 않다는 것이었습니다.

그런 다음 이러한 결과를 확인하고 배수로의 특정 구성(정원 아래의 접근 속도와 깊이의 불균일한 분포, 측면 채널 단면의 불규칙한 기하학, 잠긴 둑, 곡선 채널 배수로)을 고려하기 위해, 3D 수치 모델링은 Flow 3D®로 수행되었습니다.

시뮬레이션은 1D 모델(흐름의 일반적인 패턴, 상류 저수지 수위)보다 더 정확한 결과를 보여주었습니다. 이에 따라 댐 능선의 높이와 여수로 측벽을 설계 및 최적화하여 안전을 위한 충분한 freeboards을 확보하도록 하였습니다.

Within the framework of the rehabilitation of Electricité de Tahiti (GDF Suez) dams, Coyne et Bellier carried out a diagnosis and an overall study of the Tahinu dam. Tahinu is a 37-m-high earthfill hydroelectric dam, located in the island of Tahiti, French Polynesia. The review of the hydrological study and the application of French standards lead to increase the peak design flood from 500 to 644 m3/s (+30 %). First, a 1D numerical modeling of the side-channel spillway (crest length 60 m) was performed to assess its discharge capacity. The conclusion was an insufficient capacity of the spillway that might induce an overtopping of the crest dam and of the sidewalls of the spillway channel. Then, to confirm these results and to take into account the specific configuration of the spillway (non-uniform distribution of the approach velocity and depth below crest, irregular geometry of the side-channel cross section, submerged weir, curved channel spillway), a 3D numerical modeling was carried out with Flow 3D®. Simulations showed more accurate results than 1D model (general pattern of the flow, upstream reservoir level). Consequently, heightenings of the dam crest and the sidewalls of the spillway channel were designed and optimized to secure sufficient freeboards for safety.

Keywords

CFD, Dam, FLOW-3D, Hydraulics, Numerical simulation, Rehabilitation, Submergence, Weir, 저수지, 댐, 측수로, 여수로

References

  1. 1.Khatsuria, R. M. (2005). Hydraulics of spillways and energy dissipators. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  2. 2.USBR. (1987). Design of small dams (3rd ed.). Washington: US Government printing office.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2014

About this chapter

Cite this chapter as:Milési G., Causse S. (2014) 3D Numerical Modeling of a Side-Channel Spillway. In: Gourbesville P., Cunge J., Caignaert G. (eds) Advances in Hydroinformatics. Springer Hydrogeology. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-4451-42-0_39

Figure 1 Location map of barrier lakes, Sichuan-Tibet region, China

Barrier Lake의 홍수 침수 진행 및 평가지역 생태 시공간 반응 사례 연구 (쓰촨-티베트 지역)

Flood Inundation Evolution of Barrier Lake and Evaluation of Regional Ecological Spatiotemporal Response — A Case Study of Sichuan-Tibet Region

Abstract

중국 쓰촨-티베트 지역은 댐 호수의 발생과 붕괴를 동반한 지진 재해가 빈번한 지역이었습니다. 댐 호수의 붕괴는 하류 직원의 생명과 재산 안전을 심각하게 위협합니다.

동시에 국내외 학자들은 주변의 댐 호수에 대해 우려하고 있으며 호수에 대한 생태 연구는 거의 없으며 댐 호수가 생태에 미치는 영향은 우리 호수 건설 프로젝트에서 매우 중요한 계몽 의의를 가지고 있습니다.

이 기사의 목적은 방벽호의 댐 붕괴 위험을 과학적으로 예측하고 생태 환경에 대한 영향을 조사하며 통제 조치를 제시하는 것입니다. 본 논문은 쓰촨-티베트 지역의 Diexihaizi, Tangjiashan 댐호, Hongshihe 댐의 4대 댐 호수 사건을 기반으로 원격 감지 이미지에서 수역을 추출하고 HEC-RAS 모델을 사용하여 위험이 있는지 여부를 결정합니다.

댐 파손 여부 및 댐의 경로 예측; InVEST 모델을 이용하여 1990년부터 2020년까지 가장 작은 행정 구역(군/구)이 위치한 서식지를 평가 및 분석하고, 홍수 침수 결과를 기반으로 평가합니다. 결과는 공학적 처리 후 안정적인 댐 호수(Diexi Haizi)가 서식지 품질 지수에 안정화 효과가 있음을 보여줍니다.

댐 호수의 형성은 인근 토지 이용 유형과 지역 경관 생태 패턴을 변화 시켰습니다. 서식지 품질 지수는 사이 호수 주변 1km 지역에서 약간 감소하지만 3km 지역과 5km 지역에서 서식지 품질이 향상됩니다. 인공 홍수 방류 및 장벽 호수의 공학적 보강이 필요합니다.

이 논문에서 인간의 통제가 강한 지역은 다른 지역의 서식지 질 지수보다 더 잘 회복될 것입니다.

The Sichuan-Tibet region of China has always been an area with frequent earthquake disasters, accompanied by the occurrence and collapse of dammed lakes. The collapse of dammed lakes seriously threatens the lives and property safety of downstream personnel.

At the same time, domestic and foreign scholars are concerned about the surrounding dammed lake there are few ecological studies on the lake, and the impact of the dammed lake on the ecology has very important enlightenment significance for our lake construction project. It is the purpose of this article to scientifically predict the risk of dam break in a barrier lake, explore its impact on the ecological environment and put forward control measures.

Based on the four major dammed lake events of Diexihaizi, Tangjiashan dammed lake, and Hongshihe dammed lake in the Sichuan-Tibet area, this paper extracts water bodies from remote sensing images and uses the HEC-RAS model to determine whether there is a risk of the dam break and whether Forecast the route of the dam; and use the InVEST model to evaluate and analyze the habitat of the smallest administrative district (county/district) where it is located from 1990 to 2020 and make an evaluation based on the results of flood inundation.

The results show that the stable dammed lake (Diexi Haizi) after engineering treatment has a stabilizing effect on the habitat quality index. The formation of the dammed lake has changed the nearby land-use types and the regional landscape ecological pattern.

The habitat quality index will decrease slightly in the 1 km area around Sai Lake, but the habitat quality will increase in the 3 km area and the 5 km area. Artificial flood discharge and engineering reinforcement of barrier lakes are necessary. In this paper, the areas with strong human control will recover better than other regions’ habitat quality index.

Fengshan Jiang (  florachaing@mail.ynu.edu.cn )
Yunnan University https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6231-6180
Xiaoai Dai
Chengdu University of Technology https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1342-6417
Zhiqiang Xie
Yunnan University
Tong Xu
Yunnan University
Siqiao Yin
Yunnan University
Ge Qu
Chengdu University of Technology
Shouquan Yang
Yunnan University
Yangbin Zhang
Yunnan University
Zhibing Yang
Yunnan University
Jiarui Xu
Yunnan University
Zhiqun Hou
Kunming institute of surveying and mapping

Keywords

dammed lake, regional ecology, flood simulation, habitat quality

Figure 1 Location map of barrier lakes, Sichuan-Tibet region, China
Figure 1 Location map of barrier lakes, Sichuan-Tibet region, China
Figure 8 Habitat quality changes in Maoxian County
Figure 8 Habitat quality changes in Maoxian County
Figure 9 Habitat quality changes in Beichuan County
Figure 9 Habitat quality changes in Beichuan County
Figure 10 Habitat quality change map of Qingchuan County
Figure 10 Habitat quality change map of Qingchuan County

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Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Hydrodynamic Performance of a Sloping Floating Breakwater with and Without Chain-Net

Chain-Net이 있거나 없는 경사 부유식 방파제의 유체역학적 성능에 대한 실험 및 수치적 조사

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Hydrodynamic Performance of a Sloping Floating Breakwater with and Without Chain-Net

Keywords

  • Sloping floating breakwater
  • Chain net
  • Anchorage system
  • Hydrodynamic performance

Abstract

두 개의 부유체 사이에 간격이 있는 경사진 부유식 방파제(FB)에 대한 새로운 연구가 제안되었습니다. 구조물의 기울기는 파동 에너지 소산을 유발할 수 있습니다. 경사진 구조물의 문제는 파도가 넘친다는 것입니다. 이 문제를 해결하기 위해 두 플로터 사이의 간격을 고려합니다. 

오버 토핑이 발생하면 마루를 통과하는 물이 두 플로터 사이의 틈으로 쏟아지며 결과적으로 파도 에너지가 감쇠됩니다. 체인 네트가 모델에 추가되고 전송 계수에 대한 영향이 연구됩니다. 또한, 구조물의 유체역학적 성능에 대한 자유도의 영향을 조사하기 위해 말뚝으로 고정된(1 자유도) 계류 라인으로 고정된(3도의 자유도) 두 가지 고정 시스템에서 자유 모델을 연구했습니다.

게다가, 실험은 5개의 다른 파도 주기와 4개의 다른 파도 높이를 가진 규칙파에서 수행됩니다. 실험 결과, 경사형 부유식 방파제가 직사각형 상자형보다 최대 15% 성능이 우수한 것으로 나타났다. 말뚝에 의해 고정된 FB에 대한 투과계수는 단파에서 케이블에 의해 고정된 FB보다 최대값으로 약 14% 낮고 장파에서 약 4-10% 더 높다. 흘수가 증가함에 따라 전송 계수는 감소하지만 건현은 허용 비율의 초과를 제한하기 위한 최소 요구 사항을 충족해야 합니다. 

체인 그물이 있는 모델은 없는 모델에 비해 전달 계수가 최대 14% 감소하여 더 나은 성능을 나타냅니다. 실험 결과, 경사형 부유식 방파제가 직사각형 상자형보다 최대 15% 성능이 우수한 것으로 나타났다. 말뚝에 의해 고정된 FB에 대한 투과계수는 단파에서 케이블에 의해 고정된 FB보다 최대값으로 약 14% 낮고 장파에서 약 4-10% 더 높다. 흘수가 증가함에 따라 전송 계수는 감소하지만 건현은 허용 비율의 초과를 제한하기 위한 최소 요구 사항을 충족해야 합니다. 

체인 그물이 있는 모델은 없는 모델에 비해 전달 계수가 최대 14% 감소하여 더 나은 성능을 나타냅니다. 실험 결과, 경사형 부유식 방파제가 직사각형 상자형보다 최대 15% 성능이 우수한 것으로 나타났다. 말뚝에 의해 고정된 FB에 대한 투과계수는 단파에서 케이블에 의해 고정된 FB보다 최대값으로 약 14% 낮고 장파에서 약 4-10% 더 높다. 흘수가 증가함에 따라 전송 계수는 감소하지만 건현은 허용 비율의 초과를 제한하기 위한 최소 요구 사항을 충족해야 합니다.

체인 그물이 있는 모델은 없는 모델에 비해 전달 계수가 최대 14% 감소하여 더 나은 성능을 나타냅니다. 말뚝에 의해 고정된 FB에 대한 투과계수는 단파에서 케이블에 의해 고정된 FB보다 최대값으로 약 14% 낮고 장파에서 약 4-10% 더 높다. 흘수가 증가함에 따라 전송 계수는 감소하지만 건현은 허용 비율의 초과를 제한하기 위한 최소 요구 사항을 충족해야 합니다. 

체인 그물이 있는 모델은 없는 모델에 비해 전달 계수가 최대 14% 감소하여 더 나은 성능을 나타냅니다. 말뚝에 의해 고정된 FB에 대한 투과계수는 단파에서 케이블에 의해 고정된 FB보다 최대값으로 약 14% 낮고 장파에서 약 4-10% 더 높다. 

흘수가 증가함에 따라 전송 계수는 감소하지만 건현은 허용 비율의 초과를 제한하기 위한 최소 요구 사항을 충족해야 합니다. 체인 그물이 있는 모델은 없는 모델에 비해 전달 계수가 최대 14% 감소하여 더 나은 성능을 나타냅니다.

A novel study of sloping floating breakwater (FB) that has a gap between two floaters is proposed. The slope of a structure can cause wave energy dissipation. A problem with sloping structures is wave overtopping. To solve this problem, a gap is considered between the two floaters. If overtopping occurs, water passing the crest will pour into the gap between the two floaters, as a result wave energy will be attenuated. A chain net is added to the model and its effect on the transmission coefficient is studied. Furthermore, in order to investigate the effects of the degree of freedom on the hydrodynamic performance of the structure, the model is studied in the two anchorage systems which are anchored by pile (1 degree of freedom) and anchored by mooring lines (3 degree of freedom). Moreover, the experiments are performed under regular waves with five different wave periods and four different wave heights. The results of the experiments show a sloping floating breakwater that has a better performance than that of rectangular box type by 15% as maximum value. The transmission coefficients for the FB anchored by pile are lower about 14% as maximum value than that of the FB anchored by cable in shorter waves and are higher about 4–10% in longer waves. With increasing the draft, the transmission coefficient decreases but the freeboard should meet the minimum requirements to restrict overtopping in the allowable rate. The model with a chain net exhibits a better performance as compared with the model without it by a maximum 14% reduction in the transmission coefficients.

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Figure 15. Localized deformations on revetment due to run-down and sliding of armor from body laboratory model (left) and numerical modeling (right).

지속 가능한 해안 보호 구조로서 굴절식 콘크리트 블록 매트리스의 손상 메커니즘의 수치적 모델링

Numerical Modeling of Failure Mechanisms in Articulated Concrete Block Mattress as a Sustainable Coastal Protection Structure

Author

Ramin Safari Ghaleh(Department of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 19967-15433, Iran)

Omid Aminoroayaie Yamini(Department of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 19967-15433, Iran)

S. Hooman Mousavi(Department of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 19967-15433, Iran)

Mohammad Reza Kavianpour(Department of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 19967-15433, Iran)

Abstract

해안선 보호는 전 세계적인 우선 순위로 남아 있습니다. 일반적으로 해안 지역은 석회암과 같은 단단하고 비자연적이며 지속 불가능한 재료로 보호됩니다. 시공 속도와 환경 친화성을 높이고 개별 콘크리트 블록 및 보강재의 중량을 줄이기 위해 콘크리트 블록을 ACB 매트(Articulated Concrete Block Mattress)로 설계 및 구현할 수 있습니다. 이 구조물은 필수적인 부분으로 작용하며 방파제 또는 해안선 보호의 둑으로 사용할 수 있습니다. 물리적 모델은 해안 구조물의 현상을 추정하고 조사하는 핵심 도구 중 하나입니다. 그러나 한계와 장애물이 있습니다. 결과적으로, 본 연구에서는 이러한 구조물에 대한 파도의 수치 모델링을 활용하여 방파제에서의 파도 전파를 시뮬레이션하고, VOF가 있는 Flow-3D 소프트웨어를 통해 ACB Mat의 불안정성에 영향을 미치는 요인으로는 파괴파동, 옹벽의 흔들림, 파손으로 인한 인양력으로 인한 장갑의 변위 등이 있다. 본 연구의 가장 중요한 목적은 수치 Flow-3D 모델이 연안 호안의 유체역학적 매개변수를 모사하는 능력을 조사하는 것입니다. 콘크리트 블록 장갑에 대한 파동의 상승 값은 파단 매개변수( 0.5 < ξ m – 1 , 0 < 3.3 )가 증가할 때까지(R u 2 % H m 0 = 1.6) ) 최대값에 도달합니다. 따라서 차단파라미터를 증가시키고 파괴파(ξ m − 1 , 0 > 3.3 ) 유형을 붕괴파/해일파로 변경함으로써 콘크리트 블록 호안의 상대파 상승 변화 경향이 점차 증가합니다. 파동(0.5 < ξ m − 1 , 0 < 3.3 )의 경우 차단기 지수(표면 유사성 매개변수)를 높이면 상대파 런다운의 낮은 값이 크게 감소합니다. 또한, 천이영역에서는 파단파동이 쇄도파에서 붕괴/서징으로의 변화( 3.3 < ξ m – 1 , 0 < 5.0 )에서 상대적 런다운 과정이 더 적은 강도로 발생합니다.

Shoreline protection remains a global priority. Typically, coastal areas are protected by armoring them with hard, non-native, and non-sustainable materials such as limestone. To increase the execution speed and environmental friendliness and reduce the weight of individual concrete blocks and reinforcements, concrete blocks can be designed and implemented as Articulated Concrete Block Mattress (ACB Mat). These structures act as an integral part and can be used as a revetment on the breakwater body or shoreline protection. Physical models are one of the key tools for estimating and investigating the phenomena in coastal structures. However, it does have limitations and obstacles; consequently, in this study, numerical modeling of waves on these structures has been utilized to simulate wave propagation on the breakwater, via Flow-3D software with VOF. Among the factors affecting the instability of ACB Mat are breaking waves as well as the shaking of the revetment and the displacement of the armor due to the uplift force resulting from the failure. The most important purpose of the present study is to investigate the ability of numerical Flow-3D model to simulate hydrodynamic parameters in coastal revetment. The run-up values of the waves on the concrete block armoring will multiply with increasing break parameter ( 0.5 < ξ m − 1 , 0 < 3.3 ) due to the existence of plunging waves until it ( R u 2 % H m 0 = 1.6 ) reaches maximum. Hence, by increasing the breaker parameter and changing breaking waves ( ξ m − 1 , 0 > 3.3 ) type to collapsing waves/surging waves, the trend of relative wave run-up changes on concrete block revetment increases gradually. By increasing the breaker index (surf similarity parameter) in the case of plunging waves ( 0.5 < ξ m − 1 , 0 < 3.3 ), the low values on the relative wave run-down are greatly reduced. Additionally, in the transition region, the change of breaking waves from plunging waves to collapsing/surging ( 3.3 < ξ m − 1 , 0 < 5.0 ), the relative run-down process occurs with less intensity.

Figure 1.  Armor  geometric  characteristics  and  drawing  three-dimensional  geometry  of  a  breakwater section  in SolidWorks software.
Figure 1. Armor geometric characteristics and drawing three-dimensional geometry of a breakwater section in SolidWorks software.
Figure  5.  Wave  overtopping on  concrete block  mattress in (a)  laboratory  and (b)  numerical  model.
Figure 5. Wave overtopping on concrete block mattress in (a) laboratory and (b) numerical model.
Figure  7.  Mesh  block  for  calibrated  numerical  model  with  686,625  cells  and  utilization  of  FAVOR  tab to assess figure geometry.
Figure 7. Mesh block for calibrated numerical model with 686,625 cells and utilization of FAVOR tab to assess figure geometry.
Figure  10.  How to place different layers  (core, filter,  and revetment)  of the structure on slope.
Figure 10. How to place different layers (core, filter, and revetment) of the structure on slope.

Suggested Citation

Figure 11. Wave run-up on ACB Mat blocks in (a) laboratory model and (b) numerical modeling.
Figure 11. Wave run-up on ACB Mat blocks in (a) laboratory model and (b) numerical modeling.
Figure  15.  Localized  deformations  on  revetment  due  to  run-down  and  sliding  of  armor  from  body  laboratory  model  (left) and  numerical  modeling (right).
Figure 15. Localized deformations on revetment due to run-down and sliding of armor from body laboratory model (left) and numerical modeling (right).

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Wave Loads Assessment on Coastal Structures at Inundation Risk Using CFD Modelling

CFD 모델링을 사용하여 침수 위험이 있는 해안 구조물에 대한 파랑 하중 평가

Wave Loads Assessment on Coastal Structures at Inundation Risk Using CFD Modellin

Ana GomesJosé Pinho

Conference paperFirst Online: 19 November 2021

지난 수십 년 동안 극한 현상은 심각성과 주민, 기반 시설 및 인류 활동에 대한 위험 증가로 인해 우려를 불러일으켰습니다. 오늘날 해안 구조물이 범람하고 해변 침식 및 기반 시설 파괴가 전 세계 해안에서 흔히 발생합니다. 

완화에 효율적으로 기여하고 효율적인 방어 조치를 채택하려면 이러한 영향을 예상하는 것이 매우 중요합니다. 대규모 물리적 모델을 기반으로 하는 이전 실험 작업에서 목조 교각 상단의 고가 해안 구조물의 공극과 그에 따른 수평 및 수직 파도력 사이의 관계가 다양한 파도 하중 조건에 대해 연구되었습니다. 

이러한 실험 결과는 CFD 도구를 사용하여 유체/구조 상호 작용을 시뮬레이션하기 위한 수치 모델에 대한 보정 데이터 역할을 합니다. 주어진 파도 조건에 대해 물과 구조물 베이스 레벨 사이의 공극 높이를 다르게 하여 세 가지 시나리오를 시뮬레이션했습니다. 

수치 결과를 물리적 모델 결과와 비교하면 수치적으로 구한 수평력과 수직력의 최대값은 각각 평균 ​​14.4%와 25.4%의 상대차로 만족할 만합니다. 또한 구조물을 지지하는 교각에 작용하는 압력과 전단응력을 시뮬레이션하기 위해 실제 수치모델을 적용하였으며, 서로 다른 공극의 높이를 고려하고 각각의 CPU 시뮬레이션 시간을 평가하였습니다. 

이러한 방식으로 CFD 모델의 운영 모델링 기능을 평가하여 조기 경보 시스템 내에서 최종 사용에 대한 예측 선행 시간 제한을 결정했습니다.

키워드

Coastal risk, Elevated coastal structure, Numerical simulation, Flow-3D® , 해안 위험, 높은 해안 구조, 수치 시뮬레이션

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Watershed area

Analysis on inundation characteristics by compound external forces in coastal areas

연안 지역의 복합 외력에 의한 침수 특성 분석

Taeuk KangaDongkyun SunbSangho Leec*
강 태욱a선 동균b이 상호c*
aResearch Professor, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Pukyong National University, Busan, KoreabResearcher, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Pukyong National University, Busan, KoreacProfessor, Department of Civil Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea
a부경대학교 방재연구소 전임연구교수b부경대학교 방재연구소 연구원c부경대학교 공과대학 토목공학과 교수*Corresponding Author

ABSTRACT

연안 지역은 강우, 조위, 월파 등 여러가지 외력에 의해 침수가 발생될 수 있다. 이에 이 연구에서는 연안 지역에서 발생될 수 있는 단일 및 복합 외력에 의한 지역별 침수 특성을 분석하였다. 연구에서 고려한 외력은 강우와 폭풍 해일에 의한 조위 및 월파이고, 분석 대상지역은 남해안 및 서해안의 4개 지역이다. 유역의 강우-유출 및 2차원 지표면 침수 분석에는 XP-SWMM이 사용되었고, 폭풍 해일에 의한 외력인 조위 및 월파량 산정에는 ADCSWAN (ADCIRC와 UnSWAN) 모형과 FLOW-3D 모형이 각각 활용되었다. 단일 외력을 이용한 분석 결과, 대부분의 연안 지역에서는 강우에 의한 침수 영향보다 폭풍 해일에 의한 침수 영향이 크게 나타났다. 복합 외력에 의한 침수 분석 결과는 대체로 단일 외력에 의한 침수 모의 결과를 중첩시켜 나타낸 결과와 유사하였다. 다만, 특정 지역에서는 복합 외력을 고려함에 따라 단일 외력만을 고려한 침수모의에서 나타나지 않았던 새로운 침수 영역이 발생하기도 하였다. 이러한 지역의 침수 피해 저감을 위해서는 복합 외력을 고려한 분석이 요구되는 것으로 판단되었다.키워드연안 지역 침수 분석 강우 폭풍 해일 복합 외력

The various external forces can cause inundation in coastal areas. This study is to analyze regional characteristics caused by single or compound external forces that can occur in coastal areas. Storm surge (tide level and wave overtopping) and rainfall were considered as the external forces in this study. The inundation analysis were applied to four coastal areas, located on the west and south coast in Republic of Korea. XP-SWMM was used to simulate rainfall-runoff phenomena and 2D ground surface inundation for watershed. A coupled model of ADCIRC and SWAN (ADCSWAN) was used to analyze tide level by storm surge and the FLOW-3D model was used to estimate wave overtopping. As a result of using a single external force, the inundation influence due to storm surge in most of the coastal areas was greater than rainfall. The results of using compound external forces were quite similar to those combined using one external force independently. However, a case of considering compound external forces sometimes created new inundation areas that didn’t appear when considering only a single external force. The analysis considering compound external forces was required to reduce inundation damage in these areas.KeywordsCoastal area Inundation analysis Rainfall Storm surge Compound external forces

MAIN

1. 서 론

우리나라는 반도에 위치하여 삼면이 바다로 둘러싸여 있는 지리적 특성을 가지고 있다. 이에 따라 해양 산업을 중심으로 부산, 인천, 울산 등 대규모의 광역도시가 발달하였을 뿐만 아니라, 창원, 포항, 군산, 목포, 여수 등의 중․소규모 도시들도 발달되어 있다. 또한, 최근에는 연안 지역이 바다를 전망으로 하는 입지 조건을 가지고 있어 개발 선호도가 높고, 이에 따라 부산시 해운대의 마린시티, 엘시티와 같은 주거 및 상업시설의 개발이 지속되고 있다(Kang et al., 2019b).

한편, 최근 기후변화에 따른 지구 온난화 현상으로 평균 해수면이 상승하고, 해수면 온도도 상승하면서 태풍 및 강우의 강도가 커지고 있어 전 세계적으로 자연 재해로 인한 피해가 증가하고 있다(Kim et al., 2016). 실제로 2020년에는 최장기간의 장마가 발생하여 부산, 울산은 물론, 전국에서 50명의 인명 피해와 3,489세대의 이재민이 발생하였다1). 특히, 연안 지역은 강우, 만조 시 해수면 상승, 폭풍 해일(storm surge)에 의한 월파(wave overtopping) 등 복합적인 외력(compound external forces)에 의해 침수될 수 있다(Lee et al., 2020). 일례로, 2016년 태풍 차바 시 부산시 해운대구의 마린시티는 강우와 폭풍 해일에 의한 월파가 발생함에 따라 대규모 침수를 유발하였다(Kang et al., 2019b). 또한, 2020년 7월 23일에 부산에서는 시간당 81.6 mm의 집중호우와 약최고고조위를 상회하는 만조가 동시에 발생하였고, 이로 인해 감조 하천인 동천의 수위가 크게 상승하여 하천이 범람하였다(KSCE, 2021).

연안 지역의 복합 외력을 고려한 침수 분석에 관한 사례로서, 우선 강우와 조위를 고려한 연구 사례는 다음과 같다. Han et al. (2014)은 XP-SWMM을 이용하여 창원시 배수 구역을 대상으로 침수 모의를 수행하였는데, 연안 도시의 침수 모의에는 조위의 영향을 반드시 고려해야 함을 제시하였다. Choi et al. (2018a)은 경남 사천시 선구동 일대에 대하여 초과 강우 및 해수면 상승 시나리오를 조합하여 침수 분석을 수행하였다. Choi et al. (2018b)은 XP-SWMM을 이용하여 여수시 연등천 및 여수시청 지역에 대하여 강우 시나리오와 해수위 상승 시나리오를 고려한 복합 원인에 의한 침수 모의를 수행하여 홍수예경보 기준표를 작성하였다. 한편, 강우, 조위, 월파를 고려한 연구 사례로서, Song et al. (2017)은 부산시 해운대구 수영만 일원에 대하여 XP-SWMM으로 월파량의 적용 유무에 따른 침수 면적을 비교하였다. Suh and Kim (2018)은 부산시 마린시티 지역을 대상으로 태풍 차바 때 EurOtop의 경험식을 ADSWAN에 적용하여 월파량을 반영하였다. Chen et al. (2017)은 TELEMAC-2D 및 SWMM을 기반으로 한 극한 강우, 월파 및 조위를 고려하여 중국 해안 원자력 발전소의 침수를 예측하고 분석하기 위한 결합 모델을 개발한 바 있다. 한편, Lee et al. (2020)은 수리‧수문학 분야와 해양공학 분야에서 사용되는 물리 모형의 기술적 연계를 통해 연안 지역의 침수 모의의 재현성을 높였다.

상기의 연구들은 공통적으로 연안 지역에 대하여 복합 외력을 고려했을 때 발생되는 침수 현상의 재현 또는 예측을 목적으로 수행되었다. 이 연구는 이와 차별하여 복합 외력을 고려하는 경우 나타날 수 있는 연안 지역의 침수 특성 분석을 목적으로 수행되었다. 이를 위해 단일 외력을 독립적으로 고려했을 때 발생되는 침수 양상과 동시에 고려하는 경우의 침수 현상을 비교, 분석하였다. 복합 외력에 의한 지역적 침수 특성 분석은 우리나라 남해안과 서해안에 위치한 4개 지역에 대하여 적용되었다.

1) 장연제, 47일째 이어진 긴 장마, 50명 인명피해… 9년만에 최대, 동아닷컴, 2020년 8월 9일 수정, 2021년 3월 4일 접속, https://www.donga.com/news/article/all/20200809/102369692/2

2. 연구 방법

2.1 연안 지역의 침수 영향 인자

연안 지역의 침수는 크게 세 가지의 메카니즘으로 발생될 수 있다. 우선, 연안 지역은 바다와 인접하고 있기 때문에 그 영향을 직접적으로 받는다. Kim (2018)에 의하면, 연안 지역의 침수는 폭풍 해일에 의해 상승한 조위와 월파로 인해 발생될 수 있다(Table 1). 특히, 경상남도의 창원과 통영, 인천광역시의 소래포구 어시장 등 남해안 및 서해안 지역의 일부는 백중사리, 슈퍼문(super moon) 등 만조 시 조위의 상승으로 인한 침수가 발생하는 지역이 존재한다(Kang et al., 2019a). 두 번째는 강우에 의한 내수 침수 발생이다. ME (2011)에서는 도시 지역의 우수 관거를 10 ~ 30년 빈도로 계획하도록 지정하고 있고, 펌프 시설은 30 ~ 50년 빈도의 홍수를 배수시킬 수 있도록 정하고 있다. 하지만 최근에는 기후변화의 영향으로 도시 지역 배수시설의 설계 빈도를 초과하는 강우가 빈번하게 나타나고 있다. 실제로 2016년의 태풍 차바 시 울산 기상관측소에 관측된 시간 최대 강우량은 106.0 mm로서, 이는 300년 빈도 이상의 강우량에 해당하였다(Kang et al., 2019a). 따라서 배수시설의 설계 빈도 이상의 강우는 연안 도시 지역의 침수를 유발할 수 있다. 세 번째, 하천이 인접한 연안 도시에서는 하천의 범람으로 인해 침수가 발생할 수 있다. 하천의 경우, 기본계획이 수립되기는 하지만, 설계 빈도를 상회하는 강우의 발생, 제방, 수문 등 홍수 방어시설의 기능 저하, 예산 등의 문제로 하천기본계획 이행의 지연 등에 의해 범람할 가능성이 존재한다.

Table 1.

Type of natural hazard damage in coastal areas (Kim, 2018)

ItemRisk factor
Facilities damage∙ Breaking of coastal facilities by wave
– Breakwater, revetment, lighters wharf etc.
∙ Local scouring at the toe of the structures by wave
∙ Road collapse by wave overtopping
Inundation damage∙ Inundation damage by wave overtopping
∙ Inundation of coastal lowlands by storm surge
Erosion damage∙ Backshore erosion due to high swell waves
∙ Shoreline changes caused by construction of coastal erosion control structure
∙ Sediment transport due to the construction of artificial structures

상기의 내용을 종합하면, 연안 지역은 조위 및 월파에 의한 침수, 강우에 의한 내수 침수, 하천 범람에 의한 침수로 구분될 수 있다. 이 연구에서는 폭풍 해일에 의한 조위 상승 및 월파와 강우를 연안 지역의 침수 유발 외력으로 고려하였다. 하천 범람의 경우, 상대적으로 사례가 희소하여 제외하였다.

2.2 복합 외력을 고려한 침수 모의 방법

이 연구에서는 조위 및 월파와 강우를 연안 지역의 침수 발생에 관한 외력 조건으로 고려하였다. 따라서 해당 외력 조건을 고려하여 침수 분석을 수행할 수 있어야 한다. 이와 관련하여 Lee et al. (2020)은 Fig. 1과 같이 수리‧수문 및 해양공학 분야에서 사용되는 물리 기반 모형의 연계를 통해 조위, 월파, 강우를 고려한 침수 분석 방법을 제시하였고, 이 연구에서는 해당 방법을 이용하였다.

/media/sites/kwra/2021-054-07/N0200540702/images/kwra_54_07_02_F1.jpg
Fig. 1.

Connection among the models for inundation analysis in coastal areas (Lee et al., 2020)

우선, 태풍에 의해 발생되는 폭풍 해일의 영향을 분석하기 위해서는 태풍에 의해 발생되는 기압 강하, 해상풍, 진행 속도 등을 고려하여 해수면의 변화 양상 및 조석-해일-파랑을 충분히 재현 가능해야 한다. 이 연구에서는 국내․외에서 검증 및 공인된 폭풍 해일 모형인 ADCIRC 모형과 파랑 모형인 UnSWAN이 결합된 ADCSWAN (coupled model of ADCIRC and UnSWAN)을 이용하였다. 정수압 가정의 ADCSWAN은 월파량 산정에 단순 경험식을 적용하는 단점이 있지만 넓은 영역을 모의할 수 있고, FLOW-3D는 해안선의 경계를 고해상도로 재현이 가능하다. 이에 연구에서는 먼 바다 영역에 대해서는 ADCSWAN을 이용하여 분석하였고, 연안 주변의 바다 영역과 월파량 산정에 대해서는 FLOW-3D 모형을 이용하였다. 한편, 연안 지역의 침수 모의를 위해서는 유역에서 발생하는 강우-유출 현상과 우수 관거 등의 배수 체계에 대한 분석이 가능해야 한다. 또한, 배수 체계로부터 범람한 물이 지표면을 따라 흘러가는 현상을 해석할 수 있어야 하고, 바다의 조위 및 월파량을 경계조건으로 반영할 수 있어야 한다. 이 연구에서는 이러한 현상을 모의할 수 있고, 도시 침수 모의에 활용도가 높은 XP-SWMM을 이용하였다.

2.3 침수 분석 대상지역

연구의 대상지역은 조위 및 월파에 의한 침수와 강우에 의한 내수 침수의 영향이 복합적으로 발생할 수 있는 남해안과 서해안에 위치한 4개 지역이다. Table 2는 침수 분석 대상지역을 정리하여 나타낸 표이고, Fig. 2는 각 지역의 유역 경계를 나타낸 그림이다.

Table 2.

Target region for inundation analysis

ClassificationAdministrative districtTarget regionArea
(km2)
Main cause of inundationPump
facility
Number of
major outfall
The south
coast
Haundae-gu, BusanMarine City area0.53Wave overtopping9
Haundae-gu, BusanCentum City area4.76Poor interior drainage at high tide level12
The west
coast
GunsanJungang-dong area0.79Poor interior drainage at high tide level23
BoryeongOcheon Port area0.41High tide level5

/media/sites/kwra/2021-054-07/N0200540702/images/kwra_54_07_02_F2.jpg
Fig. 2.

Watershed area

남해안의 분석 대상지역 중 부산시 해운대구의 마린시티는 바다 조망을 중심으로 조성된 주거지 및 상업시설 중심의 개발지역이다. 마린시티는 2016년 태풍 차바 및 2018년 태풍 콩레이 등 태풍 내습 시 월파에 의한 해수 월류로 인해 도로 및 상가 일부가 침수를 겪은 지역이다. 부산시 해운대구의 센텀시티는 과거 수영만 매립지였던 곳에 조성된 주거지 및 상업시설 중심의 신도시 지역이다. 센텀시티 유역의 북쪽은 해발고도 El. 634 m의 장산이 위치하는 등 산지 특성도 가지고 있어 상대적으로 유역 면적이 넓고, 배수시설의 규모도 크고 복잡하다. 하지만 수영강 하구의 저지대 지역에 위치함에 따라 강우 시 내수 배제가 불량하고, 특히 만조 시 침수가 잦은 지역이다.

서해안 분석 대상지역 중 전라북도 군산시의 중앙동 일원은 군산시 내항 내측에 조성된 구도시로서, 금강 및 경포천 하구에 위치하는 저지대이다. 이에 따라 군산시 풍수해저감종합계획에서는 해당 지역을 3개의 영역으로 구분하여 내수재해 위험지구(영동지구, 중동지구, 경암지구)로 지정하였고, 이 연구에서는 해당 지역을 모두 고려하였다. 한편, 군산시 중앙동 일원은 특히, 만조 시 내수 배제가 매우 불량하여 2개의 펌프시설이 운영되고 있다. 충청남도 보령시의 오천면에 위치한 오천항은 배후의 산지를 포함한 소규모 유역에 위치한다. 서해안의 특성에 따라 조석 간만의 차가 크고, 특히 태풍 내습 시 폭풍 해일에 의한 침수가 잦은 지역이다. 산지의 강우-유출수는 복개된 2개의 수로를 통해 바다로 배제되고, 상가들이 위치한 연안 주변 지역에는 강우-유출수 배제를 위한 3개의 배수 체계가 구성되어 있다.

3. 연구 결과

3.1 침수 모의 모형 구축

XP-SWMM을 이용하여 분석 대상지역별 침수 모의 모형을 구축하였다. 적절한 침수 분석 수행을 위해 지역별 수치지형도, 도시 공간 정보 시스템(urban information system, UIS), 하수 관망도 등의 수치 자료와 현장 조사를 통해 유역의 배수 체계를 구성하였다. 그리고 2차원 침수 분석을 위해 무인 드론 및 육상 라이다(LiDAR) 측량을 수행하여 평면해상도가 1 m 이하인 고해상도 수치지형모형(digital terrain model, DTM)을 구성하였고, 침수 모의 격자를 생성하였다.

Fig. 3은 XP-SWMM의 상세 구축 사례로서 부산시 마린시티 배수 유역에 대한 소유역 및 관거 분할 등을 통해 구성한 배수 체계와 고해상도 측량 결과를 이용하여 구성한 수치표면모형(digital surface model, DSM)을 나타낸다. Fig. 4는 각 대상지역에 대해 XP-SWMM을 이용하여 구축한 침수 모의 모형을 나타낸다. 침수 분석을 위해서는 침수 모의 영역에 대한 설정이 필요한데, 다수의 사전 모의를 통해 유역 내에서 침수가 발생되는 지역을 검토하여 결정하였다.

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Fig. 3.

Analysis of watershed drainage system and high-resolution survey for Marine City

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Fig. 4.

Simulation model for inundation analysis by target region using XP-SWMM

한편, 이 연구에서는 월파량 및 조위의 산정 과정과 침수 모의 모형의 보정에 관한 내용 등은 다루지 않았다. 관련된 내용은 선행 연구인 Kang et al. (2019b)와 Lee et al. (2020)을 참조할 수 있다.

3.2 침수 모의 설정

3.2.1 분석 방법

복합 외력에 의한 침수 영향을 검토하기 위해서는 외력 조건에 대한 빈도와 지속기간의 설정이 필요하다. 이 연구에서는 재해 현상이 충분히 나타날 수 있도록 강우와 조위 및 월파의 빈도를 모두 100년으로 설정하였다. 이때, 조위와 월파량의 산정에는 만조(약최고고조위) 시, 100년 빈도에 해당하는 태풍 내습에 따른 폭풍 해일의 발생 조건을 고려하였다.

지역별 강우 발생 특성과 유역 특성을 고려하기 위해 MOIS (2017)의 방재성능목표 기준에 따라 임계 지속기간을 결정하여 대상지역별 강우의 지속기간으로 설정하였다. 이때, 강우의 시간 분포는 MLTM (2011)의 Huff 3분위를 이용하였다. 그리고 조위와 월파의 경우, 일반적인 폭풍 해일의 지속기간을 고려하여 5시간으로 결정하였다. 한편, 침수 모의를 위한 계산 시간 간격, 2차원 모의 격자 등의 입력자료는 분석 대상지역의 유역 규모와 침수 분석 대상 영역을 고려하여 결정하였다. 참고로 침수 분석에 사용된 수치지형모형은 1 m 급의 고해상도로 구성되었지만, 2차원 침수 모의 격자의 크기는 지역별로 3 ~ 4 m이다. 이는 연구에서 사용된 XP-SWMM의 격자 수(100,000개) 제약에 따른 설정이나, Sun (2021)은 민감도 분석을 통해 2차원 침수 분석을 위한 적정 격자 크기를 3 ~ 4.5 m로 제시한 바 있다.

Table 3은 이 연구에서 설정한 침수 모의 조건과 분석 방법을 정리하여 나타낸 표이다.

Table 3.

Simulation condition and method

ClassificationTarget regionSimulation conditionSimulation method
RainfallStorm surgeSimulation time interval2D
grid size
Return
period
DurationTemporal
distribution
Return
period
DurationWatershed
routing
Channel
routing
2D
inundation
The south coastMarine City area100 yr1 hr3rd quartile
of Huff’s
method
1005 hr5 min10 sec1 sec3 m
Centum City area1 hr1005 min10 sec1 sec4 m
The west coastJungang-dong area2 hr1005 min10 sec1 sec3.5 m
Ocheon Port area1 hr1001 min10 sec1 sec3 m

3.2.2 복합 재해의 동시 고려

이 연구의 대상지역들은 모두 소규모의 해안가 도시지역이고, 이러한 지역에 대한 강우의 임계지속기간은 1시간 ~ 2시간이나, 이 연구에서 분석한 폭풍 해일의 지속기간은 5시간으로 강우의 지속기간과 폭풍 해일의 지속기간이 상이하다. 이에 이 연구에서는 서로 다른 지속기간을 가진 강우와 폭풍 해일 또는 조위를 고려하기 위해 강우의 중심과 폭풍 해일의 중심이 동일한 시간에 위치하도록 설정하였다(Fig. 5).

XP-SWMM은 폭풍 해일이 지속되는 5시간 전체를 모의하도록 설정하였고, 폭풍 해일이 가장 큰 시점에 강우의 중심이 위치하도록 강우 발생 시기를 결정하였다. 다만, 부산 마린시티의 경우, 폭풍 해일에 의한 피해가 주로 월파에 의해 발생되므로 강우의 중심과 월파의 중심을 일치시켰고(Fig. 5(a)), 상대적으로 조위의 영향이 큰 3개 지역은 강우의 중심과 조위의 중심을 맞추었다. Fig. 5(b)는 군산시 중앙동 지역의 복합 외력에 의한 침수 분석에 사용된 강우와 조위의 조합이다.

한편, 100년 빈도의 확률강우량만을 고려한 침수 분석에서는 유역 유출부의 경계조건으로 우수 관거의 설계 조건을 고려하여 약최고고조위가 일정하게 유지되도록 설정하였다.

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Fig. 5.

Consideration of external force conditions with different durations

3.2.3 XP-SWMM의 월파량 고려

XP-SWMM에 ADCSWAN 및 FLOW-3D 모형에 의해 산정된 월파량을 입력하기 위해 해안가 지역에 절점을 생성하여 월파 현상을 구현하였다. XP-SWMM에서 월파량을 입력하기 위한 절점의 위치는 FLOW-3D 모형에서 월파량을 산정한 격자의 중심 위치이다.

Fig. 6(a)는 마린시티 지역에 대한 월파량 입력 지점을 나타낸 것으로서, 유역 경계 주변에 동일 간격으로 원으로 표시한 지점들이 해당된다. Fig. 6(b)는 XP-SWMM에 월파량 입력 지점들을 반영하고, 하나의 절점에 월파량 시계열을 입력한 화면을 나타낸다.

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Fig. 6.

Considering wave overtopping on XP-SWMM

3.3 침수 모의 결과

3.3.1 단일 외력에 의한 침수 모의 결과

Fig. 7은 단일 외력을 고려한 지역별 침수 모의 결과이다. 즉, Fig. 7의 왼쪽 그림들은 지역별로 100년 빈도 강우에 의한 침수 모의 결과를 나타내고, Fig. 7의 오른쪽 그림들은 만조 시 100년 빈도 폭풍 해일에 의한 침수 모의 결과이다. 대체로 강우에 의한 침수 영역은 유역 중․상류 지역의 유역 전반에 걸쳐 발생하였고, 폭풍 해일에 의한 침수 영역은 해안가 전면부에 위치하는 것을 볼 수 있다. 이는 폭풍 해일에 의한 조위 상승과 월파의 영향이 상류로 갈수록 감소하기 때문이다.

한편, 4개 지역 모두에서 공통적으로 강우에 비해 폭풍 해일에 의한 침수 영향이 상대적으로 크게 분석되었다. 이러한 결과는 연안 지역의 경우, 폭풍 해일에 대비한 침수 피해 저감 노력이 보다 중요함을 의미한다.

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Fig. 7.

Simulation results by single external force (left: rainfall, right: storm surge)

3.3.2 복합 외력에 의한 침수 모의 결과

Fig. 8은 복합 외력을 고려한 지역별 침수 모의 결과이다. 즉, 강우 및 폭풍 해일을 동시에 고려함에 따라 발생된 침수 영역을 나타낸다. 복합 외력을 고려하는 경우, 단일 외력만을 고려한 분석 결과(Fig. 7)보다 침수 영역은 넓어졌고, 침수심은 깊어졌다.

복합 외력에 의한 침수 분석 결과는 대체로 단일 외력에 의한 침수 모의 결과를 중첩시켜 나타낸 결과와 유사하였고, 이는 일반적으로 예상할 수 있는 결과이다. 주목할만한 결과는 군산시 중앙동의 침수 분석에서 나타났다. 즉, 군산시 중앙동의 경우, 단일 외력만을 고려한 침수 모의 결과에서 나타나지 않았던 새로운 침수 영역이 발생하였다(Fig. 8(c)). 이와 관련된 상세 내용은 3.4절의 고찰에서 기술하였다.

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Fig. 8.

Simulation results by compound external forces

3.4 결과 고찰

외력 조건별 침수의 영향을 정량적으로 비교하기 위해 침수 면적을 이용하였다. 이 연구에서는 강우만에 의해 유발된 침수 면적을 기준(기준값: 1)으로 하고, 폭풍 해일(조위+월파량)에 의한 침수 면적과 복합 외력에 의한 침수 면적의 상대적 비율로 분석하였다(Table 4).

Table 4.

Impact evaluation for inundation area by external force

ConditionMarine City, BusanCentum City, BusanJungang-dong area,
Gunsan
Ocheon Port area,
Boryeong
Inundation area
(km2)
RateInundation area
(km2)
RateInundation area
(km2)
RateInundation area
(km2)
Rate
Single
external force
Rainfall (①)0.01641.00.07591.00.04571.00.01751.0
Storm surge (②)0.03632.210.06850.900.14633.200.04122.35
Compound
external forces
Combination
(①+②)
0.05243.190.15051.980.26325.760.04732.70

분석 결과, 부산 센텀시티를 제외한 3개 지역은 모두 폭풍 해일에 의한 침수 면적이 강우에 의한 침수 면적에 비해 2.2 ~ 3.2배 넓은 것으로 분석되었다. 한편, 복합 외력에 의한 침수 면적은 마린시티와 센텀시티의 경우, 각각의 외력에 의한 침수 면적의 합과 유사하게 나타났다. 이는 각각의 외력에 의한 침수 영역이 상이하여 거의 중복되지 않음을 의미한다. 반면에, 오천항에서는 각각의 외력에 의한 침수 면적의 합이 복합 외력에 의한 면적보다 크게 나타났다. 이는 오천항의 경우, 유역면적이 작고 배수 체계가 비교적 단순하여 강우와 폭풍 해일에 의한 침수 영역이 중복되기 때문인 것으로 분석되었다(Fig. 7(d)).

군산시 중앙동 일대의 경우, 복합 외력에 의한 침수 면적이 각각의 독립적인 외력 조건에 의한 침수 면적의 합에 비해 37.1% 크게 나타났다. 이러한 현상의 원인을 분석하기 위해 복합 외력 조건에서만 나타난 우수 관거(Fig. 8(c)의 A 구간)에 대하여 종단을 검토하였다(Fig. 9). Fig. 9(a)는 강우만에 의해 분석된 우수 관거 내 흐름 종단을 나타내고, Fig. 9(b)는 폭풍 해일만에 의한 우수 관거의 종단이다. 그림을 통해 각각의 독립적인 외력 조건 하에서는 해당 구간에서 침수가 발생되지 않은 것을 볼 수 있다. 다만, 강우만을 고려하더라도 우수 관거는 만관이 된 상태를 확인할 수 있다(Fig. 9(a)). 반면에, 만관 상태에서 폭풍 해일이 함께 고려됨에 따라 해수 범람과 조위 상승에 의해 우수 배제가 불량하게 되었고, 이로 인해 침수가 유발된 것으로 분석되었다(Fig. 9(c)). 따라서 이러한 지역은 복합 외력에 대한 취약지구로 판단할 수 있고, 단일 외력의 고려만으로는 침수를 예상하기 어려운 지역임을 알 수 있다.

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Fig. 9.

A part of drainage profiles by external force in Jungang-dong area, Gunsan

4. 결 론

이 연구에서는 외력 조건에 따른 연안 지역의 침수 특성을 분석하였다. 연구에서 고려된 외력 조건은 두 가지로서 강우와 폭풍 해일(조위와 월파)이다. 분석 대상 연안 지역으로는 남해안에 위치하는 2개 지역(부산시 해운대구의 마린시티와 센텀시티)과 서해안의 2개 지역(군산시 중앙동 일원 및 보령시 오천항)이 선정되었다.

복합 외력을 고려한 연안 지역의 침수 모의를 위해서는 유역의 강우-유출 현상과 바다의 조위 및 월파량을 경계조건으로 반영할 수 있는 침수 모의 모형이 요구되는데, 이 연구에서는 XP-SWMM을 이용하였다. 한편, 조위 및 월파량 산정에는 ADCSWAN (ADCIRC와 UnSWAN) 및 FLOW-3D 모형이 이용되었다.

연안 지역별 침수 모의는 100년 빈도의 강우와 폭풍 해일을 독립적으로 고려한 경우와 복합적으로 고려한 경우를 구분하여 수행되었다. 우선, 외력을 독립적으로 고려한 결과, 대체로 폭풍 해일만 고려한 경우가 강우만 고려한 경우에 비해 침수 영향이 크게 나타났다. 따라서 연안 지역의 경우, 폭풍 해일에 의한 침수 피해 방지 계획이 상대적으로 중요한 것으로 분석되었다. 두 번째, 복합 외력에 의한 침수 분석 결과는 대체로 단일 외력에 의한 침수 모의 결과를 중첩시켜 나타낸 결과와 유사하였다. 다만, 특정 지역에서는 복합 외력을 고려함에 따라 단일 외력만을 고려한 침수 모의에서 나타나지 않았던 새로운 침수 영역이 발생하기도 하였다. 이러한 결과는 독립적인 외력 조건에서는 우수 관거가 만관 또는 그 이하의 상태가 되지만, 두 가지의 외력이 동시에 고려됨에 따라 우수 관거의 통수능 한계를 초과하여 나타났다. 이러한 지역은 복합 외력에 대한 취약지구로 판단되었고, 해당 지역의 적절한 침수 방지 대책 수립을 위해서는 복합적인 외력 조건이 고려되어야 함을 시사하였다.

현행, 자연재해저감종합계획에서는 침수와 관련된 재해 원인 지역을 내수재해, 해안재해, 하천재해 등으로 구분하고 있다. 하지만 이 연구에서 검토된 바와 같이, 연안 지역의 침수 원인은 복합적으로 나타날 뿐만 아니라, 복합 외력을 고려함에 따라 추가적으로 나타날 수 있는 침수 위험 지역도 존재한다. 따라서 기존의 획일적인 재해 원인의 구분보다는 지역의 특성에 맞는 복합적인 재해 원인을 검토할 필요가 있음을 제안한다.

Acknowledgements

본 논문은 행정안전부 극한 재난대응 기반기술 개발사업의 일환인 “해안가 복합재난 위험지역 피해저감 기술개발(연구과제번호: 2018-MOIS31-008)”의 지원으로 수행되었습니다.

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The Optimal Operation on Auxiliary Spillway to Minimize the Flood Damage in Downstream River with Various Outflow Conditions

류하천의 영향 최소화를 위한 보조 여수로 최적 활용방안 검토

Hyung Ju Yoo1 Sung Sik Joo2 Beom Jae Kwon3 Seung Oh Lee4*
유 형주1 주 성식2 권 범재3 이 승오4*
1Ph.D Student, Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hongik University2Director, Water Resources & Environment Department, HECOREA3Director, Water Resources Department, ISAN4Professor, Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hongik University
1홍익대학교 건설환경공학과 박사과정
2㈜헥코리아 수자원환경사업부 이사
3㈜이산 수자원부 이사
4홍익대학교 건설환경공학과 교수*Corresponding Author

ABSTRACT

최근 기후변화로 인해 강우강도 및 빈도의 증가에 따른 집중호우의 영향 및 기존 여수로의 노후화에 대비하여 홍수 시 하류 하천의 영향을 최소화할 수 있는 보조 여수로 활용방안 구축이 필요한 실정이다. 이를 위해, 수리모형 실험 및 수치모형 실험을 통하여 보조 여수로 운영에 따른 흐름특성 변화 검토에 관한 연구가 많이 진행되어 왔다.

그러나 대부분의 연구는 여수로에서의 흐름특성 및 기능성에 대한 검토를 수행하였을 뿐 보조 여수로의 활용방안에 따른 하류하천 영향 검토 및 호안 안정성 검토에 관한 연구는 미비한 실정이다.

이에 본 연구에서는 기존 여수로 및 보조 여수로 방류 조건에 따른 하류영향 분석 및 호안 안정성 측면에서 최적 방류 시나리오 검토를 3차원 수치모형인 FLOW-3D를 사용하여 검토하였다. 또한 FLOW-3D 수치모의 수행을 통한 유속, 수위 결과와 소류력 산정 결과를 호안 설계허용 기준과 비교하였다.

수문 완전 개도 조건으로 가정하고 계획홍수량 유입 시 다양한 보조 여수로 활용방안에 대하여 수치모의를 수행한 결과, 보조 여수로 단독 운영 시 기존 여수로 단독운영에 비하여 최대유속 및 최대 수위의 감소효과를 확인하였다. 다만 계획홍수량의 45% 이하 방류 조건에서 대안부의 호안 안정성을 확보하였고 해당 방류량 초과 경우에는 처오름 현상이 발생하여 월류에 대한 위험성 증가를 확인하였다.

따라서 기존 여수로와의 동시 운영 방안 도출이 중요하다고 판단하였다. 여수로의 배분 비율 및 총 허용 방류량에 대하여 검토한 결과 보조 여수로의 방류량이 기존 여수로의 방류량보다 큰 경우 하류하천의 흐름이 중심으로 집중되어 대안부의 유속 저감 및 수위 감소를 확인하였고, 계획 홍수량의 77% 이하의 조건에서 호안의 허용 유속 및 허용 소류력 조건을 만족하였다.

이를 통하여 본 연구에서 제안한 보조 여수로 활용방안으로는 기존 여수로와 동시 운영 시 총 방류량에 대하여 보조 여수로의 배분량이 기존 여수로의 배분량보다 크게 설정하는 것이 하류하천의 영향을 최소화 할 수 있는 것으로 나타났다.

그러나 본 연구는 여수로 방류에 따른 대안부에서의 영향에 대해서만 검토하였고 수문 전면 개도 조건에서 검토하였다는 한계점은 분명히 있다. 이에 향후에는 다양한 수문 개도 조건 및 방류 시나리오를 적용 및 검토한다면 보다 효율적이고, 효과적인 보조 여수로 활용방안을 도출이 가능할 것으로 기대 된다.

키워드

보조 여수로, FLOW-3D, 수치모의, 호안 안정성, 소류력

Recently, as the occurrence frequency of sudden floods due to climate change increased and the aging of the existing spillway, it is necessary to establish a plan to utilize an auxiliary spillway to minimize the flood damage of downstream rivers. Most studies have been conducted on the review of flow characteristics according to the operation of auxiliary spillway through the hydraulic experiments and numerical modeling. However, the studies on examination of flood damage in the downstream rivers and the stability of the revetment according to the operation of the auxiliary spillway were relatively insufficient in the literature. In this study, the stability of the revetment on the downstream river according to the outflow conditions of the existing and auxiliary spillway was examined by using 3D numerical model, FLOW-3D. The velocity, water surface elevation and shear stress results of FLOW-3D were compared with the permissible velocity and shear stress of design criteria. It was assumed the sluice gate was fully opened. As a result of numerical simulations of various auxiliary spillway operations during flood season, the single operation of the auxiliary spillway showed the reduction effect of maximum velocity and the water surface elevation compared with the single operation of the existing spillway. The stability of the revetment on downstream was satisfied under the condition of outflow less than 45% of the design flood discharge. However, the potential overtopping damage was confirmed in the case of exceeding the 45% of the design flood discharge. Therefore, the simultaneous operation with the existing spillway was important to ensure the stability on design flood discharge condition. As a result of examining the allocation ratio and the total allowable outflow, the reduction effect of maximum velocity was confirmed on the condition, where the amount of outflow on auxiliary spillway was more than that on existing spillway. It is because the flow of downstream rivers was concentrated in the center due to the outflow of existing spillway. The permissible velocity and shear stress were satisfied under the condition of less than 77% of the design flood discharge with simultaneous operation. It was found that the flood damage of downstream rivers can be minimized by setting the amount allocated to the auxiliary spillway to be larger than the amount allocated to the existing spillway for the total outflow with simultaneous operation condition. However, this study only reviewed the flow characteristics around the revetment according to the outflow of spillway under the full opening of the sluice gate condition. Therefore, the various sluice opening conditions and outflow scenarios will be asked to derive more efficient utilization of the auxiliary spillway in th future.KeywordsAuxiliary spillway FLOW-3D Numerical simulation Revetment stability Shear stress

1. 서 론

최근 기후변화로 인한 집중호우의 영향으로 홍수 시 댐으로 유입되는 홍수량이 설계 홍수량보다 증가하여 댐 안정성 확보가 필요한 실정이다(Office for Government Policy Coordination, 2003). MOLIT & K-water(2004)에서는 기존댐의 수문학적 안정성 검토를 수행하였으며 이상홍수 발생 시 24개 댐에서 월류 등으로 인한 붕괴위험으로 댐 하류지역의 극심한 피해를 예상하여 보조여수로 신설 및 기존여수로 확장 등 치수능력 증대 기본계획을 수립하였고 이를 통하여 극한홍수 발생 시 홍수량 배제능력을 증대하여 기존댐의 안전성 확보 및 하류지역의 피해를 방지하고자 하였다. 여기서 보조 여수로는 기존 여수로와 동시 또는 별도 운영하는 여수로로써 비상상황 시 방류 기능을 포함하고 있고(K-water, 2021), 최근에는 기존 여수로의 노후화에 따라 보조여수로의 활용방안에 대한 관심이 증가하고 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 3차원 수치해석을 수행하여 기존 및 보조 여수로의 방류량 조합에 따른 하류 영향을 분석하고 하류 호안 안정성 측면에서 최적 방류 시나리오를 검토하고자 한다.

기존의 댐 여수로 검토에 관한 연구는 주로 수리실험을 통하여 방류조건 별 흐름특성을 검토하였으나 최근에는 수치모형 실험결과가 수리모형실험과 비교하여 근사한 것을 확인하는 등 점차 수치모형실험을 수리모형실험의 대안으로 활용하고 있다(Jeon et al., 2006Kim, 2007Kim et al., 2008). 국내의 경우, Jeon et al.(2006)은 수리모형 실험과 수치모의를 이용하여 임하댐 바상여수로의 기본설계안을 도출하였고, Kim et al.(2008)은 가능최대홍수량 유입 시 비상여수로 방류에 따른 수리학적 안정성과 기능성을 3차원 수치모형인 FLOW-3D를 활용하여 검토하였다. 또한 Kim and Kim(2013)은 충주댐의 홍수조절 효과 검토 및 방류량 변화에 따른 상·하류의 수위 변화를 수치모형을 통하여 검토하였다. 국외의 경우 Zeng et al.(2017)은 3차원 수치모형인 Fluent를 활용한 여수로 방류에 따른 흐름특성 결과와 측정결과를 비교하여 수치모형 결과의 신뢰성을 검토하였다. Li et al.(2011)은 가능 최대 홍수량(Probable Maximum Flood, PMF)조건에서 기존 여수로와 신규 보조 여수로 유입부 주변의 흐름특성에 대하여 3차원 수치모형 Fluent를 활용하여 검토하였고, Lee et al.(2019)는 서로 근접해있는 기존 여수로와 보조여수로 동시 운영 시 방류능 검토를 수리모형 실험 및 수치모형 실험(FLOW-3D)을 통하여 수행하였으며 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로를 동시운영하게 되면 배수로 간섭으로 인하여 총 방류량이 7.6%까지 감소되어 댐의 방류능력이 감소하였음을 확인하였다.

그러나 대부분의 여수로 검토에 대한 연구는 여수로 내에서의 흐름특성 및 기능성에 대한 검토를 수행하였고. 이에 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로 방류운영에 따른 하류하천의 흐름특성 변화 및 호안 안정성 평가에 관한 추가적인 검토가 필요한 실정이다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 기존 여수로 및 보조 여수로 방류 조건에 따른 하류하천의 흐름특성 및 호안 안정성분석을 3차원 수치모형인 FLOW-3D를 이용하여 검토하였다. 또한 다양한 방류 배분 비율 및 허용 방류량 조건 변화에 따른 하류하천의 흐름특성 및 소류력 분석결과를 호안 설계 허용유속 및 허용 소류력 기준과 비교하여 하류하천의 영향을 최소화 할 수 있는 최적의 보조 여수로 활용방안을 도출하고자 한다.

2. 본 론

2.1 이론적 배경

2.1.1 3차원 수치모형의 기본이론

FLOW-3D는 미국 Flow Science, Inc에서 개발한 범용 유체역학 프로그램(CFD, Computational Fluid Dynamics)으로 자유 수면을 갖는 흐름모의에 사용되는 3차원 수치해석 모형이다. 난류모형을 통해 난류 해석이 가능하고, 댐 방류에 따른 하류 하천의 흐름 해석에도 많이 사용되어 왔다(Flow Science, 2011). 본 연구에서는 FLOW-3D(version 12.0)을 이용하여 홍수 시 기존 여수로의 노후화에 대비하여 보조 여수로의 활용방안에 대한 검토를 하류하천의 호안 안정성 측면에서 검토하였다.

2.1.2 유동해석의 지배방정식

1) 연속 방정식(Continuity Equation)

FLOW-3D는 비압축성 유체에 대하여 연속방정식을 사용하며, 밀도는 상수항으로 적용된다. 연속 방정식은 Eqs. (1)(2)와 같다.

(1)

∇·v=0

(2)

∂∂x(uAx)+∂∂y(vAy)+∂∂z(wAz)=RSORρ

여기서, ρ는 유체 밀도(kg/m3), u, v, w는 x, y, z방향의 유속(m/s), Ax, Ay, Az는 각 방향의 요소면적(m2), RSOR는 질량 생성/소멸(mass source/sink)항을 의미한다.

2) 운동량 방정식(Momentum Equation)

각 방향 속도성분 u, v, w에 대한 운동방정식은 Navier-Stokes 방정식으로 다음 Eqs. (3)(4)(5)와 같다.

(3)

∂u∂t+1VF(uAx∂u∂x+vAy∂v∂y+wAz∂w∂z)=-1ρ∂p∂x+Gx+fx-bx-RSORρVFu

(4)

∂v∂t+1VF(uAx∂u∂x+vAy∂v∂y+wAz∂w∂z)=-1ρ∂p∂y+Gy+fy-by-RSORρVFv

(5)

∂w∂t+1VF(uAx∂u∂x+vAy∂v∂y+wAz∂w∂z)=-1ρ∂p∂z+Gz+fz-bz-RSORρVFw

여기서, Gx, Gy, Gz는 체적력에 의한 가속항, fx, fy, fz는 점성에 의한 가속항, bx, by, bz는 다공성 매체에서의 흐름손실을 의미한다.

2.1.3 소류력 산정

호안설계 시 제방사면 호안의 안정성 확보를 위해서는 하천의 흐름에 의하여 호안에 작용하는 소류력에 저항할 수 있는 재료 및 공법 선택이 필요하다. 국내의 경우 하천공사설계실무요령(MOLIT, 2016)에서 계획홍수량 유하 시 소류력 산정 방법을 제시하고 있다. 소류력은 하천의 평균유속을 이용하여 산정할 수 있으며, 소류력 산정식은 Eqs. (6)(7)과 같다.

1) Schoklitsch 공식

Schoklitsch(1934)는 Chezy 유속계수를 적용하여 소류력을 산정하였다.

(6)

τ=γRI=γC2V2

여기서, τ는 소류력(N/m2), R은 동수반경(m), γ는 물의 단위중량(10.0 kN/m3), I는 에너지경사, C는 Chezy 유속계수, V는 평균유속(m/s)을 의미한다.

2) Manning 조도계수를 고려한 공식

Chezy 유속계수를 대신하여 Manning의 조도계수를 고려하여 소류력을 산정할 수 있다.

(7)

τ=γn2V2R1/3

여기서, τ는 소류력(N/m2), R은 동수반경(m), γ는 물의 단위중량(10.0 kN/m3), n은 Manning의 조도계수, V는 평균유속(m/s)을 의미한다.

FLOW-3D 수치모의 수행을 통하여 하천의 바닥 유속을 도출할 수 있으며, 본 연구에서는 Maning 조도계수롤 고려하여 소류력을 산정하고자 한다. 소류력을 산정하기 위해서 여수로 방류에 따른 대안부의 바닥유속 변화를 검토하여 최대 유속 값을 이용하였다. 최종적으로 산정한 소류력과 호안의 재료 및 공법에 따른 허용 소류력과 비교하여 제방사면 호안의 안정성 검토를 수행하게 된다.

2.2 하천호안 설계기준

하천 호안은 계획홍수위 이하의 유수작용에 대하여 안정성이 확보되도록 계획하여야 하며, 호안의 설계 시에는 사용재료의 확보용이성, 시공상의 용이성, 세굴에 대한 굴요성(flexibility) 등을 고려하여 호안의 형태, 시공방법 등을 결정한다(MOLIT, 2019). 국내의 경우, 하천공사설계실무요령(MOLIT, 2016)에서는 다양한 호안공법에 대하여 비탈경사에 따라 설계 유속을 비교하거나, 허용 소류력을 비교함으로써 호안의 안정성을 평가한다. 호안에 대한 국외의 설계기준으로 미국의 경우, ASTM(미국재료시험학회)에서 호안블록 및 식생매트 시험방법을 제시하였고 제품별로 ASTM 시험에 의한 허용유속 및 허용 소류력을 제시하였다. 일본의 경우, 호안 블록에 대한 축소실험을 통하여 항력을 측정하고 이를 통해서 호안 블록에 대한 항력계수를 제시하고 있다. 설계 시에는 항력계수에 의한 블록의 안정성을 평가하고 있으나, 최근에는 세굴의 영향을 고려할 수 있는 호안 안정성 평가의 필요성을 제기하고 있다(MOLIT, 2019). 관련된 국내·외의 하천호안 설계기준은 Table 1에 정리하여 제시하였고, 본 연구에서 하천 호안 안정성 평가 시 하천공사설계실무요령(MOLIT, 2016)과 ASTM 시험에서 제시한 허용소류력 및 허용유속 기준을 비교하여 각각 0.28 kN/m2, 5.0 m/s 미만일 경우 호안 안정성을 확보하였다고 판단하였다.

Table 1.

Standard of Permissible Velocity and Shear on Revetment

Country (Reference)MaterialPermissible velocity (Vp, m/s)Permissible Shear (τp, kN/m2)
KoreaRiver Construction Design Practice Guidelines
(MOLIT, 2016)
Vegetated5.00.50
Stone5.00.80
USAASTM D’6460Vegetated6.10.81
Unvegetated5.00.28
JAPANDynamic Design Method of Revetment5.0

2.3. 보조여수로 운영에 따른 하류하천 영향 분석

2.3.1 모형의 구축 및 경계조건

본 연구에서는 기존 여수로의 노후화에 대비하여 홍수 시 보조여수로의 활용방안에 따른 하류하천의 흐름특성 및 호안안정성 평가를 수행하기 위해 FLOW-3D 모형을 이용하였다. 기존 여수로 및 보조 여수로는 치수능력 증대사업(MOLIT & K-water, 2004)을 통하여 완공된 ○○댐의 제원을 이용하여 구축하였다. ○○댐은 설계빈도(100년) 및 200년빈도 까지는 계획홍수위 이내로 기존 여수로를 통하여 운영이 가능하나 그 이상 홍수조절은 보조여수로를 통하여 조절해야 하며, 또한 2011년 기존 여수로 정밀안전진단 결과 사면의 표층 유실 및 옹벽 밀림현상 등이 확인되어 노후화에 따른 보수·보강이 필요한 상태이다. 이에 보조여수로의 활용방안 검토가 필요한 것으로 판단하여 본 연구의 대상댐으로 선정하였다. 하류 하천의 흐름특성을 예측하기 위하여 격자간격을 0.99 ~ 8.16 m의 크기로 하여 총 격자수는 49,102,500개로 구성하였으며, 여수로 방류에 따른 하류하천의 흐름해석을 위한 경계조건으로 상류는 유입유량(inflow), 바닥은 벽면(wall), 하류는 수위(water surface elevation)조건으로 적용하도록 하였다(Table 2Fig. 1 참조). FLOW-3D 난류모형에는 혼합길이 모형, 난류에너지 모형, k-ϵ모형, RNG(Renormalized Group Theory) k-ϵ모형, LES 모형 등이 있으며, 본 연구에서는 여수로 방류에 따른 복잡한 난류 흐름 및 높은 전단흐름을 정확하게 모의(Flow Science, 2011)할 수 있는 RNG k-ϵ모형을 사용하였고, 하류하천 호안의 안정성 측면에서 보조여수로의 활용방안을 검토하기 위하여 방류시나리오는 Table 3에 제시된 것 같이 설정하였다. Case 1 및 Case 2를 통하여 계획홍수량에 대하여 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 단독 운영이 하류하천에 미치는 영향을 확인하였고 보조 여수로의 방류량 조절을 통하여 호안 안정성 측면에서 보조 여수로 방류능 검토를 수행하였다(Case 3 ~ Case 6). 또한 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 방류량 배분에 따른 하류하천의 영향 검토(Case 7 ~ Case 10) 및 방류 배분에 따른 허용 방류량을 호안 안정성 측면에서 검토를 수행하였다(Case 11 ~ Case 14).

수문은 완전개도 조건으로 가정하였으며 하류하천의 계획홍수량에 대한 기존 여수로와 보조여수로의 배분량을 조절하여 모의를 수행하였다. 여수로는 콘크리트의 조도계수 값(Chow, 1959)을 채택하였고, 댐 하류하천의 조도계수는 하천기본계획(Busan Construction and Management Administration, 2009) 제시된 조도계수 값을 채택하였으며 FLOW-3D의 적용을 위하여 Manning-Strickler 공식(Vanoni, 2006)을 이용하여 조도계수를 조고값으로 변환하여 사용하였다. Manning-Strickler 공식은 Eq. (8)과 같으며, FLOW-3D에 적용한 조도계수 및 조고는 Table 4와 같다.

(8)

n=ks1/68.1g1/2

여기서, kS는 조고 (m), n은 Manning의 조도계수, g는 중력가속도(m/s2)를 의미한다.

시간에 따라 동일한 유량이 일정하게 유입되도록 모의를 수행하였으며, 시간간격(Time Step)은 0.0001초로 설정(CFL number < 1.0) 하였다. 또한 여수로 수문을 통한 유량의 변동 값이 1.0%이내일 경우는 연속방정식을 만족하고 있다고 가정하였다. 이는, 유량의 변동 값이 1.0%이내일 경우 유속의 변동 값 역시 1.0%이내이며, 수치모의 결과 1.0%의 유속변동은 호안의 유속설계기준에 크게 영향을 미치지 않는다고 판단하였다. 그 결과 모든 수치모의 Case에서 2400초 이내에 결과 값이 수렴하는 것을 확인하였다.

Table 2.

Mesh sizes and numerical conditions

MeshNumbers49,102,500 EA
Increment (m)DirectionExisting SpillwayAuxiliary Spillway
∆X0.99 ~ 4.301.00 ~ 4.30
∆Y0.99 ~ 8.161.00 ~ 5.90
∆Z0.50 ~ 1.220.50 ~ 2.00
Boundary ConditionsXmin / YmaxInflow / Water Surface Elevation
Xmax, Ymin, Zmin / ZmaxWall / Symmetry
Turbulence ModelRNG model
Table 3.

Case of numerical simulation (Qp : Design flood discharge)

CaseExisting Spillway (Qe, m3/s)Auxiliary Spillway (Qa, m3/s)Remarks
1Qp0Reference case
20Qp
300.58QpReview of discharge capacity on
auxiliary spillway
400.48Qp
500.45Qp
600.32Qp
70.50Qp0.50QpDetermination of optimal division
ratio on Spillways
80.61Qp0.39Qp
90.39Qp0.61Qp
100.42Qp0.58Qp
110.32Qp0.45QpDetermination of permissible
division on Spillways
120.35Qp0.48Qp
130.38Qp0.53Qp
140.41Qp0.56Qp
Table 4.

Roughness coefficient and roughness height

CriteriaRoughness coefficient (n)Roughness height (ks, m)
Structure (Concrete)0.0140.00061
River0.0330.10496
/media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F1.jpg
Fig. 1

Layout of spillway and river in this study

2.3.2 보조 여수로의 방류능 검토

본 연구에서는 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 방류량 배분에 따른 하류하천 대안부의 유속분포 및 수위분포를 검토하기 위해 수치모의 Case 별 다음과 같이 관심구역을 설정하였다(Fig. 2 참조). 관심구역(대안부)의 길이(L)는 총 1.3 km로 10 m 등 간격으로 나누어 검토하였으며, Section 1(0 < X/L < 0.27)은 기존 여수로 방류에 따른 영향이 지배적인 구간, Section 2(0.27 < X/L < 1.00)는 보조 여수로 방류에 따른 영향이 지배적인 구간으로 각 구간에서의 수위, 유속, 수심결과를 확인하였다. 기존 여수로의 노후화에 따른 보조 여수로의 방류능 검토를 위하여 Case 1 – Case 6까지의 결과를 비교하였다.

보조 여수로의 단독 운영 시 기존 여수로 운영 시 보다 하류하천의 대안부의 최대 유속(Vmax)은 약 3% 감소하였으며, 이는 보조 여수로의 하천 유입각이 기존 여수로 보다 7°작으며 유입하천의 폭이 증가하여 유속이 감소한 것으로 판단된다. 대안부의 최대 유속 발생위치는 하류 쪽으로 이동하였으며 교량으로 인한 단면의 축소로 최대유속이 발생하는 것으로 판단된다. 또한 보조 여수로의 배분량(Qa)이 증가함에 따라 하류하천 대안부의 최대 유속이 증가하였다. 하천호안 설계기준에서 제시하고 있는 허용유속(Vp)과 비교한 결과, 계획홍수량(Qp)의 45% 이하(Case 5 & 6)를 보조 여수로에서 방류하게 되면 허용 유속(5.0 m/s)조건을 만족하여 호안안정성을 확보하였다(Fig. 3 참조). 허용유속 외에도 대안부에서의 소류력을 산정하여 하천호안 설계기준에서 제시한 허용 소류력(τp)과 비교한 결과, 유속과 동일하게 보조 여수로의 방류량이 계획홍수량의 45% 이하일 경우 허용소류력(0.28 kN/m2) 조건을 만족하였다(Fig. 4 참조). 각 Case 별 호안설계조건과 비교한 결과는 Table 5에 제시하였다.

하류하천의 수위도 기존 여수로 운영 시 보다 보조 여수로 단독 운영 시 최대 수위(ηmax)가 약 2% 감소하는 효과를 보였으며 최대 수위 발생위치는 수충부로 여수로 방류시 처오름에 의한 수위 상승으로 판단된다. 기존 여수로의 단독운영(Case 1)의 수위(ηref)를 기준으로 보조 여수로의 방류량이 증가함에 따라 수위는 증가하였으나 계획홍수량의 58%까지 방류할 경우 월류에 대한 안정성(ηmax/ηref<0.97(=기설제방고))은 확보되었다(Fig. 5 참조). 그러나 계획홍수량 조건에서는 월류에 대한 위험성이 존재하기 때문에 기존여수로와 보조여수로의 적절한 방류량 배분 조합을 도출하는 것이 중요하다고 판단되어 진다.

/media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F2.jpg
Fig. 2

Region of interest in this study

/media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F3.jpg
Fig. 3

Maximum velocity and location of Vmax according to Qa

/media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F4.jpg
Fig. 4

Maximum shear according to Qa

/media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F5.jpg
Fig. 5

Maximum water surface elevation and location of ηmax according to Qa

Table 5.

Numerical results for each cases (Case 1 ~ Case 6)

CaseMaximum Velocity
(Vmax, m/s)
Maximum Shear
(τmax, kN/m2)
Evaluation
in terms of Vp
Evaluation
in terms of τp
1
(Qa = 0)
9.150.54No GoodNo Good
2
(Qa = Qp)
8.870.56No GoodNo Good
3
(Qa = 0.58Qp)
6.530.40No GoodNo Good
4
(Qa = 0.48Qp)
6.220.36No GoodNo Good
5
(Qa = 0.45Qp)
4.220.12AccpetAccpet
6
(Qa = 0.32Qp)
4.040.14AccpetAccpet

2.3.3 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로 방류량 배분 검토

기존 여수로 및 보조 여수로 단독운영에 따른 하류하천 및 호안의 안정성 평가를 수행한 결과 계획홍수량 방류 시 하류하천 대안부에서 호안 설계 조건(허용유속 및 허용 소류력)을 초과하였으며, 처오름에 의한 수위 상승으로 월류에 대한 위험성 증가를 확인하였다. 따라서 계획 홍수량 조건에서 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 방류량 배분을 통하여 호안 안정성을 확보하고 하류하천에 방류로 인한 피해를 최소화할 수 있는 배분조합(Case 7 ~ Case 10)을 검토하였다. Case 7은 기존 여수로와 보조여수로의 배분 비율을 균등하게 적용한 경우이고, Case 8은 기존 여수로의 배분량이 보조 여수로에 비하여 많은 경우, Case 9는 보조 여수로의 배분량이 기존 여수로에 비하여 많은 경우를 의미한다. 최대유속을 비교한 결과 보조 여수로의 배분 비율이 큰 경우 기존 여수로의 배분량에 의하여 흐름이 하천 중심에 집중되어 대안부의 유속을 저감하는 효과를 확인하였다. 보조여수로의 방류량 배분 비율이 증가할수록 기존 여수로 대안부 측(0.00<X/L<0.27, Section 1) 유속 분포는 감소하였으나, 신규여수로 대안부 측(0.27<X/L<1.00, Section 2) 유속은 증가하는 것을 확인하였다(Fig. 6 참조). 그러나 유속 저감 효과에도 대안부 전구간에서 설계 허용유속 조건을 초과하여 제방의 안정성을 확보하지는 못하였다. 소류력 산정 결과 유속과 동일하게 보조 여수로의 방류량이 기존 여수로의 방류량 보다 크면 감소하는 것을 확인하였고 일부 구간에서는 허용 소류력 조건을 만족하는 것을 확인하였다(Fig. 7 참조).

따라서 유속 저감효과가 있는 배분 비율 조건(Qa>Qe)에서 Section 2에 유속 저감에 영향을 미치는 기존 여수로 방류량 배분 비율을 증가시켜 추가 검토(Case 10)를 수행하였다. 단독운영과 비교 시 하류하천에 유입되는 유량은 증가하였음에도 불구하고 기존 여수로 방류량에 의해 흐름이 하천 중심으로 집중되는 현상에 따라 대안부의 유속은 단독 운영에 비하여 감소하는 것을 확인하였고(Fig. 8 참조), 호안 설계 허용유속 및 허용 소류력 조건을 만족하는 구간이 발생하여 호안 안정성도 확보한 것으로 판단되었다. 최종적으로 각 Case 별 수위 결과의 경우 여수로 동시 운영을 수행하게 되면 대안부 전 구간에서 월류에 대한 안정성(ηmax/ηref<0.97(=기설제방고))은 확보하였다(Fig. 9 참조). 각 Case 별 대안부에서 최대 유속결과 및 산정한 소류력은 Table 6에 제시하였다.

/media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F6.jpg
Fig. 6

Maximum velocity on section 1 & 2 according to Qa

/media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F7.jpg
Fig. 7

Maximum shear on section 1 & 2 according to Qa

/media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F8.jpg
Fig. 8

Velocity results of FLOW-3D (a: auxiliary spillway operation only , b : simultaneous operation of spillways)

/media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F9.jpg
Fig. 9

Maximum water surface elevation on section 1 & 2 according to Qa

Table 6.

Numerical results for each cases (Case 7 ~ Case 10)

Case (Qe &amp; Qa)Maximum Velocity (Vmax, m/s)Maximum Shear
(τmax, kN/m2)
Evaluation in terms of VpEvaluation in terms of τp
Section 1Section 2Section 1Section 2Section 1Section 2Section 1Section 2
7
Qe : 0.50QpQa : 0.50Qp
8.106.230.640.30No GoodNo GoodNo GoodNo Good
8
Qe : 0.61QpQa : 0.39Qp
8.886.410.610.34No GoodNo GoodNo GoodNo Good
9
Qe : 0.39QpQa : 0.61Qp
6.227.330.240.35No GoodNo GoodAcceptNo Good
10
Qe : 0.42QpQa : 0.58Qp
6.394.790.300.19No GoodAcceptNo GoodAccept

2.3.4 방류량 배분 비율의 허용 방류량 검토

계획 홍수량 방류 시 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 배분 비율 검토 결과 Case 10(Qe = 0.42Qp, Qa = 0.58Qp)에서 방류에 따른 하류 하천의 피해를 최소화시킬 수 있는 것을 확인하였다. 그러나 대안부 전 구간에 대하여 호안 설계조건을 만족하지 못하였다. 따라서 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 방류 배분 비율을 고정시킨 후 총 방류량을 조절하여 허용 방류량을 검토하였다(Case 11 ~ Case 14).

호안 안정성 측면에서 검토한 결과 계획홍수량 대비 총 방류량이 감소하면 최대 유속 및 최대 소류력이 감소하고 최종적으로 계획 홍수량의 77%를 방류할 경우 하류하천의 대안부에서 호안 설계조건을 모두 만족하는 것을 확인하였다(Fig. 10Fig. 11 참조). 각 Case 별 대안부에서 최대 유속결과 및 산정한 소류력은 Table 7에 제시하였다. 또한 Case 별 수위 검토 결과 처오름으로 인한 대안부 전 구간에서 월류에 대한 안정성(ηmax/ηref<0.97(=기설제방고))은 확보하였다(Fig. 12 참조).

Table 7.

Numerical results for each cases (Case 11 ~ Case 14)

Case (Qe &amp; Qa)Maximum Velocity
(Vmax, m/s)
Maximum Shear
(τmax, kN/m2)
Evaluation in terms of VpEvaluation in terms of τp
Section 1Section 2Section 1Section 2Section 1Section 2Section 1Section 2
11
Qe : 0.32QpQa : 0.45Qp
3.634.530.090.26AcceptAcceptAcceptAccept
12
Qe : 0.35QpQa : 0.48Qp
5.745.180.230.22No GoodNo GoodAcceptAccept
13
Qe : 0.38QpQa : 0.53Qp
6.704.210.280.11No GoodAcceptAcceptAccept
14
Qe : 0.41QpQa : 0.56Qp
6.545.240.280.24No GoodNo GoodAcceptAccept
/media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F10.jpg
Fig. 10

Maximum velocity on section 1 & 2 according to total outflow

/media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F11.jpg
Fig. 11

Maximum shear on section 1 & 2 according to total outflow

/media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F12.jpg
Fig. 12

Maximum water surface elevation on section 1 & 2 according to total outflow

3. 결 론

본 연구에서는 홍수 시 기존 여수로의 노후화로 인한 보조 여수로의 활용방안에 대하여 하류하천의 호안 안정성 측면에서 검토하였다. 여수로 방류로 인한 하류하천의 흐름특성을 검토하기 위하여 3차원 수치모형인 FLOW-3D를 활용하였고, 여수로 지형은 치수능력 증대사업을 통하여 완공된 ○○댐의 제원을 이용하였다. 하류하천 조도 계수 및 여수로 방류량은 하천기본계획을 참고하여 적용하였다. 최종적으로 여수로 방류로 인한 하류하천의 피해를 최소화 시킬 수 있는 적절한 보조 여수로의 활용방안을 도출하기 위하여 보조 여수로 단독 운영과 기존 여수로와의 동시 운영에 따른 하류 하천의 흐름특성 및 소류력의 변화를 검토하였다.

수문은 완전 개도 상태에서 방류한다는 가정으로 계획 홍수량 조건에서 보조 여수로 단독 운영 시 하류하천 대안부의 유속 및 수위를 검토한 결과 기존 여수로 단독운영에 비하여 최대 유속 및 최대 수위가 감소하는 것을 확인할 수 있었으며, 이는 보조 여수로 단독 운영 시 하류하천으로 유입각도가 작아지고, 유입되는 하천의 폭이 증가되기 때문이다. 그러나 계획 홍수량 조건에서 하천호안 설계기준에서 제시한 허용 유속(5.0 m/s)과 허용 소류력(0.28 kN/m2)과 비교하였을 때 호안 안정성을 확보하지 못하였으며, 계획홍수량의 45% 이하 방류 시에 대안부의 호안 안정성을 확보하였다. 수위의 경우 여수로 방류에 따른 대안부에서 처오름 현상이 발생하여 월류에 대한 위험성을 확인하였고 이를 통하여 기존 여수로와의 동시 운영 방안을 도출하는 것이 중요하다고 판단된다. 따라서 기존 여수로와의 동시 운영 측면에서 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 배분 비율 및 총 방류량을 변화시켜가며 하류 하천의 흐름특성 및 소류력의 변화를 검토하였다. 배분 비율의 경우 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 균등 배분(Case 7) 및 편중 배분(Case 8 & Case 9)을 검토하여 보조 여수로의 방류량이 기존 여수로의 방류량보다 큰 경우 하류하천의 중심부로 집중되어 대안부의 최대유속, 최대소류력 및 최대수위가 감소하는 것을 확인하였다. 이를 근거로 기존 여수로의 방류 비율을 증가(Qe=0.42Qp, Qa=0.58Qp)시켜 검토한 결과 대안부 일부 구간에서 허용 유속 및 허용소류력 조건을 만족하는 것을 확인하였다. 이를 통하여 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 동시 운영을 통하여 적절한 방류량 배분 비율을 도출하는 것이 방류로 인한 하류하천의 피해를 저감하는데 효과적인 것으로 판단된다. 그러나 설계홍수량 방류 시 전 구간에서 허용 유속 및 소류력 조건을 만족하지 못하였다. 최종적으로 전체 방류량에서 기존 여수로의 방류 비율을 42%, 보조 여수로의 방류 비율을 58%로 설정하여 허용방류량을 검토한 결과, 계획홍수량의 77%이하로 방류 시 대안부의 최대유속은 기존여수로 방류의 지배영향구간(section 1)에서 3.63 m/s, 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로 방류의 영향구간(section 2)에서 4.53 m/s로 허용유속 조건을 만족하였고, 산정한 소류력도 각각 0.09 kN/m2 및 0.26 kN/m2로 허용 소류력 조건을 만족하여 대안부 호안의 안정성을 확보하였다고 판단된다.

본 연구 결과는 기후변화 및 기존여수로의 노후화로 인하여 홍수 시 기존여수로의 단독운영으로 하류하천의 피해가 발생할 수 있는 현시점에서 치수증대 사업으로 완공된 보조 여수로의 활용방안에 대한 기초자료로 활용될 수 있고, 향후 계획 홍수량 유입 시 최적의 배분 비율 및 허용 방류량 도출에 이용할 수 있다. 다만 본 연구는 여수로 방류에 따른 제방에 작용하는 수충력은 검토하지 못하고, 허용 유속 및 허용소류력은 제방과 유수의 방향이 일정한 구간에 대하여 검토하였다. 또한 여수로 방류에 따른 대안부에서의 영향에 대해서만 검토하였고 수문 전면 개도 조건에서 검토하였다는 한계점은 분명히 있다. 이에 향후에는 다양한 수문 개도 조건 및 방류 시나리오를 적용 및 검토하여 보다 효율적이고, 효과적인 보조 여수로 활용방안을 도출하고자 한다.

Acknowledgements

본 결과물은 K-water에서 수행한 기존 및 신규 여수로 효율적 연계운영 방안 마련(2021-WR-GP-76-149)의 지원을 받아 연구되었습니다.

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Korean References Translated from the English

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Figure 3. Flow velocity on seawall in A2-3 modeling.

Modeling of the Changes in Flow Velocity on Seawalls under Different Conditions Using FLOW-3D Software

Open Journal of Marine Science
Vol.06 No.02(2016), Article ID:65874,6 pages
10.4236/ojms.2016.62026

FLOW-3D 소프트웨어를 사용하여 다양한 조건에서 Seawalls의 흐름 속도 변경 모델링

Maryam Deilami-Tarifi1, Mehdi Behdarvandi-Askar2*, Vahid Chegini3, Sadegh Haghighi-Pour4
1Department of Coastal Engineering, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshahr, Iran

2Department of Marine Structures, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshahr, Iran
3Iran National Center for Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4Department of Civil Engineering, Excellence in Education Center of Jihad University of Khuzestan, Ahvaz, Iran
Copyright © 2016 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

ABSTRACT

방파벽은 파도힘의 수준을 감소시키고 다른 구조물로부터 보호하기 위해 건설되는 보호 구조물 중 하나입니다. 이와 관련하여 이러한 구조에 대한 보다 정확한 조사는 다른 관점에서 매우 중요합니다. 이 연구는 다른 레이아웃과 경사면에서 장애물을 고려하여 방파제 크라운의 속도 변화를 조사합니다. FLOW-3D는 모델링을 위한 이 연구에서 사용되었습니다. 모델링의 결과는 장애물의 존재가 방파벽의 크라운의 유량을 줄이는 결정적인 역할을 한다는 것을 보여줍니다. 또한, 예상대로, 상류 방파의 경사계는 벽의 가장 낮은 속도가 D-상태 레이아웃과 45°의 경사에서 발생하므로 이 속도를 줄이는 데 매우 결정적입니다.

Keywords: 플로우 속도, 방파제 크라운, 모델링, Flow Velocity, Seawall Crown, Modeling, FLOW-3D

1. 소개

방파벽은 파도의 속도를 감소시키고 다른 구조물을 보호하기 위해 건설되는 보호 구조물 중 하나입니다. 등대는 일반적으로 방파벽에 의해 보호되는 구조 중 하나입니다. 따라서, 방파성상에 통과하는 물의 부피의 중요성 외에도, 이 구조물에 대한 크라운의 통과-흐름의 속도는 이러한 벽 뒤에 있는 구조물에 추진력과 충동을 만드는 속도 요인의 중요성 때문에 매우 중요하다. 기본적으로 업스트림 경사면에서 장애물을 생성하고 업스트림 경사의 속도는 이 속도의 양을 줄이는 데 매우 효과적일 수 있습니다. 그러나 특정 경사면에서 최적의 장애물 레이아웃에 도달하기 위해 모델링하여 이 문제를 정확하게 조사해야 합니다. 본 연구에서는, FLOW-3D의 3차원 모델이 언급된 문제점을 조사하는 데 사용된다 [1].

2. 연구 역사

여러 연구는 파도가 해양 구조물을 덮어 넘나는 데 초점을 맞추고 있습니다. 이러한 방법은 지속적으로 바다 파도로부터 해안을 보호하기 위해 구조물의 오버 토핑을 정확하게 예측했다. 2002년까지 거의 6,500건의 시험이 실시되었습니다. 일반 파도의 물리적 모델도 미국에서 수행되었습니다 [2] . 무작위 파도의 가장 완벽한 세트는 오웬에 의해 완료되었다 (1980). 오웬은 오버 토핑과 바다 벽의 높이와 오버 토핑의 정도 사이의 관계를 연구하기 위해 물리적 모델 테스트의 번호를 수행 [3] . 그는 오버 토핑의 정도는 파도 높이 및 파도 기간과 같은 환경 조건뿐만 아니라 구조 재료의 기하학 및 유형에 따라 달라지며 있음을 보여주었습니다. 이러한 요인의 조합을 조사해야 합니다. 폰 마이어와 듀발 (1992) 연구의 또 다른 시리즈를 수행 [4] .

3. 재료 및 방법

이 연구에서는 68개의 다양한 형상이 모델링용 소프트웨어에 제공되며 다음 표 1에간단히 소개됩니다. 이 68 개의 다른 기하학에는 4 개의 다른 슬로프, 4 개의 다른 레이아웃 및 4 개의 다른 장애물 높이및 장애물이없는 4 개의 상태및 다른 경사에서만 포함 [5] . 그런 다음, 이러한 서로 다른 형상 및 상태는 FLOW-3D 3차원 모델을 사용하여 동일한 조건에서 평가 및 분석됩니다.

표 1. 변수지정.

4. 숫자 모델

FLOW-3D 소프트웨어는 3차원 유동 필드 분석을 통해 유체 역학 분야에서 강력한 유압 시뮬레이터 응용 프로그램입니다. 모델에서 지배하는 방정식은 다른 유사한 모델과 마찬가지로 Navier-Stokes 방정식과 질량 방정식의 보존[6]입니다.

이 응용 프로그램의 채널을 모델링하려면 일반 조건(모든 시스템의 시뮬레이션 포함), 물리적 조건, 형상 및 모델 해결 네트워크, 출력 및 관련 옵션을 조정해야 합니다. 온도도는 시스템 단위, SI 및 온도에 대해 선택되었습니다.

물리적 인 측면에서, 소프트웨어는 현상을 지배하는 물리학의 원칙에 따라 관련 조건을 선택할 수 있습니다. 이 연구를 지배하는 물리적 조건은 중력과 점도와 난기류입니다. 이 소프트웨어의 난기류는 5 가지 모델에 의해 자극되고이 연구에 사용되는 모델은 재정상화 그룹 (RNG)이었습니다. 난기류의 이 모델에서, K-모델에서 실험적으로 계산된 상수값은 암시적으로 파생된다[7].

그 후 유체를 정의해야 합니다. 이 연구의 선택된 유체는 섭씨 20도물[ 8]이다.

다음 단계는 형상을 정의하고 시뮬레이션에서 중요한 네트워크를 해결하는 것입니다 [9]. FLOW3D를 사용하면 소프트웨어에서 사용할 수 있는 도구로 많은 유체 현상을 묘사할 수 있습니다. 채널 형상을 정의하면 네트워크를 해결해야 합니다. 소프트웨어의 정의된 해결 네트워크는 네트워크 크기, 셀 수 및 X, Y 및 Z 및 경계 조건의 세 가지 좌표에서 해당 치수를 포함한 일반(입방) 해결 네트워크의 형태입니다. 네트워크 셀 치수의 크기가 작을수록 시뮬레이션을 위한 프로그램의 기능과 정밀도가 높을수록[10]이됩니다.

5. 결과

다른 그림에서 관찰할 수 있으므로 다이어그램은 두 가지 유형으로, 먼저 그림 1-4를 포함하는 소프트웨어의 직접 출력과 다른 숫자 5-7을 변경 프로세스의 다이어그램으로 포함합니다. 그러나 그림 1-4에서는 경사면 중 하나에서 출력이 소프트웨어 출력에서 직접 가져온다는 점을 언급해야 합니다.

언급된 수치와 관련하여, 이러한 속도는 장애물없이 상태의 상류 경사면에서 최대인 반면 방파제의 상류 경사면에서 가장 높은 속도 비율이 발생한다는 것을 이해할 수 있다. 흥미로운 점은 가장 낮은 속도는 일반적으로 방파제 크라운에 존재한다는 것입니다.

그림 5-8에서 볼 수 있듯이, 상류 방파제의 모든 다른 경사 상태에서, 가장 높은 유량 속도는 10cm 높이와 가장 낮은 속도의 장애물과 관련이 있으며 50cm 높이의 장애물과 관련이 있다. 그 이유는 장애물과의 충돌로 인해 잠재적 에너지로 변환되는 유동 운동 에너지의 가치가 장애물의 높이를 증가시켜 증가하기 때문입니다. 따라서, 높이가

그림 1. A1 모델링의 방파제의 흐름 속도.

그림 2. A2-1 모델링의 방파제의 흐름 속도.

Figure 3. Flow velocity on seawall in A2-3 modeling.

그림 4. A3-1 모델링의 방파제의 흐름 속도.

그림 5. 방파제 유형 A(61° 경사)의 흐름 속도 의 변화.

그림 6. 방파제 형 B (56 ° 경사)의 흐름 속도의 변화.

그림 7. 방파제 유형 C(51° 경사)의 흐름 속도 의 변화.

그림 8. 방파제 유형 D(45° 경사)의 흐름 속도 변경입니다.

해당 유동 운동 에너지는 각 장애물에 대한 흐름의 충돌에서 잠재적 에너지의 해당 높이로 변환되며, 흐름 속도가 잠시 0이 되고 장애물을 건너면 속도가 증가한다. 장애물의 높이가 낮은 것이든, 순간적인 제로 속도 상태가 줄어들고 흐름은 더 높은 속도와 함께 계속 움직입니다.

6. 결론

Also, as it can be observed, the highest difference of velocity in all the figures is between the obstacles with 10
cm height and the obstacles with 50 cm height. Also, this amount of difference in velocity for difference between the obstacles with 10 cm and 20 cm heights is higher than that of the differences in the obstacles with 20
cm and 30 cm heights which can be related to the special conditions in flow hydraulic in that range of height.

또한, 관찰할 수 있으므로 모든 수치에서 속도의 가장 높은 차이는 높이 가 10cm의 장애물과 높이가 50cm인 장애물 사이에 있습니다. 또한, 10cm와 20cm 높이의 장애물 사이의 차이에 대한 속도차이는 20cm 및 30cm 높이의 장애물의 차이보다 높으며, 이는 그 높이 범위에서 유압의 특별한 조건과 관련이 있을 수 있다.

이 논문 인용

메리암 데일라미-타리피, 메디 베다르반디-아스카르, 바히드 체기니, 사데 그 하그하이-부어(2016) FLOW-3D 소프트웨어를 사용하여 다양한 조건하에서 해벽에 흐르는 속도의 변화를 모델링한다. 해양 과학의 오픈 저널,06,317-322. doi: 10.4236/ojms.2016.62026

참조

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Interaction between oblique waves and arc-shaped breakwater

Interaction between oblique waves and arc-shaped breakwater: Wave action on the breakwater and wave transformation behind it

XinyuHanaShengDongaYizhiWangb
aCollege of Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266100, China
bShandong Harbour Engineering Group Co., Ltd., Rizhao, 276826, China

Highlights

Interaction of oblique waves and the arc-shaped breakwater was simulated.

Wave force and pressure distribution along central axis were analysed.

Arc curvature has little effect on the maximum wave force of different sections.

Overtopping-induced Hmax behind breakwater up to 0.7 times of incident wave height.

Abstract

The hydrodynamic interaction between oblique waves and an arc-shaped breakwater and the wave field behind it. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model was used to simulate the interaction between the oblique waves and arc-shaped breakwater. The pressure distribution and wave force in the different sections under different wave directions were measured by experiments to validate the numerical results. The pressure distribution and wave force in the arc-shaped vertical part of the breakwater along the central axis were further analysed using numerical model. The maximum positive and negative forces in each section along the central axis were compared. The results indicated that the arc curvature exerted little effect on the maximum wave force in the different sections. The wave height behind the breakwater was obviously smaller than that at the front. With the decrease in the incident angle, the influence of diffraction on the wave field gradually decreased. Under east–southeast waves, the maximum wave height behind the breakwater caused by overtopping was approximately 0.7 times the incident-wave height. In the spatial distribution of the wave period behind the breakwater, some areas with smaller periods existed, which may be caused by the overtopping flow that broke behind the breakwater.

경사파와 호 모양의 방파제와 그 뒤에 있는 파동 장 사이의 유체 역학적 상호 작용. 3 차원 전산 유체 역학 모델을 사용하여 사선 파와 호 모양의 방파제 사이의 상호 작용을 시뮬레이션했습니다.

서로 다른 파동 방향에서 서로 다른 섹션의 압력 분포와 파력은 수치 결과를 검증하기 위해 실험을 통해 측정 되었습니다. 방파제 중심 축을 따라 호 모양의 수직 부분의 압력 분포와 파력은 수치 모델을 사용하여 추가로 분석되었습니다.

중심 축을 따라 각 섹션에서 최대 양의 힘과 음의 힘을 비교했습니다. 결과는 아크 곡률이 다른 섹션에서 최대 파력에 거의 영향을 미치지 않음을 나타냅니다. 방파제 뒤의 파도 높이는 정면보다 분명히 작았습니다. 입사각이 감소함에 따라 파동 장에 대한 회절의 영향이 점차 감소했습니다.

동-남동 파 하에서 오버 탑으로 인한 방파제 뒤의 최대 파고는 입사 파고의 약 0.7 배였다. 방파제 뒤의 파동주기의 공간적 분포에는 방파제 뒤에서 파열 된 과잉 흐름에 의해 발생할 수 있는 더 작은주기를 가진 일부 지역이 존재했습니다.

Keywords

Arc-shaped breakwater3D numerical modelWave forcePressure distributionWave height and period behind breakwater

Figures -Interaction between oblique waves and arc-shaped breakwater
Figures -Interaction between oblique waves and arc-shaped breakwater
Figures-Interaction between oblique waves and arc-shaped breakwater2
Figures-Interaction between oblique waves and arc-shaped breakwater2

Recommended articles

Figure 6. Maximum inundation field in simulations with (a) no barrier on the seawall (red line), (b) a 1 m barrier across the entire sea wall, and (c) a 1.7 m barrier partially installed on the seawall.

Storm surge inundation simulations comparing three-dimensional with two-dimensional models based on Typhoon Maemi over Masan Bay of South Korea

Jae-Seol Shim†, Jinah Kim†, Dong-Chul Kim‡, Kiyoung Heo†, Kideok Do†, Sun-Jung Park ‡
† Coastal Disaster Research Center,
Korea Institute of Ocean Science &
Technology, 426-744, Ansan, Gyeonggi,
Korea
jsshim@kiost.ac
jakim@kiost.ac
kyheo21@kiost.ac
kddo@kiost.ac
‡ Technology R&D Institute
Hyein E&C Co., Ltd., Seoul 157-861,
Korea
skkkdc@chol.com
Nayana_sj@nate.com

ABSTRACT

Shim, J., Kim, J., Kim, D., Heo, K., Do, K., Park, S., 2013. Storm surge inundation simulations comparing threedimensional with two-dimensional models based on Typhoon Maemi over Masan Bay of South Korea. In:
Conley, D.C., Masselink, G., Russell, P.E. and O’Hare, T.J. (eds.), Proceedings 12th International Coastal Symposium
(Plymouth, England), Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 65, pp. 392-397, ISSN 0749-0208.
Severe storm surge inundation was caused by the typhoon Maemi in Masan Bay, South Korea in September 2003. To
investigate the differences in the storm surge inundation simulated by three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional
models, we used the ADvanced CIRCulation model (ADCIRC) and 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model
(FLOW3D). The simulation results were compared to the flood plain map of Masan Bay following the typhoon Maemi.
To improve the accuracy of FLOW3D, we used a high-resolution digital surface model with a few tens of centimeterresolution, produced by aerial LIDAR survey. Comparison of the results between ADCRIC and FLOW3D simulations shows that the inclusion of detailed information on buildings and topography has an impact, delaying seawater propagation and resulting in a reduced inundation depth and flooding area. Furthermore, we simulated the effect of the installation of a storm surge barrier on the storm surge inundation. The barrier acted to decrease the water volume of the inundation and delayed the arrival time of the storm surge, implying that the storm surge barrier provides more time for residents’ evacuation.

Keywords: Typhoon Maemi, digital surface elevation model, Reynolds-Averaged NavierStokes equations.

2003 년 9 월 대한민국 마산만 태풍 매미에 의해 심한 폭풍 해일 침수가 발생했습니다. 3 차원 (3D) 및 2 차원 모델로 시뮬레이션 한 폭풍 해일 침수의 차이를 조사하기 위해 ADvanced CIRCulation 모델 ( ADCIRC) 및 3D 전산 유체 역학 (CFD) 모델 (FLOW3D).

시뮬레이션 결과는 태풍 매미 이후 마산만 범람원 지도와 비교되었다. FLOW-3D의 정확도를 높이기 위해 우리는 항공 LIDAR 측량으로 생성된 수십 센티미터 해상도의 고해상도 디지털 표면 모델을 사용했습니다.

ADCRIC과 FLOW3D 시뮬레이션의 결과를 비교하면 건물과 지형에 대한 자세한 정보를 포함하면 해수 전파가 지연되고 침수 깊이와 침수 면적이 감소하는 것으로 나타났습니다.

또한, 폭풍 해일 침수에 대한 폭풍 해일 장벽 설치의 효과를 시뮬레이션했습니다. 이 장벽은 침수 물량을 줄이고 폭풍 해일 도착 시간을 지연시키는 역할을 하여 폭풍 해일 장벽이 주민들의 대피에 더 많은 시간을 제공한다는 것을 의미합니다.

INTRODUCTION

2003 년 9 월 12 일 태풍 매미로 인한 강한 폭풍 해일이 남해안을 강타했습니다. 마산 만 일대는 심한 폭풍우 침수로 인해 최악의 피해를 입었고 광범위한 홍수를 겪었습니다. 따라서 마산 만에 예방 체계를 구축하기 위해 폭풍 해일에 의한 침수에 대한 수치 예측을 시도하는 선행 연구가 수행되었다 (Park et al. 2011).

그러나 일반적인 2 차원 (2D) 또는 3 차원 (3D) 수압 가정을 사용할 때 지형의 해상도는 복잡한 해안 구조를 표현하기에 충분하지 않습니다. 따라서 우리는 마산 만의 고해상도 지형도를 통해 전산 유체 역학 (CFD)의 침수 시뮬레이션을 제시한다.

태풍 매미는 2003 년 9 월 12 일 12시 (UTC)에 한반도에 상륙하여 남동부 해안을 따라 추적했습니다 (그림 1). 2003 년 9 월 13 일 6시 (UTC)에 동 일본해로 이동하여 온대 저기압이되었습니다.

풍속과 기압면에서 한국을 강타한 가장 강력한 태풍 중 하나입니다. 특히 마산 만에 접해있는 마산시는 폭풍 해일 홍수로 최악의 피해를 입어 32 명이 사망하고 심각한 해안 피해를 입었다. 태풍이 지나가는 동안 중앙 기압은 950hPa, 진행 속도는 45kmh-1로 마산항의 조 위계를 통해 최대 약 2.3m의 서지 높이를 기록했다.

마산 만에 접한 주거 및 상업 지역은 홍수가 심했고 지하 시설은 폭풍 해일로 침수로 어려움을 겪었습니다 (Yasuda et al. 2005). 이 논문에서는 3D CFD 모델 (FLOW 3D)과 2D ADvanced CIRCulation 모델 (ADCIRC)을 사용하여 기록 된 마산 만에서 가장 큰 폭풍 해일 중 하나에 의해 생성 된 해안 침수를 시뮬레이션했습니다.

건물의 높이와 공간 정보를 포함하는 디지털 표면 모델 (DSM)은 LiDAR (Airborne Light Detection and Ranging)에 의해 만들어졌으며, 폭풍 해일 침수 모델, 즉 3D CFD 모델 (FLOW 3D)의 입력 데이터로 사용되었습니다. ). 또한 ADCIRC의 시뮬레이션 결과는 FLOW3D의 경계 조건으로 사용됩니다.

본 연구의 목적은 극심한 침수 높이와 해안 육지로의 범람을 포함하여 마산 만에서 태풍 매미로 인한 폭풍 해일 침수를 재현하는 것이다.

<중략>………………

Figure 1. The best track and the central pressures of the typhoon Maemi from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). Open circles indicate the locations of the typhoon in 3 h intervals. Filled circles represent locations of the cited stations; A, B, C and D indicate Jeju, Yeosu, Tongyoung, and Masan, respectively.
Figure 1. The best track and the central pressures of the typhoon Maemi from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). Open circles indicate the locations of the typhoon in 3 h intervals. Filled circles represent locations of the cited stations; A, B, C and D indicate Jeju, Yeosu, Tongyoung, and Masan, respectively.
Figure 2. Model domain with FEM mesh for Typhoon Maemi.
Figure 2. Model domain with FEM mesh for Typhoon Maemi.
Figure 3. Validation of surge height for the four major tidal stations on the south coast of the Korea.
Figure 3. Validation of surge height for the four major tidal stations on the south coast of the Korea.
Figure 4. Inundation depth results from (a) ADCIRC, (b) FLOW3D, and (c) inundation field surveying hazard map following typhoon Maemi.
Figure 4. Inundation depth results from (a) ADCIRC, (b) FLOW3D, and (c) inundation field surveying hazard map following typhoon Maemi.
Figure 5. Inundation depth results computed by Flow3D at each time period following arrival of storm surge wave at harbor mouth.
Figure 5. Inundation depth results computed by Flow3D at each time period following arrival of storm surge wave at harbor mouth.
Figure 6. Maximum inundation field in simulations with (a) no barrier on the seawall (red line), (b) a 1 m barrier across the entire sea wall, and (c) a 1.7 m barrier partially installed on the seawall.
Figure 6. Maximum inundation field in simulations with (a) no barrier on the seawall (red line), (b) a 1 m barrier across the entire sea wall, and (c) a 1.7 m barrier partially installed on the seawall.

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Fig. 3. Mesh and depth map for the storm surge model of ADCSWAN model.

ADCSWAN과 FLOW-3D 모델을 이용한 태풍 차바 내습 시 부산 마린시티의 침수범람 재현

최흥배․엄호식†․박종집․강태욱
*, *** ㈜지오시스템리서치 선임, ** ㈜지오시스템리서치 책임, **** 부경대학교 박사

Reproduction of Flood Inundation in Marine City, Busan During the Typhoon Chaba Invasion Using ADCSWAN and FLOW-3D Models

요 약 : 최근 연안지역의 대규모 개발로 인해 고파랑 내습과 강한 태풍으로 발생된 월파는 연안지역의 많은 인명 및 재산피해를 발생시 켰으나 연안지역의 특성을 고려한 침수·범람 연구는 미비한 실정이다. 본 연구는 ADCSWAN(ADCIRC+SWAN) 모델과 FLOW-3D 모델을 적용 하여 해일 및 파랑의 복합요소에 대한 침수범람을 재현하기 위한 방법론에 대한 연구이다. 본 연구에서는 ADCSWAN(ADCIRC+SWAN) 모 델을 이용하여 FLOW-3D 모델의 경계자료(해수위, 파랑)를 추출하고, FLOW-3D 모델 입력값으로 적용하여 태풍 차바 통과시 부산 마린시 티를 대상으로 해일과 월파에 의한 침수범람을 재현하였다. 또한 기존 월파량 경험식과 FLOW-3D 모델로 계산된 월파량을 비교하였으며, 침수범람은 한국국토정보공사의 침수흔적도를 활용하여 정성적인 검증을 수행하여, 본 연구의 유효성을 검토하였다.

Keywords : ADCSWAN, FLOW-3D, 태풍 차바, 월파, 침수범람, Typhoon Chaba, Wave overtopping, Inundation

서 론

연안지역에 인접한 도시지역의 침수피해는 일반적인 도 시침수피해의 특성뿐만 아니라 연안지역의 조위상승 및 월 파현상이 포함된 복합적인 형태의 침수피해가 발생한다. 최근 지구온난화로 인한 기후변화는 평균해수면 상승과 태풍 의 강도 증가로 인해 해안지역의 재해 위험을 높이고 있지 만, 해안지역의 대규모 매립과 개발로 인해 인명손실과 재 산피해를 야기하는 위험도를 증가시켰다. 해안지역은 만조시 해수면 상승, 폭풍해일로 인한 월류 및 월파와 같은 요인에 의해 침수가 발생할 수 있다. 실제로 2003년 태풍 매미로 인한 마산만 조수가 예보치와 비교하여 2 m 이상 상승하여 많은 지역이 침수 및 인명·재산 피해가 발생되었으며, 2016년 태풍 차바는 폭풍해일 내습시 동반되 는 고파랑 발생으로 부산 해운대구 마린 시티에 대규모 침 수범람을 발생시켰다. 그러나 국내 연안도시지역의 특성을 고려한 월파 및 침수에 대한 연구는 미비한 실정이다(Song et al., 2017). 하지만 복잡한 지형이나 연안지역의 경우 방파 제 및 구조물의 형상에 따른 월파를 정밀하게 계산하기 위 해 3차원 전산유체 수치모형(CFD)의 가능성 여부가 검토되 어 왔다. 그러나 지금까지 대부분의 전산유체 수치모형은 그 적용성의 한계성과 큰 영역에 대해 직접 수치모의 하여 월파량을 산정한 예는 드물다. Le Roy et al.(2014)는 프랑스 도시지역에서 월파로 인한 해 안 홍수 문제를 해결하기 위해 XBeach 수치모델 및 경험적 (EurOtop) 모델을 사용하여 최대 월파량과 처오름을 추정하 였다. 우리나라의 설계기준서인 “항만 및 어항 설계기준(Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, 2014)” 경우에는 월파량 산정은 Goda 도표를 단순 직립식 구조물 및 소파호안에 적용하는 것을 제안하였다(Goda, 1970; Goda et al., 1975; Goda, 1985) 월파량 산정과 관련된 최근 연구 경향은 월파량 산정식을 대부분 지수함수 형태로 표현하고 있으며, 여유고와 입사파 고를 입력변수로 하여 월파량 산정이 가능하도록 제시하고 있다(van der Meer and Janssen, 1995; Franco and Franco, 1999; EurOtop, 2007; Anderson and Burcharth, 2009 등). 태풍에 의해 발생하는 폭풍해일의 영향을 예측하기 위해 서는 기본적으로 태풍에 의한 기압 강하, 해상풍, 진행 속도 등에 의한 해수면 변화 양상 및 조석-해일-파랑에 대해 충분 히 재현 가능해야 한다(Kang et al., 2019). 본 연구에서는 태풍 차바 내습시 폭풍해일 ADCSWAN (coupled model of ADCIRC and SWAN)모델과 FLOW-3D 수치 모형 결합을 통해 월파 특성을 재현하고 경험식을 통한 월 파량을 비교·검토하였다.

  1. 연구 개요
    2.1 대상 태풍

본 연구의 대상지역은 대한민국 부산 해안가에 위치한 수 변도시로, 수영만 매립지 일부에 조성된 주거형 타운 지역 이다. 주요 건물이 해안선에 인접해 있으며, 지역 주민의 바 다를 볼 수 있는 조망권 확보를 위해 월파로 인한 방지대책 이 제한적으로 설치되어 있다. 이러한 지역적 특성으로 인 해 2016년 태풍 차바와 2018년 태풍 콩 라이(Kong-Rai) 때 폭 우와 폭풍해일 동반으로 월파와 강우로 인해 마린 시티 주 변의 많은 도로와 상가 침수가 발생되었다.

Fig. 1. Typhoon Chaba route (KMA & JMA)
Fig. 1. Typhoon Chaba route (KMA & JMA)

ADCSWAN과 FLOW-3D 모델을 이용한 태풍 차바 내습 시 부산 마린시티의 침수범람 재현

Fig. 2. Marine City during Typhoon Chaba in 2016.
Fig. 2. Marine City during Typhoon Chaba in 2016.

2016년 발생한 제 18호 태풍 ‘차바(이하 Chaba로 표기함)’ 는 2016년 9월 28일 오전 3시에 중심기압 1,000 hPa, 최대풍속 18 m/s, 강풍 반경 280 km 크기의 ‘소형’ 열대폭풍으로 미국 괌 동쪽 약 590 km 부근 해상에서 발생하여 한반도의 제주 특별자치도 서귀포시와 경상남도 거제시, 부산광역시를 순 차적으로 통과하여 10월 6일 0시에 일본 센다이 서쪽 약 380 km부근 해상에서 중심기압 985 hPa의 온대저기압으로 세력 이 약화되면서 소멸하였다. 태풍의 일시별 정보와 피해사진 을 Fig. 1 및 Fig. 2에 제시하였다.

2.2 적용 모델
2.2.1 ADCSWAN(ADCIRC+SWAN) model

태풍에 의해 발생되는 폭풍해일의 영향을 예측하기 위해 서는 지형적인 특성과 태풍에 의한 기압강하, 해상풍, 진행 속도 등에 의한 해수면 변화 양상 및 조석-해일-파랑에 대 해 충분히 재현 가능해야 한다(Ferreira et al., 2014a, 2014b). 본 연구에서는 태풍에 의해 발생 가능한 현상에 대해 기존 의 다양한 연구에서 적용 및 활용성이 확보된 폭풍해일ADCIRC(ADvanced CIRCulation) 모델과 SWAN(Simulating WAves Nearshore) 파랑모델이 결합된 ADCSWAN(coupled model of ADCIRC and SWAN) 모델을 이용하였다(Dietrich et al., 2011; Suh et al., 2015; Xie et al., 2016; Deb and Ferreira, 2018). 사용한 ADCIRC 모델은 유한요소 유체역학모델로, 수직적 으로 통합된 일반파 연속방정식(generalised wave continuity equation: GWCE)과 운동량 방정식(각각 식(1)과 (2))을 적용하 는 2D 버전(Luettich and Westerink, 2004)을 사용하였다.

<중략> ….

Fig. 3. Mesh and depth map for the storm surge model of ADCSWAN model.
Fig. 3. Mesh and depth map for the storm surge model of ADCSWAN model.
Fig. 5. Simulation boundary of FLOW3D Model [a) Input boundary of wave and storm surge, b) output boundary of wave overtopping rate].
Fig. 5. Simulation boundary of FLOW3D Model [a) Input boundary of wave and storm surge, b) output boundary of wave overtopping rate].
Fig. 6. Verification of tidal level and storm surge during Typhoon Chaba(1618), Pre : tidal predication.
Fig. 6. Verification of tidal level and storm surge during Typhoon Chaba(1618), Pre : tidal predication.
Fig. 7. Verification of significant wave height the Typhoon Chaba.
Fig. 7. Verification of significant wave height the Typhoon Chaba.
Fig. 8. Averaged overtopping rate by empirical formula and FLOW3D model at Marine City during Typhoon Chaba.
Fig. 8. Averaged overtopping rate by empirical formula and FLOW3D model at Marine City during Typhoon Chaba.
Fig. 9. Comparison of inundation results due to Typhoon Chaba [a)Archived inundation map on Marine City area, b) Simulation results obtained from wave overtopping).
Fig. 9. Comparison of inundation results due to Typhoon Chaba [a)Archived inundation map on Marine City area, b) Simulation results obtained from wave overtopping).

<중략>…………

결 론

본 연구에서는 폭풍해일 모델과 3차원 전산유체 모델 연 계를 통해 태풍 차바 통과시 마린시티를 대상으로 침수범람 을 재현하였다. 먼저, 기존 월파량 경험식(EurOtop, 2016)과 FLOW-3D모델 로 산정된 월파량을 비교하였으며. 비교결과 경험식으로 산 정된 월파량은 2.237 m³/m/s이며, FLOW-3D로 계산된 월파량 은 6.438 m³/m/s로 약 2.8배의 차이를 보였다. 이는 경험식이 고파랑에 의한 처오름 등 실제 현상재현에 한계점을 가지고 있기 때문으로 사료된다. 태풍 차바로 인한 수위상승과 폭풍해일 등의 복합적 피해 가 발생한 부산 마린시티 적용결과 현장조사(침수흔적도)와 정량적 비교는 불가능하지만 침수범람 범위의 경우 현장조 사와 비교하여 유효한 결과를 도출할 수 있었다. 기존 월파량 추정은 경험식을 적용하여 산정하였으나, 본 연구에서는 동적모델(FLOW-3D)을 적용하여 월파량을 산정 하였다. 동적모델을 적용할 경우 해당지역의 보다 정확한 형상을 구현할 수 있다는 점에서 기존 경험식에 비하여 정 도 높은 월파량 재현이 가능한 것으로 판단된다. 현재 우리나라 연안을 대상으로 제작된 해안침수예상도 는 해일에 의한 침수범람을 외력요인으로 하고 있으나, 실제 발생하는 침수범람은 해일뿐만 아니라 월파의 영향이 크 게 발생하기도 한다. 본 연구에서는 해일과 월파에 의한 복 합원인에 의한 침수범람을 재현하기 위한 방법론에 대한 연 구를 수행하였다.

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[3] Deb, M. and C. M. Ferreira(2018), Simulation of cycloneinduced storm surges in the low-lying delta of Bangladeshusing coupled hydrodynamic and wave model (SWAN +ADCIRC), J. Flood Risk Manag., Vol. 11, No. S2, pp.750-765.
[4] Dietrich, J. C., M. Zijlema, J. J. Westerink, L. H. Holthuijsen,C. Dawson, R. A. Luettich, R. E. Jensen, J. M. Smith, G. S.Stelling, and G. W. Stone(2011), Modeling hurricane wavesand storm surge using integrally-coupled scalable computations,Coast Eng., Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 45-65.
[5] Dietrich, J. C., S. Bunya, J. J. Westerink, B. A. Ebersole, J.M. Smith, J. H. Atkinson, R. Jensen, D. T. Resio, R. A.Luettich, C. Dawson, V. J. Cardone, A. T. Cox, M. D.Powell, H. J. Westerink, and H. J. Roberts(2010), A highresolution coupled riverine flow, tide, wind, wind wave andstorm surge model for southern Louisiana and Mississippi.Part II: Synoptic description and analyses of HurricanesKatrina and Rita. Mon. Weather Rev., Vol. 138, No. 2, pp.378-404.
[6] EurOtop(2016), Manual on wave overtopping of sea defencesand related structures. An overtopping manual largely basedon European research, but for worldwide application. SecondEdition. Authors: J. W. van der Meer, N. W. H. Allsop, T. Bruce, J. DeRouck, A. Kortenhaus, T. Pullen, H. Schuttrumpf,P. Troch, and B. Zanuttigh, www.overtopping-manual.com.
[7] EurOtop(2007), EurOtop – Wave overtopping of sea defencesand related structures: Assessment Manual.
[8] Ferreira, C. M., J. L. Irish, and F. Olivera(2014a), Quantifyingthe potential impact of land cover changes due to sea-levelrise on storm surge on lower Texas coast bays, Coast Eng.,Vol. 94, pp. 102-111.
[9] Ferreira, C. M., J. L. Irish, and F. Olivera(2014b), Uncertaintyin hurricane surge simulation due to land cover specification,J. Geophys. Res. Ocean., Vol. 119, No. 3, pp. 1812-1827.
[10] Goda, Y.(1970), Estimation of the rate of irregular waveovertopping at seawalls, Technical Report of Port and AirportResearch Institute, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 3-42.
[11] Goda, Y.(1985), Random seas and design of maritimestructures 1st editionth ed. World Scientific Publishing.
[12] Goda, Y., Y. Kishira, and Y. Kamiyama(1975), Laboratoryinvestigation on the overtoppping rate of seawalls by irregularwaves, Technical Report of Port and Airport ResearchInstitute, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 3-44.
[13] Hasselmann, K., T. P. Barnett, E. Bouws, H. Carlson, D. E.Cartwright, E. Enke, J. A. Ewing, H. Gienapp, D. E.Hasselmann, P. Kruseman, A. Meerburg, P. Muller, D. J.Olbers, K. Richter, W. Sell, and H. Walden(1973),Measurement of wind-wave growth and swell decay duringthe Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP), Dtsch.Hydrogr. Z. Suppl., Vol. 12, No. A8, pp. 1-95.
[14] Kang, T. W., S. H. Lee, H. B. Choi, and S. B. Yoon(2019),A Technical Review for Reducing Inundation Damage toHigh-Rise and Underground-Linked Complex Buildings inCoastal Areas (2): Case Analysis for Application, J. KoreanSoc. Hazard Mitig., Vol. 19, No. 5 (Oct.), pp. 45-53.
[15] Le Roy, S., R. Pedreros, C. André, F. Paris, S. Lecacheux, F.Marche, C. Vinchon(2014), Coastal flooding of urban areas byovertopping: dynamic modelling application to the Johannastorm (2008) in Gâvres (France), Natural Hazard and EarthSystem Sciences Discussions, Vol. 2, No. 8, pp. 4947-4985l.
[16] Luettich, R. A. and J. J. Westerink(2004), Formulation andNumerical Implementation of the 2D/3D ADCIRC FiniteElement Model Version 44.XX.
[17] Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries(2014), Harbour and FisheryDesign Criteria.
[18] Song, Y., J. Joo, J. Lee, and M. Park(2017), A Study onEstimation of Inundation Area in Coastal Urban Area Applying Wave Overtopping, J. Korean Soc. Hazard Mitig.,Vol. 17(2), pp. 501-510.
[19] Suh, S. W., H. Y. Lee, H. J. Kim, and J. G. Fleming(2015),An efficient early warning system for typhoon storm surgebased on time-varying advisories by coupled ADCIRC andSWAN, Ocean Dyn. 65, pp. 617-646.
[20] Van der Meer, J. W. and H. Janssen(1995). Wave run-up andovertopping at dikes, Wave forces on inclined and verticalwall structures, ASCE.
[21] Xie, D. M., Q. P. Zou, and J. W. Cannon(2016), Applicationof SWAN + ADCIRC to tide-surge and wave simulation inGulf of Maine during Patriot’s Day storm, Water Sci. Eng.,Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 33-41.
[22] Yoon, H. S., J. H. Park, and Y. H. Jeon(2017), A Study onWave Overtopping of the Seawall at Haeundae Marine CityDuring the Passing of Typhoon Chaba, J. Korean Soc. Mar.Environ. Energy, Vol. 20(3), pp. 152-159.

Culvert Application / 암거 시설물

Culvert Applications / 암거 시설물 유동해석 개요

Brain Fox / CFD Engineer, Flow Science, inc

근래 이상기후에 의한 강우량 증대와 도시화에 따른 첨두 유출량의 증대 및 도달시간의 단축은 하류지점의 빈번한 범람을 유발하여, 이러한 문제들의 해결을 위해 저류지와 같은 우수 유출 저감시설 구축을 추진하고 있습니다.

Culvert 시설물의 최적 설계 또는 기존 시설물의 개선을 통한 문제점 해결에 필요한 3차원 유동 해석은 FLOW-3D를 활용하여 도움을 받을 수 있습니다.

암거 흐름은 지형 및 수리조건에 따라 복잡하고 다양한 흐름 특성을나타내고 있으며, 이로 인해 암거의 3차원 유동해석(CFD)이 점점 더 필수적인 업무 과정이 되어 가고 있습니다.

기본 Culvert 유동

FLOW-3D를 이용한 Culvert 유동해석

Overtopping

None-Liner

Energy Dissipiration

Fish Passage / 어도

Sedimentation / Outlet Scour

Multi-ballel culvert

Moning Glory Spillway

Air entrainment

FLOW-3D를 이용한 실제 해석

초기 해석 조건

해석시간

조선/해양 분야

Coastal & Maritime

FLOW-3D 는 선박설계, 슬로싱 동역학, 파도에 미치는 영향 및 환기를 포함하여 해안 및 해양 관련 분야에 사용할 수 있는 이상적인 소프트웨어입니다.

자유 표면 유체 역학, 파동 생성, 움직이는 물체, 계선 및 용접 공정과 관련한 FLOW-3D 의 기능은 해양 및 해양 산업에서 CFD 공정을 모델링하는 데 매우 적합한 도구입니다. 해안 응용 분야의 경우  FLOW-3D  해안 응용 분야의 경우 FLOW-3D  는 해안 구조물에 대한 심한 폭풍 및 쓰나미 파동의 세부 사항을 정확하게 예측하고 돌발 홍수 및 중요 구조물 홍수 및 피해 분석에 사용됩니다. 기능은 다음과 같습니다.

  • 자유 표면 – 파동 유체 역학 및 오버 토핑 : 규칙 및 불규칙파 및 파동 스펙트럼 (Pierson Moskowitz, JONSWAP)
  • Seakeeping – slamming, planing, porpoising 및 선체 선체 변위 : 완전히 결합된 선박 및 수중 차량 유체 역학
  • 선체 – Resistance, stability and dynamics: surging, heaving, pitching and rolling motion (response amplitude operators or RAOs)
  • 슬로싱 – LNG / 밸러스트 탱크
  • 해양 공학 – 파동 에너지 변환기
 

해안 응용 분야의 경우, FLOW-3D 는 강력한 폭풍과 쓰나미 현상에 의한 해안 구조물이 받는 영향에 대한 세부 사항 예측, 돌발 홍수에 의한 중요한 시설물에 대한 정확한 피해 분석 등을 위해 사용됩니다.

Mooring Lines, Springs and Ropes

FLOW-3D (계류선 및 스프링 등)의 특수 물체를 다른 움직이는 물체에 부착하면 엔지니어가 선박 런칭, 부유 장애물 역학, 부표, 파도에너지 변환기 등을 정확하게 포착할 수 있습니다.

Welding

FLOW-3D 용접 모듈이 추가되면서 조선업계의 용접분야에서는 다공성 등 용접 결함을 최소화할 수 있어 선체의 품질을 크게 높이는 동시에 생산 시간을 최적화할 수 있습니다.

Coastal & Maritime Case Studies

FLOW-3D 사용자들은 연약한 해안선 보호, 구조물에 대한 파장 시뮬레이션, 선체 설계 최적화, 선박 내 환기 연구 등 해안 및 해양 애플리케이션에 FLOW-3D를 사용합니다.

우리는 보트가 세계 항해를 하면서 마주칠 것 같은 다양한 조건에서 항해를 할 수 있는지를 볼 수 있었습니다. 그리고 속도뿐만 아니라 연료 효율과 안전도 고려하도록 설계를 수정할 수 있었습니다.
– Pete Bethune, skipper of Earthrace

Lateral wave impact in waterWave resultsEarthrace vessel
Validation of Sloshing Simulations in Narrow Tanks / Aerial Landslide Generated Wave Simulations / Earthrace: Speed, Fuel Efficiency and Safety
Wave impact vertical displacementEmerged breakwater accropodeStokes theory horizontal velocity
Wave Impact on Offshore StructuresInteraction Between Waves and BreakwatersWave Forces on Coastal Bridges

기타

Bibliography

Models


관련 기술자료

Fig. 8. Comparison of the wave pattern for : (a) Ship wave only; (b) Ship wave in the presence of a following current.

균일한 해류가 존재하는 선박 파도의 수치 시뮬레이션

Numerical simulation of ship waves in the presence of a uniform current CongfangAiYuxiangMaLeiSunGuohaiDongState Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, ...
더 보기
Extratropical cyclone damage to the seawall in Dawlish, UK: eyewitness accounts, sea level analysis and numerical modelling

영국 Dawlish의 방파제에 대한 온대 저기압 피해: 목격자 설명, 해수면 분석 및 수치 모델링

Extratropical cyclone damage to the seawall in Dawlish, UK: eyewitness accounts, sea level analysis and numerical modelling Keith Adams & ...
더 보기
Hydrodynamics of tidal bore overflow on the spur dike and its influence on the local scour

Hydrodynamics of tidal bore overflow on the spur dike and its influence on the local scour

Spur 제방의 갯벌 범람과 국지 세굴에 미치는 영향의 유체역학 ZhiyongZhangabCunhongPanabJianZengabFuyuanChenabHaoQincKunHeabKuiZhudEnjinZhaobc Highlights The tidal bore overflow and scour behind the spur ...
더 보기
CFD assessment of the wind forces and moments of superstructures through RANS

RANS를 통한 상부구조물의 풍력 및 모멘트에 대한 CFD 평가

HiroshiKobayashiaKenichiKumeaHideoOriharabTakuroIkebuchicIchiroAokidRyoYoshidaeHisafumiYoshidabTomohiroRyufYujiAraigKosukeKatagirihSeijiIkedaiShotaYamanakajHideakiAkibayashikShujiMizokamil Abstract 풍동시험 및 회귀식과 더불어 선박의 설계단계에서 상부구조물의 풍력 및 모멘트를 추정하기 위한 방법으로 수치해석이 사용되기 시작하였다. 그러나 상부구조물 주변의 ...
더 보기
Fig. 2 Model Test System

경로점을 가지는 해상풍력 석션버켓 기초의 기울기 제어 모형실험

Model tests for tilting control of suction bucket foundation for offshore wind turbine with path points J. Korean Soc. Hazard ...
더 보기
Flow-3D 모형을 이용한 인공어초 설치 지반의 입경에 따른 세굴 특성 분석

Flow-3D 모형을 이용한 인공어초 설치 지반의 입경에 따른 세굴 특성 분석

발행기관 : 한국방재학회저자명 : 윤대호(Yun, Dae-Ho) , 김정태(Kim, Jeong-Tae) , 윤한삼(Yoon, Han-Sam) , 나원배(Na, Won-Bae) , 김윤태(Kim, Yun-Tae)간행물 정보 : ...
더 보기
Prediction of local scour depth of sea-crossing bridges based on the energy balance theory

에너지 균형이론에 기초한 횡단교량 국부세굴깊이 예측

Prediction of local scour depth of sea-crossing bridges based on the energy balance theory Jian Guo,Jiyi Wu &Tao WangReceived 22 ...
더 보기
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Hydrodynamic Performance of a Sloping Floating Breakwater with and Without Chain-Net

Chain-Net이 있거나 없는 경사 부유식 방파제의 유체역학적 성능에 대한 실험 및 수치적 조사

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Hydrodynamic Performance of a Sloping Floating Breakwater with and Without Chain-Net Sahel Sohrabi, Mohamad Ali ...
더 보기
Figure 15. Localized deformations on revetment due to run-down and sliding of armor from body laboratory model (left) and numerical modeling (right).

지속 가능한 해안 보호 구조로서 굴절식 콘크리트 블록 매트리스의 손상 메커니즘의 수치적 모델링

Numerical Modeling of Failure Mechanisms in Articulated Concrete Block Mattress as a Sustainable Coastal Protection Structure Author Ramin Safari Ghaleh(Department ...
더 보기
Wave Loads Assessment on Coastal Structures at Inundation Risk Using CFD Modelling

CFD 모델링을 사용하여 침수 위험이 있는 해안 구조물에 대한 파랑 하중 평가

Wave Loads Assessment on Coastal Structures at Inundation Risk Using CFD Modellin Ana GomesJosé Pinho Conference paperFirst Online: 19 November ...
더 보기

Coastal & Maritime Bibliography

Coastal & Maritime Bibliography

다음은 연안 및 해양 분야의 기술 문서 모음입니다.
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  결과를 포함하고 있습니다. FLOW-3D를 사용하여 연안 및 해양 시설물을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션 하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

2023년 3월 10일 Update

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Coastal & Maritime Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate Coastal & Maritime applications.

42-23   Antonija Harasti, Gordon Gilja, Simulation of equilibrium scour hole development around riprap sloping structure using the numerical model, EGU General Assembly, 2023. doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-6811

25-23   Ke Hu, Xinglan Bai, Murilo A. Vaz, Numerical simulation on the local scour processing and influencing factors of submarine pipeline, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 11.1; 234, 2023. doi.org/10.3390/jmse11010234

12-23   Fan Zhang, Zhipeng Zang, Ming Zhao, Jinfeng Zhang, Numerical investigations on scour and flow around two crossing pipelines on a sandy seabed, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 10.12; 2019, 2023. doi.org/10.3390/jmse10122019

10-23 Wenshe Zhou, Yongzhou Cheng, Zhiyuan Lin, Numerical simulation of long-wave wave dissipation in near-water flat-plate array breakwaters, Ocean Engineering, 268; 113377, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2022.113377

181-22   Ramtin Sabeti, Mohammad Heidarzadeh, Numerical simulations of water waves generated by subaerial granular and solid-block landslides: Validation, comparison, and predictive equations, Ocean Engineering, 266.3; 112853, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2022.112853 

167-22 Zhiyong Zhang, Cunhong Pan, Jian Zeng, Fuyuan Chen, Hao Qin, Kun He, Kui Zhu, Enjin Zhao, Hydrodynamics of tidal bore overflow on the spur dike and its infuence on the local scour, Ocean Engineering, 266.4; 113140, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2022.113140

166-22 Nguyet-Minh Nguyen, Duong Do Van, Duy Tu Le, Quyen Nguyen, Bang Tran, Thanh Cong Nguyen, David Wright, Ahad Hasan Tanim, Phong Nguyen Thanh, Duong Tran Anh, Physical and numerical modeling of four different shapes of breakwaters to test the suspended sediment trapping capacity in the Mekong Delta, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 279; 108141, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2022.108141

163-22 Sahameddin Mahmoudi Kurdistani, Giuseppe Roberto Tomasicchio, Felice D’Alessandro, Antonio Francone, Formula for wave transmission at submerged homogeneous porous breakwaters, Ocean Engineering, 266.4; 113053, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2022.113053

162-22 Kai Wei, Xueshuang Yin, Numerical study into configuration of horizontal flanges on hydrodynamic performance of moored box-type floating breakwater, Ocean Engineering, 266.4; 112991, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2022.112991

161-22 Sung-Chul Jang, Jin-Yong Jeong, Seung-Woo Lee, Dongha Kim, Identifying hydraulic characteristics related to fishery activities using numerical analysis and an automatic identification system of a fishing vessel, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 10; 1619, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111619

156-22 Keith Adams, Mohammad Heidarzadeh, Extratropical cyclone damage to the seawall in Dawlish, UK: Eyewitness accounts, sea level analysis and numerical modelling, Natural Hazards, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s11069-022-05692-2

155-22 Youxiang Lu, Zhenlu Wang, Zegao Yin, Guoxiang Wu, Bingchen Liang, Experimental and numerical studies on local scour around closely spaced circular piles under the action of steady current, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 10; 1569, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111569

152-22 Nauman Riyaz Maldar, Ng Cheng Yee, Elif Oguz, Shwetank Krishna, Performance investigation of a drag-based hydrokinetic turbine considering the effect of deflector, flow velocity, and blade shape, Ocean Engineering, 266.2; 112765, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2022.112765

148-22   Ramtin Sabeti, Mohammad Heidarzadeh, Numerical simulations of water waves generated by subaerial granular and solid-block landslides: Validation, comparison, and predictive equations, Ocean Engineering, 266.3; 112853, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2022.112853

145-22   I-Fan Tseng, Chih-Hung Hsu, Po-Hung Yeh, Ting-Chieh Lin, Physical mechanism for seabed scouring around a breakwater—a case study in Mailiao Port, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 10; 1386, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/jmse10101386

144-22   Jiarui Yu, Baozeng Yue, Bole Ma, Isogeometric analysis with level set method for large-amplitude liquid sloshing, Ocean Engineering, 265; 112613, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2022.112613

141-22   Qi Yang, Peng Yu, Hongjun Liu, Computational investigation of scour characteristics of USAF in multi-specie sand under steady current, Ocean Engineering, 262; 112141, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2022.112141

128-22   Atish Deoraj, Calvin Wells, Justin Pringle, Derek Stretch, On the reef scale hydrodynamics at Sodwana Bay, South Africa, Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s10652-022-09896-9

108-22   Angela Di Leo, Mariano Buccino, Fabio Dentale, Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, CFD analysis of wind effect on wave overtopping, 32nd International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference,  ISOPE-I-22-428, 2022.

105-22   Pin-Tzu Su, Chen-shan Kung, Effects of currents and sediment flushing on marine pipes, 32nd International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, ISOPE-I-22-153, 2022.

89-22   Kai Wei, Cong Zhou, Bo Xu, Spatial distribution models of horizontal and vertical wave impact pressure on the elevated box structure, Applied Ocean Research, 125; 103245, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2022.103245

87-22   Tran Thuy Linh, Numerical modelling (3D) of wave interaction with porous structures in the Mekong Delta coastal zone, Thesis, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, 2022.

82-22   Seyyed-Mahmood Ghassemizadeh, Mohammad Javad Ketabdari, Modeling of solitary wave interaction with curved-facing seawalls using numerical method, Advances in Civil Engineering, 5649637, 2022. doi.org/10.1155/2022/5649637

81-22   Raphael Alwan, Boyin Ding, David M. Skene, Zhaobin Li, Luke G. Bennetts, On the structure of waves radiated by a submerged cylinder undergoing large-amplitude heave motions, 32nd International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, Shanghai, China, June 5-10, 2022. doi.org/10.1111/jfr3.12828

77-22   Weiyun Chen, Linchong Huang, Dan Wang, Chao Liu, Lingyu Xu, Zhi Ding, Effects of siltation and desiltation on the wave-induced stability of foundation trench of immersed tunnel, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 160; 107360, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2022.107360

63-22   Yongzhou Cheng, Zhiyuan Lin, Gan Hu, Xing Lyu, Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the porous I-type composite breakwater, Journal of Marine Science and Application, 21; pp. 140-150, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s11804-022-00251-4

37-22   Ray-Yeng Yang, Chuan-Wen Wang, Chin-Cheng Huang, Cheng-Hsien Chung, Chung-Pang, Chen, Chih-Jung Huang, The 1:20 scaled hydraulic model test and field experiment of barge-type floating offshore wind turbine system, Ocean Engineering, 247.1; 110486, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.110486

35-22   Mingchao Cui, Zhisong Li, Chenglin Zhang, Xiaoyu Guo, Statistical investigation into the flow field of closed aquaculture tanks aboard a platform under periodic oscillation, Ocean Engineering, 248; 110677, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2022.110677

30-22   Jijian Lian, Jiale Li, Yaohua Guo, Haijun Wang, Xu Yang, Numerical study on local scour characteristics of multi-bucket jacket foundation considering exposed height, Applied Ocean Research, 121; 103092. doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2022.103092

19-22   J.J. Wiegerink, T.E. Baldock, D.P. Callaghan, C.M. Wang, Slosh suppression blocks – A concept for mitigating fluid motions in floating closed containment fish pen in high energy environments, Applied Ocean Research, 120; 103068, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2022.103068

9-22   Amir Bordbar, Soroosh Sharifi, Hassan Hemida, Investigation of scour around two side-by-side piles with different spacing ratios in live-bed, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 208; pp. 302-309, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-7735-9_33

7-22   Jinzhao Li, Xuan Kong, Yilin Yang, Lu Deng, Wen Xiong, CFD investigations of tsunami-induced scour around bridge piers, Ocean Engineering, 244; 110373, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.110373

3-22   Ana Gomes, José Pinho, Wave loads assessment on coastal structures at inundation risk using CFD modelling, Climate Change and Water Security, 178; pp. 207-218, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-5501-2_17

2-22   Ramtin Sabeti, Mohammad Heidarzadeh, Numerical simulations of tsunami wave generation by submarine landslides: Validation and sensitivity analysis to landslide parameters, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 148.2; 05021016, 2022. doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)WW.1943-5460.0000694

146-21   Ming-ming Liu, Hao-cheng Wang, Guo-qiang Tang, Fei-fei Shao, Xin Jin, Investigation of local scour around two vertical piles by using numerical method, Ocean Engineering, 244; 110405, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.110405

135-21   Jian Guo, Jiyi Wu, Tao Wang, Prediction of local scour depth of sea-crossing bridges based on the energy balance theory, Ships and Offshore Structures, 16.10, 2021. doi.org/10.1080/17445302.2021.2005362

133-21   Sahel Sohrabi, Mohamad Ali Lofollahi Yaghin, Mohamad Hosein Aminfar, Alireza Mojtahedi, Experimental and numerical investigation of hydrodynamic performance of a sloping floating breakwater with and without chain-net, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology: Transactions of Civil Engineering, , 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s40996-021-00780-y

131-21   Seyed Morteza Marashian, Mehdi Adjami, Ahmad Rezaee Mazyak, Numerical modelling investigation of wave interaction on composite berm breakwater, China Ocean Engineering, 35; pp. 631-645, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s13344-021-0060-x

124-21   Ramin Safari Ghaleh, Omid Aminoroayaie Yamini, S. Hooman Mousavi, Mohammad Reza Kavianpour, Numerical modeling of failure mechanisms in articulated concrete block mattress as a sustainable coastal protection structure, Sustainability, 13.22; pp. 1-19, 2021.

118-21   A. Keshavarz, M. Vaghefi, G. Ahmadi, Investigation of flow patterns around rectangular and oblong peirs with collar located in a 180-degree sharp bend, Scientia Iranica A, 28.5; pp. 2479-2492, 2021.

109-21   Jacek Jachowski, Edyta Książkiewicz, Izabela Szwoch, Determination of the aerodynamic drag of pneumatic life rafts as a factor for increasing the reliability of rescue operations, Polish Maritime Research, 28.3; p. 128-136, 2021. doi.org/10.2478/pomr-2021-0040

107-21   Jiay Han, Bing Zhu, Baojie Lu, Hao Ding, Ke Li, Liang Cheng, Bo Huang, The influence of incident angles and length-diameter ratios on the round-ended cylinder under regular wave action, Ocean Engineering, 240; 109980, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.109980

96-21   Andrea Franco, Jasper Moernaut, Barbara Schneider-Muntau, Michael Strasser, Bernhard Gems, Triggers and consequences of landslide-induced impulse waves – 3D dynamic reconstruction of the Taan Fiord 2015 tsunami event, Engineering Geology, 294; 106384, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2021.106384

95-21   Ahmed A. Romya, Hossam M. Moghazy, M.M. Iskander, Ahmed M. Abdelrazek, Performance assessment of corrugated semi-circular breakwaters for coastal protection, Alexandria Engineering Journal, in press, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2021.08.086

87-21   Ruigeng Hu, Hongjun Liu, Hao Leng, Peng Yu, Xiuhai Wang, Scour characteristics and equilibrium scour depth prediction around umbrella suction anchor foundation under random waves, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 9; 886, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080886

78-21   Sahir Asrari, Habib Hakimzadeh, Nazila Kardan, Investigation on the local scour beneath piggyback pipelines under clear-water conditions, China Ocean Engineering, 35; pp. 422-431, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s13344-021-0039-7

64-21   Pin-Tzu Su, Chen-shan Kung, Effects of diffusers on discharging jet, 31st International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Rhodes, Greece, June 20-25, 2021.

62-21   Fei Wu, Wei Li, Shuzhao Li, Xiaopeng Shen, Delong Dong, Numerical simulation of scour of backfill soil by jetting flows on the top of buried caisson, 31st International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Rhodes, Greece, June 20-25, 2021.

56-21   Murat Aksel, Oral Yagci, V.S. Ozgur Kirca, Eryilmaz Erdog, Naghmeh Heidari, A comparitive analysis of coherent structures around a pile over rigid-bed and scoured-bottom, Ocean Engineering, 226; 108759, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.108759

52-21   Byeong Wook Lee, Changhoon Lee, Equation for ship wave crests in a uniform current in the entire range of water depths, Coastal Engineering, 167; 103900, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2021.103900

43-21   Agnieszka Faulkner, Claire E. Bulgin, Christopher J. Merchant, Characterising industrial thermal plumes in coastal regions using 3-D numerical simulations, Environmental Research Communications, 3; 045003, 2021. doi.org/10.1088/2515-7620/abf62e

39-21   Fan Yang, Yiqi Zhang, Chao Liu, Tieli Wang, Dongin Jiang, Yan Jin, Numerical and experimental investigations of flow pattern and anti-vortex measures of forebay in a multi-unit pumping station, Water, 13.7; 935, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13070935

30-21   Norfadhlina Khalid, Aqil Azraie Che Shamshudin, Megat Khalid Puteri Zarina, Analysis on wave generation and hull: Modification for fishing vessels, Advanced Engineering for Processes and Technologies II: Advanced Structured Materials, 147; pp. 77-89, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-67307-9_9

28-21   Jae-Sang Jung, Jae-Seon Yoon, Seokkoo Kang, Seokil Jeong, Seung Oh Lee, Yong-Sung Park, Discharge characteristics of drainage gates on Saemangeum tidal dyke, South Korea, KSCE Journal of Engineering, 25; pp. 1308-1325, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s12205-021-0590-z

24-21   Ali Temel, Mustafa Dogan, Time dependent investigation of the wave induced scour at the trunk section of a rubble mound breakwater, Ocean Engineering, 221; 108564, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.108564

13-21   P.X. Zou, L.Z. Chen, The coupled tube-mooring system SFT hydrodynamic characteristics under wave excitations, Proceedings, 14th International Conference on Vibration Problems, Crete, Greece, September 1 – 4, 2019, pp. 907-923, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-8049-9_55

122-20  M.A. Musa, M.F. Roslan, M.F. Ahmad, A.M. Muzathik, M.A. Mustapa, A. Fitriadhy, M.H. Mohd, M.A.A. Rahman, The influence of ramp shape parameters on performance of overtopping breakwater for energy conversion, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8.11; 875, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/jmse8110875

120-20  Lee Hooi Chie, Ahmad Khairi Abd Wahab, Derivation of engineering design criteria for flow field around intake structure: A numerical simulation study, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8.10; 827, 2020.  doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100827

109-20  Mario Maiolo, Riccardo Alvise Mel, Salvatore Sinopoli, A stepwise approach to beach restoration at Calabaia Beach, Water, 12.10; 2677, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/w12102677

107-20  S. Deshpande, P. Sundsbø, S. Das, Ship resistance analysis using CFD simulations in Flow-3D, International Journal of Multiphysics, 14.3; pp. 227-236, 2020. doi.org/10.21152/1750-9548.14.3.227

103-20   Mahmood Nematollahi, Mohammad Navim Moghid, Numerical simulation of spatial distribution of wave overtopping on non-reshaping berm breakwaters, Journal of Marine Science and Application, 19; pp. 301-316, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s11804-020-00147-1

98-20   Lin Zhao, Ning Wang, Qian Li, Analysis of flow characteristics and wave dissipation performances of a new structure, Proceedings, 30th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Online, October 11-16, ISOPE-I-20-3289, 2020.

96-20   Xiaoyu Guo, Zhisong Li, Mingchao Cui, Benlong Wang, Numerical investigation on flow characteristics of water in the fish tank on a force-rolling aquaculture platform, Ocean Engineering, 217; 107936, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.107936

92-20   Yong-Jun Cho, Scour controlling effect of hybrid mono-pile as a substructure of offshore wind turbine: A numerical study, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8.9; 637, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/jmse8090637

89-20   Andrea Franco, Jasper Moernaut, Barbara Schneider-Muntau, Michael Strasser, Bernhard Gems, The
1958 Lituya Bay tsunami – pre-event bathymetry reconstruction and 3D numerical modelling utilising the computational fluid dynamics software
Flow-3D
, Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, 20; pp. 2255–2279, 2020. doi.org/10.5194/nhess-20-2255-2020

81-20   Eliseo Marchesi, Marco Negri, Stefano Malavasi, Development and analysis of a numerical model for a two-oscillating-body wave energy converter in shallow water, Ocean Engineering, 214; 107765, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.107765

79-20   Zegao Yin, Yanxu Wang, Yong Liu, Wei Zou, Wave attenuation by rigid emergent vegetation under combined wave and current flows, Ocean Engineering, 213; 107632, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.107632

71-20   B. Pan, N. Belyaev, FLOW-3D software for substantiation the layout of the port water area, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Construction Mechanics, Hydraulics and Water Resources Engineering (CONMECHYDRO), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23-25 April, 883; 012020, 2020. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/883/1/012020

51-20       Yupeng Ren, Xingbei Xu, Guohui Xu, Zhiqin Liu, Measurement and calculation of particle trajectory of liquefied soil under wave action, Applied Ocean Research, 101; 102202, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2020.102202

50-20       C.C. Battiston, F.A. Bombardelli, E.B.C. Schettini, M.G. Marques, Mean flow and turbulence statistics through a sluice gate in a navigation lock system: A numerical study, European Journal of Mechanics – B/Fluids, 84; pp.155-163, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.euromechflu.2020.06.003

49-20     Ahmad Fitriadhy, Nur Amira Adam, Nurul Aqilah Mansor, Mohammad Fadhli Ahmad, Ahmad Jusoh, Noraieni Hj. Mokhtar, Mohd Sofiyan Sulaiman, CFD investigation into the effect of heave plate on vertical motion responses of a floating jetty, CFD Letters, 12.5; pp. 24-35, 2020. doi.org/10.37934/cfdl.12.5.2435

40-20       P. April Le Quéré, I. Nistor, A. Mohammadian, Numerical modeling of tsunami-induced scouring around a square column: Performance assessment of FLOW-3D and Delft3D, Journal of Coastal Research (preprint), 2020. doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-19-00181

38-20       Sahameddin Mahmoudi Kurdistani, Giuseppe Roberto Tomasicchio, Daniele Conte, Stefano Mascetti, Sensitivity analysis of existing exponential empirical formulas for pore pressure distribution inside breakwater core using numerical modeling, Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 1; pp. 65-71, 2020. doi.org/10.4408/IJEGE.2020-01.S-08

36-20       Mohammadamin Torabi, Bruce Savage, Efficiency improvement of a novel submerged oscillating water column (SOWC) energy harvester, Proceedings, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress (Cancelled), Henderson, Nevada, May 17–21, 2020. doi.org/10.1061/9780784482940.003

32-20       Adriano Henrique Tognato, Modelagem CFD da interação entre hidrodinâmica costeira e quebra-mar submerso: estudo de caso da Ponta da Praia em Santos, SP (CFD modeling of interaction between sea waves and submerged breakwater at Ponta de Praia – Santos, SP: a case study, Thesis, Universidad Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil, 2020.

29-20   Ana Gomes, José L. S. Pinho, Tiago Valente, José S. Antunes do Carmo and Arkal V. Hegde, Performance assessment of a semi-circular breakwater through CFD modelling, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8.3, art. no. 226, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030226

23-20  Qi Yang, Peng Yu, Yifan Liu, Hongjun Liu, Peng Zhang and Quandi Wang, Scour characteristics of an offshore umbrella suction anchor foundation under the combined actions of waves and currents, Ocean Engineering, 202, art. no. 106701, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2019.106701

04-20  Bingchen Liang, Shengtao Du, Xinying Pan and Libang Zhang, Local scour for vertical piles in steady currents: review of mechanisms, influencing factors and empirical equations, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8.1, art. no. 4, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010004

104-19   A. Fitriadhy, S.F. Abdullah, M. Hairil, M.F. Ahmad and A. Jusoh, Optimized modelling on lateral separation of twin pontoon-net floating breakwater, Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences, 13.4, pp. 5764-5779, 2019. doi.org/10.15282/jmes.13.4.2019.04.0460

103-19  Ahmad Fitriadhy, Nurul Aqilah Mansor, Nur Adlina Aldin and Adi Maimun, CFD analysis on course stability of an asymmetrical bridle towline model of a towed ship, CFD Letters, 11.12, pp. 43-52, 2019.

90-19   Eric P. Lemont and Karthik Ramaswamy, Computational fluid dynamics in coastal engineering: Verification of a breakwater design in the Torres Strait, Proceedings, pp. 762-768, Australian Coasts and Ports 2019 Conference, Hobart, Australia, September 10-13, 2019.

86-19   Mohammed Arab Fatiha, Benoît Augier, François Deniset, Pascal Casari, and Jacques André Astolfi, Morphing hydrofoil model driven by compliant composite structure and internal pressure, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 7:423, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/jmse7120423

83-19   Cong-Uy Nguyen, So-Young Lee, Thanh-Canh Huynh, Heon-Tae Kim, and Jeong-Tae Kim, Vibration characteristics of offshore wind turbine tower with gravity-based foundation under wave excitation, Smart Structures and Systems, 23:5, pp. 405-420, 2019. doi.org/10.12989/sss.2019.23.5.405

68-19   B.W. Lee and C. Lee, Development of an equation for ship wave crests in a current in whole water depths, Proceedings, 10th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2019), Hanoi, Vietnam, September 25-28, 2019; pp. 207-212, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-0291-0_29

62-19   Byeong Wook Lee and Changhoon Lee, Equation for ship wave crests in the entire range of water depths, Coastal Engineering, 153:103542, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.103542

23-19     Mariano Buccino, Mohammad Daliri, Fabio Dentale, Angela Di Leo, and Mario Calabrese, CFD experiments on a low crested sloping top caisson breakwater, Part 1: Nature of loadings and global stability, Ocean Engineering, Vol. 182, pp. 259-282, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2019.04.017

21-19     Mahsa Ghazian Arabi, Deniz Velioglu Sogut, Ali Khosronejad, Ahmet C. Yalciner, and Ali Farhadzadeh, A numerical and experimental study of local hydrodynamics due to interactions between a solitary wave and an impervious structure, Coastal Engineering, Vol. 147, pp. 43-62, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.02.004

15-19     Chencong Liao, Jinjian Chen, and Yizhou Zhang, Accumulation of pore water pressure in a homogeneous sandy seabed around a rocking mono-pile subjected to wave loads, Vol. 173, pp. 810-822, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.12.072

09-19     Yaoyong Chen, Guoxu Niu, and Yuliang Ma, Study on hydrodynamics of a new comb-type floating breakwater fixed on the water surface, 2018 International Symposium on Architecture Research Frontiers and Ecological Environment (ARFEE 2018), Wuhan, China, December 14-16, 2018, E3S Web of Conferences Vol. 79, Art. No. 02003, 2019. doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20197902003

08-19     Hongda Shi, Zhi Han, and Chenyu Zhao, Numerical study on the optimization design of the conical bottom heaving buoy convertor, Ocean Engineering, Vol. 173, pp. 235-243, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.12.061

06-19   S. Hemavathi, R. Manjula and N. Ponmani, Numerical modelling and experimental investigation on the effect of wave attenuation due to coastal vegetation, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference in Ocean Engineering (ICOE2018), Vol. 2, pp. 99-110, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3134-3_9

87-18   Muhammad Syazwan Bazli, Omar Yaakob and Kang Hooi Siang, Validation study of u-oscillating water column device using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation, 11thInternational Conference on Marine Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 13-14, 2018.

86-18   Nur Adlina Aldin, Ahmad Fitriadhy, Nurul Aqilah Mansor, and Adi Maimun, CFD analysis on unsteady yaw motion characteristic of a towed ship, 11th International Conference on Marine Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 13-14, 2018.

78-18 A.A. Abo Zaid, W.E. Mahmod, A.S. Koraim, E.M. Heikal and H.E. Fath, Wave interaction of partially immersed semicircular breakwater suspended on piles using FLOW-3D, CSME Conference Proceedings, Toronto, Canada, May 27-30, 2018.

73-18   Jian Zhou and Subhas K. Venayagamoorthy, Near-field mean flow dynamics of a cylindrical canopy patch suspended in deep water, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 858, pp. 634-655, 2018. doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2018.775

69-18   Keisuke Yoshida, Shiro Maeno, Tomihiro Iiboshi and Daisuke Araki, Estimation of hydrodynamic forces acting on concrete blocks of toe protection works for coastal dikes by tsunami overflows, Applied Ocean Research, Vol. 80, pp. 181-196, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2018.09.001

68-18   Zegao Yin, Yanxu Wang and Xiaoyu Yang, Regular wave run-up attenuation on a slope by emergent rigid vegetation, Journal of Coastal Research (in-press), 2018. doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-17-00200.1

65-18   Dagui Tong, Chencong Liao, Jinjian Chen and Qi Zhang, Numerical simulation of a sandy seabed response to water surface waves propagating on current, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2018. doi.org/10.3390/jmse6030088

61-18   Manuel Gerardo Verduzco-Zapata, Aramis Olivos-Ortiz, Marco Liñán-Cabello, Christian Ortega-Ortiz, Marco Galicia-Pérez, Chris Matthews, and Omar Cervantes-Rosas, Development of a Desalination System Driven by Low Energy Ocean Surface Waves, Journal of Coastal Research: Special Issue 85 – Proceedings of the 15th International Coastal Symposium, pp. 1321 – 1325, 2018. doi.org/10.2112/SI85-265.1

37-18   Songsen Xu, Chunshuo Jiao, Meng Ning and Sheng Dong, Analysis of Buoyancy Module Auxiliary Installation Technology Based on Numerical Simulation, Journal of Ocean University of China, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 267-280, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s11802-018-3305-4

36-18   Deniz Velioglu Sogut and Ahmet Cevdet Yalciner, Performance comparison of NAMI DANCE and FLOW-3D® models in tsunami propagation, inundation and currents using NTHMP benchmark problems, Pure and Applied Geophysics, pp. 1-39, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s00024-018-1907-9

26-18   Mohammad Sarfaraz and Ali Pak, Numerical investigation of the stability of armour units in low-crested breakwaters using combined SPH–Polyhedral DEM method, Journal of Fluids and Structures, vol. 81, pp. 14-35, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2018.04.016

25-18   Yen-Lung Chen and Shih-Chun Hsiao, Numerical modeling of a buoyant round jet under regular waves, Ocean Engineering, vol. 161, pp. 154-167, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.04.093

13-18   Yizhou Zhang, Chencong Liao, Jinjian Chen, Dagui Tong, and Jianhua Wang, Numerical analysis of interaction between seabed and mono-pile subjected to dynamic wave loadings considering the pile rocking effect, Ocean Engineering, Volume 155, 1 May 2018, Pages 173-188, doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.02.041

11-18  Ching-Piao Tsai, Chun-Han Ko and Ying-Chi Chen, Investigation on Performance of a Modified Breakwater-Integrated OWC Wave Energy Converter, Open Access Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 643; doi:10.3390/su10030643, © Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018.

58-17   Jian Zhou, Claudia Cenedese, Tim Williams and Megan Ball, On the propagation of gravity currents over and through a submerged array of circular cylinders, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 831, pp. 394-417, 2017. doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2017.604

56-17   Yu-Shu Kuo, Chih-Yin Chung, Shih-Chun Hsiao and Yu-Kai Wang, Hydrodynamic characteristics of Oscillating Water Column caisson breakwaters, Renewable Energy, vol. 103, pp. 439-447, 2017. doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.11.028

47-17   Jae-Nam Cho, Chang-Geun Song, Kyu-Nam Hwang and Seung-Oh Lee, Experimental assessment of suspended sediment concentration changed by solitary wave, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 649-655 (2017) 649 DOI: 10.6119/JMST-017-1226-04

45-17   Muhammad Aldhiansyah Rifqi Fauzi, Haryo Dwito Armono, Mahmud Mustain and Aniendhita Rizki Amalia, Comparison Study of Various Type Artificial Reef Performance in Reducing Wave Height, Regional Conference in Civil Engineering (RCCE) 430 The Third International Conference on Civil Engineering Research (ICCER) August 1st-2nd 2017, Surabaya – Indonesia.

44-17   Fabio Dentale, Ferdinando Reale, Angela Di Leo, and Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, A CFD approach to rubble mound breakwater design, International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Available online 30 December 2017.

39-17   Milad Rashidinasab and Mehdi Behdarvandi Askar, Modeling the Pressure Distribution and the Changes of Water Level around the Offshore Platforms Exposed to Waves, Using the Numerical Model of FLOW-3D, Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, 2017, 6, 97-106, http://www.scirp.org/journal/cweee, ISSN Online: 2168-1570, ISSN Print: 2168-1562

30-17   Omid Nourani and Mehdi Behdarvandi Askar, Comparison of the Effect of Tetrapod Block and Armor X block on Reducing Wave Overtopping in Breakwaters, Open Journal of Marine Science, 2017, 7, 472-484 http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojms ISSN Online: 2161-7392.

29-17   J.A. Vasquez, Modelling the generation and propagation of landslide generated waves, Leadership in Sustainable Infrastructure, Annual Conference – Vancouver, May 31 – June 3, 2017

28-17   Manuel G. Verduzco-Zapata, Francisco J. Ocampo-Torres, Chris Matthews, Aramis Olivos-Ortiz, Diego E. and Galván-Pozos, Development of a Wave Powered Desalination Device Numerical Modelling, Proceedings of the 12th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference 27th Aug -1st Sept 2017, Cork, Ireland

20-17   Chu-Kuan Lin, Jaw-Guei Lin, Ya-Lan Chen, Chin-Shen Chang, Seabed Change and Soil Resistance Assessment of Jack up Foundation, Proceedings of the Twenty-seventh (2017) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, San Francisco, CA, USA, June 25-30, 2017, Copyright © 2017 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE), ISBN 978-1-880653-97-5; ISSN 1098-6189.

19-17   Velioğlu Deniz, Advanced Two- and Three-Dimensional Tsunami – Models Benchmarking and Validation, Ph.D Thesis:, Middle East Technical University, June 2017

18-17   Farrokh Mahnamfar and Abdüsselam Altunkaynak, Comparison of numerical and experimental analyses for optimizing the geometry of OWC systems, Ocean Engineering 130 (2017) 10–24.

07-17   Jonas Čerka, Rima Mickevičienė, Žydrūnas Ašmontas, Lukas Norkevičius, Tomas Žapnickas, Vasilij Djačkov and Peilin Zhou, Optimization of the research vessel hull form by using numerical simulation, Ocean Engineering 139 (2017) 33–38

05-17   Liang, B.; Ma, S.; Pan, X., and Lee, D.Y., Numerical modelling of wave run-up with interaction between wave and dolosse breakwater, In: Lee, J.L.; Griffiths, T.; Lotan, A.; Suh, K.-S., and Lee, J. (eds.), 2017, The 2nd International Water Safety Symposium. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 79, pp. 294-298. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.

02-17   A. Yazid Maliki, M. Azlan Musa, Ahmad M.F., Zamri I., Omar Y., Comparison of numerical and experimental results for overtopping discharge of the OBREC wave energy converter, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, In Press, © School of Engineering, Taylor’s University

01-17   Tanvir Sayeed, Bruce Colbourne, David Molyneux, Ayhan Akinturk, Experimental and numerical investigation of wave forces on partially submerged bodies in close proximity to a fixed structure, Ocean Engineering, Volume 132, Pages 70–91, March 2017

101-16 Xin Li, Liang-yu Xu, Jian-Min Yang, Study of fluid resonance between two side-by-side floating barges, Journal of Hydrodynamics, vol. B-28, no. 5, pp. 767-777, 2016. doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6058(16)60679-0

81-16   Loretta Gnavi, Deep water challenges: development of depositional models to support geohazard assessment for submarine facilities, Ph.D. Thesis: Politecnico di Torino, May 2016

80-16   Mohammed Ibrahim, Hany Ahmed, Mostafa Abd Alall and A.S. Koraim, Proposing and investigating the efficiency of vertical perforated breakwater, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 3, March 2016, ISSN 2229-5518

72-16   Yen-Lung Chen and Shih-Chun Hsiao, Generation of 3D water waves using mass source wavemaker applied to Navier–Stokes model, Coastal Engineering 109 (2016) 76–95.

64-16   Jae Nam Cho, Dong Hyun Kim and Seung Oh Lee, Experimental Study of Shape and Pressure Characteristics of Solitary Wave generated by Sluice Gate for Various Conditions, Journal of the Korean Society of Safety, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 70-75, April 2016, Copyright @ 2016 by The Korean Society of Safety (pISSN 1738-3803, eISSN 2383-9953) All right reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.14346/JKOSOS.2016.31.2.70

56-16   Ali A. Babajani, Mohammad Jafari and Parinaz Hafezi Sefat, Numerical investigation of distance effect between two Searasers for hydrodynamic performance, Alexandria Engineering Journal, June 2016.

53-16   Hwang-Ki Lee, Byeong-Kuk Kim, Jongkyu Kim and Hyeon-Ju Kim, OTEC thermal dispersion in coastal waters of Tarawa, Kiribati, OCEANS 2016 – Shanghai, April 2016, 10.1109/OCEANSAP.2016.7485548, © IEEE.

50-16   Mohsin A. R. Irkal, S. Nallayarasu and S. K. Bhattacharyya, CFD simulation of roll damping characteristics of a ship midsection with bilge keel, Proceedings of the ASME 2016 35th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2016, June 19-24, 2016, Busan, South Korea

49-16   Bill Baird, Seth Logan, Wim Van Der Molen, Trevor Elliot and Don Zimmer, Thoughts on the future of physical models in coastal engineering, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on the Application of Physical Modelling in Coastal and Port Engineering and Science (Coastlab16) Ottawa, Canada, May 10-13, 2016 Copyright ©: Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

47-16   KH Kim et. al, Numerical analysis on the effects of shoal on the ship wave, Applied Engineering, Materials and Mechanics: Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Applied Engineering, Materials and Mechanics (ICAEMM 2016)

17-16  Nan-Jing Wu, Shih-Chun Hsiao, Hsin-Hung Chen, and Ray-Yeng Yang, The study on solitary waves generated by a piston-type wave maker, Ocean Engineering, 117(2016)114–129

13-16   Maryam Deilami-Tarifi, Mehdi Behdarvandi-Askar, Vahid Chegini, and Sadegh Haghighi-Pou, Modeling of the Changes in Flow Velocity on Seawalls under Different Conditions Using FLOW-3DSoftware, Open Journal of Marine Science, 2016, 6, 317-322, Published Online April 2016 in SciRes.

01-16   Mohsin A.R. Irkal, S. Nallayarasu, and S.K. Bhattacharyya, CFD approach to roll damping of ship with bilge keel with experimental validation, Applied Ocean Research, Volume 55, February 2016, Pages 1–17

121-15   Josh Carter, Scott Fenical, Craig Hunter and Joshua Todd, CFD modeling for the analysis of living shoreline structure performance, Coastal Structures and Solutions to Coastal Disasters Joint Conference, Boston, MA, Sept. 9-11, 2015. © 2017 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. doi.org/10.1061/9780784480304.047

114-15   Jisheng Zhang, Peng Gao, Jinhai Zheng, Xiuguang Wu, Yuxuan Peng and Tiantian Zhang, Current-induced seabed scour around a pile-supported horizontal-axis tidal stream turbine, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 929-936 (2015) 929, DOI: 10.6119/JMST-015-0610-11

108-15  Tiecheng Wang, Tao Meng, and Hailong Zha, Analysis of Tsunami Effect and Structural Response, ISSN 1330-3651 (Print), ISSN 1848-6339 (Online), DOI: 10.17559/TV-20150122115308

107-15   Jie Chen, Changbo Jiang, Wu Yang, Guizhen Xiao, Laboratory study on protection of tsunami-induced scour by offshore breakwaters, Natural Hazards, 2015, 1-19

85-15   Majid A. Bhinder, M.T. Rahmati, C.G. Mingham and G.A. Aggidis, Numerical hydrodynamic modelling of a pitching wave energy converter, European Journal of Computational Mechanics, Volume 24, Issue 4, 2015, DOI: 10.1080/17797179.2015.1096228

65-15   Giancarlo Alfonsi, Numerical Simulations of Wave-Induced Flow Fields around Large-Diameter Surface-Piercing Vertical Circular CylinderComputation 20153(3), 386-426; doi:10.3390/computation3030386

61-15   Bingchen Liang, Duo Li, Xinying Pan and Guangxin Jiang, Numerical Study of Local Scour of Pipeline under Combined Wave and Current Conditions, Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth (2015) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, June 21-26, 2015 Copyright © 2015 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE) ISBN 978-1-880653-89-0; ISSN 1098-6189.

60-15   Chun-Han Ko, Ching-Piao Tsai, Ying-Chi Chen, and Tri-Octaviani Sihombing, Numerical Simulations of Wave and Flow Variations between Submerged Breakwaters and Slope Seawall, Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth (2015) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, June 21-26, 2015 Copyright © 2015 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE) ISBN 978-1-880653-89-0; ISSN 1098-6189.

57-15   Giacomo Viccione and Settimio Ferlisi, A numerical investigation of the interaction between debris flows and defense barriers, Advances in Environmental and Geological Science and Engineering, ISBN: 978-1-61804-314-6, 2015

56-15   Vittorio Bovolin, Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli and Giacomo Viccione, A numerical study of liquid impact on inclined surfaces, Advances in Environmental and Geological Science and Engineering, ISBN: 978-1-61804-314-6, 2015

49-15   Fabio Dentale, Giovanna Donnarumma, Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, and Ferdinando Reale, A numerical method to analyze the interaction between sea waves and rubble mound emerged breakwaters, WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on FLUID MECHANICS, E-ISSN: 2224-347X, Volume 10, 2015

45-15   Diego Vicinanza, Daniela Salerno, Fabio Dentale and Mariano Buccino, Structural Response of Seawave Slot-cone Generator (SSG) from Random Wave CFD Simulations, Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth (2015) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, June 21-26, 2015, Copyright © 2015 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE), ISBN 978-1-880653-89-0; ISSN 1098-6189

38-15   Yen-Lung Chen, Shih-Chun Hsiao, Yu-Cheng Hou, Han-Lun Wu and Yuan Chieh Wu, Numerical Simulation of a Neutrally Buoyant Round Jet in a Wave Environment, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

34-15   Dieter Vanneste and Peter Troch, 2D numerical simulation of large-scale physical model tests of wave interaction with a rubble-mound breakwater, Coastal Engineering, Volume 103, September 2015, Pages 22–41.

29-15   Masanobu Toyoda, Hiroki Kusumoto, and Kazuo Watanabe, Intrinsically Safe Cryogenic Cargo Containment System of IHI-SPB LNG Tank, IHI Engineering Review, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2015.

24-15   Xixi Pan, Shiming Wang, and Yongcheng Liang, Three-dimensional simulation of floating wave power device, International Power, Electronics and Materials Engineering Conference (IPEMEC 2015)

05-15   M. A. Bhinder, A. Babarit, L. Gentaz, and P. Ferrant, Potential Time Domain Model with Viscous Correction and CFD Analysis of a Generic Surging Floating Wave Energy Converter, (2015), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijome.2015.01.005

137-14   A. Najafi-Jilani, M. Zakiri Niri and Nader Naderi, Simulating three dimensional wave run-up over breakwaters covered by antifer units, Int. J. Nav. Archit. Ocean Eng. (2014) 6:297~306

128-14   Dong Chule Kim, Byung Ho Choi, Kyeong Ok Kim and Efim Pelinovsky, Extreme tsunami runup simulation at Babi Island due to 1992 Flores tsunami and Okushiri due to 1993 Hokkido tsunami, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 16, EGU2014-1341, 2014, EGU General Assembly 2014, © Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

123-14   Irkal Mohsin A.R., S. Nallayarasu and S.K. Bhattacharyya, Experimental and CFD Simulation of Roll Motion of Ship with Bilge Keel, International Conference on Computational and Experimental Marine Hydrodynamics MARHY 2014 3-4 December 2014, Chennai, India.

101-14  Dieter Vanneste, Corrado Altomare, Tomohiro Suzuki, Peter Troch and Toon Verwaest, Comparison of Numerical Models for Wave Overtopping and Impact on a Sea Wall, Coastal Engineering 2014

91-14   Fabio Dentale, Giovanna Donnarumma, and Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, Numerical wave interaction with tetrapods breakwater, Int. J. Nav. Archit. Ocean Eng. (2014) 6:0~0, http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/IJNAOE-2013-0214, ⓒSNAK, 2014, pISSN: 2092-6782, eISSN: 2092-6790

87-14   Philipp Behruzi, Simulation of breaking wave impacts on a flat wall, The 15th International Workshop on Trends In Numerical and Physical Modeling for Industrial Multiphase Flows, Cargèse, Corsica, October 13th–17th, 2014

86-14   Chuan Sim and Sung-uk Choi, Three-Dimensional Scour at Submarine Pipelines under Indefinite Boundary Conditions, 2014

83-14   Hongda Shi, Dong Wang, Jinghui Song, and Zhe Ma, Systematic Design of a Heaving Buoy Wave Energy Device, 5th International Conference on Ocean Energy, 4th November, Halifax, 2014

71-14   Hadi Sabziyan, Hassan Ghassemi, Farhood Azarsina, and Saeid Kazemi, Effect of Mooring Lines Pattern in a Semi-submersible Platform at Surge and Sway Movements, Journal of Ocean Research, 2014, Vol. 2, No. 1, 17-22 Available online at http://pubs.sciepub.com/jor/2/1/4 © Science and Education Publishing DOI:10.12691/jor-2-1-4

56-14   Fernandez-Montblanc, T., Izquierdo, A., and Bethencourt, M., Modelling the oceanographic conditions during storm following the Battle of Trafalgar, Encuentro de la Oceanografıa Fısica Espanola 2014

52-14   Fabio Dentale, Giovanna Donnarumma, and Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, A new numerical approach to the study of the interaction between wave motion and roubble mound breakwaters, Latest Trends in Engineering Mechanics, Structures, Engineering Geology, ISBN: 978-960-474-376-6

49-14   H. Ahmed and A. Schlenkhoff, Numerical Investigation of Wave Interaction with Double Vertical Slotted Walls, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Environmental, Ecological, Geological and Mining Engineering Vol:8 No:8, 2014

32-14  Richard Keough, Victoria Mullaley, Hilary Sinclair, and Greg Walsh, Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Water Current Energy Device, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Mechanical Design Project II – ENGI 8926, April 2014

25-14    Paulius Rapalis, Vytautas Smailys, Vygintas Daukšys, Nadežda Zamiatina, and Vasilij Djačkov, Vandens  – Duju Silumos Mainai Gaz-Lifto Tipo Skruberyje,Technologijos mokslo darbai Vakarų Lietuvoje, Vol 9 > Rapalis. Available for download at http://journals.ku.lt/index.php/TMD/article/view/259.

92-13   Matteo Tirindelli, Scott Fenical and Vladimir Shepsis, State-of-the-Art Methods for Extreme Wave Loading on Bridges and Coastal Highways, Seventh National Seismic Conference on Bridges and Highways (7NSC), May 20-22, 2013, Oakland, CA

89-13 Worakanok Thanyamanta, Don Bass and David Molyneux, Prediction of sloshing effects using a coupled non-linear seakeeping and CFD code, Proceedings of the ASME 2013 32nd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2013, June 9-14, 2013, Nantes, France. Available for purchase online at ASME.

83-13   B.W. Lee and C. Lee, Development of Wave Power Generation Device with Resonance Channels, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2013) Bali, Indonesia, September 24-26, 2013

68-13   Fabio Dentale, Giovanna Donnarumma, and Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, Rubble Mound Breakwater Run-Up, Reflection and Overtopping by Numerical 3D Simulation, ICE Conference, September 2013, Edinburgh (UK).

66-13  Peter Arnold, Validation of FLOW-3D against Experimental Data for an Axi-Symmetric Point Absorber WEC, © wavebob™, 2013

62-13 Yanan Li, Junwei Zhou, Dazheng Wang and Yonggang Cui, Resistance and Strength Analysis of Three Hulls with ifferent Knuckles, Advanced Materials Research Vols. 779-780 (2013) pp 615-618, © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.779-780.615.

61-13  M.R. Soliman, Satoru Ushijima, Nobu Miyagi and Tetsuay Sumi, Density Current Simulation Using Two-Dimensional High Resolution Model, Annuals of Disas. Prev. Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., No 56 B, 2013.

59-13  Guang Wei Liu, Qing He Zhang, and Jin Feng Zhang, Wave Forces on the Composite Bucket Foundation of Offshore Wind Turbines, Applied Mechanics and Materials, 405-408, 1420, September 2013. Available for purchase online at Scientific.net.

50-13  Joel Darnell and Vladimir Shepsis, Pontoon Launch Analysis, Design and Performance, Ports 2013, © ASCE 2013. Available for purchase online at ASCE.

45-13 Min-chi Li, Numerical Simulation of Wave Overtopping Rate at Sloping Seawalls with Different Configurations of Wave Dissipators, Master’s Thesis: Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University. Abstract only available here: http://etd.lib.nsysu.edu.tw/ETD-db/ETD-search/view_etd?URN=etd-0701113-144919.

22-13  Nahidul Khan, Jonathan Smith, and Michael Hinchey, Models with all the right curves, © Journal of Ocean Technology, The Journal of Ocean Technology, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2013.

20-13  Efim Pelinovsky, Dong-Chul Kim, Kyeong-Ok Kim and Byung-Ho Choi, Three-dimensional simulation of extreme runup heights during the 2004 Indonesian and 2011 Japanese tsunamis, EGU General Assembly 2013, held 7-12 April, 2013 in Vienna, Austria, id. EGU2013-1760. Online at: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1760P.

18-13 Dazheng Wang, Fei Ma, and Lei Mei, Optimization of a 17m Catamaran based on the Resistance Performance, Advanced Materials Research Vols. 690-693, pp 3414-3418, © Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.690-693.3414, May 2013.

16-13  Dong Chule Kim, Kyeong Ok Kim, Efim Pelinovsky, Ira Didenkulova, and Byung Ho Choi, Three-dimensional tsunami runup simulation for the port of Koborinai on the Sanriku coast of Japan, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 65, 2013.

15-13  Dong Chule Kim, Kyeong Ok Kim, Byung Ho Choi, Kyung Hwan Kim, and Efin Pelinovsky, Three –dimensional runup simulation of the 2004 Ocean tsunami at the Lhok Nga twin peaks, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 65, 2013.

14-13  Jae-Seol Shim, Jinah Kim, Dong-Shul Kim, Kiyoung Heo, Kideok Do, and Sun-Jung Park, Storm surge inundation simulations comparing three-dimensional with two-dimensional models based on Typhoon Maemi over Masan Bay of South Korea, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 65, 2013.

115-12  Worakanok Thanyamanta and David Molyneux, Prediction of Stabilizing Moments and Effects of U-Tube Anti-Roll Tank Geometry Using CFD, ASME 2012 31st International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, Volume 5: Ocean Engineering; CFD and VIV, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 1–6, 2012, ISBN: 978-0-7918-4492-2, Copyright © 2012 by ASME

114-12   Dane Kristopher Behrens, The Russian River Estuary: Inlet Morphology, Management, and Estuarine Scalar Field Response, Ph.D. Thesis: Civil and Environmental Engineering, UC Davis, © 2012 by Dane Kristopher Behrens. All Rights Reserved.

111-12  James E. Beget, Zygmunt Kowalik, Juan Horrillo, Fahad Mohammed, Brian C. McFall, and Gyeong-Bo Kim, NEeSR-CR Tsunami Generation by Landslides Integrating Laboratory Scale Experiments, Numerical Models and Natural Scale Applications, George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research, July 2012, Boston, MA.

110-12   Gyeong-Bo Kim, Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Tsunami Generation by Subaerial Landslides, M.S. Thesis: Texas A&M University, Copyright 2012 Gyeong-Bo Kim, December 2012

109-12 D. Vanneste, Experimental and Numerical study of Wave-Induced Porous Flow in Rubble-Mound Breakwaters, Ph.D. thesis (Chapters 5 and 6), Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium), 2012.

104-12 Junwoo Choi, Kab Keun Kwon, and Sung Bum Yoon, Tsunami Inundation Simulation of a Built-up Area using Equivalent Resistance Coefficient, Coastal Engineering Journal, Vol. 54, No. 2 (2012) 1250015 (25 pages), © World Scientific Publishing Company and Japan Society of Civil Engineers, DOI: 10.1142/S0578563412500155

94-12 Parviz Ghadimi, Abbas Dashtimanesh, Mohammad Farsi, and Saeed Najafi, Investigation of free surface flow generated by a planing flat plate using smoothed particle hydrodynamics method and FLOW-3D simulations, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment, December 7, 2012 1475090212465235. Available for purchase online at sage journals.

92-12    Panayotis Prinos, Maria Tsakiri, and Dimitris Souliotis, A Numerical Simulation of the WOS and the Wave Propagation along a Coastal Dike, Coastal Engineering 2012.

88-12  Nahidul Khan and Michael Hinchey, Adaptive Backstepping Control of Marine Current Energy Conversion System, PKP Open Conference Systems, IEEE Newfoundland and Labrador Section, 2012.

72-12   F. Dentale, G. Donnarumma, and E. Pugliese Carratelli, Wave Run Up and Reflection on Tridimensional Virtual, Journal of Hydrogeology & Hydrologic Engineering, 2012, 1:1, http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/jhhe.1000102.

64-12  Anders Wedel Nielsen, Xiaofeng Liu, B. Mutlu Sumer, Jørgen Fredsøe, Flow and bed shear stresses in scour protections around a pile in a current, Coastal Engineering, Volume 72, February 2013, Pages 20–38.

56-12  Giancarlo Alfonsi, Agostino Lauria, Leonardo Primavera, Flow structures around large-diameter circular cylinder, Journal of Flow Visualization and Image Processing, 2012. DOI:10.1615/JFlowVisImageProc.2012005088.

51-12  Chun-Ho Chen, Study on the Application of FLOW-3D for Wave Energy Dissipation by a Porous Structure, Master’s Thesis: Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, July 2012. In Chinese.

37-12  Yu-Ren Chen, Numerical Modeling on Internal Solitary Wave propagation over an obstacle using FLOW-3D, Master’s Thesis: Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University June 2012. In Chinese.

26-12  D.C. Lo Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic interaction produced during the overtaking and the head-on encounter process of two ships, Engineering Computations: International Journal for Computer-Aided Engineering and Software, Vol. 29 No. 1, 2012. pp. 83-10, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, www.emeraldinsight.com/0264-4401.htm.

14-12  Bahaa Elsharnouby, Akram Soliman, Mohamed Elnaggar, and Mohamed Elshahat, Study of environment friendly porous suspended breakwater for the Egyptian Northwestern Coast, Ocean Engineering 48 (2012) 47-58. Available for purchase online at Science Direct.

11-12  Sang-Ho Oh, Young Min Oh, Ji-Young Kim, Keum-Seok Kang, A case study on the design of condenser effluent outlet of thermal power plant to reduce foam emitted to surrounding seacoast, Ocean Engineering, Volume 47, June 2012, Pages 58–64. Available for purchase online at SciVerse.

101-11 Tsunami – A Growing Disaster, edited by Mohammad Mokhtari, ISBN 978-953-307-431-3, 232 pages, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published December 16, 2011 under CC BY 3.0 license, DOI: 10.5772/922. Available for download at Intech.

100-11 Kwang-Oh Ko, Jun-Woo Choi, Sung-Bum Yoon, and Chang-Beom Park, Internal Wave Generation in FLOW-3D Model, Proceedings of the Twenty-first (2011) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Maui, Hawaii, USA, June 19-24, 2011, Copyright © 2011 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE), ISBN 978-1-880653-96-8 (Set); ISSN 1098-6189 (Set); www.isope.org

95-11  S. Brizzolara, L. Savio, M. Viviani, Y. Chen, P. Temarel, N. Couty, S. Hoflack, L. Diebold, N. Moirod and A. Souto Iglesias, Comparison of experimental and numerical sloshing loads in partially filled tanks, Ships and Offshore StructuresVol. 6, Nos. 1–2, 2011, 15–43. Available for purchase online at Francis & Taylor.

85-11 Andrew Eoghan Maguire, Hydrodynamics, control and numerical modelling of absorbing wavemakers, thesis: The University of Edinburgh, 2011.

74-11  Jonathan Smith, Nahidul Khan and Michael Hinchey, CFD Simulation of AUV Depth Control, Paper presented at NECEC 2011, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Abstract available online.

70-11  G. Kim, S.-H. Oh, K.S. Lee, I.S. Han, J.W. Chae, and S.-J Ahn, Numerical Investigation on Water Discharge Capability of Sluice Caisson of Tidal Power Plant, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2011), December 14-16, 2011, Hong Kong, China.

69-11  G. Alfonsi, A. Lauria, and L. Primavera, Wave-Field Flow Structures Developing Around Large-Diameter Vertical Circular Cylinder, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2011), December 14-16, 2011, Hong Kong, China.

68-11    C. Lee, B.W. Lee, Y.J. Kim, and K.O. Ko, Ship Wave Crests in Intermediate-Depth Water, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2011), December 14-16, 2011, Hong Kong, China.

63-11   Worakanok Thanyamanta, Paul Herrington, and David Molyneux, Wave patterns, wave induced forces and moments for a gravity based structure predicted using CFD, Proceedings of the ASME 2011, 30th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2011, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, June 19-24, 2011.

61-11  Jun Jin and Bo Meng, Computation of wave loads on the superstructures of coastal highway bridges, Ocean Engineering, available online October 19, 2011, ISSN 0029-8018, 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2011.09.029. Available for purchase at Science Direct.

36-11    Nadir Yilmaz, Geoffrey E. Trapp, Scott M. Gagan, Timothy R. Emmerich, CFD Supported Examination of Buoy Design for Wave Energy Conversion, IGEC-VI-2011-173, pp: 537-541

28-11  Rodolfo Bolaños, Laurent O. Amoudry and Ken Doyle, Effects of Instrumented Bottom Tripods on Process Measurements, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, June 2011, Vol. 28, No. 6: pp. 827-837. Available online at: AMS Journals Online.

81-10    Ashwin Lohithakshan Parambath, Impact of Tsunamis on Near Shore Wind Power Units, M.S. Thesis: Texas A&M University, Copyright 2010 Ashwin Lohithakshan Parambath December 2010.

80-10    Juan J. Horrillo, Amanda L. Wood, Charles Williams, Ashwin Parambath, and Gyeong-Bo Kim, Construction of Tsunami Inundation Maps in the Gulf of Mexico, Report to the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, December 2010.

69-10    George A Aggidis and Clive Mingham, A Joint Numerical and Experimental Study of a Surging Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converter (WRASPA), Joule Centre Research Grant Joint Final Report (Lancaster University and Macnhester Metropolitan University), Joule Grant No: JIRP306/02, 2010

67-10  Kazuhiko Terashima, Ryuji Ito, Yoshiyuki Noda, Yoji Masui and Takahiro Iwasa, Innovative Integrated Simulator for Agile Control Design on Shipboard Crane Considering Ship and Load Sway, 2010 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, Part of 2010 IEEE Multi-Conference on Systems and Control, Yokohama, Japan, September 8-10, 2010

66-10  Shan-Hwei Ou, Tai-Wen Hsu, Jian-Feng Lin, Jian-Wu Lai, Shih-Hsiang Lin, Chen-Chen Chang, Yuan-Jyh Lan, Experimental and Numerical Studies on Wave Transformation over Artificial Reefs, Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering, No 32 (2010), Shanghai, China, 2010.

65-10 Tai-Wen Hsu, Jian-Wu Lai, Yuan-Jyh Lan, Experimental and Numerical Studies on Wave Propagation over Coarse Grained Sloping Beach, Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering, No 32 (2010), Shanghai, China, 2010.

26-10 R. Marcer, C. Berhault, C. de Jouëtte, N. Moirod and L. Shen, Validation of CFD Codes for Slamming, V European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics, ECCOMAS CFD 2010, J.C.F. Pereira and A. Sequeira (Eds), Lisbon, Portugal, 14-17 June 2010

25-10 J.M. Zhan, Z. Dong, W. Jiang, and Y.S. Li, Numerical Simulation of wave transformation and runup incorporating porous media wave absorber and turbulence models, Ocean Engineering (2010), doi: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2010.06.005. Available for purchase at Science Direct.

17-10 F. Dentale, S.D. Russo, E. Pugliese Carratelli, S. Mascetti, A New Numerical Approach to Study the Wave Motion with Breakwaters and the Armor Stability, Marine Technology Reporter, May 2010

01-10 F. Dentale, S.D. Russo, E. Pugliese Carratelli, Innovative Numerical Simulation to Study the Fluid withing Rubble Mound Breakwaters and the Armour Stability, 17th Armourstone Wallingford Armourstone Meeting, Wallingford, UK, February 2010.

52-09  Mark Reed, Øistein Johansen, Frode Leirvik, and Bård Brørs, Numerical Algorithm to Compute the Effects of Breaking Waves on Surface Oil Spilled at Sea, Final Report, Second revision, SINTEF, October 2009.

49-09  Anna Pellicioli, Indagine Numerica Sulla Resistenza Idrodinamica Di Uno Scafo In Presenza Di Superficie Libera, thesis: Univerista Degli Studi Di Bergamo, 2008/2009. In Italian. Available upon request.

46-09 Carlos Guedes Soares, P.K. Das, Analysis and Design of Marine Structures, CRC Press; 1 Har/Cdr edition (March 2, 2009), 0415549345

32-09 M.A. Binder, C.G. Mingham, D.M. Causon, M.T. Rahmati, G.A. Aggidis, R.V. Chaplin, Numerical Modelling of a Surging Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter, 8th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference EWTEC 2009, Uppsala, Sweden, 7-10 September 2009

28-09 D. C. Lo, Dong-Taur Su and Jan-Ming Chen (2009), Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations to the Analysis of Bank Effects in Restricted Waters, Journal of Navigation, 62, pp 477-491, doi:10.1017/S037346330900527X; Purchase the article online (clicking on this link will take you to the Cambridge Journals website).

26-09 Fabio Dentale, E. Pugliese Carratelli, S.D. Russo, and Stefano Mascetti, Advanced Numerical Simulations on the Interaction between Waves and Rubble Mound Breakwaters, Journal of the Engineering Association for Offshore and Marine in Italy, (translation from the Italian)

25-09 F. Dentale, B. Messina, E. Pugliese Carratelli, S. Mascetti, Studio numerico avanzato sul moto di filtrazione in ambito marittimo, A & C, Analisi e Calcolo, Giugno 2009 (in Italian)

22-09 M.A. Bhinder, C.G. Mingham, D.M. Causon, M.T. Rahmati, G.A. Aggidis and R.V. Chaplin, A Joint Numerical And Experimental Study Of a Surging Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converter (WRASPA)2, Proceedings of the ASME 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2009-79392, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 31-June 5, 2009

8-09 Basu, D., S. Green, K. Das, R. Janetzke, and J. Stamatakos, Numerical Simulation of Surface Waves Generated by a Subaerial Landslide at Lituya Bay, 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, May 31–June 5, 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii

17-09 Das, K., R. Janetzke, D. Basu, S. Green, and J. Stamatakos, Numerical Simulations of Tsunami Wave Generation by Submarine and Aerial Landslides Using RANS and SPH Models, 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, May 31–June 5, 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii

16-09 Basu, D., S. Green, K. Das, R. Janetzke, and J. Stamatakos, Navier-Stokes Simulations of Surface Waves Generated by Submarine Landslides Effect of Slide Geometry and Turbulence, 2009 Society of Petroleum Engineering Americas E&P Environmental & Safety Conference, March 23–25, 2009, San Antonio, Texas.

48-08    Osamu Kiyomiya1 and Kazuya Kuroki, Flap Gate to Prevent Urban Area from Tsunami, The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China

43-08  Eldina Fatimah, Ahmad Khairi Abd. Wahab, and Hadibah Ismail, Numerical modeling approach of an artificial mangrove root system (ArMs) submerged breakwater as wetland habitat protector, COPEDEC VII, Dubai UAE, 2008.

40-08 Giacomo Viccione, Fabio Dentale, and Vittorio Bovolin, Simulation of Wave Impact Pressure on Vertical Structures with the SPH Method, 3rd ERCOFTAC SPHERIC workshop on SPH applications, Laussanne, Switzerland, June 4-6, 2008.

39-08 Kang, Young-Seung, Kim, Pyeong-Joong, Hyun, Sang-Kwon and Sung, Ha-Keun, Numerical Simulation of Ship-induced Wave Using FLOW-3D, Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers / v.20, no.3, 2008, pp.255-267, ISSN: 1976-8192, http://ksci.kisti.re.kr/search/article/articleView.ksci?articleBean.artSeq=HOHODK_2008_v20n3_255

35-08 B.W. Nam, S.H. Shin, K.Y. Hong, S.W. Hong, Numerical Simulation of Wave Flow over the Spiral-Reef Overtopping Device, Proceedings of the Eighth (2008) ISOPE Pacific/Asia Offshore Mechanics Symposium, Bangkok, Thailand, November 10-14, 2008, © 2008 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, ISBN 978-1-880653-52-4

34-08 B. H. Choi, E. Pelinovsky, D.C. Kim, I. Didenkulova and S.-B. Woo, Two and three-dimensional computation of solitary wave runup on non-plane beach, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 15, 489-502, 2008, www.nonlin-processes-geophys.net/15/489/2008 (c) Author(s) 2008.

23-08 Barb Schmitz, Tecplot, Nastran & FLOW-3D Win the Race, Desktop Engineering’s Elements of Analysis, September 2008

38-07 Choi, B.-H., Kim, D. C., Pelinovsky, E., and Woo, S. B., Three-dimensional simulation of tsunami run-up around conical island, Coast. Eng., Vol. 54, Issue 8, 618-629, 2007.

33-07 Mirela Zalar, Sime Malenica, Zoran Mravak, Nicolas Moirod, Some Aspects of Direct Calculation Methods for the Assessment of LNG Tank Structure Under Sloshing Impacts, La Asociación Española del Gas (sedigas) Spain 2007

20-07 Oceanic Consulting Corporation, Berthing Studies for LNG Carriers in the Calcasieu River Waterway, Making Waves: Newsletter of Oceanic Consulting Corporation, Winter 2007

10-07 Gildas Colleter, Breaking wave uplift and overtopping on a horizontal deck using physical and numerical modeling, Coasts and Ports 2007 Conference in Melbourne, Australia

18-06 Brizzolara, Stefano and Rizzuto, Enrico, Wind Heeling Moments on Very Large Ships. Some Insights through CFD Results, Proceedings on the 9th International Conference on Stability of Ships and Ocean Vehicles, Rio de Janeiro, September 25, 2006

16-06 Ransau, Samuel R, and Hansen, Ernst W.M., Numerical Simulations of Sloshing in Rectangular Tanks, Proceedings of OMAE2006, 25th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Hamburg, Germany, June 4-9, 2006

15-06 Ema Muk-Pavic, Shin Chin and Don Spencer, Validation of the CFD code FLOW-3D for the free surface flow around the ships’; hulls, 14th Annual Conference of the CFD Society of Canada, Kingston, Canada, July 16-18, 2006

3-06 Hansen, E.W.M. and Geir J. Rørtveit, Numerical Simulation of Fluid Mechanisms and Separation Behaviour in Offshore Gravity Separators, Chapter 16 in Emulsions and Emulsion Stability, 2nd Edition, edited by Johan Sjøblom, Taylor & Francis, 2006

24-05 Hansen E.W., Separation Offshore Survey – Design-Redesign of Gravity Separators, Exploration & Production: The Oil & Gas Review 2005 – Issue 2

8-05 T. Kristiansen, R. Baarholm, C.T. Stansberg, G. Rortveit and E.W.M. Hansen, Kinematics in a Diffracted Wave Field Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Numerical Models, Presented at the 24th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, OMAE 67176, Halkidiki, Greece, June 12-17, 2005

7-05 C.T. Stansberg, R. Baarholm, T. Kristiansen, E.W.M. Hansen and G. Rortveit, Extreme Wave Amplification and Impact Loads on Offshore Structures, presented at the 2005 Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 2-5, 2005

16-04 Carl Trygve Stansberg, Kjetil Berget, Oyvind Hellan, Ole A. Hermundstad, Jan R. Hoff and Trygve Kristiansen and Ernst Hansen, Prediction of Green Sea Loads on FPSO in Random Seas, presented at the 14th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE 2004), Toulon, France, May 2004

15-04 Š. Malenica, M. Zalar, J.M. Orozco, B. LeGallo & X.B. Chen, Linear and Non-Linear Effects of Sloshing on Ship Motions, 23rd International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Artic Engineering, OMAE 2004, Vancouver, June 2004

11-04 Don Bass, David Molyneux, Kevin McTaggart, Simulating Wave Action in the Well Deck of Landing Platform Dock Ships Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

37-03  Sreenivasa C Chopakatla, A CFD Model for Wave Transformations and Breaking in the Surf Zone, thesis: Master of Science, The Ohio State Univeristy, 2003.

29-02   O. Bayle, V. L’Hullier, M. Ganet, P. Delpy, J.L. Francart and D. Paris, Influence of the ATV Propellant Sloshing on the GNC Performance, AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference and Exhibit, Monterey, California, 5-8 August 2002, © 2002 by EADS Launch Vehicles

25-02 Y. Kim, Numerical Analysis of Sloshing Problem, American Bureau of Shipping, Research Dept, Houston, TX

10-02 Peter Chang III & Xiongjun Wu, Entrainment Correlations Based on a Fuel-Water Stratified Shear Flow, Proceedings of FEDSM2002, 2002 ASME Fluids Engineering Decision Summer Meeting, July 14-18, 2002, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

37-01 Ismail B. Celik, Allen E. Badeau Jr., Andrew Burt and Sherif Kandil, A Single Fluid Transport Model For Computation of Stratified Immiscible Liquid-Liquid Flows, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, West Virginia University, Proceedings of the XXIX IAHR Congress, September 2001. Beijing, China

14-01 Charles Ortloff, CTC/United Defense, Computer Simulation Analyzed Typhoon Damage to FPSOs, Marine News, April 30, 2001, pp. 22-23

8-01 Charles Ortloff, Computer Simulations Analyze Wave Damage to Offloading Vessels, Marine News, April 30, 2001, pp. 22-23

25-00 Faltinsen, O.A. and Rognebakke, O.F., Sloshing in Rectangular Tanks and Interaction with Ship Motions-Sloshing, Int. Conf. on Ship and Shipping Research NAV, Venice, Italy, 2000.

20-97   C.R. Ortloff, Numerical Test Tank Simulation of Ocean Engineering Problems by Computational Fluid Dynamics, Offshore Technology Conference Paper 8269B, Houston, TX, 1997

19-97   C.R. Ortloff and M. Krafft, Numerical Test Tanks-Computer Simulation-Test Verification of Major Ocean Engineering Problems for the Off-Shore Oil Industry, OTC 8269A, Offshore Technology Conference, Copyright 1997, Houston, Texas, May 1997

9-94 P. A. Chang, C-W Lin, CD-NSWC, Hydrodynamic Analysis of Oil Outflow from Double Hull Tankers, The Advanced Double-Hull Technical Symposium, Gaithersburg, MD, October 25-26, 1994.

8-90 C. W. Hirt, Computational Modeling of Cavitation, Flow Science report, July 1990, presented at the 2nd International Symposium on Performance Enhancement for Marine Applications, Newport, RI, October 14-16, 1990

10-87 H. W. Meldner, USA’s Revolutionary Appendages and CFD, CORDTRAN Corp. Report presented at AIAA and SNAME 17th Annual International Symposium on Sailing, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, Oct. 31-Nov. 1, 1987

3-85 C. W. Hirt and J. M. Sicilian, A Porosity Technique for the Definition of Obstacles in Rectangular Cell Meshes, Fourth International Conference on Ship Hydrodynamics, Washington, DC, September 1985

Water & Environmental Bibliography

다음은 수자원 및 환경 분야에 대한 참고 문 기술 문서 모음입니다.
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  해석 결과를 사용하였습니다. FLOW-3D  를 사용하여 수처리 및 환경 산업을 위한 응용 프로그램을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

Water and Environmental Bibliography

2023년 3월 10일 Update

46-23   Guangwei Lu, Jinxin Liu, Zhixian Cao, Youwei Li, Xueting Lei, Ying Li, A computational study of 3D flow structure in two consecutive bends subject to the influence of tributary inflow in the middle Yangtze River, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, 17.1; 2183901, 2023. doi.org/10.1080/19942060.2023.2183901

44-23   Xun Huang, Zhijian Zhang, Guoping Xiang, Sensitivity analysis of a built environment exposed to the synthetic monophasic viscous debris flow impacts with 3-D numerical simulations, Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, 23; pp. 871-889, 2023. doi.org/10.5194/nhess-23-871-2023

43-23   Yisheng Zhang, Jiangfei Wang, Qi Zhou, Haisong Li, Wei Tang, Investigation of the reduction of sediment deposition and river flow resistance around dimpled surface piers, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s11356-023-26034-0

41-23   Nejib Hassen Abdullahi, Zulfequar Ahmad, Experimental and CFD studies on the flow field and bed morphology in the vicinity of a sediment mining pit, EGU General Assembly, 2023. doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-446

40-23   Seonghyeon Ju, Jongchan Yi, Junho Lee, Jiyoon Kim, Chaehwi Lim, Jihoon Lee, Kyungtae Kim, Yeojoon Yoon, High-efficiency microplastic sampling device improved using CFD analysis, Sustainability, 15.5; 3907, 2023. doi.org/10.3390/su15053907

37-23   Muhammad Waqas Zaffar, Ishtiaq Hassan, Hydraulic investigation of stilling basins of the barrage before and after remodelling using FLOW-3D, Water Supply, 23.2; pp. 796-820, 2023. doi.org/10.2166/ws.2023.032

35-23   Mehmet Cihan, Ali Emre Ulu, Developing and testing a novel pressure-controlled hydraulic profile for siphon-shaft spillways, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 90; 102332, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2023.102332

28-23   Yuhan Li, Deshen Chen, Yan Zhang, Hongliang Qian, Jiangyang Pan, Yinghan Huang, Boo Cheong Khoo, Thermal structure and hydrodynamic analysis for a new type of flexible temperature-control curtain, Journal of Hydrology, 618; 129170, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2023.129170

22-23   Rong Lu, Wei Jiang, Jingjing Xiao, Dongdong Yuan, Yupeng Li, Yukai Hou, Congcong Liu, Evaluation of moisture migration characteristics of permeable asphalt pavement: Field research, Journal of Environmental Management, 330; 117176, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.117176

18-23   Thu Hien-T. Le, Van Chien Nguyen, Cong Phuc Dang, Thanh Thin-T. Nguyen, Bach Quynh-T. Pham, Ngoc Thoa Le, Numerical assessment on hydraulic safety of existing conveyance structures, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s40808-022-01685-z

17-23   Meysam Nouri, Parveen Sihag, Ozgur Kisi, Mohammad Hemmati, Shamsuddin Shahid, Rana Muhammad Adnan, Prediction of the discharge coefficient in compound broad-crested weir gate by supervised data mining techniques, Sustainability, 15.1; 433, 2023. doi.org/10.3390/su15010433

16-23   Mohammad Bananmah, Mohammad Reza Nikoo, Mehrdad Ghorbani Mooselu, Amir H. Gandomi, Optimum design of the chute-flip bucket system using evolutionary algorithms considering conflicts between decision-makers, Expert Systems with Applications, 216; 119480, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2022.119480

13-23   Xiaoyu Yi, Wenkai Feng, Botao Li, Baoguo Yin, Xiujun Dong, Chunlei Xin, Mingtang Wu, Deformation characteristics, mechanisms, and potential impulse wave assessment of the Wulipo landslide in the Baihetan reservoir region, China, Landslides, 20; pp. 615-628, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s10346-022-02010-6

11-23 Şebnem Elçi, Oğuz Hazar, Nisa Bahadıroğlu, Derya Karakaya, Aslı Bor, Destratification of thermally stratified water columns by air diffusers, Journal of Hydro-environment Research, 46; pp. 44-59, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jher.2022.12.001

7-23 Shikang Liu, Yuxiang Jian, Pengcheng Li, Ruifeng Liang, Xuefeng Chen, Yunong Qin, Yuanming Wang, Kefeng Li, Optimization schemes to significantly improve the upstream migration of fish: A case study in the lower Yangtze River basin, Ecological Engineering, 186; 106838, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2022.106838

6-23 Maryam Shahabi, Javad Ahadiyan, Mehdi Ghomeshi, Marjan Narimousa, Christos Katopodis, Numerical study of the effect of a V-shaped weir on turbulence characteristics and velocity in V-weir fishways, River Research and Applications, 2023. doi.org/10.1002/rra.4064

5-23 Muhammad Nur Aiman Bin Roslan, Hee Min Teh, Faris Ali Hamood Al-Towayti, Numerical simulations of wave diffraction around a low-crested semicircular breakwater, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Water Resources (ICWR), Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 293.1; pp. 421-433, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-5947-9_34

4-23 V.K. Krishnasamy, M.H. Jamal, M.R. Haniffah, Modelling of wave runup and overtopping over Accropode II breakwater, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Water Resources (ICWR), Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 293.1; pp. 435-444, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-5947-9_35

3-23 Anas S. Ghamam, Mohammed A. Abohatem, Mohd Ridza Bin Mohd Haniffah, Ilya K. Othman, The relationship between flow and pressure head of partially submerged orifice through CFD modelling using Flow-3D, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Water Resources (ICWR), Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 293.1; pp. 235-250, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-5947-9_20

2-23 M.Y. Zainab, A.L.S. Zebedee, A.W. Ahmad Khairi, I. Zulhilmi, A. Shahabuddin, Modelling of an embankment failure using Flow-3D, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Water Resources (ICWR), Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 293.1; pp. 273-282, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-5947-9_23

1-23 Gaetano Crispino, David Dorthe, Corrado Gisonni, Michael Pfister, Hydraulic capacity of bend manholes for supercritical flow, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 149.2; 2022. doi.org/10.1061/JIDEDH.IRENG-10014

178-22 Greg Collecutt, Urs Baeumer, Shuang Gao, Bill Syme, Bridge deck afflux modelling — benchmarking of CFD and SWE codes to real-world data, Hydrology & Water Resources Symposium, 2022.

177-22 Kyle Thomson, Mitchell Redenbach, Understanding cone fishway flow regimes with CFD, Hydrology & Water Resources Symposium, 2022.

176-22 Kyle Thomson, Practical application of CFD for fish passage design, Hydrology & Water Resources Symposium, 2022.

173-22 Melquisedec Cortés Zambrano, Helmer Edgardo Monroy González, Wilson Enrique Amaya Tequia, Three-dimensional numerical evaluation of hydraulic efficiency and discharge coefficient in grate inlets, Environmental Research, Engineering and Management, 78.4; 2022. doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.78.4.31243

168-22 Mohammad Javadi Rad, Pedram Eshaghieh Firoozbadi, Fatemeh Rostami, Numerical investigation of the effect dimensions of rectangular sedimentation tanks on its hydraulic efficiency using Flow-3D Software, Acta Technica Jaurinensis, 15.4; 2022. doi.org/10.14513/actatechjaur.00672

165-22 Saman Mostafazadeh-Fard, Zohrab Samani, Dissipating culvert end design for erosion control using CFD platform FLOW-3D numerical simulation modeling, Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice, 14.1; 2022. doi.org/10.1061/JPSEA2.PSENG-1373

164-22 Mohammad Ahmadi, Alban Kuriqi, Hossein Mohammad Nezhad, Amir Ghaderi, Mirali Mohammadi, Innovative configuration of vertical slot fishway to enhance fish swimming conditions, Journal of Hydrodynamics, 34; pp. 917-933, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s42241-022-0071-y

160-22 Serife Yurdagul Kumcu, Kamil Ispir, Experimental and numerical modeling of various energy dissipator designs in chute channels, Applied Water Science, 12; 266, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s13201-022-01792-3

154-22 Usama Majeed, Najam us Saqib, Muhammad Akbar, Numerical analysis of energy dissipator options using computational fluid dynamics modeling — a case study of Mirani Dam, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 15; 1614, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s12517-022-10888-8

151-22 Meibao Chen, Xiaofei Jing, Xiaohua Liu, Xuewei Huang, Wen Nie, Multiscale investigations of overtopping erosion in reinforced tailings dam induced by mud-water mixture overflow, Geofluids, 7209176, 2022. doi.org/10.1155/2022/7209176

150-22   Daniel Damov, Francis Lepage, Michel Tremblay, Arian Cueto Bergner, Marc Villaneuve, Frank Scarcelli, Gord McPhail, Calabogie GS redevelopment—Capacity upgrade and hydraulic design, CDA Annual Conference, Proceedings, 2022.

147-22   Hien T.T. Le, Chien Van Nguyen, Duc-Hau Le, Numerical study of sediment scour at meander flume outlet of boxed culvert diversion work, PLoS One, 17.9; e0275347, 2022. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0275347

140-22   Jackson Tellez-Alvarez, Manuel Gómez, Beniamino Russo, Numerical simulation of the hydraulic behavior of stepped stairs in a metro station, Advances in Hydroinformatics, Eds. P. Gourbesville, G. Caignaert, pp. 1001-1009, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-1600-7_62

139-22   Juan Yu, Keyao Liu, Anbin Li, Mingfei Yang, Xiaodong Gao, Xining Zhao, Yaohui Cai, The effect of plug height and inflow rate on water flow characteristics in furrow irrigation, Agronomy, 12; 2225, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12092225

138-22   Nejib Hassen Abdullahi, Zulfequar Ahmad, Flow and morphological characteristics in mining pits of a river through numerical and experimental modeling, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s40808-022-01530-3

137-22   Romain N.H.M. Van Mol, Christian Mörtl, Azin Amini, Sofia Siachou, Anton Schleiss, Giovanni De Cesare, Plunge pool scour and bank erosion: assessment of protection measures for Ilarion dam by physical and numerical modelling, HYDRO 2022, Proceedings, 27.02, 2022.

136-22   Yong Cheng, Yude Song, Chunye Liu, Wene Wang, Xiaotao Hu, Numerical simulation research on the diversion characteristics of a trapezoidal channel, Water, 14.17; 2706, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/w14172706

135-22   Zegao Yin, Yao Li, Jiahao Li, Zihan Zheng, Zihan Ni, Fuxiang Zheng, Experimental and numerical study on hydrodynamic characteristics of a breakwater with inclined perforated slots under regular waves, Ocean Engineering, 264; 112190, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2022.112190

133-22   Azin Amini, Martin Wickenhauser, Azad Koliji, Three-dimensional numerical modelling of Al-Salam storm water pumping station in Saudi Arabia, 39th IAHR World Congress, 2022. doi.org/10.3850/IAHR-39WC2521716X20221013

131-22   Alireza Koshkonesh, Mohammad Daliri, Khuram Riaz, Fariba Ahmadi Dehrashid, Farhad Bahmanpouri, Silvia Di Francesco, Dam-break flow dynamics over a stepped channel with vegetation, Journal of Hydrology, 613.A; 128395, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2022.128395

129-22   Leona Repnik, Samuel Vorlet, Mona Seyfeddine, Asin Amini, Romain Dubuis, Giovanni De Cesare, Pierre Bourqui, Pierre-Adil Abdelmoula, Underground flow section modification below the new M3 Flon Metro station in Lausanne, Advances in Hydroinformatics, Eds. P. Gourbesville, G. Caignaert, pp. 979-999, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-1600-7_61

127-22   Qin Panpan, Huang Bolin, Li Bin, Chen Xiaoting, Jiang Xiannian, Hazard analysis of landslide blocking a river in Guang’an Village, Wuxi County, Chongqing, China, Landslides, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s10346-022-01943-2

124-22   Vaishali P. Gadhe, S.R. Patnaik, M.R. Bhajantri, V.V. Bhosekar, Physical and numerical modeling of flow pattern near upstream guide wall of Jigaon Dam spillway, Maharashtra, River and Coastal Engineering, Water Science and Technology Library 117; pp. 237-247, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-05057-2_21

123-22   M.Z. Qamar, M.K. Verma, A.P. Meshram, Neena Isaac, Numerical simulation of desilting chamber using Flow 3D, River and Coastal Engineering, Water Science and Technology Library 117; pp. 177-186, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-05057-2_16

122-22   Abbas Parsaie, Saleh Jaafer Suleiman Shareef, Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi, Raad Hoobi Irzooki, Rasul M. Khalaf, Numerical simulation of flow on circular crested stepped spillway, Applied Water Science, 12; 215, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s13201-022-01737-w

121-22   Kazuki Kikuchi, Hajime Naruse, Morphological function of trace fossil Paleodictyon: An approach from fluid simulation, Paleontological Research, 26.4; pp. 378-389, 2022. doi.org/10.2517/PR210001

120-22   Najam us Saqib, Muhammad Akbar, Huali Pan, Guoqiang Ou, Numerical investigation of pressure profiles and energy dissipation across the stepped spillway having curved treads using FLOW 3D, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 15; 1363, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s12517-022-10505-8

116-22   Ayşegül Özgenç Aksoy, Mustafa Doğan, Semire Oğuzhan Güven, Görkem Tanır, Mehmet Şükrü Güney, Experimental and numerical investigation of the flood waves due to partial dam break, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology: Transactions of Civil Engineering, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s40996-022-00919-5

115-22   Abdol Mahdi Behroozi, Mohammad Vaghefi, Experimental and numerical study of the effect of zigzag crests with various geometries on the performance of A-type piano key weirs, Water Resources Management, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s11269-022-03261-7

114-22   Xun Huang, Zhijian Zhang, Guoping Xiang, Sensitivity analysis of a built environment exposed to debris flow impacts with 3-D numerical simulations, Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, 2022. doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2022-173

113-22   Ahmad Ferdowsi, Mahdi Valikhan-Anaraki, Saeed Farzin, Sayed-Farhad Mousavi, A new combination approach for optimal design of sedimentation tanks based on hydrodynamic simulation model and machine learning algorithms, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 103201, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2022.103201

103-22   Wangshu Wei, Optimization of the mixing in produced water (PW) retention tank with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, Produced Water Society Permian Basin, 2022.

100-22   Michael Rasmussen, Using computational fluid dynamics to predict flow through the West Crack Breach of the Great Salt Lake railroad causeway, Thesis, Utah State University, 2022.

99-22   Emad Khanahmadi, Amir Ahmad Dehghani, Mehdi Meftah Halaghi, Esmaeil Kordi, Farhad Bahmanpouri, Investigating the characteristic of hydraulic T-jump on rough bed based on experimental and numerical modeling, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s40808-022-01434-2

97-22   Andrea Franco, A multidisciplinary approach for landslide-generated impulse wave assessment in natural mountain basins from a cascade analysis perspective, Thesis, University of Innsbruck, 2022.

96-22   Geng Li, Binbin Wang, Simulation of the flow field and scour evolution by turbulent wall jets under a sluice gate, Journal of Hydro-environment Research, 43; pp. 22-32, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jher.2022.06.002

95-22   Philippe April LeQuéré, Ioan Nistor, Abdolmajid Mohammadian, Stefan Schimmels, Hydrodynamics and associated scour around a free-standing structure due to turbulent bores, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 148.5; 2022.

94-22   Ramtin Sobhkhiz Foumani, Alireza Mardookhpour, Numerical simulation of geotechnical effects on local scour in inclined pier group with Flow-3D software, Water Resources Engineering Journal, 15.52; 2022. doi.org/10.30495/wej.2021.20404.2114

92-22   Geng Li, Binbin Wang, Caroline M. Elliott, Bruce C.Call, Duane C. Chapman, Robert B. Jacobson, A three-dimensional Lagrangian particle tracking model for predicting transport of eggs of rheophilic-spawning carps in turbulent rivers, Ecological Modelling, 470; 110035, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2022.110035

91-22   Ebrahim Hamid Hussein Al-Qadami, Zahiraniza Mustaffa, Mohamed Ezzat Al-Atroush, Eduardo Martinez-Gomariz, Fang Yenn Teo, Yasser El-Husseini, A numerical approach to understand the responses of passenger vehicles moving through floodwaters, Journal of Flood Risk Management, 2022. doi.org/10.1111/jfr3.12828

90-22   Jafar Chabokpour, Hazi Md Azamathulla, Numerical simulation of pollution transport and hydrodynamic characteristics through the river confluence using FLOW 3D, Water Supply, 2022. doi.org/10.2166/ws.2022.237

88-22   Michael Rasmussen, Som Dutta, Bethany T. Neilson, Brian Mark Crookston, CFD model of the density-driven bidirectional flows through the West Crack Breach in the Great Salt Lake causeway, Water, 13.17; 2423, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/w13172423

84-22   M. Sobhi Alasta, Ahmed Shakir Ali Ali, Saman Ebrahimi, Muhammad Masood Ashiq, Abubaker Sami Dheyab, Adnan AlMasri, Anass Alqatanani, Mahdis Khorram, Modeling of local scour depth around bridge pier using FLOW 3D, CPRASE: Transactions of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 8.2; 2781, 2022.

83-22   Mostafa Taherian, Seyed Ahmad Reza Saeidi Hosseini, Abdolmajid Mohammadian, Overview of outfall discharge modeling with a focus on turbulence modeling approaches, Advances in Fluid Mechanics: Modelling and Simulations, Eds. Dia Zeidan, Eric Goncalves Da Silva, Jochen Merker, Lucy T. Zhang, 2022.

80-22   Soraya Naderi, Mehdi Daryaee, Seyed Mahmood Kashefipour, Mohammadreza Zayeri, Numerical and experimental study of flow pattern due to a plate installed upstream of orifice in pressurized flushing of dam reservoirs, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology: Transactions of Civil Engineering, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s40996-022-00896-9

79-22   Mahmood Nemati Qalee Maskan, Khosrow Hosseini, Effects of the simultaneous presence of bridge pier and abutment on the change of erodible bed using FLOW-3D, Journal of Iranian Water Engineering Research, 1.1; pp. 57-69, 2022. doi.org/10.22034/IJWER.2022.312074.1012

75-22   Steven Matthew Klawitter, L-shaped spillway crest leg interface geometry impacts, Thesis, University of Colorado at Denver, 2022.

72-22   Md. Mukdiul Islam, Md. Samiun Basir, Badal Mahalder, Local scour analysis around single pier and group of piers in tandem arrangement using FLOW 3D, 6th International Conference on Civil Engineering for Sustainable Development (ICCESD 2022), Khulna, Bangladesh, February 10-12, 2022.

69-22   Kuo-Wei Liao, Zhen-Zhi Wang, Investigation of air-bubble screen on reducing scour in river facility, EGU General Assembly, EGU22-1137, 2022. doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-1137

68-22   Cüneyt Yavuz, Energy dissipation scale for dam prototypes, ADYU Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (Adıyaman University Journal of Engineering Sciences), 16; pp. 105-116, 2022.

66-22   Ji-jian Lian, Shu-guang Zhang, Jun-ling He, An improved numerical model of ski-jump flood discharge atomization, Journal of Mountain Science, 19; pp. 1263-1273, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s11629-021-7158-8

62-22   Ali Montazeri, Amirabbas Abedini, Milad Aminzadeh, Numerical investigation of pollution transport around a single non-submerged spur dike, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 248; 104018, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2022.104018

61-22   Junhao Zhang, Yining Sun, Zhixian Cao, Ji Li, Flow structure at reservoir-tributary confluence with high sediment load, EGU General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, May 23-27, 2022. doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-1419

60-22   S. Modalavalasa, V. Chembolu, V. Kulkarni, S. Dutta, Numerical and experimental investigation of effect of green river corridor on main channel hydraulics, Recent Trends in River Corridor Management, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering 229, pp. 165-176, 2022.

59-22   Philippe April LeQuéré, Scouring around multiple structures in extreme flow conditions, Thesis, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2022.

51-22   Xianzheng Zhang, Chenxiao Tang, Yajie Yu, Chuan Tang, Ning Li, Jiang Xiong, Ming Chen, Some considerations for using numerical methods to simulate possible debris flows: The case of the 2013 and 2020 Wayao debris flows (Sichuan, China), Water, 14.7; 1050, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/w14071050

50-22   Daniel Valero, Daniel B. Bung, Sebastien Erpicum, Yann Peltier, Benjamin Dewals, Unsteady shallow meandering flows in rectangular reservoirs: A modal analysis of URANS modelling, Journal of Hydro-environment Research, 42; pp. 12-20, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jher.2022.03.002

49-22   Behzad Noroozi, Jalal Bazargan, Comparing the behavior of ogee and piano key weirs under unsteady flows, Journal of Irrigation and Water Engineering, 12.3; pp. 97-120. doi.org/10.22125/iwe.2022.146390

47-22   Chen Xiaoting, Huang Bolin, Li Bin, Jiang Xiannian, Risk assessment study on landslide-generated impulse waves: case study from Zhongliang Reservoir in Chongqing, China, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 81; 158, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s10064-022-02629-8

45-22   Mehmet Cihan Aydin, Havva Seda Aytemur, Ali Emre Ulu, Experimental and numerical investigation on hydraulic performance of slit-check dams in subcritical flow condition, Water Resources Management, 36; pp. 1693-1710, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s11269-022-03103-6

43-22   Suresh Modalavalasa, Vinay Chembolu, Subashisa Dutta, Vinayak Kulkarni, Combined effect of bridge piers and floodplain vegetation on main channel hydraulics, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 136; 110669, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2022.110669

40-22   Mohammad Bagherzadeh, Farhad Mousavi, Mohammad Manafpour, Reza Mirzaee, Khosrow Hoseini, Numerical simulation and application of soft computing in estimating vertical drop energy dissipation with horizontal serrated edge, Water Supply, 127, 2022. doi.org/10.2166/ws.2022.127

39-22   Masumeh Rostam Abadi, Saeed Kazemi Mohsenabadi, Numerical study of the weir angle on the flow pattern and scour around the submerged weirs, International Journal of Modern Physics C, 2022. doi.org/10.1142/S0129183122501108

38-22   Vahid Hassanzadeh Vayghan, Mirali Mohammadi, Behzad Shakouri, Experimental and numerical examination of flow resistance in plane bed streams, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 15; 483, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s12517-022-09691-2

36-22   Kyong Oh Baek, Byong Jo Min, Investigation for flow characteristics of ice-harbor type fishway installed at mid-sized streams in Korea, Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, 55.1; pp. 33-42, 2022. 

34-22   Kyong Oh Baek, Jeong-Min Lee, Eun-Jin Han, Young-Do Kim, Evaluating attraction and passage efficiencies of pool-weir type fishways based on hydraulic analysis, Applied Sciences, 12.4; 1880, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/app12041880

33-22   Christopher Paschmann, David F. Vetsch, Robert M. Boes, Design of desanding facilities for hydropower schemes based on trapping efficiency, Water, 14.4; 520, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/w14040520

29-22   Mehdi Heyrani, Abdolmajid Mohammadian, Ioan Nistor, Omerul Faruk Dursun, Application of numerical and experimental modeling to improve the efficiency of Parshall flumes: A review of the state-of-the-art, Hydrology, 9.2; 26 2022. doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9020026

28-22   Kiyoumars Roushangar, Samira Akhgar, Saman Shanazi, The effect of triangular prismatic elements on the hydraulic performance of stepped spillways in the skimming flow regime: An experimental study and numerical modeling, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 2022. doi.org/10.2166/hydro.2022.031

26-22   Jorge Augusto Toapaxi Alvarez, Roberto Silva, Cristina Torres, Modelación numérica tridimensional del medidor de caudal Palmer-Bowlus aplicando el programa FLOW-3D (Three-dimensional numerical modeling of the Palmer-Bowlus measuring flume applying the FLOW-3D program), Revista Politécnica, 49.1; 2022. doi.org/10.33333/rp.vol49n1.04 

25-22   Shubing Dai, Sheng Jin, Numerical investigations of unsteady critical flow conditions over an obstacle using three models, Physics of Fluids, 34.2; 2022. doi.org/10.1063/5.0077585

23-22   Negar Ghahramani, H. Joanna Chen, Daley Clohan, Shielan Liu, Marcelo Llano-Serna, Nahyan M. Rana, Scott McDougall, Stephen G. Evans, W. Andy Take, A benchmarking study of four numerical runout models for the simulation of tailings flows, Science of the Total Environment, 827; 154245, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.154245

22-22   Bahador Fatehi-Nobarian, Razieh Panahi, Vahid Nourani, Investigation of the Effect of Velocity on Secondary Currents in Semicircular Channels on Hydraulic Jump Parameters, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology: Transactions of Civil Engineering, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s40996-021-00800-x

21-22   G. Viccione, C. Izzo, Three-dimensional CFD modelling of urban flood forces on buildings: A case study, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2162; 012020, 2022. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/2162/1/012020

20-22   Tohid Jamali Rovesht, Mohammad Manafpour, Mehdi Lotfi, Effects of flow condition and chute geometry on the shockwaves formed on chute spillway, Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua, 71.2; pp. 312-329, 2022. doi.org/10.2166/aqua.2022.139

17-22   Yansong Zhang, Jianping Chen, Fujun Zhou, Yiding Bao, Jianhua Yan, Yiwei Zhang, Yongchao Li, Feifan Gu, Qing Wang, Combined numerical investigation of the Gangda paleolandslide runout and associated dam breach flood propagation in the upper Jinsha River, SE Tibetan Plateau, Landslides, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s10346-021-01768-5

16-22   I.A. Hernández-Rodríguez, J. López-Ortega, G. González-Blanco, R. Beristain-Cardoso, Performance of the UASB reactor during wastewater treatment and the effect of the biogas bubbles on its hydrodynamics, Environmental Technology, pp. 1-21, 2022. doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2022.2028015

15-22   Xu Deng, Sizhong He, Zhouhong Cao, Numerical investigation of the local scour around a coconut tree root foundation under wave-current joint actions, Ocean Engineering, 245; 110563, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2022.110563

14-22   Rasool Kosaj, Rafid S. Alboresha, Sadeq O. Sulaiman, Comparison between numerical Flow3d software and laboratory data, for sediment incipient motion, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 961; 012031, 2022. doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/961/1/012031

13-22   Joseph M. Sinclair, S. Karan Venayagamoorthy, Timothy K. Gates, Some insights on flow over sharp-crested weirs using computational fluid dynamics: Implications for enhanced flow measurement, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 148.6; 2022. doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0001652

12-22   Mete Koken, Ismail Aydin, Serhan Ademoglu, An iterative hydraulic design methodology based on numerical modeling for piano key weirs, Journal of Hydro-environment Research, 40; pp. 131-141, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jher.2022.01.002

11-22   Najam us Saqib, Muhammad Akbar, Huali Pan, Guoqiang Ou, Muhammad Mohsin, Assad Ali, Azka Amin, Numerical analysis of pressure profiles and energy dissipation across stepped spillways having curved risers, Applied Sciences, 12.1; 448, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/app12010448

9-22   Amir Bordbar, Soroosh Sharifi, Hassan Hemida, Investigation of scour around two side-by-side piles with different spacing ratios in live-bed, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 208; pp. 302-309, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-7735-9_33

8-22    Jian-cheng Li, Wei Wang, Yan-ming Zheng, Xiao-hao Wen, Jing Feng, Li Sheng, Chen Wang, Ming-kun Qiu, Using computational fluid dynamic simulation with Flow-3D to reveal the origin of the mushroom stone in the Xiqiao Mountain of Guangdong, China, Journal of Mountain Science, 19; pp. 1-15, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s11629-021-7019-5

4-22   Ankur Kapoor, Aniruddha D. Ghare, Avinash M. Badar, CFD simulations of conical central baffle flumes, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 148.2, 2022. doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0001653

2-22   Ramtin Sabeti, Mohammad Heidarzadeh, Numerical simulations of tsunami wave generation by submarine landslides: Validation and sensitivity analysis to landslide parameters, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 148.2; 05021016, 2022. doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)WW.1943-5460.0000694

1-22   Juan Francisco Fuentes-Pérez, Ana L. Quaresma, Antonio Pinheiro, Francisco Javier Sanz-Ronda, OpenFOAM vs FLOW-3D: A comparative study of vertical slot fishway modelling, Ecological Engineering, 174, 2022.

145-21   Ebrahim Hamid Hussein Al-Qadami, Zahiraniza Mustaffa, Eduardo Martínez-Gomariz, Khamaruzaman Wan Yusof, Abdurrasheed S. Abdurrasheed, Syed Muzzamil Hussain Shah, Numerical simulation to assess floating instability of small passenger vehicle under sub-critical flow, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 132; pp. 258-265, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-33-6311-3_30

140-21   J. Zulfan, B.M.Ginting, Investigation of spillway rating curve via theoretical formula, laboratory experiment, and 3D numerical modeling: A case study of the Riam Kiwa Dam, Indonesia, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 930; 012030, 2021. doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/930/1/012030

130-21   A.S.N. Amirah, F.Y. Boon, K.A. Nihla, Z.M. Salwa, A.W. Mahyun, N. Yaacof, Numerical simulation of flow within a storage area of HDPE modular pavement, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 920; 012044, 2021. doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/920/1/012044

129-21   Z.M. Yusof, Z.A.L. Shirling, A.K.A. Wahab, Z. Ismail, S. Amerudin, A hydrodynamic model of an embankment breaching due to overtopping flow using FLOW-3D, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 920; 012036, 2021. doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/920/1/012036

125-21   Ketaki H. Kulkarni, Ganesh A. Hinge, Comparative study of experimental and CFD analysis for predicting discharge coefficient of compound broad crested weir, Water Supply, 2021. doi.org/10.2166/ws.2021.403

119-21   Yan Liang, Yiqun Hou, Wangbin Hu, David Johnson, Junxing Wang, Flow velocity preference of Schizothorax oconnori Lloyd swimming upstream, Global Ecology and Conservation, 32; e01902, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2021.e01902

116-21   Atabak Feizi, Aysan Ezati, Shadi Alizadeh Marallo, Investigation of hydrodynamic characteristics of flow caused by dam break around a downstream obstacle considering different reservoir shapes, Numerical Methods in Civil Engineering, 6.2; pp. 36-48, 2021.

114-21   Jackson Tellez-Alvarez, Manuel Gómez, Beniamino Russo, Marko Amezaga-Kutija, Numerical and experimental approaches toestimate discharge coefficients and energy loss coefficients in pressurized grated inlets, Hydrology, 8.4; 162, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040162

113-21   Alireza Khoshkonesh, Blaise Nsom, Fariba Ahmadi Dehrashid, Payam Heidarian, Khuram Riaz, Comparison of the SWE and 3D models in simulation of the dam-break flow over the mobile bed, 5th Scientific Conference of Applied Research in Science and Technology of Iran, 2021.

103-21   Farshid Mosaddeghi, Numerical modeling of dam breach in concrete gravity dams, Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, 2021.

102-21   Xu Deng, Sizhong He, Zhouhong Cao, Tao Wu, Numerical investigation of the hydrodynamic response of an impermeable sea-wall subjected to artificial submarine landslide-induced tsunamis, Landslides, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s10346-021-01773-8

100-21   Jinmeng Yang, Zhenzhong Shen, Jing Zhang, Xiaomin Teng, Wenbing Zhang, Jie Dai, Experimental and numerical investigation of flow over a spillway bend with different combinations of permeable spur dikes, Water Supply, ws2021335, 2021. doi.org/10.2166/ws.2021.335

99-21   Nigel A. Temple, Josh Adams, Evan Blythe, Zidane Twersky, Steve Blair, Rick Harter, Investigating the performance of novel oyster reef materials in Apalachicola Bay, Florida, ASBPA National Coastal Conference, New Orleans, LA, USA, September 28-October 1, 2021.

94-21   Xiaoyang Shen, Mario Oertel, Comparitive study of nonsymmetrical trapezoidal and rectangular piano key weirs with varying key width ratios, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 147.11, 2021. doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001942

93-21   Aysar Tuama Al-Awadi, Mahmoud Saleh Al-Khafaji, CFD-based model for estimating the river bed morphological characteristics near cylindrical bridge piers due to debris accumulation, Water Resources, 48; pp. 763-773, 2021. doi.org/10.1134/S0097807821050031

92-21   Juan Francisco Macián-Pérez, Francisco José Vallés-Morán, Rafael García-Bartual, Assessment of the performance of a modified USBR Type II stilling basin by a validated CFD model, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering , 147.11, 2021. doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0001623

91-21   Ali Yıldız, Ali İhsan Martı, Mustafa Göğüş, Numerical and experimental modelling of flow at Tyrolean weirs, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 81; 102040, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2021.102040

90-21   Yasamin Aghaei, Fouad Kilanehei, Shervin Faghihirad, Mohammad Nazari-Sharabian, Dynamic pressure at flip buckets of chute spillways: A numerical study, International Journal of Civil Engineering, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s40999-021-00670-4

88-21   Shang-tuo Qian, Yan Zhang, Hui Xu, Xiao-sheng Wang, Jian-gang Feng, Zhi-xiang Li, Effects of surface roughness on overflow discharge of embankment weirs, Journal of Hydrodynamics, 33; pp. 773-781, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s42241-021-0068-y

86-21   Alkistis Stergiopoulou, Vassilios Stergiopoulos, CFD simulations of tubular Archimedean screw turbines harnessing the small hydropotential of Greek watercourses, International Journal of Energy and Environment, 12.1; pp. 19-30, 2021.

85-21   Jun-tao Ren, Xue-fei Wu, Ting Zhang, A 3-D numerical simulation of the characteristics of open channel flows with submerged rigid vegetation, Journal of Hydrodynamics, 33; pp. 833-843, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s42241-021-0063-3

84-21   Rasoul Daneshfaraz, Amir Ghaderi, Maryam Sattariyan, Babak Alinejad, Mahdi Majedi Asl, Silvia Di Francesco, Investigation of local scouring around hydrodynamic and circular pile groups under the influence of river material harvesting pits, Water, 13.6; 2192, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13162192

83-21   Mahdi Feizbahr, Navid Tonekaboni, Guang-Jun Jiang, Hong-Xia Chen, Optimized vegetation density to dissipate energy of flood flow in open canals, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2021; 9048808, 2021. doi.org/10.1155/2021/9048808

80-21   Wenjun Liu, Bo Wang, Yakun Guo, Numerical study of the dam-break waves and Favre waves down sloped wet rigid-bed at laboratory scale, Journal of Hydrology, 602; 126752, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2021.126752

79-21   Zhen-Dong Shen, Yang Zhang, The three-dimensional simulation of granular mixtures weir, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 820; 012024, 2021. doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/820/1/012024

75-21   Mehrdad Ghorbani Mooselu, Mohammad Reza Nikoo, Parnian Hashempour Bakhtiari, Nooshin Bakhtiari Rayani, Azizallah Izady, Conflict resolution in the multi-stakeholder stepped spillway design under uncertainty by machine learning techniques, Applied Soft Computing, 110; 107721, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2021.107721

73-21   Romain Van Mol, Plunge pool rehabilitation with prismatic concrete elements – Case study and physical model of Ilarion dam in Greece, Infoscience (EPFL Scientific Publications), 2021.

70-21   Khosro Morovati, Christopher Homer, Fuqiang Tian, Hongchang Hu, Opening configuration design effects on pooled stepped chutes, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 147.9, 2021. doi.org/10.1061%2F(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001897

68-21   R. Daneshfaraz, E. Aminvash, S. Di Francesco, A. Najibi, J. Abraham, Three-dimensional study of the effect of block roughness geometry on inclined drop, Numerical Methods in Civil Engineering, 6.1; pp. 1-9, 2021. 

66-21   Benjamin Hohermuth, Lukas Schmoker, Robert M. Boes, David Vetsch, Numerical simulation of air entrainment in uniform chute flow, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 59.3; pp. 378-391, 2021. doi.org/10.1080/00221686.2020.1780492

65-21   Junjun Tan, Honglin Tan, Elsa Goerig, Senfan Ke, Haizhen Huang, Zhixiong Liu, Xiaotao Shi, Optimization of fishway attraction flow based on endemic fish swimming performance and hydraulics, Ecological Engineering, 170; 106332, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2021.106332

63-21   Erdinc Ikinciogullari, Muhammet Emin Emiroglu, Mehmet Cihan Aydin, Comparison of scour properties of classical and trapezoidal labyrinth weirs, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s13369-021-05832-z

59-21   Elias Wehrmeister, José J. Ota, Separation in overflow spillways: A computational analysis, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 59, 2021. doi.org/10.1080/00221686.2021.1908438

53-21   Zongxian Liang, John Ditter, Riadh Atta, Brian Fox, Karthik Ramaswamy, Numerical modeling of tailings dam break using a Herschel-Bulkley rheological model, USSD Annual Conference, online, May 11-21, 2021. 

51-21   Yansong Zhang, Jianping Chen, Chun Tan, Yiding Bao, Xudong Han, Jianhua Yan, Qaiser Mehmood, A novel approach to simulating debris flow runout via a three-dimensional CFD code: A case study of Xiaojia Gully, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 80.5, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s10064-021-02270-x

49-21   Ramtin Sabeti, Mohammad Heidarzadeh, Preliminary results of numerical simulation of submarine landslide-generated waves, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, April 19-30, 2021. doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-284

48-21   Anh Tuan Le, Ken Hiramatsu, Tatsuro Nishiyama, Hydraulic comparison between piano key weir and rectangular labyrinth weir, International Journal of GEOMATE, 20.82; pp. 153-160, 2021. doi.org/10.21660/2021.82.j2106

46-21   Maoyi Luo, Faxing Zhang, Zhaoming Song, Liyuan Zhang, Characteristics of flow movement in complex canal system and its influence on sudden pollution accidents, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 6617385, 2021. doi.org/10.1155/2021/6617385

42-21   Jakub Major, Martin Orfánus, Zbyněk Zachoval, Flow over broad-crested weir with inflow by approach shaft – Numerical model, Civil Engineering Journal, 30.1; 19, 2021. doi.org/10.14311/CEJ.2021.01.0019 

41-21   Amir Ghaderi, Saeed Abbasi, Experimental and numerical study of the effects of geometric appendance elements on energy dissipation over stepped spillway, Water, 13.7; 957, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13070957

38-21   Ana L. Quaresma, António N. Pinheiro, Modelling of pool-type fishways flows: Efficiency and scale effects assessment, Water, 13.6; 851, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13060851

37-21   Alireza Khoshkonesh, Blaise Nsom, Farhad Bahmanpouri, Fariba Ahmadi Dehrashid, Atefah Adeli, Numerical study of the dynamics and structure of a partial dam-break flow using the VOF Method, Water Resources Management, 35; pp. 1513-1528, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s11269-021-02799-2

36-21   Amir Ghaderi, Mehdi Dasineh, Francesco Aristodemo, Constanza Aricò, Numerical simulations of the flow field of a submerged hydraulic jump over triangular macroroughnesses, Water, 13.5; 674, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13050674

35-21   Hongliang Qi, Junxing Zheng, Chenguang Zhang, Modeling excess shear stress around tandem piers of the longitudinal bridge by computational fluid dynamics, Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research, 2021. doi.org/10.1080/23249676.2021.1884614

31-21   Seth Siefken, Robert Ettema, Ari Posner, Drew Baird, Optimal configuration of rock vanes and bendway weirs for river bends: Numerical-model insights, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 147.5, 2021. doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001871

29-21   Débora Magalhães Chácara, Waldyr Lopes Oliveira Filho, Rheology of mine tailings deposits for dam break analyses, REM – International Engineering Journal, 74.2; pp. 235-243, 2021. doi.org/10.1590/0370-44672020740098

27-21   Ling Peng, Ting Zhang, Youtong Rong, Chunqi Hu, Ping Feng, Numerical investigation of the impact of a dam-break induced flood on a structure, Ocean Engineering, 223; 108669, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.108669

26-21   Qi-dong Hou, Hai-bo Li, Yu-Xiang Hu, Shun-chao Qi, Jian-wen Zhou, Overtopping process and structural safety analyses of the earth-rock fill dam with a concrete core wall by using numerical simulations, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 14; 234, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s12517-021-06639-w

25-21   Filipe Romão, Ana L. Quaresma, José M. Santos, Susana D. Amaral, Paulo Branco, António N. Pinheiro, Performance and fish transit time over vertical slots, Water, 13.3; 275, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13030275

23-21   Jiahou Hu, Chengwei Na, Yi Wang, Study on discharge velocity of tailings mortar in dam break based on FLOW-3D, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 6th International Conference on Hydraulic and Civil Engineering, Xi’an, China, December 11-13, 2020, 643; 012052, 2021. doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/643/1/012052

21-21   Asad H. Aldefae, Rusul A. Alkhafaji, Experimental and numerical modeling to investigate the riverbank’s stability, SN Applied Sciences, 3; 164, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s42452-021-04168-5

20-21   Yangliang Lu, Jinbu Yin, Zhou Yang, Kebang Wei, Zhiming Liu, Numerical study of fluctuating pressure on stilling basin slabwith sudden lateral enlargement and bottom drop, Water, 13.2; 238, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13020238

18-21   Prashant Prakash Huddar, Vishwanath Govind Bhave, Hydraulic structure design with 3D CFD model, Proceedings, 25th International Conference on Hydraulics, Water Resources and Coastal Engineering (HYDRO 2020), Odisha, India, March 26-28, 2021.

17-21   Morteza Sadat Helbar, Atefah Parvaresh Rizi, Javad Farhoudi, Amir Mohammadi, 3D flow simulation to improve the design and operation of the dam bottom outlets, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 14; 90, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-06378-4

15-21   Charles R. Ortloff, Roman hydraulic engineering: The Pont du Gard Aqueduct and Nemausus (Nîmes) Castellum, Water, 13.1; 54, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13010054

12-21   Mehdi Karami Moghadam, Ata Amini, Ehsan Karami Moghadam, Numerical study of energy dissipation and block barriers in stepped spillways, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 23.2; pp. 284-297, 2021. doi.org/10.2166/hydro.2020.245

08-21   Prajakta P. Gadge, M. R. Bhajantri, V. V. Bhosekar, Numerical simulations of air entraining characteristics over high head chute spillway aerator, Proceedings, ICOLD Symposium on Sustainable Development of Dams and River Basins, New Dehli, India, February 24 – 27, 2021.

07-21   Pankaj Lawande, Computational fluid dynamics simulation methodologies for stilling basins, Proceedings, ICOLD Symposium on Sustainable Development of Dams and River Basins, New Dehli, India, February 24 – 27, 2021.

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Water & Environmental Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate applications for the Water & Environmental Industry.

02-21   Aytaç Güven, Ahmed Hussein Mahmood, Numerical investigation of flow characteristics over stepped spillways, Water Supply, in press, 2021. doi.org/10.2166/ws.2020.283

01-21   Le Thi Thu Hien, Nguyen Van Chien, Investigate impact force of dam-break flow against structures by both 2D and 3D numerical simulations, Water, 13.3; 344, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/w13030344

125-20   Farhad Bahmanpouri, Mohammad Daliri, Alireza Khoshkonesh, Masoud Montazeri Namin, Mariano Buccino, Bed compaction effect on dam break flow over erodible bed; experimental and numerical modeling, Journal of Hydrology, in press, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.125645

124-20   John Petrie, Yan Qi, Mark Cornwell, Md Al Adib Sarker, Pranesh Biswas, Sen Du, Xianming Shi, Design of living barriers to reduce the impacts of snowdrifts on Illinois freeways, Illinois Center for Transportation Series No. 20-019, Research Report No. FHWA-ICT-20-012, 2020. doi.org/10.36501/0197-9191/20-019

123-20   Mohammad Reza Namaee, Jueyi Sui, Yongsheng Wu, Natalie Linklater, Three-dimensional numerical simulation of local scour in the vicinity of circular side-by-side bridge piers with ice cover, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 2020. doi.org/10.1139/cjce-2019-0360

119-20   Tuğçe Yıldırım, Experimental and numerical investigation of vortex formation at multiple horizontal intakes, Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, , 2020.

118-20   Amir Ghaderi, Mehdi Dasineh, Francesco Aristodemo, Ali Ghahramanzadeh, Characteristics of free and submerged hydraulic jumps over different macroroughnesses, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 22.6; pp. 1554-1572, 2020. doi.org/10.2166/hydro.2020.298

117-20   Rasoul Daneshfaraz, Amir Ghaderi, Aliakbar Akhtari, Silvia Di Francesco, On the effect of block roughness in ogee spillways with flip buckets, Fluids, 5.4; 182, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/fluids5040182

115-20   Chi Yao, Ligong Wu, Jianhua Yang, Influences of tailings particle size on overtopping tailings dam failures, Mine Water and the Environment, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s10230-020-00725-3

114-20  Rizgar Ahmed Karim, Jowhar Rasheed Mohammed, A comparison study between CFD analysis and PIV technique for velocity distribution over the Standard Ogee crested spillways, Heliyon, 6.10; e05165, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05165

113-20   Théo St. Pierre Ostrander, Analyzing hydraulics of broad crested lateral weirs, Thesis, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria, 2020.

111-20   Mahla Tajari, Amir Ahmad Dehghani, Mehdi Meftah Halaghi, Hazi Azamathulla, Use of bottom slots and submerged vanes for controlling sediment upstream of duckbill weirs, Water Supply, 20.8; pp. 3393-3403, 2020. doi.org/10.2166/ws.2020.238

110-20   Jian Zhou, Subhas K. Venayagamoorthy, How does three-dimensional canopy geometry affect the front propagation of a gravity current?, Physics of Fluids, 32.9; 096605, 2020. doi.org/10.1063/5.0019760

106-20   Juan Francisco Macián-Pérez, Arnau Bayón, Rafael García-Bartual, P. Amparo López-Jiménez, Characterization of structural properties in high reynolds hydraulic jump based on CFD and physical modeling approaches, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 146.12, 2020. doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001820

105-20   Bin Deng, He Tao, Changbo Jian, Ke Qu, Numerical investigation on hydrodynamic characteristics of landslide-induced impulse waves in narrow river-valley reservoirs, IEEE Access, 8; pp. 165285-165297, 2020. doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3022651

102-20   Mojtaba Mehraein, Mohammadamin Torabi, Yousef Sangsefidi, Bruce MacVicar, Numerical simulation of free flow through side orifice in a circular open-channel using response surface method, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 76; 101825, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2020.101825

101-20   Juan Francisco Macián Pérez, Numerical and physical modelling approaches to the study of the hydraulic jump and its application in large-dam stilling basins, Thesis, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain, 2020.

99-20   Chen-Shan Kung, Pin-Tzu Su, Chin-Pin Ko, Pei-Yu Lee, Application of multiple intake heads in engineering field, Proceedings, 30th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Online, October 11-17,  ISOPE-I-20-3116, 2020.

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Water & Environmental Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate applications for the Water & Environmental Industry.

91-20      Selahattin Kocaman, Stefania Evangelista, Giacomo Viccione, Hasan Güzel, Experimental and numerical analysis of 3D dam-break waves in an enclosed domain with a single oriented obstacle, Environmental Science Proceedings, 2; 35, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2020002035

89-20      Andrea Franco, Jasper Moernaut, Barbara Schneider-Muntau, Michael Strasser, Bernhard Gems, The 1958 Lituya Bay tsunami – pre-event bathymetry reconstruction and 3D numerical modelling utilising the computational fluid dynamics software Flow-3D, Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, 20; pp. 2255–2279, 2020. doi.org/10.5194/nhess-20-2255-2020

88-20      Cesar Simon, Eddy J. Langendoen, Jorge D. Abad, Alejandro Mendoza, On the governing equations for horizontal and vertical coupling of one- and two-dimensional open channel flow models, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 58.5; pp. 709-724, 2020. doi.org/10.1080/00221686.2019.1671507

87-20       Mohammad Nazari-Sharabian, Moses Karakouzian, Donald Hayes, Flow topology in the confluence of an open channel with lateral drainage pipe, Hydrology, 7.3; 57, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7030057

84-20       Naohiro Takeichi, Takeshi Katagiri, Harumi Yoneda, Shusaku Inoue, Yusuke Shintani, Virtual Reality approaches for evacuation simulation of various disasters, Collective Dynamics (originally presented in Proceedings from the 9th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics (PED2018), Lund, Sweden, August 21-23, 2018), 5, 2020. doi.org/10.17815/CD.2020.93

83-20       Eric Lemont, Jonathan Hill, Ryan Edison, A problematic installation: CFD modelling of waste stabilisation pond mixing alternatives, Ozwater’20, Australian Water Association, Online, June 2, 2020, 2020.

77-20       Peng Yu, Ruigeng Hu, Jinmu Yang, Hongjun Liu, Numerical investigation of local scour around USAF with different hydraulic conditions under currents and waves, Ocean Engineering, 213; 107696, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.107696

76-20       Alireza Mojtahedi, Nasim Soori, Majid Mohammadian, Energy dissipation evaluation for stepped spillway using a fuzzy inference system, SN Applied Sciences, 2; 1466, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s42452-020-03258-0

74-20       Jackson D., Tellez Alvarez E., Manuel Gómez, Beniamino Russo, Modelling of surcharge flow through grated inlet, Advances in Hydroinformatics: SimHydro 2019 – Models for Extreme Situations and Crisis Management, Nice, France, June 12-14, 2019, pp. 839-847, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-5436-0_65

73-20       Saurav Dulal, Bhola NS Ghimire, Santosh Bhattarai, Ram Krishna Regmi, Numerical simulation of flow through settling basin: A case study of Budhi-Ganga Hydropower Project (BHP), International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 9.7; pp. 992-998, 2020.

70-20       B. Nandi, S. Das, A. Mazumdar, Experimental analysis and numerical simulation of hydraulic jump, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2020 6th International Conference on Environment and Renewable Energy, Hanoi, Vietnam, February 24-26, 505; 012024, 2020. doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/505/1/012024

69-20       Amir Ghaderi, Rasoul Daneshfaraz, Mehdi Dasineh, Silvia Di Francesco, Energy dissipation and hydraulics of flow over trapezoidal–triangular labyrinth weirs, Water (Special Issue: Combined Numerical and Experimental Methodology for Fluid–Structure Interactions in Free Surface Flows), 12.7; 1992, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/w12071992

68-20       Jia Ni, Linwei Wang, Xixian Chen, Luan Luan Xue, Isam Shahrour, Effect of the fish-bone dam angle on the flow mechanisms of a fish-bone type dividing dyke, Marine Technology Society Journal, 54.3; pp. 58-67, 2020. doi.org/10.4031/MTSJ.54.3.9

67-20       Yu Zhuang, Yueping Yin, Aiguo Xing, Kaiping Jin, Combined numerical investigation of the Yigong rock slide-debris avalanche and subsequent dam-break flood propagation in Tibet, China, Landslides, 17; pp. 2217-2229, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s10346-020-01449-9

66-20       A. Ghaderi, R. Daneshfaraz, S. Abbasi, J. Abraham, Numerical analysis of the hydraulic characteristics of modified labyrinth weirs, International Journal of Energy and Water Resources, 4.2, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s42108-020-00082-5

65-20      D.P. Zielinski, S. Miehls, G. Burns, C. Coutant, Adult sea lamprey espond to induced turbulence in a low current system, Journal of Ecohydraulics, 5, 2020. doi.org/10.1080/24705357.2020.1775504

63-20       Raffaella Pellegrino, Miguel Ángel Toledo, Víctor Aragoncillo, Discharge flow rate for the initiation of jet flow in sky-jump spillways, Water, Special Issue: Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure, 12.6; 1814, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/w12061814

59-20       Nesreen Taha, Maged M. El-Feky, Atef A. El-Saiad, Ismail Fathy, Numerical investigation of scour characteristics downstream of blocked culverts, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 59.5; pp. 3503-3513, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2020.05.032

57-20       Charles Ortloff, The Hydraulic State: Science and Society in the Ancient World, Routledge, London, UK, eBook ISBN: 9781003015192, 2020. doi.org/10.4324/9781003015192

54-20       Navid Aghajani, Hojat Karami, Hamed Sarkardeh, Sayed‐Farhad Mousavi, Experimental and numerical investigation on effect of trash rack on flow properties at power intakes, Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (ZAMM), online pre-issue, 2020. doi.org/10.1002/zamm.202000017

53-20     Tian Zhou, Theodore Endreny, The straightening of a river meander leads to extensive losses in flow complexity and ecosystem services, Water (Special Issue: A Systems Approach of River and River Basin Restoration), 12.6; 1680, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/w12061680

50-20       C.C. Battiston, F.A. Bombardelli, E.B.C. Schettini, M.G. Marques, Mean flow and turbulence statistics through a sluice gate in a navigation lock system: A numerical study, European Journal of Mechanics – B/Fluids, 84; pp.155-163, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.euromechflu.2020.06.003

47-20       Mohammad Nazari-Sharabian, Aliasghar Nazari-Sharabian, Moses Karakouzian, Mehrdad Karami, Sacrificial piles as scour countermeasures in river bridges: A numerical study using FLOW-3D, Civil Engineering Journal, 6.6; pp. 1091-1103, 2020. doi.org/10.28991/cej-2020-03091531

44-20    Leena Jaydeep Shevade, L. James Lo, Franco A. Montalto, Numerical 3D model development and validation of curb-cut inlet for efficiency prediction, Water, 12; 1791, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/w12061791

43-20       Vitor Hugo Pereira de Morais, Tiago Zenker Gireli, Paulo Vatavuk, Numerical and experimental models applied to an ogee crest spillway and roller bucket stilling basin, Brazilian Journal of Water Resources, 2020. doi.org/10.1590/2318-0331.252020190005

42-20       Chen Xie, Qin Chen, Gang Fan, Chen Chen, Numerical simulation of the natural erosion and breaching process of the “10.11” Baige Landslide Dam on the Jinsha River, Dam Breach Modelling and Risk Disposal, pp. 376-377, International Conference on Embankment Dams (ICED), Beijing, China, June 5 – 7, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-46351-9_40

41-20       Niloofar Aghili Mahabadi, Hamed Reza Zarif Sanayei, Performance evaluation of bilateral side slopes in piano key weirs by numerical simulation, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 6; pp. 1477-1486, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s40808-020-00764-3

40-20       P. April Le Quéré, I. Nistor, A. Mohammadian, Numerical modeling of tsunami-induced scouring around a square column: Performance assessment of FLOW-3D and Delft3D, Journal of Coastal Research (preprint), 2020. doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-19-00181

39-20       Jian Zhou, Subhas K. Venayagamoorthy, Impact of ambient stable stratification on gravity currents propagating over a submerged canopy, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 898; A15, 2020. doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2020.418

37-20     Aliasghar Azma, Yongxiang Zhang, The effect of variations of flow from tributary channel on the flow behavior in a T-shape confluence, Processes, 8; 614, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/pr8050614

35-20     Selahattin Kocaman, Hasan Güzel, Stefania Evangelista, Hatice Ozmen-Cagatay, Giacomo Viccione, Experimental and numerical analysis of a dam-break flow through different contraction geometries of the channel, Water, 12; 1124, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/w12041124

32-20       Adriano Henrique Tognato, Modelagem CFD da interação entre hidrodinâmica costeira e quebra-mar submerso: estudo de caso da Ponta da Praia em Santos, SP (CFD modeling of interaction between sea waves and submerged breakwater at Ponta de Praia – Santos, SP: a case study, Thesis, Universidad Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil, 2020.

31-20   Hamidreza Samma, Amir Khosrojerdi, Masoumeh Rostam-Abadi, Mojtaba Mehraein and Yovanni Cataño-Lopera, Numerical simulation of scour and flow field over movable bed induced by a submerged wall jet, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 22.2, pp. 385-401, 2020. doi.org/10.2166/hydro.2020.091

28-20   Halah Kais Jalal and Waqed H. Hassan, Three-dimensional numerical simulation of local scour around circular bridge pier using FLOW-3D software, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, art. no. 012150, 3rd International Conference on Engineering Sciences, Kerbala, Iraq, November 4-6, 2019745. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/745/1/012150

25-20   Faizal Yusuf and Zoran Micovic, Prototype-scale investigation of spillway cavitation damage and numerical modeling of mitigation options, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 146.2, 2020. doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001671

24-20   Huan Zhang, Zegao Yin, Yipei Miao, Minghui Xia and Yingnan Feng, Hydrodynamic performance investigation on an upper and lower water exchange device, Aquacultural Engineering, 90, art. no. 102072, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2020.102072

22-20   Yu-xiang Hu, Zhi-you Yu and Jian-wen Zhou, Numerical simulation of landslide-generated waves during the 11 October 2018 Baige landslide at the Jinsha River, Landslides, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s10346-020-01382-x

19-20   Amir Ghaderi, Mehdi Dasineh, Saeed Abbasi and John Abraham, Investigation of trapezoidal sharp-crested side weir discharge coefficients under subcritical flow regimes using CFD, Applied Water Science, 10, art. no. 31, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s13201-019-1112-8

18-20   Amir Ghaderi, Saeed Abbasi, John Abraham and Hazi Mohammad Azamathulla, Efficiency of trapezoidal labyrinth shaped stepped spillways, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 72, art. no. 101711, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2020.101711

16-20   Majid Omidi Arjenaki and Hamed Reza Zarif Sanayei, Numerical investigation of energy dissipation rate in stepped spillways with lateral slopes using experimental model development approach, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s40808-020-00714-z

15-20   Bo Wang, Wenjun Liu, Wei Wang, Jianmin Zhang, Yunliang Chen, Yong Peng, Xin Liu and Sha Yang, Experimental and numerical investigations of similarity for dam-break flows on wet bed, Journal of Hydrology, 583, art. no. 124598, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.124598

14-20   Halah Kais Jalal and Waqed H. Hassan, Effect of bridge pier shape on depth of scour, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, art. no. 012001, 3rd International Conference on Engineering Sciences, Kerbala, Iraq, November 4-6, 2019671. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/671/1/012001

13-20   Shahad R. Mohammed, Basim K. Nile and Waqed H. Hassan, Modelling stilling basins for sewage networks, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, art. no. 012111, 3rd International Conference on Engineering Sciences, Kerbala, Iraq, November 4-6, 2019671. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/671/1/012111

11-20   Xin Li, Liping Jin, Bernie A. Engel, Zeng Wang, Wene Wang, Wuquan He and Yubao Wang, Influence of the structure of cylindrical mobile flumes on hydraulic performance characteristics in U-shaped channels, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 72, art. no. 101708, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2020.101708

10-20   Nima Aein, Mohsen Najarchi, Seyyed Mohammad Mirhosseini Hezaveh, Mohammad Mehdi Najafizadeh and Ehsanollah Zeigham, Simulation and prediction of discharge coefficient of combined weir–gate structure, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Water Management (ahead of print), 2020. doi.org/10.1680/jwama.19.00047

03-20   Agostino Lauria, Francesco Calomino, Giancarlo Alfonsi, and Antonino D’Ippolito, Discharge coefficients for sluice gates set in weirs at different upstream wall inclinations, Water, 12, art. no. 245, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/w12010245

113-19   Ruidong An, Jia Li, Typical biological behavior of migration and flow pattern creating for fish schooling, E-Proceedings, 38th IAHR World Congress, Panama City, Panama, September 1-6, 2019.

112-19   Wenjun Liu, Bo Wang, Hang Wang, Jianmin Zhang, Yunliang Chen, Yong Peng, Xin Liu, Sha Yang, Experimental and numerical modeling of dam-break flows in wet downstream conditions, E-Proceedings, 38th IAHR World Congress, Panama City, Panama, September 1-6, 2019.

111-19   Zhang Chendi, Liu Yingjun, Xu Mengzhen, Wang Zhaoyin, The 3D numerical study on flow properties of individual step-pool, Proceedings: 14th International Symposium on River Sedimentation, Chengdu, China, September 16-19, 2019.

110-19   Mason Garfield, The effects of scour on the flow field at a bendway weir, Thesis: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

109-19   Seth Siefken, Computational fluid dynamics models of Rio Grande bends fitted with rock vanes or bendway weirs, Thesis: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

108-19   Benjamin Israel Devadason and Paul Schweiger, Decoding the drowning machines: Using CFD modeling to predict and design solutions to remediate the dangerous hydraulic roller at low head dams, The Journal of Dam Safety, 17.1, pp. 20-31, 2019.

106-19   Amir Ghaderi and Saeed Abbasi, CFD simulations of local scouring around airfoil-shaped bridge piers with and without collar, Sādhanā, art. no. 216, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s12046-019-1196-8

105-19   Jacob van Alwon, Numerical and physical modelling of aerated skimming flows over stepped spillways, Thesis, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom, 2019.

100-19   E.H. Hussein Al-Qadami, A.S. Abdurrasheed, Z. Mustaffa, K.W. Yusof, M.A. Malek and A. Ab Ghani, Numerical modelling of flow characteristics over sharp crested triangular hump, Results in Engineering, 4, art. no. 100052, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.rineng.2019.100052

99-19   Agostino Lauria, Francesco Calomino, Giancarlo Alfonsi, and Antonino D’Ippolito, Discharge coefficients for sluice gates set in weirs at different upstream wall inclinations, Water, 12.1, art. no. 245, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/w12010245

98-19   Redvan Ghasemlounia and M. Sedat Kabdasli, Surface suspended sediment distribution pattern for an unexpected flood event at Lake Koycegiz, Turkey, Proceedings, 14th National Conference on Watershed Management Sciences and Engineering, Urmia, Iran, July 16-17, 2019.

97-19   Brian Fox, Best practices for simulating hydraulic structures with CFD, Proceedings, Dam Safety 2019, Orlando, Florida, USA, September 8-12, 2019.

96-19   John Wendelbo, Verification of CFD predictions of self-aeration onset on stepped chute spillways, Proceedings, Dam Safety 2019, Orlando, Florida, USA, September 8-12, 2019.

95-19   Pankaj Lawande, Anurag Chandorkar and Adhirath Mane, Predicting discharge rating curves for tainter gate controlled spillway using CFD simulations, Proceedings, 24th HYDRO 2019, International Conference, Hyderabad, India, December 18-20, 2019.

91-19   Gyeong-Bo Kim, Wei Cheng, Richards C. Sunny, Juan J. Horrillo, Brian C. McFall, Fahad Mohammed, Hermann M. Fritz, James Beget, and Zygmunt Kowalik , Three Dimensional Landslide Generated Tsunamis: Numerical and Physical Model Comparisons, Landslides, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s10346-019-01308-2

85-19   Susana D. Amaral, Ana L. Quaresma, Paulo Branco, Filipe Romão, Christos Katopodis, Maria T. Ferreira, António N. Pinheiro, and José M. Santos, Assessment of retrofitted ramped weirs to improve passage of potamodromous fish, Water, 11, art. no. 2441, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/w11122441

82-19   Shubing Dai, Yong He, Jijian Yang, Yulei ma, Sheng Jin, and Chao Liang, Numerical study of cascading dam-break characteristics using SWEs and RANS, Water Supply, 2019. doi.org/10.2166/ws.2019.168

81-19   Kyong Oh Baek, Evaluation technique for efficiency of fishway based on hydraulic analysis, Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, 52.spc2, pp. 855-863, 2019. doi.org/10.3741/JKWRA.2019.52.S-2.855

80-19   Yongye Li, Yuan Gao, Xiaomeng Jia, Xihuan Sun, and Xuelan Zhang, Numerical simulations of hydraulic characteristics of a flow discharge measurement process with a plate flowmeter in a U-channel, Water, art. no. 2392, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/w11112382

76-19   Youtong Rong, Ting Zhang, Yanchen Zheng, Chunqi Hu, Ling Peng, and Ping Feng, Three-dimensional urban flood inundation simulation based on digital aerial photogrammetry, Journal of Hydrology, in press, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.124308

74-19   Youtong Rong, Ting Zhang, Ling Peng, and Ping Feng, Three-dimensional numerical simulation of dam discharge and flood routing in Wudu Reservoir, Water, 11, art. no. 2157, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/w11102157

70-19   Le Thi Thu Hien, Study the flow over chute spillway by both numerical and physical models, Proceedings, pp. 845-851, 10th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2019), Hanoi, Vietnam, September 25-28, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-0291-0_116

69-19   T. Vinh Cuong, N. Thanh Hung, V. Thanh Te, P. Anh Tuan, Analysis of spur dikes spatial layout to river bed degradation under reversing tidal flow, Proceedings, pp. 737-744, 10th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2019), Hanoi, Vietnam, September 25-28, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-0291-0_101

67-19   Zongshi Dong, Junxing Wang, David Florian Vetsch, Robert Michael Boes, and Guangming Tan, Numerical simulation of air–water two-phase flow on stepped spillways behind X-shaped flaring gate piers under very high unit discharge, Water, 11, art. no. 1956, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/w11101956

66-19   Tony L. Wahl, Effect of boundary layer conditions on uplift pressures at open offset spillway joints, Sustainable and Safe Dams Around the World: Proceedings, 2019. doi.org/10.1201/9780429319778-182

65-19   John Petrie, Kun Zhang, and Mahmoud Shehata, Numerical simulation of snow deposition around living snow fences, Community Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates (CESTiCC), Project Report, 2019.

64-19   Andrea Franco, Jasper Moernaut, Barbara Schneider-Muntau, Markus Aufleger, Michael Strasser, and Bernhard Gems, Lituya Bay 1958 Tsunami – detailed pre-event bathymetry reconstruction and 3D-numerical modelling utilizing the CFD software FLOW-3D, Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, under review, 2019. doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2019-285

63-19   J. Patarroyo, D. Damov, D. Shepherd, G. Snyder, M. Tremblay, and M. Villeneuve, Hydraulic design of stepped spillway using CFD supported by physical modelling: Muskrat Falls hydroelectric generating facility, Sustainable and Safe Dams Around the World: Proceedings, , pp. 205-219, 2019. doi.org/10.1201/9780429319778-19

61-19   A.S. Abdurrasheed, K.W. Yusof, E.H. Hussein Alqadami, H. Takaijudin, A.A. Ghani, M.M. Muhammad, A.T. Sholagberu, M.K. Zainalfikry, M. Osman, and M.S. Patel, Modelling of flow parameters through subsurface drainage modules for application in BIOECODS, Water, 11, art. no. 1823, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/w11091823

59-19     Brian Fox and Robert Feurich, CFD analysis of local scour at bridge piers, Proceedings of the Federal Interagency Sedimentation and Hydraulic Modeling Conference (SEDHYD), Reno, Nevada, June 24-28, 2019.

56-19     Pankaj Lawande, Brian Fox, and Anurag Chandorkar, Three dimensional CFD modeling of flow over a tainter gate spillway, International Dam Safety Conference, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, February 13-14, 2019.

49-19     Yousef Sangsefidi, Bruce MacVicar, Masoud Ghodsian, Mojtaba Mehraein, Mohammadamin Torabi, and Bruce M. Savage, Evaluation of flow characteristics in labyrinth weirs using response surface methodology, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 69, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2019.101617

43-19     Gongyun Liao, Zancheng Tang, and Fei Zhu, Self-cleaning performance of double-layer porous asphalt pavements with different granular diameters and layer combinations, 19th COTA International Conference of Transportation, Nanjing, China, July 6-8, 2019.

42-19     Tsung-Chun Ho, Gwo-Jang Hwang, Kao-Shu Hwang, Kuo-Cheng Hsieh, and Lung-Wei Chen, Experimental and numerical study on desilting efficiency of the bypassing tunnel for Nan-Hua reservoir, 3rd International Workshop on Sediment Bypass Tunnels, Taipei, Taiwan, April 9-12, 2019.

41-19     Chang-Ting Hsieh, Sheng-Yung Hsu, and Chin-Pin Ko, Planning of sluicing tunnel in front of the Wushe dam – retrofit the existing water diversion tunnel as an example, 3rd International Workshop on Sediment Bypass Tunnels, Taipei, Taiwan, April 9-12, 2019.

40-19     Chi-Lin Yang, Pang-ku Yang, Fu-June Wang, and Kuo-Cheng Hsieh, Study on the transportation of high-concentration sediment flow and the operation of sediment de-silting in Deji Reservoir, 3rd International Workshop on Sediment Bypass Tunnels, Taipei, Taiwan, April 9-12, 2019.

39-19   Sam Glovik and John Wendelbo, Advanced CFD air entrainment capabilities for baffle drop structure design, NYWEA 91st Annual Meeting, New York, NY, February 3-6, 2019.

36-19     Ahmed M. Helmi, Heba T. Essawy, and Ahmed Wagdy, Three-dimensional numerical study of stacked drop manholes, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Vol. 145, No. 9, 2019. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0001414

33-19     M. Cihan Aydin, A. Emre Ulu, and Çimen Karaduman, Investigation of aeration performance of Ilısu Dam outlet using two-phase flow model, Applied Water Science, Vol. 9, No. 111, 2019. doi: 10.1007/s13201-019-0982-0

16-19     Bernard Twaróg, The analysis of the reactive work of the Alden Turbine, Technical Transactions I, Environmental Engineering, 2019. doi: 10.4467/2353737XCT.19.010.10050

14-19     Guodong Li, Xingnan Li, Jian Ning, and Yabing Deng, Numerical simulation and engineering application of a dovetail-shaped bucket, Water, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2019. doi: 10.3390/w11020242

13-19     Ilaria Rendina, Giacomo Viccione, and Leonardo Cascini, Kinematics of flow mass movements on inclined surfaces, Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 107-123, 2019. doi: 10.1007/s00162-019-00486-y

10-19     O.K. Saleh, E.A. Elnikhely, and Fathy Ismail, Minimizing the hydraulic side effects of weirs construction by using labyrinth weirs, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 66, pp. 1-11, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2019.01.016

05-19   Hakan Ersoy, Murat Karahan, Kenan Gelişli, Aykut Akgün, Tuğçe Anılan, M. Oğuz Sünnetci, Bilgehan Kul Yahşi, Modelling of the landslide-induced impulse waves in the Artvin Dam reservoir by empirical approach and 3D numerical simulation, Engineering Geology, Vol. 249, pp. 112-128, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2018.12.025

96-18     Kyung-Seop Sin, Robert Ettema, Christopher I. Thornton, Numerical modeling to assess the influence of bendway weirs on flow distribution in river beds, Task 4 of Study: Native Channel Topography and Rock-Weir Structure Channel-Maintenance Techniques, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. CSU-HYD Report No. 2018-1, 2018.

95-18   Thulfikar Razzak Al-Husseini, Hayder A. Al-Yousify and Munaf A. Al-Ramahee, Experimental and numerical study of the effect of the downstream spillway face’s angle on the stilling basin’s energy dissipation, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9.8, pp. 1327-1337, 2018.

94-18   J. Michalski and J. Wendelbo, Utilizing CFD methods as a forensic tool in pipeline systems to assess air/water transient issues, Proceedings, 7, pp. 5519-5527, 91st Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition & Conference (WEFTEC), New Orleans, LA, United States, September 29 – October 3, 2018. doi.org/10.2175/193864718825138817

79-18 Harold Alvarez and John Wendelbo, Estudio de 3 modelos matemáticos para similar olas producidas por derrumbes en embalses y esfuerzos en compuertas, XXVIII Congreso Latinoamericano de Hidráulica, Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 2018. (In Spanish)

70-18   Michael Pfister, Gaetano Crispino, Thierry Fuchsmann, Jean-Marc Ribi and Corrado Gisonni, Multiple inflow branches at supercritical-type vortex drop shaft, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 144, No. 11, 2018. doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001530

67-18   F. Nunes, J. Matos and I. Meireles, Numerical modelling of skimming flow over small converging spillways, 3rd International Conference on Protection against Overtopping, June 6-8, 2018, Grange-over-Sands, UK, 2018.

66-18   Maria João Costa, Maria Teresa Ferreira, António N. Pinheiro and Isabel Boavida, The potential of lateral refuges for Iberian barbel under simulated hydropeaking conditions, Ecological Engineering, Vol. 124, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2018.07.029

63-18   Michael J. Seluga, Frederick Vincent, Samuel Glovick and Brad Murray, A new approach to hydraulics in baffle drop shafts to address dry and wet weather flow in combined sewer tunnels, North American Tunneling Conference Proceedings, June 24-27, 2018, Washington, D.C. pp. 448-461, 2018. © Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration

62-18   Ana Quaresma, Filipe Romão, Paulo Branco, Maria Teresa Ferreira and António N. Pinheiro, Multi slot versus single slot pool-type fishways: A modelling approach to compare hydrodynamics, Ecological Engineering, Vol. 122, pp. 197-206, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2018.08.006

57-18   Amir Isfahani, CFD modeling of piano key weirs using FLOW-3D, International Dam Safety Conference, January 23-24, 2018, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India; Technical Session 1A, Uncertainties and Risk Management in Dams, 2018.

49-18   Jessica M. Thompson, Jon M. Hathaway and John S. Schwartz, Three-dimensional modeling of the hydraulic function and channel stability of regenerative stormwater conveyances, Journal of Sustainable Water in the Built Environment, vol. 4, no.3, 2018. doi.org/10.1061/JSWBAY.0000861

46-18   A.B. Veksler and S.Z. Safin, Hydraulic regimes and downstream scour at the Kama Hydropower Plant, Power Technology and Engineering, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 2-13, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s10749-018-0862-z

45-18   H. Omara and A. Tawfik, Numerical study of local scour around bridge piers, 9th Annual Conference on Environmental Science and Development, Paris, France, Feb. 7-9, 2018; IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Sciences, vol. 151, 2018. doi.org:10.1088/1755-1315/151/1/012013

40-18   Vincent Libaud, Christophe Daux and Yanis Oukid, Practical Capacities and Challenges of 3D CFD Modelling: Feedback Experience in Engineering Projects, Advances in Hydroinformatics, pp. 767-780, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7218-5_55

39-18   Khosro Morovati and Afshin Eghbalzadeh, Study of inception point, void fraction and pressure over pooled stepped spillways using FLOW-3D, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 28, no. 4, pp.982-998, 2018. doi.org/10.1108/HFF-03-2017-0112

34-18   Tomasz Siuta, The impact of deepening the stilling basin on the characteristics of hydraulic jump, Technical Transactions, vol. 3, pp. 173-186, 2018.

32-18   Azin Movahedi, M.R. Kavianpour, M. R and Omid Aminoroayaie Yamini, Evaluation and modeling scouring and sedimentation around downstream of large dams, Environmental Earth Sciences, vol. 77, no. 8, pp. 320, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7487-2

31-18   Yang Song, Ling-Lei Zhang, Jia Li, Min Chen and Yao-Wen Zhang, Mechanism of the influence of hydrodynamics on Microcystis aeruginosa, a dominant bloom species in reservoirs, Science of The Total Environment, vol. 636, pp. 230-239, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.257

30-18   Shaolin Yang, Wanli Yang, Shunquan Qin, Qiao Li and Bing Yang, Numerical study on characteristics of dam-break wave, Ocean Engineering, vol. 159, pp.358-371, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.04.011

27-18   Rachel E. Chisolm and Daene C. McKinney, Dynamics of avalanche-generated impulse waves: three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations and sensitivity analysis, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, vol. 18, pp. 1373-1393, 2018. doi.org/10.5194/nhess-18-1373-2018.

24-18   Han Hu, Zhongdong Qian, Wei Yang, Dongmei Hou and Lan Du, Numerical study of characteristics and discharge capacity of piano key weirs, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, vol. 62, pp. 27-32, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2018.05.004

23-18   Manoochehr Fathi-Moghaddam, Mohammad Tavakol Sadrabadi and Mostafa Rahmanshahi, Numerical simulation of the hydraulic performance of triangular and trapezoidal gabion weirs in free flow condition, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, vol. 62, pp. 93-104, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2018.05.005

22-18   Anastasios I.Stamou, Georgios Mitsopoulos, Peter Rutschmann and Minh Duc Bui, Verification of a 3D CFD model for vertical slot fish-passes, Environmental Fluid Mechanics, June 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s10652-018-9602-z

17-18   Nikou Jalayeri, John Wendelbo, Joe Groeneveld, Andrew John Bearlin, and John Gulliver, Boundary dam total dissolved gas analysis using a CFD model, Proceedings from the U.S. Society on Dams Annual Conference, April 30 – May 4, 2018, © 2018 U.S. Society on Dams.

12-18   Bernard Twaróg, Interaction between hydraulic conditions and structures – fluid structure interaction problem solving. A case study of a hydraulic structure, Technical Transactions 2/2018, Environmental Engineering, DOI: 10.4467/2353737XCT.18.029.8002

06-18   Oscar Herrera-Granados, Turbulence Flow Modeling of One-Sharp-Groyne Field, © Springer International Publishing AG 2018, M. B. Kalinowska et al. (eds.), Free Surface Flows and Transport Processes, GeoPlanet: Earth and Planetary Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70914-7_12

05-18  Shangtuo Qian, Jianhua Wu, Yu Zhou and Fei Ma, Discussion of “Hydraulic Performance of an Embankment Weir with Rough Crest” by Stefan Felder and Nushan Islam, J. Hydraul. Eng., 2018, 144(4): 07018003, © ASCE.

04-18   Faezeh Tajabadi, Ehsan Jabbari and Hamed Sarkardeh, Effect of the end sill angle on the hydrodynamic parameters of a stilling basin, DOI 10.1140/epjp/i2018-11837-y, Eur. Phys. J. Plus (2018) 133: 10

03-18   Dhemi Harlan, Dantje K. Natakusumah, Mohammad Bagus Adityawan, Hernawan Mahfudz and Fitra Adinata, 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow in Sedimentation Basin, MATEC Web of Conferences 147, 03012 (2018), https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201814703012 SIBE 2017

02-18   ARKAN IBRAHIM, AZHEEN KARIM and Mustafa GÜNAL, Simulation of local scour development downstream of broad-crested weir with inclined apron, European Journal of Science and Technology Special Issue, pp. 57-61, January 2018, Copyright © 2017 EJOSAT.

62-17   Abbas Mansoori, Shadi Erfanian and Farhad Khamchin Moghadam, A study of the conditions of energy dissipation in stepped spillways with A-shaped step using FLOW-3D, Civil Engineering Journal, 3.10, 2017.

57-17   Ben Modra, Brett Miller, Nigel Moon and Andrew Berghuis, Physical model testing of a bespoke articulated concrete block (ACB) fishway, 13th Hydraulics in Water Engineering Conference, Sydney, Nov. 13-18, 2017; Engineers Australia, pp. 301-309, 2017.

53-17   C. Gonzalez, U. Baeumer and C. Russell, Natural disaster relief and recovery arrangements Fitzroy project, bridge scour remediation, 13th Hydraulics in Water Engineering Conference, Sydney. Nov. 13-18, 2017; Engineers Australia, pp. 274-281, 2017.

52-17   Nigel Moon, Russell Merz, Sarah Luu and Daley Clohan, Utilising CFD modelling to conceptualise a novel rock ramp fishway design, 13th Hydraulics in Water Engineering Conference, Sydney, Nov. 13-18, 2017; Engineers Australia, pp. 382-389, 2017.

50-17   B.M. Crookston, R.M. Anderson and B.P. Tullis, Free-flow discharge estimation method for Piano Key weir geometries, Journal of Hydro-environment Research (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jher.2017.10.003.

48-17   Jian Zhou, Physics of Environmental Flows Interacting with Obstacles, PhD Thesis: Colorado State University, Copyright by Jian Zhou 2017, All Rights Reserved.

46-17   Michael Sturn, Bernhard Gems, Markus Aufleger, Bruno Mazzorana, Maria Papathoma-Köhle and Sven Fuchs, Scale Model Measurements of Impact Forces on Obstacles Induced by Bed-load Transport Processes, Proceedings of the 37th IAHR World Congress August 13 – 18, 2017, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

43-17   Paula Beceiro, Maria do Céu Almeida and Jorge Matos, Numerical modelling of air-water flows in sewer drops, Available Online 28 April 2017, wst2017246; DOI: 10.2166/wst.2017.246

42-17   Arnau Bayon, Juan Pablo Toro,  Fabián A.Bombardelli, Jorge Matose and Petra Amparo López-Jiménez, Influence of VOF technique, turbulence model and discretization scheme on the numerical simulation of the non-aerated, skimming flow in stepped spillwaysJournal of Hydro-environment Research, Available online 26 October 2017

40-17   Sturm M, Gems B, Mazzorana B, Gabl R and Aufleger M, Validation of physical and 3D numerical modelling of hydrodynamic flow impacts on objects (Validierung experimenteller und 3-D-numerischer Untersuchungen zur Einwirkung hydrodynamischer Fließprozesse auf Objekte), Bozen-Bolzano Institutional Archive (BIA), ISSN: 0043-0978, https://bia.unibz.it/handle/10863/3893, 2017

38-17   Tsung-Hsien Huang, Chyan-Deng Jan, and Yu-Chao Hsu, Numerical Simulations of Water Surface Profiles and Vortex Structure in a Vortex Settling Basin by using FLOW-3D, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 531-542 (2017) 531, DOI: 10.6119/JMST-017-0509-1

36-17   Jacob van Alwon, Duncan Borman and Andrew Sleigh, Numerical Modelling of Aerated Flows Over Stepped Spillways, 37th IAHR World Congress, 2017.

35-17   Abolfazl Nazari Giglou, John Alex Mccorquodale and Luca Solari, Numerical study on the effect of the spur dikes on sedimentation pattern, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Available online 8 March 2017.

33-17   Giovanni De Cesare, Khalid Essyad, Paloma Furlan, Vu Nam Khuong, Sean Mulligan, Experimental study at prototype scale of a self-priming free surface siphon, Congrès SHF : SIMHYDRO 2017, Nice, 14-16 June

32-17   Kathryn Plymesser and Joel Cahoon, Pressure gradients in a steeppass fishway using a computational fluid dynamics model, Ecological Engineering 108 (2017) 277–283.

31-17   M. Ghasemi, S. Soltani-Gerdefaramarzi, The Scour Bridge Simulation around a Cylindrical Pier Using FLOW-3D, Journal of Hydrosciences and Environment 1(2): 2017 46-54

27-17   John Wendelbo and Brian Fox, CFD modeling of Piano Key weirs: validation and numerical parameter space analysis, 2017 Dam Safety, San Antonio, September 10-14, 2017, Copyright © 2017 Association of State Dam Safety Officials, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

26-17   Brian Fox and John Wendelbo, Numerical modeling of Piano Key Weirs using FLOW-3D, USSD Annual Conference, Anaheim, CA, April 3- 7, 2017

25-17   Rasoul Daneshfaraz, Sina Sadeghfam and Ali Ghahramanzadeh, Three-dimensional Numerical Investigation of Flow through Screens as Energy Dissipators, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, https://doi.org/10.1139/cjce-2017-0273

23-17   J.M, Duguay, R.W.J. Lacey and J. Gaucher, A case study of a pool and weir fishway modeled with OpenFOAM and FLOW-3D, Ecological Engineering, Volume 103, Part A, June 2017, Pages 31-42

22-17   Hanif Pourshahbaz, Saeed Abbasi and Poorya Taghvaei, Numerical scour modeling around parallel spur dikes in FLOW-3D, https://doi.org/10.5194/dwes-2017-21, Drinking Water Engineering and Science, © Author(s) 2017

21-17   Hamid Mirzaei, Zohreh Heydari and Majid Fazli, The effect of meshing and comparing different models of turbulence in topographic prediction of bed and amplitude of flow around the groin in 90-degree arc with movable bed, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, pp 1–16, July 2017

13-17   Lan Qi, Hui Chen, Xiao Wang, Wencai Fei and Donghai Liu, Establishment and application of three-dimensional realistic river terrain in the numerical modeling of flow over spillways, Water Science & Technology: Water Supply | in press | 2017.

11-17   Allison, M.A., Yuill, B.T., Meselhe, E.A., Marsh, J.K., Kolker, A.S., Ameen, A.D., Observational and numerical particle tracking to examine sediment dynamics in a Mississippi River delta diversion, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2017.06.004.

09-17   Hamid Mirzaei, Zohreh Heydari and Majid Fazli, The effect of meshing and comparing different turbulence models in predicting the topography of bed and flow field in the 90 degree bend with moving bed, M. Model. Earth Syst. Environ. (2017). doi:10.1007/s40808-017-0336-6

03-17   Luis G. Castillo and José M. Carrillo, Comparison of methods to estimate the scour downstream of a ski jump, Civil Engineering Department, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, UPCT Paseo Alfonso XIII, 52 – 30203 Cartagena, Spain, International Journal of Multiphase Flow 92 (2017) 171–180.

103-16 Daniel Valero and Rafael Garcia-Bartual, Calibration of an Air Entrainment Model for CFD Spillway Applications, Advances in Hydroinformatics, P. Gourbesville et al. (eds), pp. 571-582, 2016. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-615-7_38

97-16   M. Taghavi and H. Ghodousi, A Comparison on Discharge Coefficients of Side and Normal Weirs with Suspended Flow Load using FLOW-3D, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 9(3), doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i3/78537, January 2016.

96-16   Luis G. Castillo and José M. Carrillo, Scour, Velocities and Pressures Evaluations Produced by Spillway and Outlets of DamWater 2016, 8(3), 68; doi.org/10.3390/w8030068.

95-16   Majid Heydari and Alireza KhoshKonesh, The Comparison of the Performance of Prandtl Mixing Length, Turbulence Kinetic Energy, K-e, RNG and LES Turbulence Models in Simulation of the Positive Wave Motion Caused by Dam Break on the Erodible Bed, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 9(7), 2016. doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i7/87856

93-16   Saleh I. Khassaf, Ali N. Attiyah and Hayder A. Al-Yousify, Experimental investigation of compound side weir with modeling using computational fluid dynamic, International Journal of Energy and Environment, Volume 7, Issue 2, 2016 pp.169-178

92-16   Jason Duguay and Jay Lacey, Modeling: OpenFOAM CFD Modeling Case Study of a Pool and Weir Fishway with Implications for Free-Surface Flows, International Conference on Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage 2016

90-16   Giacomo Viccione, Vittorio Bovolin and Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, A numerical investigation of liquid impact on planar surfaces, ECCOMAS Congress 2016 VII European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, Greece, June 2016.

89-16   Giacomo Viccione, A numerical investigation of flow dynamics over a trapezoidal smooth open channel, ECCOMAS Congress 2016 VII European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, Greece, June 2016.

87-16  Jian Zhou and Subhas K. Venayagamoorthy, Numerical simulations of intrusive gravity currents interacting with a bottom-mounted obstacle in a continuously stratified ambient, Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 17; 191–209, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s10652-016-9454-3

86-16   Charles R. Ortloff, Similitude in Archaeology: Examining Agricultural System Science in PreColumbian Civilizations of Ancient Peru and Bolivia, Hydrol Current Res 7:259. doi: 10.4172/2157-7587.1000259, October 2016.

85-16   Charles R. Ortloff, New Discoveries and Perspectives on Water Management at 300 Bc – Ad 1100 Tiwanaku’s Urban Center (Bolivia), MOJ Civil Eng 1(3): 00014. DOI: 10.15406/mojce.2016.01.00014.

82-16   S. Paudel and N. Saenger, Grid refinement study for three dimensional CFD model involving incompressible free surface flow and rotating object, Computers & Fluids, Volume 143, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compfluid.2016.10.025, 17 January 2017, Pages 134–140

77-16   José A. Vásquez, Daniel M. Robb, MODELACIÓN CFD DE ROTURA DE PRESAS EN PRESENCIA DE OBSTÁCULOS, XXVII CONGRESO LATINOAMERICANO DE HIDRÁULICA, LIMA, PERÚ, 28 AL 30 DE SETIEMBRE DE 2016.

76-16   José A. Vásquez and Guilherme de Lima, MODELACIÓN CFD DE ONDAS TSUNAMI EN RESERVORIOS, LAGOS Y MINAS CAUSADAS POR DESLIZAMIENTOS DE LADERAS, XXVII CONGRESO LATINOAMERICANO DE HIDRÁULICA, LIMA, PERÚ, 28 AL 30 DE SETIEMBRE DE 2016.

75-16   Bernhard Gems, Bruno Mazzorana, Thomas Hofer, Michael Sturm, Roman Gabl and Markus Aufleger, 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1351-1368, 2016, http://www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/16/1351/2016/, doi:10.5194/nhess-16-1351-2016 © Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

74-16   Roman Gabl, Jakob Seibl, Manfred Pfeifer, Bernhard Gems and Markus Aufleger, 3D-numerische Modellansätze für die Berechnung von Lawineneinstößen in Speicher (Concepts to simulate avalanche impacts into a reservoir based on 3D-numerics), Österr Wasser- und Abfallw (2016). doi:10.1007/s00506-016-0346-z.

73-16   Sebastian Krzyzagorski, Roman Gabl, Jakob Seibl, Heidi Böttcher and Markus Aufleger, Implementierung eines schräg angeströmten Rechens in die 3D-numerische Berechnung mit FLOW-3D (Implementation of an angled trash rack in the 3D-numerical simulation with FLOW-3D), Österr Wasser- und Abfallw (2016) 68: 146. doi:10.1007/s00506-016-0299-2.

71-16   Khosro Morovati, Afshin Eghbalzadeh and Saba Soori, Numerical Study of Energy Dissipation of Pooled Stepped Spillways, Civil Engineering Journal Vol. 2, No. 5, May, 2016.

66-16   Sooyoung Kim, Seo-hye Choi and Seung Oh Lee, Analysis of Influence for Breach Flow According to Asymmetry of Breach Cross-section, Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, Vol. 17, No. 5 pp. 557-565, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.5.557, ISSN 1975-4701 / eISSN 2288-4688.

65-16   Dae-Geun Kim, Analysis of Overflow Characteristics around a Circular-Crested Weir by Using Numerical Model, Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater Vol. 30, No. 2, April 2016.

63-16   Farzad Ferdos and Bijan Dargahi, A study of turbulent flow in largescale porous media at high Reynolds numbers. Part II: flow physics, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 2016, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2016.1211185.

62-16   Farzad Ferdos and Bijan Dargahi, A study of turbulent flow in largescale porous media at high Reynolds numbers. Part I: numerical validation, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 2016, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2016.1211184.

60-16   Chia-Lin Chiu, Chia-Ming Fan and Shun-Chung Tsung, Numerical modeling for  periodic oscillation of free overfall in a vertical drop pool, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001236. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.

54-16   Serife Yurdagul Kumcu, Investigation of Flow Over Spillway Modeling and Comparison between Experimental Data and CFD Analysis, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, (0000) 00(0):1-10, Copyright 2016 Korean Society of Civil Engineers, DOI 10.1007/s12205-016-1257-z.

52-16   Gharehbaghi, A., Kaya, B. and Saadatnejadgharahassanlou, Two-Dimensional Bed Variation Models Under Non-equilibrium Conditions in Turbulent Streams, H. Arab J Sci Eng (2016). doi:10.1007/s13369-016-2258-4

48-16   M. Mohsin Munir, Taimoor Ahmed, Javed Munir and Usman Rasheed, Application of Computational Flow Dynamics Analysis for Surge Inception and Propagation for Low Head Hydropower Projects, Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: Pakistan Academy of Sciences, A. Physical and Computational Sciences 53 (2): 177–185 (2016), Copyright © Pakistan Academy of Sciences

46-16   Manuel Gómez, Joan Recasens, Beniamino Russo and Eduardo Martínez-Gomariz, Assessment of inlet efficiency through a 3D simulation: numerical and experimental comparison, wst2016326; DOI: 10.2166/wst.2016.326, August 2016

45-16   Chia-Ying Chang, Frederick N.-F. Chou, Yang-Yih Chen, Yi-Chern Hsieh, Chia-Tzu Chang, Analytical and experimental investigation of hydrodynamic performance and chamber optimization of oscillating water column system, Energy 113 (2016) 597-614

42-16   Bung, D. and Valero, D., Application of the Optical Flow Method to Velocity Determination, In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June 2016, doi:10.15142/T3150628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

41-16   Valero, D., Bung, D., Crookston, B. and Matos, J., Numerical investigation of USBR type III stilling basin performance downstream of smooth and stepped spillways, In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management. 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June 2016, doi:10.15142/T340628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

40-16   Bruce M. Savage, Brian M. Crookston and Greg S. Paxson, Physical and Numerical Modeling of Large Headwater Ratios for a 15° Labyrinth Spillway, J. Hydraul. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001186, 04016046.

36-16   Kai-Wen Hsiao, Yu-Chao Hsu, Chyan-Deng Jan, and Yu-Wen Su, Characteristics of Hydraulic Shock Waves in an Inclined Chute Contraction by Using Three Dimensional Numerical Model, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 18, EGU 2016-11505, 2016, EGU General Assembly 2016, © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

34-16   Dunlop, S., Willig, I., Paul, G., Cabinet Gorge Dam Spillway Modifications for TDG Abatement – Design Evolution and Field Performance, In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management. 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June, 2016, doi:10.15142/T3650628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

33-16   Crispino, G., Dorthe, D., Fuchsmann, T., Gisonni, C., Pfister, M., Junction chamber at vortex drop shaft: case study of Cossonay, In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June 2016, doi:10.15142/T350628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

32-16  Brown, K., Crookston, B., Investigating Supercritical Flows in Curved Open Channels with Three Dimensional Numerical Modeling, In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June, 2016, doi:10.15142/T3580628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

31-16  Cicero, G, Influence of some geometrical parameters on Piano Key Weir discharge efficiency,In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June, 2016, doi:10.15142/T3320628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

28-16   Anthoula Gkesouli, Maria Nitsa, Anastasios I. Stamou, Peter Rutschmann and Minh Duc Bui, Modeling the effect of wind in rectangular settling tanks for water supply, DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2016.1195290, Desalination and Water Treatment, June 22, 2016.

27-16   Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, Giacomo Viccione and Vittorio Bovolin, Free surface flow impact on a vertical wall: a numerical assessment, Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn., DOI 10.1007/s00162-016-0386-9, February 2016.

25-16   Daniel Valero and Daniel B. Bung, Sensitivity of turbulent Schmidt number and turbulence model to simulations of jets in crossflow, Environmental Modelling & Software 82 (2016) 218e228.

24-16   Il Won Seo, Young Do Kim, Yong Sung Park and Chang Geun Song, Spillway discharges by modification of weir shapes and overflow surroundings, Environmental Earth Sciences, March 2016, 75:496, 14 March 2016

23-16   Du Han Lee, Myounghwan Kim and Dong Sop Rhee, Evacuation Safety Evaluation of Inundated Stairs Using 3D Numerical Simulation, International Journal of Smart Home Vol. 10, No. 3, (2016), pp.149-158 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijsh.2016.10.3.15

22-16   Arnau Bayon, Daniel Valero, Rafael García-Bartual, Francisco Jose Valles-Moran and Amparo Lopez-Jimenez, Performance assessment of OpenFOAM and FLOW-3D in the numerical modeling of a low Reynolds number hydraulic jump, Environmental Modelling & Software 80 (2016) 322e335.

21-16   Shima Bahadori and Mehdi Behdarvandi Askar, Investigating the Effect of Relative Width on Momentum Transfer between Main Channel and Floodplain in Rough Rectangular Compound Channel Sunder Varius Relative Depth Condition, Open Journal of Geology, 2016, 6, 225-231, Published Online April 2016 in SciRes.

18-16   Ali Ahrari,  Hong Lei, Montassar Aidi Sharif, Kalyanmoy Deb and  Xiaobo Tan, Optimum Design of Artificial Lateral Line Systems for Object Tracking under Uncertain Conditions, COIN Report Number: 2016006

16-16   Elena Battisacco, Giovanni De Cesare and Anton J. Schleiss, Re-establishment of a uniform discharge on the Olympic fountain in Lausanne, Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research, (2016) DOI: 10.1080/23249676.2016.1163648.

14-16   Shima Bahadori, Mehdi and Behdarvandi Askar, Investigating the Simultaneous Effect of Relative Width and Relative Roughness on Apparent Shear Stress in Symmetric Compound Rectangular Channels, JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH IN SCIENCE, ISSN 2322-5009 CODEN (USA): JCRSDJ, S (1), 2016: 654-660

12-16   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering Innovations at 100 BC- AD 300 Nabataean Petra (Jordan), In conference proceedings: De Aquaeductu atque Aqua Urbium Lyciae Pamphyliae Pisidiae. The Legacy of Sextus Julius Frontinus, Antalya, Turkey, G. Wiplinger, ed.  ISBN: 978-90-429-3361-3, 2016 Peeters Publisher, Leuven, Belgium.

11-16 G. Robblee, S. Kees and B.M. Crookston, Schnabel Engineering; and K. Keel, Town of Hillsborough, Ensuring Water Supply Reliability with Innovative PK Weir Spillway Design, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, Denver, CO, April 11-15, 2016

10-16 Tina Stanard and Victor Vasquez, Freese and Nichols, Inc.; Ruth Haberman, Upper Brushy Creek Water Control and Improvement District; Blake Tullis, Utah State University; and Bruce Savage, Idaho State University, Importance of Site Considerations for Labyrinth Spillway Hydraulic Design — Upper Brushy Creek Dam 7 Modernization, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, Denver, CO, April 11-15, 2016

09-16 James R. Crowder, Brian M. Crookston, Bradley T. Boyer and J. Tyler Coats, Schnabel Engineering, Cultivating Ingenuity and Safety in Alabama: The Taming of Lake Ogletree Reservoir, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, Denver, CO, April 11-15, 2016

08-16 Frank Lan, Robert Waddell and Michael Zusi, AECOM; and Brian Grant, Montana DNRC, Replacing Ruby Dam Outlet Uses Computational Fluid Dynamics to Model Energy Dissipation, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, Denver, CO, April 11-15, 2016

07-16 Elise N. Dombeck, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Applications of FLOW-3D for Stability Analyses of Concrete Spillways at FERC Projects, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, Denver, CO, April 11-15, 2016

06-16   Farhad Ghazizadeh and M. Azhdary Moghaddam, An Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Flow Hydraulic Parameters in Circular Crested Weir Using FLOW-3D, Civil Engineering Journal Vol. 2, No. 1, January, 2016

05-16   Sadegh Dehdar-behbahani and Abbas Parsaie, Numerical modeling of flow pattern in dam spillway’s guide wall. Case study: Balaroud dam, Iran, doi:10.1016/j.aej.2016.01.006, February 2016.

04-16   Oscar Herrera-Granados and Stanisław W. Kostecki, Numerical and physical modeling of water flow over the ogee weir of the new Niedów barrage, DOI: 10.1515/johh-2016-0013, J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 64, 2016, 1, 67–74

03-16   B. Gems, B. Mazzorana, T. Hofer, M. Sturm, R. Gabl, M. Aufleger, 3D-hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/nhess-2015-326, 2016, Manuscript under review for journal Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., Published: 19 January 2016 © Author(s) 2016. CC-BY 3.0 License.

124-15 Yousef Sangsefidi, Mojtaba Mehraein, and Masoud Ghodsian, Numerical simulation of flow over labyrinth spillways, Scientia Iranica, Transaction A, 22(5), 1779–1787, 2015.

120-15   Du Han Lee, Myounghwan Kim and Dong Sop Rhee, Analysis of Critical Evacuation Condition on Inundated Stairs Using Numerical Simulation, Advanced Science and Technology Letters Vol.120 (GST 2015), pp.522-525 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/astl.2015.120.104

119-15  Shiqiang Ye and Paul Toth, Bank Erosion Control at Frederickhouse Dam, Ontario, CDA 2015 Annual Conference, Congrès annuel 2015 de l’ACB, Mississauga, ON, Canada, 2015 Oct 5-8

118-15  D.M. Robb and J.A. Vasquez, Numerical simulation of dam-break flows using depth-averaged hydrodynamic and three-dimensional CFD models, 22nd Canadian Hydrotechnical Conference, Montreal, Quebec, April 29 – May 2, 2015

117-15 Ashkan. Reisi, Parastoo. Salah, and Mohamad Reza. Kavianpour, Impact of Chute Walls Convergence Angle on Flow Characteristics of Spillways using Numerical Modeling, International Journal of Chemical, Environmental & Biological Sciences (IJCEBS), Volume 3, Issue 3 (2015) ISSN 2320–4087 (Online)

115-15  Ivana Vouk, Field and Numerical Investigation of Mixing and Transport of Ammonia in the Ottawa River, Master’s Thesis: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, August 2015, © Ivana Vouk, Canada 2016.

113-15   J. Amblard, C. Pams Capoccioni, D. Nivon, L. Mellal, G. De Cesare, T. Ghilardi, M. Jafarnejad and E. Battisacco, Analysis of Ballast Transport in the Event of Overflowing of the Drainage System on High Speed Lines, International Journal of Railway Technology, Volume 4, 2015. doi:10.4203/ijr, t.4.xx.xx , ©Saxe-Coburg Publications, 2015

111-15   Y. Oukid, V. Libaud and C. Daux, 3D CFD modelling of spillways -Practical feedback on capabilities and challenges, Hydropower & Dams Issue Six, 2015

110-15  Zhiyong Zhang and Yuanping Yang, Numerical Study on Onset Condition of Scour Below Offshore Pipeline Under Reversing Tidal Flow, © EJGE, Vol. 20 [2015], Bund. 25

109-15  He Baohua, Numerical Simulation Analysis of Karst Tunnel Water Bursting Movement, © EJGE, Vol. 20 [2015], Bund. 25

105-15   Ali Yıldız and A. İhsan Martı, Comparison of Experimental Study and CFD Analysis of the Flow Under a Sluice Gate, Proceedings of International Conference on Structural Architectural and Civil Engineering Held on 21-22, Nov, 2015, in Dubai, ISBN:9788193137321

104-15  Yehui Zhu and Liquan Xie, Numerical Analysis of Flow Effects on Water Interface over a Submarine Pipeline, Resources, Environment and Engineering II: Proceedings of the 2nd Technical Congress on Resources, Environment and Engineering (CREE 2015, Hong Kong, 25-26 September 2015), Edited by Liquan Xie, CRC Press 2015, Pages 99–104, DOI: 10.1201/b19136-16.

100-15  Yizhou Xiao, Wene Wang, Xiaotao Hu, and Yan Zhou, Experimental and numerical research on portable short-throat flume in the field, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, doi:10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2015.11.003, Available online December 8, 2015

99-15   Mehdi Taghavi and Hesam Ghodousi, Simulation of Flow Suspended Load in Weirs by Using FLOW-3D Model, Civil Engineering Journal Vol. 1, No. 1, November 2015

98-15   Azin Movahedi, Ali Delavari and Massoud Farahi, Designing Manhole in Water Transmission Lines Using FLOW-3D Numerical Model, Civil Engineering Journal Vol. 1, No. 1, November 2015

97-15   R. Gabl, J. Seibl, B. Gems, and M. Aufleger, 3-D numerical approach to simulate the overtopping volume caused by an impulse wave comparable to avalanche impact in a reservoir, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2617-2630, doi:10.5194/nhess-15-2617-2015, 2015.

94-15   Jason Matthew Duguay and Jay Lacey, Numerical Study of an Innovative Fish Ladder Design for Perched Culverts, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 10.1139/cjce-2014-0436, November 2015

92-15   H. A. Hussein, R. Abdulla and  M. A. Md Said, Computational Investigation of Inlet Baffle Height on the Flow in a Rectangular Oil/Water Separator Tanks, Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 802, pp. 587-592, Oct. 2015

91-15   Mahmoud Mohammad Rezapour Tabari and Shiva Tavakoli, Effects of Stepped Spillway Geometry on Flow Pattern and Energy DissipationArabian Journal for Science and Engineering, October 2015

87-15   Erin R. Ryan, Effects of Hydraulic Structures on Fish Passage – An Evaluation of 2D vs 3D Hydraulic Analysis Methods, Master’s Thesis: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado State University, Summer 2015, Copyright by Erin Rose Ryan 2015

79-15   Ana L. Quaresma, Is CFD an efficient tool to develop pool type fishways? International Conference on Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage. Paper 20, June 24, 2015

78-15   Amir Alavi, Don Murray, Claude Chartrand and Derek McCoy, CFD Modeling Provides Value Engineering, Hydro Review, October 2015

75-15   Rebekka Czerny, Classification of flow patterns in a nature-oriented fishway based on 3D hydraulic simulation results, International Conference on Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage. Paper 39, June 22, 2015

73-15   Frank Seidel, Hybrid model approach for designing fish ways – example fish lift system at Baldeney/Ruhr and fishway at Geesthacht /Elbet, International Conference on Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage 2015

72-15   G. Guyot, B. Huber, and A. Pittion-Rossillon, Assessment of a numerical method to forecast vortices with a scaled model, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

71-15   Abbas Parsaie, Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi and Amir Moradinejad, CFD modeling of flow pattern in spillway’s approach channel, Sustainable Water Resources Management, September 2015, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp 245-251

70-15   T. Liepert, A. Kuhlmann, G. Haimer, M.D. Bui and P. Rutschmann, Optimization of Fish Pass Entrance Location at a Hydropower Plant Considering Site-Specific Constraints, Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, Rhodes, Greece, 3-5 September 2015

67-15   Alkistis Stergiopoulou and Efrossini Kalkani, Towards a first CFD study of modern horizontal axis Archimedean water current turbines, Volume: 02 Issue: 04, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal © 2015, IRJET, July 2015

66-15   Won Choi, Jeongbae Jeon, Jinseon Park, Jeong Jae Lee and Seongsoo Yoon, System reliability analysis of downstream spillways based on collapse of upstream spillways, Int J Agric & Biol Eng, 2015; 8(4): 140-150.

64-15   Szu-Hsien Peng and Chuan Tang, Development and Application of Two-Dimensional Numerical Model on Shallow Water Flows Using Finite Volume Method, Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 2015, 3, 989-996, Published Online August 2015 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/jamp, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2015.38121

62-15   Cuneyt Yavuz, Ali Ersin Dincer, Kutay Yilmaz and Samet Dursun, Head Loss Estimation of Water Jets from Flip Bucket of Cakmak-1 Diversion Weir and HEPP, RESEARCH GATE, August 2015 DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3650.5440

54-15   Guo-bin Xu, Li-na Zhao, and Chih Ted Yang, Derivation and verification of minimum energy dissipation rate principle of fluid based on minimum entropy production rate principle, International Journal of Sediment Research, August 2015

50-15   Vafa Khoolosi, Sedat Kabdaşli, and Sevda Farrokhpour, Modeling and Comparison of Water Waves Caused by Landslides into Reservoirs, Watershed Management 2015 © ASCE 2015.

48-15   Mohammad Rostami and Maaroof Siosemarde, Human Life Saving by Simulation of Dam Break using FLOW-3D (A Case Study: Upper Gotvand Dam), www.sciencejournal.in, Volume- 4 Issue- 3 (2015) ISSN: 2319–4731 (p); 2319–5037 (e) © 2015 DAMA International. All rights reserved.

47-15   E. Kolden, B. D. Fox, B. P. Bledsoe and M. C. Kondratieff, Modelling Whitewater Park Hydraulics and Fish Habitat in Colorado, River Res. Applic., doi: 10.1002/rra.2931, 2015

43-15   Firouz Ghasemzadeh, Behzad Parsa, and Mojtaba Noury, Numerical Study of Overflow Capacity of Spillways, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

42-15   Mario Oertel, Numerical Modeling of Free-Surface Flows in Practical Applications, Chapter 8 in Rivers – Physical, Fluvial and Environmental Processes (GeoPlanet: Earth and Planetary Sciences), by Pawel Rowiński and Artur Radecki-Pawlik, July 2, 2015

39-15   R. Gabl, J. Seibl, B. Gems, and M. Aufleger, 3-D-numerical approach to simulate an avalanche impact into a reservoir, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 3, 4121–4157, 2015, www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/3/4121/2015/, doi:10.5194/nhessd-3-4121-2015, © Author(s) 2015. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

37-15   Mario Oertel, Discharge Coefficients of Piano Key Weirs from Experimental and Numerical Models, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

36-15   Jessica Klein and Mario Oertel, Comparison between Crossbar Block Ramp and Vertical Slot Fish Pass via Numerical 3D CFD Simulation, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

35-15   Mario Oertel, Jan P. Balmes and Daniel B. Bung, Numerical Simulation of Erosion Processes on Crossbar Block Ramps, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

33-15   Daniel Valero and Daniel B. Bung, Hybrid Investigation of Air Transport Processes in Moderately Sloped Stepped Spillway Flows, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

32-15   Deniz Velioglu, Nuray Denli Tokyay, and Ali Ersin Dincer, A Numerical and Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Hydraulic Jumps on Rough Beds, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

31-15   J.C.C. Amorim, R.C.R. Amante, and V.D. Barbosa, Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Flow in a Stilling Basin, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

30-15   Luna B.J. César, Salas V. Christian, Gracia S. Jesús, and Ortiz M. Victor, Comparative Analysis of the Modification of Turbulence and Its Effects on a Trapezoidal Section Stilling Basin, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

27-15   L. Castillo, J. Carrillo, and M. Álvarez, Complementary Methods for Determining the Sedimentation and Flushing in a Reservoir, J. Hydraul. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001050 , 05015004, 2015.

22-15   Mohammad Vaghefi, Mohammad Shakerdargah and Maryam Akbari, Numerical investigation of the effect of Froude number on flow pattern around a submerged T-shaped spur dike in a 90º bend, © Turkish Journal of Engineering & Environmental Sciences, 03.04.2015, doi:10.3906/muh-1405-2

18-15   S. Michael Scurlock, Amanda L. Cox, Drew C. Baird, Christopher I. Thornton and Steven R. Abt, Hybrid Modeling of River Training Structures in Sinuous Channels, SEDHYD 2015, Joint 10th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, 5th Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference, April 19-23, 2015, Reno, Nevada

13-15   Selahattin Kocaman and Hatice Ozmen-Cagatay, Investigation of dam-break induced shock waves impact on a vertical wall, Journal of Hydrology (2015), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.03.040.

12-15   Nguyen Cong Thanh and Wang Ling-Ling, Physical and Numerical Model of Flow through the Spillways with a Breast Wall, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering (0000) 00(0):1-8, Copyright 2015 Korean Society of Civil Engineers, DOI 10.1007/s12205-015-0742-0, April 10, 2015.

10-15   Yueping Yin, Bolin Huang, Guangning Liu and Shichang Wang, Potential risk analysis on a Jianchuandong dangerous rockmass-generated impulse wave in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China, Environ Earth Sci, DOI 10.1007/s12665-015-4278-x, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

08-15   Yue-ping Yin, Bolin Huang, Xiaoting Chen, Guangning Liu and Shichang Wang, Numerical analysis on wave generated by the Qianjiangping landslide in Three Gorges Reservoir, China, 10.1007/s10346-015-0564-7, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

07-15   M. Vaghefi, A. Ahmadi and B. Faraji, The Effect of Support Structure on Flow Patterns Around T-Shape Spur Dike in 90° Bend Channel, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, February 2015,

06-15   Sajjad Mohammadpour Zalaki, Hosein Fathian, Ebrahim Zalaghi and Farhad Kalantar Hormozi, Investigation of hydraulic parameters and cavitation in Kheir Abad flood release structure, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, February 2015

04-15  Der-Chang Lo, Jin-Shuen Liou, and Shyy Woei Chang, Hydrodynamic Performances of Air-Water Flows in Gullies with and without Swirl Generation Vanes for Drainage Systems of Buildings, Water 2015, 7(2), 679-696; doi:10.3390/w7020679

01-15   William Daley Clohan, Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Subaerial Landslide Generated Waves, Master’s Thesis: Civil Engineering, The University of British Columbia (Vancouver), January 2015 © William Daley Clohan, 2015. Available upon request.

136-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in 300 BCE- CE 300 Petra (Jordan), Encyclopedia of Ancient Science, Technology and Medicine in Nonwestern Cultures, Springer Publishing, Berlin Germany, 2014.

135-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Land, Labor, Water and Technology in Precolumbian South America, Encyclopedia of Ancient Science, Technology and Medicine in Nonwestern Cultures, Springer Publishing, Berlin Germany, 2014.

134-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydrologic Engineering of the 300 BCE- CE 1100 Precolumbian Tiwanaku State (Bolivia), Encyclopedia of Ancient Science, Technology and Medicine in Nonwestern Cultures, Springer Publishing, Berlin Germany, 2014.

133-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Water engineering at Petra (Jordan): Recreating the decision process underlying hydraulic engineering of the Wadi Mataha pipeline system, Journal of Archaeological Science, April 2014. 44. 91–97. 10.1016/j.jas.2014.01.015.

132-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in Ancient Peru and Bolivia, Encyclopedia of Ancient Science, Technology and Medicine in Nonwestern Cultures, Springer Publishing, Berlin Germany, 2014.

131-14    Charles R. Ortloff, Water Management in Ancient Peru, Living Reference Work Entry, Encyclopedia of Ancient Science, Technology and Medicine in Nonwestern Cultures, Springer Publishing, Berlin Germany, 2014.

130-14  Kordula Schwarzwälder and Peter Rutschmann, Sampling bacteria with a laser, Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-15144, 2014 EGU General Assembly 2014 © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

129-14   Kordula Schwarzwälder, Eve Walters and Peter Rutschmann, Bacteria fate and transport in a river, Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-14022, 2014 EGU General Assembly 2014 © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

127-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in Petra, Living Reference Work Entry, Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, pp 1-13, 03 July 2014

124-14  G. Wei. M. Grünzner and F. Semler, Combination of 2D shallow water and full 3D numerical modeling for sediment transport in reservoirs and basins, Reservoir Sedimentation – Schleiss et al. (Eds) © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-02675-9.

121-14    A. Bayón-Barrachina, D. Valero, F. Vallès-Morán, and P.A. López-Jiménez, Comparison of CFD Models for Multiphase Flow Evolution in Bridge Scour Processes, 5th International Junior Researcher and Engineer Workshop on Hydraulic Structures, Spa, Belgium, 28-30 August 2014

120-14  D. Valero, R. García-Bartual and J. Marco, Optimisation of Stilling Basin Chute Blocks Using a Calibrated Multiphase RANS Model, 5th International Junior Researcher and Engineer Workshop on Hydraulic Structures, Spa, Belgium, 28-30 August 2014

119-14   R. Gabl, B. Gems, M. Plörer, R. Klar, T. Gschnitzer, S. Achleitner, and M. Aufleger, Numerical Simulations in Hydraulic Engineering, Computational Engineering, 2014, pp 195-224, April 2014

118-14  Kerilyn Ambrosini, Analysis of Flap Gate Design and Implementations for Water Delivery Systems in California and Nevada, BioResource and Agricultural Engineering, BioResource and Agricultural Engineering Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, 2014

117-14  Amir Moradinejad, Abas Parssai, Mohamad Noriemamzade, Numerical Modeling of Flow Pattern In Kamal Saleh Dam Spillway Approach Channel, App. Sci. Report.10 (2), 2014: 82-89, © PSCI Publications

116-14  Luis G. Castillo and José M. Carrillo, Characterization of the Dynamic Actions and Scour Estimation Downstream of a Dam, 1st International Seminar on Dam Protection against Overtopping and Accidental Leakage, M.Á. Toledo, R. Morán, E. Oñate (Eds), Madrid, 24-25 November 2014

115-14  Luis G. Castillo, José M. Carrillo, Juan T. García, Antonio Vigueras-Rodríguez, Numerical Simulations and Laboratory Measurements in Hydraulic Jumps, 11th International Conference on Hydroinformatics, HIC 2014, New York City, USA

114-14  Du Han Lee, Young Joo Kim, and Samhee Lee, Numerical modeling of bed form induced hyporheic exchangePaddy and Water Environment, August 2014, Volume 12, Issue 1 Supplement, pp 89-97

112-14  Ed Zapel, Hank Nelson, Brian Hughes, Steve Fry, Options for Reducing Total Dissolved Gas at the Long Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Hydrovision International, July 22-24, 2014, Nashville, TN

111-14  Jason Duguay, Jay Lace, Dave Penny and Ken Hannaford, Evolution of an Innovative Fish Ladder Design to Address Issues of Perched Culverts, 2014 Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec

106-14   Manuel Gomez and Eduardo Martinez, 1D, 2D and 3D Modeling of a PAC-UPC Laboratory Canal Bend, SimHydro 2014: Modelling of rapid transitory flows, 11-13 June 2014, Sophia Antipolis

105-14 Jason Duguay and Jay Lacey, Numerical Validation of an Innovative Fish Baffle Design in Response to Fish Passage Issues at Perched Culverts, CSPI Technical Bulletin, January 14, 2014

104-14  Di Ning, Di,  A Computational Study on Hydraulic Jumps, including Air Entrainment, Master’s Thesis: Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, 2014, 1569799, Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2014

103-14  S. M. Sayah, S. Bonanni, Ph. Heller, and M. Volpato, Physical and Numerical Modelling of Cerro del Águila Dam -Hydraulic and Sedimentation, DOI: 10.13140/2.1.5042.1122 Conference: Hydro 2014

102-14   Khosrow Hosseini, Shahab Rikhtegar, Hojat Karami, Keivan Bina, Application of Numerical Modeling to Assess Geometry Effect of Racks on Performance of Bottom Intakes, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, December 2014

98-14  Aysel Duru, Numerical Modelling of Contracted Sharp Crested Weirs, Master’s Thesis: The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University, November 2014

97-14  M Angulo, S Liscia, A Lopez and C Lucino, Experimental validation of a low-head turbine intake designed by CFD following Fisher and Franke guidelines, 27th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2014), IOP Publishing, IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 22 (2013) 042014 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/22/4/042014

94-14   Hamidreza Babaali, Abolfazl Shamsai, and Hamidreza Vosoughifar, Computational Modeling of the Hydraulic Jump in the Stilling Basin with ConvergenceWalls Using CFD Codes, Arab J Sci Eng, DOI 10.1007/s13369-014-1466-z, October 2014

93-14   A.J. Vellinga, M.J.B. Cartigny, J.T. Eggenhuisen, E.W.M. Hansen, and R. Rouzairol, Morphodynamics of supercritical-flow bedforms using depth-resolved computational fluid dynamics model, International Association of Sedimentologists, Geneva, 2014.

88-14   Marcelo A. Somos-Valenzuela, Rachel E. Chisolm, Daene C. McKinney, and Denny Rivas, Inundation Modeling of a Potential Glacial Lake Outburst Flood in Huaraz, Peru, CRWR Online Report 14-01, March 2014

84-14   Hossein Shahheydari, Ehsan Jafari Nodoshan, Reza Barati, and Mehdi Azhdary Moghadam, Discharge coefficient and energy dissipation over stepped spillway under skimming flow regimeKSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 10.1007/s12205-013-0749-3, November 2014

81-14   Gaël Epely-Chauvin, Giovanni De Cesare and Sebastian Schwindt, Numerical Modelling of Plunge Pool Scour Evolution in Non-Cohesive Sediments, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 477–487 (2014).

79-14   Liquan Xie, Yanhui Xu, and Wenrui Huang, Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Mechanism of Sediment Trapping by Geotextile Mattress with Sloping Curtain (GMSC), Proceedings of the Eleventh (2014) Pacific/Asia Offshore Mechanics Symposium Shanghai, China, October 12-16, 2014 Copyright © 2014 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, ISBN 978–1 880653 90-6: ISSN 1946-004X.

78-14  D. N. Powell and A. A. Khan, Flow Field Upstream of an Orifice under Fixed Bed and Equilibrium Scour ConditionsJ. Hydraul. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000960, 04014076, 2014.

76-14   Berk Sezenöz, Numerical Modelling of Continuous Transverse Grates for Hydraulic Efficiency, Master’s Thesis: The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University, October 2014

75-14   Francesco Calomino and Agostino Lauria, 3-D Underflow of a Sluice Gate at a Channel Inlet; Experimental Results and CFD Simulations, Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism, Volume 4, Issue 5: 501-508 (2014)

73-14   Som Dutta, Talia E. Tokyay, Yovanni A. Cataño-Lopera, Sergio Serafinod and Marcelo H. Garcia, Application of computational fluid dynamic modeling to improve flow and grit transport in Terence J. O’Brien Water Reclamation Plant, Chicago, Illinois, Journal of Hydraulic Research, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2014.949883, October 2014

72-14   Ali Heidari, Poria Ghassemi, Evaluation of step’s slope on energy dissipation in stepped spillway, International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 3 (4) (2014) 501-505, ©Science Publishing Corporation, www.sciencepubco.com/index.php/IJET, doi: 10.14419/ijet.v3i4.3561

70-14   M. Tabatabai, M. Heidarnejad, A. Bordbar, Numerical Study of Flow Patterns in Stilling Basin with Sinusoidal Bed using FLOW-3D Model, Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(13) August 2014, Pages: 787-792

66-14   John S. Schwartz, Keil J. Neff, Frank E. Dworak, Robert R. Woockman, Restoring riffle-pool structure in an incised, straightened urban stream channel using an ecohydraulic modeling approach, Ecol. Eng. (2014), doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.06.002

65-14  Laura Rozumalski and Michael Fullarton, CFD Modeling to Design a Fish Lift Entrance, Hydro Review, July 2014

64-14   Pam Waterman, Scaled for Success: Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Prompts Swift Stormwater System Improvements in Indianapolis, WaterWorld, August 2014.

63-14   Markus Grünzner and Peter Rutschmann, Large Eddy Simulation  – Ein Beitrag zur Auflösung turbulenter Strömungsstrukturen in technischen Fischaufstiegshilfen; (LES – resolving turbulent flow in technical fish bypasses), Tagungsband Internationales Symposium in Zurich, Wasser- und Flussbau im Alpenraum, Versuchsanstalt fur Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glaziologie, ETH Zurich. In German.

62-14   Jason Duguay, Jay Lace, Dave Penny, and Ken Hannaford, Evolution of an Innovative Fish Ladder Design to Address Issues of Perched Culverts, 2014 Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec

60-14   Kordula Schwarzwälder, Minh Duc Bui, and Peter Rutschmann, Simulation of bacteria transport processes in a river with FLOW-3D, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 16, EGU2014-12993, 2014, EGU General Assembly 2014, © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

58-14   Eray Usta, Numercial Investigation of Hydraulic Characteristics of Laleili Dam Spillway and Comparison with Physical Model Study, Master’s Thesis: The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University, May 2014

57-14   Selahattin Kocaman, Prediction of Backwater Profiles due to Bridges in a Compound Channel Using CFD, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Volume 2014, Article ID 905217, 9 pages, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/905217

54-14   Ines C. Meireles, Fabian A. Bombardelli, and Jorge Matos, Air entrainment onset in skimming flows on steep stepped spillways: an analysis, (2014) Journal of Hydraulic Research, 52:3, 375-385, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2013.878401

53-14   Charles R Ortloff, Groundwater Management in the 300 bce-1100ce Pre-Columbian City of Tiwanaku (Bolivia), Hydrol Current Res 5: 168. doi:10.4172/2157-7587.1000168, 2014

50-14   Mohanad A. Kholdier, Weir-Baffled Culvert Hydrodynamics Evaluation for Fish Passage using Particle Image Velocimetry and Computational Fluid Dynamic Techniques, Ph.D. Thesis: Utah State University (2014). All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 3078. http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd/3078

48-14   Yu-Heng Lin, Study on raceway pond for microalgae culturing system, Master Thesis: Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, August 2014. In Chinese

38-14   David Ingram, Robin Wallacey, Adam Robinsonz and Ian Bryden, The design and commissioning of the first, circular, combined current and wave test basin, Proceedings of Oceans 2014 MTS/IEEE, Taipei, Taiwan, IEEE, April 2014

36-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in Precolumbian Peru and Bolivia, The Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, Springer-Verlag, Volumes II and III, Heidelberg, Germany, 2014.

35-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in BC 100- AD 300 Petra (Jordan), The Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, Springer-Verlag, Volumes II and III, Heidelberg, Germany, 2014.

34-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in Precolumbian Peru and Bolivia, The Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, Springer-Verlag, Volumes II and III, Heidelberg, Germany, 2014.

33-14   Roman Gabl, Bernhard Gems, Giovanni De Cesare, and Markus Aufleger, Contribution to Quality Standards for 3D-Numerical Simulations with FLOW-3D, Wasserwirtschaft (ISSN: 0043-0978), vol. 104, num. 3, p. 15-20, Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg-Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden Gmbh, 2014. Available for download at the University of InnsbruckIn German.

31-14   E. Fadaei-Kermani and G.A. Barani, Numerical simulation of flow over spillway based on the CFD method, Scientia Iranica A, 21(1), 91-97, 2014

30-14   Luis G. Castillo  and José M. Carrillo, Scour Analysis Downstream of Paute-Cardenillo Dam, © 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, Book of Proceedings, 2014, Porto, Portugal.

29-14    L. G. Castillo, M. A. Álvarez, and J. M. Carrillo, Numerical modeling of sedimentation and flushing at the Paute-Cardenillo Reservoir, ASCE-EWRI. International Perspective on Water Resources and Environment Quito, January 8-10, 2014

28-14   L. G. Castillo and J. M. CarrilloScour estimation of the Paute-Cardenillo Dam, ASCE-EWRI. International Perspective on Water Resources and Environment Quito, January 8-10, 2014.

27-14   Luis G. Castillo, Manual A. Álvarez and José M. Carrillo, Analysis of Sedimentation and Flushing into the Reservoir Paute-Cardenillo© 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, Book of Proceedings, 2014, Porto, Portugal.

24-14   Carter R. Newell and John Richardson, The Effects of Ambient and Aquaculture Structure Hydrodynamics on the Food Supply and Demand of Mussel Rafts, Journal of Shellfish Research, 33(1):257-272, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2983/035.033.0125, 0125, 2014.

16-14   Han Hu, Jiesheng Huang, Zhongdong Qian, Wenxin Huai, and Genjian Yu, Hydraulic Analysis of Parabolic Flume for Flow Measurement, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2014.03.002, 2014.

14-14   Seung Oh Lee, Sooyoung Kim, Moonil Kim, Kyoung Jae Lim and Younghun Jung, The Effect of Hydraulic Characteristics on Algal Bloom in an Artificial Seawater Canal: A Case Study in Songdo City, South Korea, Water 2014, 6, 399-413; doi:10.3390/w6020399, ISSN 2073-4441, www.mdpi.com/journal/water

13-14   Kathryn Elizabeth Plymesser, Modeling Fish Passage and Energy Expenditure for American Shad in a Steeppass Fishway using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Ph.D. Thesis: Montana State University, January 2014, © Kathryn Elizabeth Plymesser, 2014, All Rights Reserved.

12-14   Sangdo An and Pierre Y. Julien, Three-Dimensional Modeling of Turbid Density Currents in Imha Reservoir, J. Hydraul. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000851, 05014004, 2014.

09-14   B. Gems, M. Wörndl, R. Gabl, C. Weber, and M. Aufleger, Experimental and numerical study on the design of a deposition basin outlet structure at a mountain debris cone, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 175–187, 2014, www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/14/175/2014/, doi:10.5194/nhess-14-175-2014, © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

07-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Water Engineering at Petra (Jordan): Recreating the Decision Process underlying Hydraulic Engineering of the Wadi Mataha Pipeline System, Journal of Archaeological Science, Available online January 2014.

06-14   Hatice Ozmen-Cagatay, Selahattin Kocaman, Hasan Guzel, Investigation of dam-break flood waves in a dry channel with a hump, Journal of Hydro-environment Research, Available online January 2014.

05-14   Shawn P. Clark, Jonathan Scott Toews, and Rob Tkach, Beyond average velocity: Modeling velocity distributions in partially-filled culverts to support fish passage guidelines, International Journal of River Basin Management, DOI10.1080/15715124.2013.879591, January 2014.

04-14   Giovanni De Cesare, Martin Bieri, Stéphane Terrier, Sylvain Candolfi, Martin Wickenhäuser and Gaël Micoulet, Optimization of a Shared Tailrace Channel of Two Pumped-Storage Plants by Physical and Numerical Modeling, Advances in Hydroinformatics Springer Hydrogeology 2014, pp 291-305.

03-14   Grégory Guyot, Hela Maaloul and Antoine Archer, A Vortex Modeling with 3D CFD, Advances in Hydroinformatics Springer Hydrogeology 2014, pp 433-444.

02-14   Géraldine Milési and Stéphane Causse, 3D Numerical Modeling of a Side-Channel Spillway, Advances in Hydroinformatics Springer Hydrogeology 2014, pp 487-498.

01-14   Mohammad R. Namaee, Mohammad Rostami, S. Jalaledini and Mahdi Habibi, A 3-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Flow Over a Broad-Crested Side Weir, Advances in Hydroinformatics, Springer Hydrogeology 2014, pp 511-523.

104-13   Alireza Nowroozpour, H. Musavi Jahromi and A. Dastgheib, Studying different cases of wedge shape deflectors on energy dissipation in flip bucket using CFD model, Proceedings, 6th International Perspective on Water Resources & the Environment Conference (IPWE), Izmir, Turkey, January 7-9, 2013.

102-13   Shari Dunlop, Isaac Willig and Roger L. Kay, Emergency Response to Erosion at Fort Peck Spillway: Hydraulic Analysis and Design, ICOLD 2013 International Symposium, Seattle, WA.

101-13   Taeho Kang and Heebeom Shin, Dam Emergency Action Plans in Korea, ICOLD 2013 International Symposium, Seattle, WA.

100-13   John Hess, Jeffrey Wisniewski, David Neff and Mike Forrest, A New Auxiliary Spillway for Folsom Dam, ICOLD 2013 International Symposium, Seattle, WA.

98-13   Neda Sharif and Amin Rostami Ravori, Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effect of Flow Separation on Dissipating Energy in Compound Bucket, 2013 5th International Conference on Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering (ICBEE 2013); 2013 2nd International Conference on Civil Engineering (ICCEN 2013)

97-13  A. Stergiopoulou, V. Stergiopoulos, and E. Kalkani, Contributions to the Study of Hydrodynamic Behaviour of Innovative Archimedean Screw Turbines Recovering the Hydropotential of Watercourses and of Coastal Currents, Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology Athens, Greece, 5-7 September 2013

96-13   Shokry Abdelaziz, Minh Duc Bui, Namihira Atsushi, and Peter Rutschmann, Numerical Simulation of Flow and Upstream Fish Movement inside a Pool-and-Weir Fishway, Proceedings of 2013 IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China

95-13  Guodong Li, Lan Lang, and Jian Ning, 3D Numerical Simulation of Flow and Local Scour around a Spur Dike, Proceedings of 2013 IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China

93-13   Matthew C. Kondratieff and Eric E. Richer, Stream Habitat Investigations and Assistance, Federal Aid Project F-161-R19, Federal Aid in Fish and Wildlife Restoration, Job Progress Report, Colorado Parks & Wildlife, Aquatic Wildlife Research Section, Fort Collins, Colorado, August 2013. Available upon request

92-13   Matteo Tirindelli, Scott Fenical and Vladimir Shepsis, State-of-the-Art Methods for Extreme Wave Loading on Bridges and Coastal Highways, Seventh National Seismic Conference on Bridges and Highways (7NSC), May 20-22, 2013, Oakland, CA

91-13   Cecia Millán Barrera, Víctor Manuel Arroyo Correa, Jorge Armando Laurel Castillo, Modeling contaminant transport with aerobic biodegradation in a shallow water body, Proceedings of 2013 IAHR Congress © 2013 Tsinghua University Press, Beijing

80-13  Brian Fox, Matthew Kondratieff, Brian Bledsoe, Christopher Myrick, Eco-Hydraulic Evaluation of Whitewater Parks as Fish Passage Barriers, International Conference on Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage, June 25-27, 2013, Oregon State University. Presentation available for download on the Scholarworks site.

79-13  Changsung Kim, Jongtae Kim, Joongu Kang, Analysis of the Cause for the Collapse of a Temporary Bridge Using Numerical Simulation, Engineering, 2013, 5, 997-1005, (http://www.scirp.org/journal/eng), Copyright © 2013 Changsung Kim et al. Published Online December 2013

76-13   Riley J. Olsen, Michael C. Johnson, and Steven L. Barfuss, Low-Head Dam Reverse Roller Remediation Options, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, November 2013; doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000848.

72-13  M. Pfister, E. Battisacco, G. De Cesare, and A.J. Schleiss, Scale effects related to the rating curve of cylindrically crested Piano Key weirs, Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II – PKW 2013 – Erpicum et al. (eds), © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-00085-8.

71-13  F. Laugier, J. Vermeulen, and V. Lefebvre, Overview of Piano KeyWeirs experience developed at EDF during the past few years, Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II – PKW 2013 – Erpicum et al. (eds), © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-00085-8.

70-13   G.M. Cicero, J.R. Delisle, V. Lefebvre, and J. Vermeulen, Experimental and numerical study of the hydraulic performance of a trapezoidal Piano Key weir, Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II – PKW 2013 – Erpicum et al. (eds, © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-00085-8.

69-13   V. Lefebvre, J. Vermeulen, and B. Blancher, Influence of geometrical parameters on PK-Weirs discharge with 3D numerical analysis, Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II – PKW 2013 – Erpicum et al. (eds), © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-00085-8.

65-13 Alkistis Stergiopoulou and Efrossini Kalkani, Towards a First CFD Study of Innovative Archimedean Inclined Axis Hydropower Turbines, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), ISSN: 2278-0181, Vol. 2 Issue 9, September 2013.

58-13  Timothy Sassaman, Andrew Johansson, Ryan Jones, and Marianne Walter, Hydraulic Analysis of a Pumped Storage Pond Using Complementary Methods, Hydrovision 2013 Conference Proceedings, Denver, CO, July 2013.

57-13  Jose Vasquez, Kara Hurtig, and Brian Hughes, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling of Run-of-River Intakes, Hydrovision 2013 Conference Proceedings, Denver, CO July 2013.

56-13  David Souders, Jayesh Kariya, and Jeff Burnham, Validation of a Hybrid 3-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional Flow Modeling Technique for an Instanenous Dam-Break, Hydrovision 2013 Conference Proceedings, Denver, CO July 2013.

55-13  Keith Moen, Dan Kirschbaum, Joe Groeneveld, Steve Smith and Kimberly Pate, Sluiceway Deflector Design as part of the Boundary TDG Abatement Program, Hydrovision 2013 Conference Proceedings, Denver, CO, July 2013.

54-13  S. Temeepattanapongsa, G. P. Merkley, S. L. Barfuss and B. Smith, Generic unified rating for Cutthroat flumes, Irrig Sci, DOI 10.1007/s00271-013-0411-3, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013, August 2013.

53-13 Hossein Afshar and Seyed Hooman Hoseini, Experimental and 3-D Numerical Simulation of Flow over a Rectangular Broad-Crested Weir, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), ISSN: 2249-8958, Volume 2, Issue 6, August 2013

52-13  Abdulmajid Matinfard (Kabi), Mohammad Heidarnejad, Javad Ahadian, Effect of Changes in the Hydraulic Conditions on the Velocity Distribution around a L-Shaped Spur Dike at the River Bend, Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences Available online at www.tjeas.com ©2013 TJEAS Journal-2013-3-16/1862-1868 ISSN 2051-0853 ©2013 TJEAS

51-13  Elham Radaei, Sahar Nikbin, and Mahdi Shahrokhi, Numerical Investigation of Angled Baffle on the Flow Pattern in a Rectangular Primary Sedimentation Tank, RCEE, Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering 1 (2013) 79-91.

48-13   Mohammad Kayser, Mohammed A. Gabr, Assessment of Scour on Bridge Foundations by Means of In Situ Erosion Evaluation Probe, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 0361-1981 (Print), Volume 2335 / 2013, pp 72-78. 10.3141/2335-08, August 2013.

47-13  Wei Ping Yin et al., 2013, Three-Dimensional Water Temperature and Hydrodynamic Simulation of Xiangxi River Estuary, Advanced Materials Research, 726-731, 3212, August, 2013.

41-13   N. Nekoue, R. Mahajan, J. Hamrick, and H. Rodriguez, Selective Withdrawal Hydraulic Study Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2013: pp. 1808-1813. doi: 10.1061/9780784412947.177.

40-13  Eleanor Kolden, Modeling in a three-dimensional world: whitewater park hydraulics and their impact on aquatic habitat in Colorado, Thesis: Master of Science, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado State University. Full thesis available online at Colorado State University.

38-13  Prashant Huddar P.E. and Yashodhan Dhopavkar, CFD Use in Water – Insight, Foresight, and Efficiency, CFD Application in Water Engineering, Bangalore, India, June 2013.

37-13 B. Gems, M. Wörndl, R. Gabl, C. Weber, and M. Aufleger, Experimental and numerical study on the design of a deposition basin outlet structure at a mountain debris cone, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 1, 3169–3200, 2013, www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/1/3169/2013/, doi:10.5194/nhessd-1-3169-2013, © Author(s) 2013. Full paper online at: Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences.

33-13   Tian Zhou and Theodore A. Endreny, Reshaping of the hyporheic zone beneath river restoration structures: Flume and hydrodynamic experiments, Water Resources Research, DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20384, ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

31-13  Francesco Calomino and Agostino Lauria, MOTO ALL’IMBOCCO DI UN CANALE RETTANGOLARE CONTROLLATO DA PARATOIA PIANA. Analisi sperimentale e modellazione numerica 3DFLOW AT THE INTAKE OF THE RECTANGULAR CHANNEL ;CONTROLLED BY A FLAT SLUICE GATE. Experimental and Numerical 3D ModelL’acqua, pp. 29-36, © Idrotecnica Italiana, 2013. In Italian and English.

30-13  Vinod V. Nair and S.K. Bhattacharyya, Numerical Study of Water Impact of Rigid Sphere under the Action of Gravity CFD Application in Water Engineering, Bangalore, India, June 2013. Abstract only.

29-13   Amar Pal Singh, Faisal Bhat, Ekta Gupta, 3-D Spillway Simulations of Ratle HEP (J&K) for the Assessment of Design Alternatives to be Tested in Model Studies, CFD Application in Water Engineering, Bangalore, India, June 2013.

28-13  Shun-Chung Tsung, Jihn-Sung Lai, and Der-Liang Young, Velocity distribution and discharge calculation at a sharp-crested weir, Paddy Water Environ, DOI 10.1007/s10333-013-0378-y, © Springer Japan 2013, May 2013.

27-13  Karen Riddette and David Ho, Assessment of Spillway Modeling Using Computational Fluid DynamicsANCOLD Proceedings of Technical Groups, 2013.

21-13  Tsung-Hsien Huang and Chyan-Deng Jan, Simulation of Velocity Distribution for Water Flow in a Vortex-Chamber-Type Sediment Extractor, EGU General Assembly 2013, held 7-12 April, 2013 in Vienna, Austria, id. EGU2013-7061. Online at: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7061H

19-13  Riley J. Olsen, Hazard Classification and Hydraulic Remediation Options for Flat-Topped and Ogee-Crested Low- Head Dams, Thesis: Master of Science in Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 1538. http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd/1538, 2013.

17-13  Mohammad-Hossein Erfanain-Azmoudeh and Amir Abbas Kamanbedast, Determine the Appropriate Location of Aerator System on Gotvandolia Dam’s Spillway Using FLOW-3D, American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 13 (3): 378-383, 2013, ISSN 1818-6769, © IDOSI Publications, 2013.

13-13   Chia-Cheng Tsai, Yueh-Ting Lin, and Tai-Wen Hsu, On the weak viscous effect of the reflection and transmission over an arbitrary topography, Phys. Fluids 25, 043103 (2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4799099 (21 pages).

07-13  M. Kayser and M. A. Gabr, Scour Assessment of Bridge Foundations Using an In Situ Erosion Evaluation Probe (ISEEP), 92nd Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, January 13-17, 2013, Washington, D.C.

06-13   Yovanni A. Cataño-Lopera, Blake J. Landry, Jorge D. Abad, and Marcelo H. García, Experimental and Numerical Study of the Flow Structure around Two Partially Buried Objects on a Deformed Bed, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering © ASCE /March 2013, 269-283.

04-13  Safinaz El-Solh, SPH Modeling of Solitary Waves and Resulting Hydrodynamic Forces on Vertical and Sloping Walls, Thesis: Master of Applied Science in Civil Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, October 2012, © Safinaz El-Solh, Ottawa, Canada, 2013. Full paper available online at uOttawa.

108-12  Hatice Ozmen-Cagatay and Selahattin Kocaman, Investigation of Dam-Break Flow Over Abruptly Contracting Channel With Trapezoidal-Shaped Lateral Obstacles, Journal of Fluids Engineering © 2012 by ASME August 2012, Vol. 134 / 081204-1

102-12 B.M. Crookston, G.S. Paxson, and B.M. Savage, Hydraulic Performance of Labryinth Weirs for High Headwater Ratios, 4th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, 9-11 February 2012, Porto, Portugal, ISBN: 978-989-8509-01-7.

101-12 Jungseok Ho and Wonil Kim, Discrete Phase Modeling Study for Particle Motion in Storm Water Retention, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering (2012) 16(6):1071-1078, DOI 10.1007/s12205-012-1304-3.

99-12  Charles R. Ortloff and Michael E. Mosely, Environmental change at a Late Archaic period site in north central coast Perú, Ñawpa Pacha, Journal of Andean Archaeology, Volume 32, Number 2 / December 2012, ISSN: 0077-6297 (Print); 2051-6207 (Online), Left Coast Press, Inc.

98-12  Tao Wang and Vincent H. Chu, Manning Friction in Steep Open-channel Flow, Seventh International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ICCFD7), Big Island, Hawaii, July 9-13, 2012.

96-12  Zhi Yong Dong, Qi Qi Chen, Yong Gang, and Bin Shi, Experimental and Numerical Study of Hydrodynamic Cavitation of Orifice Plates with Multiple Triangular Holes, Applied Mechanics and Materials, Volumes 256-259, Advances in Civil Engineering, December 2012.

95-12  Arjmandi H., Ghomeshi M.,  Ahadiayn J., and Goleij G., Prediction of Plunge Point in the Density Current using RNG Turbulence Modeling, Water and Soil Science (Agricultural Science) Spring 2012; 22(1):171-185. Abstract available online at the Scientific Online Database.

84-12  Li Ping Zhao, Jian Qiu Zhang, Lei Chen, Xuan Xie, Jun Qiang Cheng, Study of Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Sloping Breakwater of Circular Protective Facing, Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 588 – 589), Advances in Mechanics Engineering, 1781-1785, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.588-589.1781.

83-12 Parviz Ghadimi, Abbas Dashtimanesh, and Seyed Reza Djeddi, Study of water entry of circular cylinder by using analytical and numerical solutions, J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. & Eng. 2012, vol.34, n.3, pp. 225-232 . ISSN 1678-5878. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-58782012000300001.

81-12  R. Gabl, S. Achleitner, A. Sendlhofer, T. Höckner, M. Schmitter and M. Aufleger, Side-channel spillway – Hybrid modeling, Hydraulic Measurements and Experimental Methods 2012, EWRI/ASCE, August 12-15, 2012, Snowbird, Utah.

80-12  Akin Aybar, Computational Modelling of Free Surface Flow in Intake Structures using FLOW-3D Software, Thesis: MS in Civil Engineering, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University, June 2012.

74-12  Mahdi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Rostami, Md Azlin Md Said, Saeed Reza Sabbagh Yazdi, and Syafalni Syafalni, Computational investigations of baffle configuration effects on the performance of primary sedimentation tanks, Water and Environment Journal, 22 October 2012, © 2012 CIWEM.

68-12  Jalal Attari and Mohammad Sarfaraz, Transitional Steps Zone in Steeply Stepped Spillways, 9th International Congress on Civil Engineering, May 8-10, 2012, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan, Iran

67-12  Mohammad Sarfaraz, Jalal Attari and Michael Pfister, Numerical Computation of Inception Point Location for Steeply Sloping Stepped Spillways, 9th International Congress on Civil Engineering, May 8-10, 2012, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan, Iran

64-12  Anders Wedel Nielsen, Xiaofeng Liu, B. Mutlu Sumer, Jørgen Fredsøe, Flow and bed shear stresses in scour protections around a pile in a current, Coastal Engineering, Volume 72, February 2013, Pages 20–38.

62-12  Ehab A. Meselhe, Ioannis Georgiou, Mead A. Allison, John A McCorquodale, Numerical Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport in Lower Mississippi at a Proposed Delta Building Diversion, Journal of Hydrology, October 2012.

60-12  Markus Grünzner and Gerhard Haimerl, Numerical Simulation Downstream Attraction Flow at Danube Weir Donauwörth, 9th ISE 2012, Vienna, Austria.

59-12 M. Grünzner, A 3 Dimensional Numerical (LES) and Physical ‘Golf Ball’ Model in Comparison to 1 Dimensional Approach, Hydraulic Measurements and Experimental Methods 2012, EWRI/ASCE, August 12-15, 2012, Snowbird, Utah

58-12  Shawn P. Clark, Jonathan S. Toews, Martin Hunt and Rob Tkach, Physical and Numerical Modeling in Support of Fish Passage Regulations, 9th ISE 2012, Vienna, Austria.

57-12  Mahdi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Rostami, Md Azlin Md Said, Syafalni, Numerical Modeling of Baffle Location Effects on the Flow Pattern of Primary Sedimentation Tanks, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Available online October 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2012.09.060.

50-12  Gricelda Ramirez, A Virtual Flow Meter to Develop Velocity-Index Ratings and Evaluate the Effect of Flow Disturbances on these Ratings, Master’s Thesis: Department of Civil Engineering in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2012.

43-12  A. A. Girgidov, A. D. Girgidov and M. P. Fedorov, Use of dispersing springboards to reduce near-bottom velocity in a toe basin, Power Technology and Engineering (formerly Hydrotechnical Construction), Volume 46, Number 2 (2012), 113-115, DOI: 10.1007/s10749-012-0316-y.

40-12  Jong Pil Park, Kyung Sik Choi, Ji Hwan Jeong, Gyung Min Choi, Ju Yeop Park, and Man Woong Kim, Experimental and numerical evaluation of debris transport augmentation by turbulence during the recirculation-cooling phase, Nuclear Engineering and Design 250 (2012) 520-537

39-12  Hossein Basser, Abdollah Ardeshir, Hojat Karami, Numerical simulation of flow pattern around spur dikes series in rigid bed, 9th International Congress on Civil Engineering, May 8-10, 2012 Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan, Iran

38-12  Sathaporn Temeepattanapongsa, Unified Equations for Cutthroat Flumes Derived from a Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Model, (2012). Thesis: Utah State University, All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 1308. Available online at: http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd/1308

36-12 Robert Feurich, Jacques Boubée, Nils Reidar B. Olsen, Improvement of fish passage in culverts using CFD, Ecological Engineering, Volume 47, October 2012, Pages 1–8.

35-12 Yovanni A. Cataño-Lopera and Jorge D. Abad, Flow Structure around a Partially Buried Object in a Simulated River Bed, World Environmental And Water Resources Congress 2012, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States, May 20-24, 2012.

33-12  Fatemeh Rostami, Saeed Reza Sabbagh Yazdi, Md Azlin Md Said and Mahdi Shahrokhi, Numerical simulation of undular jumps on graveled bed using volume of fluid method, Water Science & Technology Vol 66 No 5 pp 909–917 © IWA Publishing 2012 doi:10.2166/wst.2012.213.

30-12  Saman Abbasi and Amir Abbas Kamanbedast, Investigation of Effect of Changes in Dimension and Hydraulic of Stepped Spillways for Maximization Energy Dissipation, World Applied Sciences Journal 18 (2): 261-267, 2012, ISSN 1818-4952, © IDOSI Publications, 2012, DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2012.18.02.492

24-12  Mario Oertel, Jan Mönkemöller and Andreas Schlenkhoff, Artificial stationary breaking surf waves in a physical and numerical model, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 50:3, 338-343, 2012.

23-12  Mario Oertel, Cross-bar block ramps:Flow regimes – flow resistance – energy dissipation – stability, thesis, Bericht Nr. 20, 2012, © 2011/12 Dr. Mario Oertel, Hydraulic Engineering Section, Bergische University of Wuppertal. Duplication only with author’s permission.

20-12  M. Oertel and A. Schlenkhoff, Crossbar Block Ramps: Flow Regimes, Energy Dissipation, Friction Factors, and Drag Forces, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering © ASCE, May 2012, pp. 440-448.

19-12  Mohsen Maghrebi, Saeed Alizadeh, and Rahim Lotfi, Numerical Simulation of Flow Over Rectangular Broad Crested Weir, 1st International and 3rd National Conference on Dams and Hydropower in Iran, Tehran, Iran, February 8 – February 9, 2012

18-12  Alireza Daneshkhah and Hamidreza Vosoughifar, Solution of Flow Field Equations to Investigate the Best Turbulent Model of Flow over a Standard Ogee Spillway, 1st International and 3rd National Conference on Dams and Hydropower in Iran, Tehran, Iran, February 8 – February 9, 2012

03-12  Hamed Taghizadeh, Seyed Ali Akbar Salehi Neyshabour and Firouz Ghasemzadeh, Dynamic Pressure Fluctuations in Stepped Three-Side Spillway, Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment 3 (1): 95-104, 2012, ISSN 2079-2115

02-12   Kim, Seojun, Yu, Kwonkyu, Yoon, Byungman, and Lim, Yoonsung, A numerical study on hydraulic characteristics in the ice Harbor-type fishway, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 2012-02-01, Issn: 1226-7988, pp 265- 272, Volume: 16, Issue: 2, Doi: 10.1007/s12205-012-0010-5.

105-11 Hatice Ozmen Cagatay and Selahattin Kocaman, Dam-break Flow in the Presence of Obstacle: Experiment and CFD Simulation, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechancis, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 541-552, 2011

102-11 Sang Do An, Interflow Dynamics and Three-Dimensional Modeling of Turbid Density Currents in IMHA Reservoir, South Korea, thesis: Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Colorado State University, 2011.

101-11 Tsunami – A Growing Disaster, edited by Mohammad Mokhtari, ISBN 978-953-307-431-3, 232 pages, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published December 16, 2011 under CC BY 3.0 license, DOI: 10.5772/922. Available for download at Intech.

98-11  Selahattin Kocaman and Hasan Guzel, Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Dam-Break Wave on a Single Building Situated Downstream, Epoka Conference Systems, 1st International Balkans Conference on Challenges of Civil Engineering, 19-21 May 2011, EPOKA University, Tirana, Albania.

97-11   T. Endreny, L. Lautz, and D. I. Siegel, Hyporheic flow path response to hydraulic jumps at river steps: Flume and hydrodynamic models, WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, VOL. 47, W02517, doi:10.1029/2009WR008631, 2011.

96-11   Mahdi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Rostami, Md Azlin Md Said and Syafalni, Numerical Simulation of Influence of Inlet Configuration on Flow Pattern in Primary Rectangular Sedimentation Tanks, World Applied Sciences Journal 15 (7): 1024-1031, 2011, ISSN 1818-4952, © IDOSI Publications, 2011. Full article available online at IODSI.

94-11  Kathleen H. Frizell, Summary of Hydraulic Studies for Ladder and Flume Fishway Design- Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project, Hydraulic Laboratory Report HL-2010-04, U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation Technical Service Center Hydraulic Investigations and Laboratory Services Group, December 2011

88-11   Abdelaziz, S, Bui, MD, Rutschmann, P, Numerical Investigation of Flow and Sediment Transport around a Circular Bridge Pier, Proceedings of the 34th World Congress of the International Association for Hydro- Environment Research and Engineering: 33rd Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium and 10th Conference on Hydraulics in Water Engineering, ACT: Engineers Australia, 2011: 2624-2630.

86-11  M. Heidarnejad, D. Halvai and M. Bina, The Proper Option for Discharge the Turbidity Current and Hydraulic Analysis of Dez Dam Reservoir, World Applied Sciences Journal 13 (9): 2052-2056, 2011, ISSN 1818-4952 © IDOSI Publications, 2011

84-11  Martina Reichstetter and Hubert Chanson, Physical and Numerical Modelling of Negative Surges in Open Channels, School of Civil Engineering at the University of Queensland, Report CH84/11, ISBN No. 9781742720388, © Reichstetter and Chanson, 2011.

83-11  Reda M. Abd El-Hady Rady, 2D-3D Modeling of Flow Over Sharp-Crested Weirs, Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 7(12): 2495-2505, ISSN 1819-544X, 2011.

78-11  S. Abbasi, A. Kamanbedast and J. Ahadian, Numerical Investigation of Angle and Geometric of L-Shape Groin on the Flow and Erosion Regime at River Bends, World Applied Sciences Journal 15 (2): 279-284, 2011, ISSN 1818-4952 © IDOSI Publications, 2011.

75-11  Mario Oertel and Daniel B. Bung, Initial stage of two-dimensional dam-break waves: laboratory versus VOF, Journal of Hydraulic Research, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2011.639981, Available online: 08 Dec 2011.

73-11  T.N. Aziz and A.A. Khan, Simulation of Vertical Plane Turbulent Jet in Shallow Water, Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2011, Article ID 292904, 10 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/292904.

67-11   Chung R. Song, ASCE, Jinwon Kim, Ge Wang, and Alexander H.-D. Cheng, Reducing Erosion of Earthen Levees Using Engineered Flood Wall SurfaceJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 137, No. 10, October 2011, pp. 874-881, http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000500.

64-11  Mahdi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Rostami, Md Azlin Md Said, Syafalni, The Effect of Number of Baffles on the Improvement Efficiency of Primary Sedimentation Tanks, Available online 11 November 2011, ISSN 0307-904X, 10.1016/j.apm.2011.11.001.

62-11  Jana Hadler, Klaus Broekel, Low head hydropower – its design and economic potential, World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Sweden, May 8-13, 2011.

60-11 Md. Imtiaj Hassan and Nahidul Khan, Performance of a Quarter-Pitch Twisted Savonius Turbine, The International Conference and Utility Exhibition 2011, Pattaya City, Thailand, 28-30 September 2011.

59-11   Erin K. Gleason, Ashraful Islam, Liaqat Khan, Darrne Brinker and Mike Miller, Spillway Analysis Techniques Using Traditional and 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling, Dam Safety 2011, National Harbor, MD, September 25-29, 2011.

58-11  William Rahmeyer, Steve Barfuss, and Bruce Savage, Composite Modeling of Hydraulic Structures, Dam Safety 2011, National Harbor, MD, September 25-29, 2011.

57-11  B. Dasgupta, K. Das, D. Basu, and R. Green, Computational Methodology to Predict Rock Block Erosion in Plunge Pools, Dam Safety 2011, National Harbor, MD, September 25-29, 2011.

56-11  Jeff Burnham, Modeling Dams with Computational Fluid Dynamics- Past Success and New Directions, Dam Safety 2011, National Harbor, MD, September 25-29, 2011.

52-11  Madhi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Rostami, Md Azlin Md Said, and Syafalni, The Computational Modeling of Baffle Configuration in the Primary Sedimentation Tanks, 2011 2nd International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology IPCBEE vol 6. (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore.

47-11  Stefan Haun, Nils Reidar B. Olsen and Robert Feurich, Numerical Modeling of Flow over Trapezoidal Broad-Crested Weir, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol 5., No. 3, pp. 397-405, 2011.

42-11  Anu Acharya, Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation of Flow and Sediment Transport around a Series of Spur Dikes, thesis: The University of Arizona Graduate College, Copyright © Anu Acharya 2011, July 2011.

38-11  Mehdi Shahosseini, Amirabbas Kamanbedast and Roozbeh Aghamajidi, Investigation of Hydraulic Conditions around Bridge Piers and Determination of Shear Stress using Numerical Methods, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011, © ASCE 2011.

35-11  L. Toombes and H. Chanson, Numerical Limitations of Hydraulic Models, 34th IAHR World Congress, 33rd Hydrology & Water Resources Symposium, 10th Hydraulics Conference, Brisbane, Australia, 26 June – 1 July 2011.

34-11  Mohammad Sarfaraz, and Jalal Attari, Numerical Simulation of Uniform Flow Region over a Steeply Sloping Stepped Spillway, 6th National Congress on Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran, April 26-27, 2011.

30-11  John Richardson and Pamela Waterman, Stemming the Flood, Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 133/No.7 July 2011

29-11  G. Möller & R. Boes, D. Theiner & A. Fankhauser, G. De Cesare & A. Schleiss, Hybrid modeling of sediment management during drawdown of Räterichsboden reservoir, Dams and Reservoirs under Changing Challenges – Schleiss & Boes (Eds), © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-68267-1.

24-11  Liaqat A. Khan, Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Emergency Overflows through an Energy Dissipation Structure of a Water Treatment Plant, ASCE Conf. Proc. doi:10.1061/41173(414)155, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011.

23-11  Anu Acharya and Jennifer G. Duan, Three Dimensional Simulation of Flow Field around Series of Spur Dikes, ASCE Conf. Proc. doi:10.1061/41173(414)218, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011.

22-11  Mehdi Shahosseini, Amirabbas Kamanbedast, and Roozbeh Aghamajidi, Investigation of Hydraulic Conditions around Bridge Piers and Determination of Shear Stress Using Numerical Method, ASCE Conf. Proc. doi:10.1061/41173(414)435, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011.

20-11  Jong Pil Park, Ji Hwan Jeong, Won Tae Kim, Man Woong Kim and Ju Yeop Park, Debris transport evaluation during the blow-down phase of a LOCA using computational fluid dynamics, Nuclear Engineering and Design, June 2011, ISSN 0029-5493, DOI: 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2011.05.017.

13-11 Ehab A. Meselhe, Myrtle Grove Delta Building Diversion Project, The Geological Society of America, South-Central Section – 45th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 2011.

12-11  Bryan Heiner and Steven L. Barfuss, Parshall Flume and Discharge Corrections Wall Staff Gauge and Centerline Measurements, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, posted ahead of print February 1, 2011, DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000355, © 2011 by the American Society of Civil Engineers.

06-11  T. Endreny, L. Lautz, and D. Siegel, Hyporheic flow path response to hydraulic jumps at river steps- Hydrostatic model simulations, Water Resources Research, Vol. 47, W02518, doi: 10.1029/2010WR010014, 2011, © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union, 0043-1397/11/2010WR010014

03-11  Jinwon Kim, Chung R. Song, Ge Wang and Alexander H.-D. Cheng Reducing Erosion of Earthen Levees Using Engineered Flood Wall Surface, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, © ASCE, January 2011.

02-11  F. Montagna, G. Bellotti and M. Di Risio, 3D numerical modeling of landslide-generated tsunamis around a conical island, Springer Link, Earth and Environmental Science, Natural Hazards, DOI: 10.1007/s11069-010-9689-0, Online First™, 7 January 2011.

83-10   S. Abdelaziz, M.D. Bui and P. Rutschmann, Numerical simulation of scour development due to submerged horizontal jet, River Flow 2010, eds. Dittrich, Koll, Aberle & Geisenhainer, © 2010 Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau, ISBN 978-3-939230-00-7.

79-10  Daniel J. Howes, Charles M. Burt, and Brett F. Sanders, Subcritical Contraction for Improved Open-Channel Flow Measurement Accuracy with an Upward-Looking ADVM, J. Irrig. Drain Eng. 2010.136:617-626.

78-10  M. Kaheh, S. M. Kashefipour, and A. Dehghani, Comparison of k-ε and RNG k-ε Turbulent Models for Estimation of Velocity Profiles along the Hydraulic Jump, presented at the 6th International Symposium on Environmental Hydraulics, Athens, Greece, June 2010.

75-10  Shahrokh Amiraslani, Jafar Fahimi, Hossein Mehdinezhad, The Numerical Investigation of Free Falling Jet’s Effect on the Scour of Plunge Pool, XVIII International Conference on Water Resources CMWR 2010 J. Carrera (Ed) CIMNE, Barcelona 2010

74-10  M. Ho Ta Khanh, Truong Chi Hien, and Dinh Sy Quat, Study and construction of PK Weirs in Vietnam (2004 to 2011), 78th Annual Meeting of the International Commission on Large Dams,  VNCOLD, Hanoi, Vietnam, May 23-26, 2010.

72-10  DKH Ho and KM Riddette,