electromagnetic metal casting computation designs Fig1

A survey of electromagnetic metal casting computation designs, present approaches, future possibilities, and practical issues

The European Physical Journal Plus volume 136, Article number: 704 (2021) Cite this article

Abstract

Electromagnetic metal casting (EMC) is a casting technique that uses electromagnetic energy to heat metal powders. It is a faster, cleaner, and less time-consuming operation. Solid metals create issues in electromagnetics since they reflect the electromagnetic radiation rather than consume it—electromagnetic energy processing results in sounded pieces with higher-ranking material properties and a more excellent microstructure solution. For the physical production of the electromagnetic casting process, knowledge of electromagnetic material interaction is critical. Even where the heated material is an excellent electromagnetic absorber, the total heating quality is sometimes insufficient. Numerical modelling works on finding the proper coupled effects between properties to bring out the most effective operation. The main parameters influencing the quality of output of the EMC process are: power dissipated per unit volume into the material, penetration depth of electromagnetics, complex magnetic permeability and complex dielectric permittivity. The contact mechanism and interference pattern also, in turn, determines the quality of the process. Only a few parameters, such as the environment’s temperature, the interference pattern, and the rate of metal solidification, can be controlled by AI models. Neural networks are used to achieve exact outcomes by stimulating the neurons in the human brain. Additive manufacturing (AM) is used to design mold and cores for metal casting. The models outperformed the traditional DFA optimization approach, which is susceptible to local minima. The system works only offline, so real-time analysis and corrections are not yet possible.

Korea Abstract

전자기 금속 주조 (EMC)는 전자기 에너지를 사용하여 금속 분말을 가열하는 주조 기술입니다. 더 빠르고 깨끗하며 시간이 덜 소요되는 작업입니다.

고체 금속은 전자기 복사를 소비하는 대신 반사하기 때문에 전자기학에서 문제를 일으킵니다. 전자기 에너지 처리는 더 높은 등급의 재료 특성과 더 우수한 미세 구조 솔루션을 가진 사운드 조각을 만듭니다.

전자기 주조 공정의 물리적 생산을 위해서는 전자기 물질 상호 작용에 대한 지식이 중요합니다. 가열된 물질이 우수한 전자기 흡수재인 경우에도 전체 가열 품질이 때때로 불충분합니다. 수치 모델링은 가장 효과적인 작업을 이끌어 내기 위해 속성 간의 적절한 결합 효과를 찾는데 사용됩니다.

EMC 공정의 출력 품질에 영향을 미치는 주요 매개 변수는 단위 부피당 재료로 분산되는 전력, 전자기의 침투 깊이, 복합 자기 투과성 및 복합 유전율입니다. 접촉 메커니즘과 간섭 패턴 또한 공정의 품질을 결정합니다. 환경 온도, 간섭 패턴 및 금속 응고 속도와 같은 몇 가지 매개 변수 만 AI 모델로 제어 할 수 있습니다.

신경망은 인간 뇌의 뉴런을 자극하여 정확한 결과를 얻기 위해 사용됩니다. 적층 제조 (AM)는 금속 주조용 몰드 및 코어를 설계하는 데 사용됩니다. 모델은 로컬 최소값에 영향을 받기 쉬운 기존 DFA 최적화 접근 방식을 능가했습니다. 이 시스템은 오프라인에서만 작동하므로 실시간 분석 및 수정은 아직 불가능합니다.

electromagnetic metal casting computation designs Fig1
electromagnetic metal casting computation designs Fig1
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FLOW-3D CAST

FLOW-3D CAST는 다양한 금속 주조 해석이 가능한 완벽한 열유동 해석 프로그램으로, 매우 정확한 모델링과 다기능성, 사용 용이성 및 고성능 클라우드 컴퓨팅 기능을 결합한 최첨단 금속 주조 해석 시뮬레이션 플랫폼입니다. 모든 금속 주조 공정에 대해 FLOW-3D CAST는  빠르고 직관적인 해석이 가능한 작업 공간을 제공합니다. 11개 공정에 대한 Workspace, 강력한 후처리, 충진 예측, 응고 및 결함 분석을 통해 FLOW-3D CAST는 최적의 주조 제품 설계에 필요한 도구와 로드맵을 모두 제공합니다.

FLOW-3D Cast는 거의 모든 주조 공정을 모델링 할 수 있도록 설계되었습니다. FLOW-3D Cast의 매우 정확한 유동 및 응고 결과는 표면 산화물, 혼입된 공기, 매크로 및 미세 다공성과 같은 중요한 주조 결함을 포착합니다. 다른 특별한 모델링 기능으로는 로봇 스프레이 냉각 및 윤활, 샷 슬리브 흐름 프로필, 스퀴즈 핀 및 열 응력을 모델링 할 수있는 열 다이 사이클링이 있습니다.

최적화된 시뮬레이션 설계를 통해 개발 시간을 단축하고 출시 시간을 단축하며 수율을 높일 수 있습니다. FLOW-3D CAST를 사용하면 설계 및 개발 비용을 절감할 수 있습니다.

FLOW-3D CAST Continuous Casting WorkspaceFLOW-3D CAST Gravity Die Casting Workspace
FLOW-3D CAST HPDC WorkspaceFLOW-3D CAST Investment Casting WorkspaceFLOW-3D CAST Low Pressure Sand Casting Workspace
FLOW-3D CAST Low Pressure Die Casting WorkspaceFLOW-3D CAST Sand Casting WorkspaceFLOW-3D CAST Sand Core Making Workspace
Lost Foam CastingFLOW-3D CAST Tilt Pour Casting
HPDC Oxides Simulation | FLOW-3D CAST
BMW Injector Casting Process – Innovative ingate system for gravity casting
Continuous Slab Casting | FLOW-3D CAST
Horizontal Centrifugal Pipe Casting | FLOW-3D CAST

Casting Case Study

Casting Case Study

금속 주조물의 결함을 식별하고, 가볍고 튼튼한 주조 부품을 위해 새로운 재료로 부품을 설계하거나, 최적의 설계를 위해 반복적인 설계 작업을 수행하는 것은 고객이 당사의 소프트웨어를 사용하여 작업 요구 사항을 충족하고, 고철 비율을 줄임으로써 조직의 비용을 절감하는 일부 방법입니다.

이를 통해 제품 개발 시간을 단축함으로써 제품의 시장 출시 및 경쟁 우위를 위한 시간 확보가 용이해 집니다.

Customer Case Studies

Increasing Productivity by Reducing Ejection Times
Realizing Da Vinci’s Il Cavallo
Aluminum Integral Foam Molding Process

FLOW-3D CAST Bibliography

FLOW-3D CAST bibliography

아래는 FSI의 금속 주조 참고 문헌에 수록된 기술 논문 모음입니다. 이 모든 논문에는 FLOW-3D CAST 해석 결과가 수록되어 있습니다. FLOW-3D CAST를 사용하여 금속 주조 산업의 응용 프로그램을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Metal Casting Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D CAST results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D CAST can be used to successfully simulate applications for the Metal Casting Industry.

33-20     Eric Riedel, Martin Liepe Stefan Scharf, Simulation of ultrasonic induced cavitation and acoustic streaming in liquid and solidifying aluminum, Metals, 10.4; 476, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10040476

20-20   Wu Yue, Li Zhuo and Lu Rong, Simulation and visual tester verification of solid propellant slurry vacuum plate casting, Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, 2020. doi.org/10.1002/prep.201900411

17-20   C.A. Jones, M.R. Jolly, A.E.W. Jarfors and M. Irwin, An experimental characterization of thermophysical properties of a porous ceramic shell used in the investment casting process, Supplimental Proceedings, pp. 1095-1105, TMS 2020 149th Annual Meeting and Exhibition, San Diego, CA, February 23-27, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36296-6_102

12-20   Franz Josef Feikus, Paul Bernsteiner, Ricardo Fernández Gutiérrez and Michal Luszczak , Further development of electric motor housings, MTZ Worldwide, 81, pp. 38-43, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s38313-019-0176-z

09-20   Mingfan Qi, Yonglin Kang, Yuzhao Xu, Zhumabieke Wulabieke and Jingyuan Li, A novel rheological high pressure die-casting process for preparing large thin-walled Al–Si–Fe–Mg–Sr alloy with high heat conductivity, high plasticity and medium strength, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 776, art. no. 139040, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2020.139040

07-20   Stefan Heugenhauser, Erhard Kaschnitz and Peter Schumacher, Development of an aluminum compound casting process – Experiments and numerical simulations, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 279, art. no. 116578, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.116578

05-20   Michail Papanikolaou, Emanuele Pagone, Mark Jolly and Konstantinos Salonitis, Numerical simulation and evaluation of Campbell running and gating systems, Metals, 10.1, art. no. 68, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10010068

102-19   Ferencz Peti and Gabriela Strnad, The effect of squeeze pin dimension and operational parameters on material homogeneity of aluminium high pressure die cast parts, Acta Marisiensis. Seria Technologica, 16.2, 2019. doi.org/0.2478/amset-2019-0010

94-19   E. Riedel, I. Horn, N. Stein, H. Stein, R. Bahr, and S. Scharf, Ultrasonic treatment: a clean technology that supports sustainability incasting processes, Procedia, 26th CIRP Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) Conference, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, May 7-9, 2019. 

93-19   Adrian V. Catalina, Liping Xue, Charles A. Monroe, Robin D. Foley, and John A. Griffin, Modeling and Simulation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi- and AlCu-based Alloys, Transactions, 123rd Metalcasting Congress, Atlanta, GA, USA, April 27-30, 2019. 

84-19   Arun Prabhakar, Michail Papanikolaou, Konstantinos Salonitis, and Mark Jolly, Sand casting of sheet lead: numerical simulation of metal flow and solidification, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, pp. 1-13, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-019-04522-3

72-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Eric Macdonald, Robert Voigt, and Guha Manogharan, Measurement of metal velocity in sand casting during mold filling, Metals, 9:1079, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/met9101079

71-19   Sebastian Findeisen, Robin Van Der Auwera, Michael Heuser, and Franz-Josef Wöstmann, Gießtechnische Fertigung von E-Motorengehäusen mit interner Kühling (Casting production of electric motor housings with internal cooling), Geisserei, 106, pp. 72-78, 2019 (in German).

58-19     Von Malte Leonhard, Matthias Todte, and Jörg Schäffer, Realistic simulation of the combustion of exothermic feeders, Casting, No. 2, pp. 28-32, 2019. In English and German.

52-19     S. Lakkum and P. Kowitwarangkul, Numerical investigations on the effect of gas flow rate in the gas stirred ladle with dual plugs, International Conference on Materials Research and Innovation (ICMARI), Bangkok, Thailand, December 17-21, 2018. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 526, 2019. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/526/1/012028

47-19     Bing Zhou, Shuai Lu, Kaile Xu, Chun Xu, and Zhanyong Wang, Microstructure and simulation of semisolid aluminum alloy castings in the process of stirring integrated transfer-heat (SIT) with water cooling, International Journal of Metalcasting, Online edition, pp. 1-13, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-019-00357-6

31-19     Zihao Yuan, Zhipeng Guo, and S.M. Xiong, Skin layer of A380 aluminium alloy die castings and its blistering during solution treatment, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, Vol. 35, No. 9, pp. 1906-1916, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2019.05.011

25-19     Stefano Mascetti, Raul Pirovano, and Giulio Timelli, Interazione metallo liquido/stampo: Il fenomeno della metallizzazione, La Metallurgia Italiana, No. 4, pp. 44-50, 2019. In Italian.

20-19     Fu-Yuan Hsu, Campbellology for runner system design, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 187-199, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_19

19-19     Chengcheng Lyu, Michail Papanikolaou, and Mark Jolly, Numerical process modelling and simulation of Campbell running systems designs, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 53-64, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_5

18-19     Adrian V. Catalina, Liping Xue, and Charles Monroe, A solidification model with application to AlSi-based alloys, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 201-213, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_20

17-19     Fu-Yuan Hsu and Yu-Hung Chen, The validation of feeder modeling for ductile iron castings, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 227-238, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_22

04-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

02-19   Jingying Sun, Qichi Le, Li Fu, Jing Bai, Johannes Tretter, Klaus Herbold and Hongwei Huo, Gas entrainment behavior of aluminum alloy engine crankcases during the low-pressure-die-casting-process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 266, pp. 274-282, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.11.016

92-18   Fast, Flexible… More Versatile, Foundry Management Technology, March, 2018. 

82-18   Xu Zhao, Ping Wang, Tao Li, Bo-yu Zhang, Peng Wang, Guan-zhou Wang and Shi-qi Lu, Gating system optimization of high pressure die casting thin-wall AlSi10MnMg longitudinal loadbearing beam based on numerical simulation, China Foundry, Vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 436-442, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s41230-018-8052-z

80-18   Michail Papanikolaou, Emanuele Pagone, Konstantinos Salonitis, Mark Jolly and Charalampos Makatsoris, A computational framework towards energy efficient casting processes, Sustainable Design and Manufacturing 2018: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing (KES-SDM-18), Gold Coast, Australia, June 24-26 2018, SIST 130, pp. 263-276, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04290-5_27

64-18   Vasilios Fourlakidis, Ilia Belov and Attila Diószegi, Strength prediction for pearlitic lamellar graphite iron: Model validation, Metals, Vol. 8, No. 9, 2018. doi.org/10.3390/met8090684

51-18   Xue-feng Zhu, Bao-yi Yu, Li Zheng, Bo-ning Yu, Qiang Li, Shu-ning Lü and Hao Zhang, Influence of pouring methods on filling process, microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 Mg alloy pipe by horizontal centrifugal casting, China Foundry, vol. 15, no. 3, pp.196-202, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s41230-018-7256-6

47-18   Santosh Reddy Sama, Jiayi Wang and Guha Manogharan, Non-conventional mold design for metal casting using 3D sand-printing, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, vol. 34-B, pp. 765-775, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2018.03.049

42-18   M. Koru and O. Serçe, The Effects of Thermal and Dynamical Parameters and Vacuum Application on Porosity in High-Pressure Die Casting of A383 Al-Alloy, International Journal of Metalcasting, pp. 1-17, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-018-0214-7

41-18   Abhilash Viswanath, S. Savithri, U.T.S. Pillai, Similitude analysis on flow characteristics of water, A356 and AM50 alloys during LPC process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 257, pp. 270-277, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.02.031

29-18   Seyboldt, Christoph and Liewald, Mathias, Investigation on thixojoining to produce hybrid components with intermetallic phase, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1960, no. 1, 2018. doi.org/10.1063/1.5034992

28-18   Laura Schomer, Mathias Liewald and Kim Rouven Riedmüller, Simulation of the infiltration process of a ceramic open-pore body with a metal alloy in semi-solid state to design the manufacturing of interpenetrating phase composites, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1960, no. 1, 2018. doi.org/10.1063/1.5034991

41-17   Y. N. Wu et al., Numerical Simulation on Filling Optimization of Copper Rotor for High Efficient Electric Motors in Die Casting Process, Materials Science Forum, Vol. 898, pp. 1163-1170, 2017.

12-17   A.M.  Zarubin and O.A. Zarubina, Controlling the flow rate of melt in gravity die casting of aluminum alloys, Liteynoe Proizvodstvo (Casting Manufacturing), pp 16-20, 6, 2017. In Russian.

10-17   A.Y. Korotchenko, Y.V. Golenkov, M.V. Tverskoy and D.E. Khilkov, Simulation of the Flow of Metal Mixtures in the Mold, Liteynoe Proizvodstvo (Casting Manufacturing), pp 18-22, 5, 2017. In Russian.

08-17   Morteza Morakabian Esfahani, Esmaeil Hajjari, Ali Farzadi and Seyed Reza Alavi Zaree, Prediction of the contact time through modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in compound casting process of Al/Mg light metals, Journal of Materials Research, © Materials Research Society 2017

04-17   Huihui Liu, Xiongwei He and Peng Guo, Numerical simulation on semi-solid die-casting of magnesium matrix composite based on orthogonal experiment, AIP Conference Proceedings 1829, 020037 (2017); doi.org/10.1063/1.4979769.

100-16  Robert Watson, New numerical techniques to quantify and predict the effect of entrainment defects, applied to high pressure die casting, PhD Thesis: University of Birmingham, 2016.

88-16   M.C. Carter, T. Kauffung, L. Weyenberg and C. Peters, Low Pressure Die Casting Simulation Discovery through Short Shot, Cast Expo & Metal Casting Congress, April 16-19, 2016, Minneapolis, MN, Copyright 2016 American Foundry Society.

61-16   M. Koru and O. Serçe, Experimental and numerical determination of casting mold interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the high pressure die casting of a 360 aluminum alloy, ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, Vol. 129 (2016)

59-16   R. Pirovano and S. Mascetti, Tracking of collapsed bubbles during a filling simulation, La Metallurgia Italiana – n. 6 2016

43-16   Kevin Lee, Understanding shell cracking during de-wax process in investment casting, Ph.D Thesis: University of Birmingham, School of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2016.

35-16   Konstantinos Salonitis, Mark Jolly, Binxu Zeng, and Hamid Mehrabi, Improvements in energy consumption and environmental impact by novel single shot melting process for casting, Journal of Cleaner Production, doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.165, Open Access funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, June 29, 2016

20-16   Fu-Yuan Hsu, Bifilm Defect Formation in Hydraulic Jump of Liquid Aluminum, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 2016, Band: 47, Heft 3, 1634-1648.

15-16   Mingfan Qia, Yonglin Kanga, Bing Zhoua, Wanneng Liaoa, Guoming Zhua, Yangde Lib,and Weirong Li, A forced convection stirring process for Rheo-HPDC aluminum and magnesium alloys, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 234 (2016) 353–367

112-15   José Miguel Gonçalves Ledo Belo da Costa, Optimization of filling systems for low pressure by FLOW-3D, Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Mecânica, 2015.

89-15   B.W. Zhu, L.X. Li, X. Liu, L.Q. Zhang and R. Xu, Effect of Viscosity Measurement Method to Simulate High Pressure Die Casting of Thin-Wall AlSi10MnMg Alloy Castings, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Published online, November 2015, doi.org/10.1007/s11665-015-1783-8, © ASM International.

88-15   Peng Zhang, Zhenming Li, Baoliang Liu, Wenjiang Ding and Liming Peng, Improved tensile properties of a new aluminum alloy for high pressure die casting, Materials Science & Engineering A651(2016)376–390, Available online, November 2015.

83-15   Zu-Qi Hu, Xin-Jian Zhang and Shu-Sen Wu, Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Die-Filling Behavior of High-Performance Die-Cast Al–Mg–Si–Mn Alloy, Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.), doi.org/10.1007/s40195-015-0332-7, © The Chinese Society for Metals and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.

82-15   J. Müller, L. Xue, M.C. Carter, C. Thoma, M. Fehlbier and M. Todte, A Die Spray Cooling Model for Thermal Die Cycling Simulations, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

81-15   M. T. Murray, L.F. Hansen, L. Chilcott, E. Li and A.M. Murray, Case Studies in the Use of Simulation- Improved Yield and Reduced Time to Market, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

80-15   R. Bhola, S. Chandra and D. Souders, Predicting Castability of Thin-Walled Parts for the HPDC Process Using Simulations, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

76-15   Prosenjit Das, Sudip K. Samanta, Shashank Tiwari and Pradip Dutta, Die Filling Behaviour of Semi Solid A356 Al Alloy Slurry During Rheo Pressure Die Casting, Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, pp 1-6, October 2015

74-15   Murat KORU and Orhan SERÇE, Yüksek Basınçlı Döküm Prosesinde Enjeksiyon Parametrelerine Bağlı Olarak Döküm Simülasyon, Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Science, Science Journal (CSJ), Vol. 36, No: 5 (2015) ISSN: 1300-1949, May 2015

69-15   A. Viswanath, S. Sivaraman, U. T. S. Pillai, Computer Simulation of Low Pressure Casting Process Using FLOW-3D, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 830-831, pp. 45-48, September 2015

68-15   J. Aneesh Kumar, K. Krishnakumar and S. Savithri, Computer Simulation of Centrifugal Casting Process Using FLOW-3D, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 830-831, pp. 53-56, September 2015

59-15   F. Hosseini Yekta and S. A. Sadough Vanini, Simulation of the flow of semi-solid steel alloy using an enhanced model, Metals and Materials International, August 2015.

44-15   Ulrich E. Klotz, Tiziana Heiss and Dario Tiberto, Platinum investment casting material properties, casting simulation and optimum process parameters, Jewelry Technology Forum 2015

41-15   M. Barkhudarov and R. Pirovano, Minimizing Air Entrainment in High Pressure Die Casting Shot Sleeves, GIFA 2015, Düsseldorf, Germany

40-15   M. Todte, A. Fent, and H. Lang, Simulation in support of the development of innovative processes in the casting industry, GIFA 2015, Düsseldorf, Germany

19-15   Bruce Morey, Virtual casting improves powertrain design, Automotive Engineering, SAE International, March 2015.

15-15   K.S. Oh, J.D. Lee, S.J. Kim and J.Y. Choi, Development of a large ingot continuous caster, Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 203 (2015) © EDP Sciences, 2015, doi.org/10.1051/metal/2015006, www.metallurgical-research.org

14-15   Tiziana Heiss, Ulrich E. Klotz and Dario Tiberto, Platinum Investment Casting, Part I: Simulation and Experimental Study of the Casting Process, Johnson Matthey Technol. Rev., 2015, 59, (2), 95, doi.org/10.1595/205651315×687399

138-14 Christopher Thoma, Wolfram Volk, Ruben Heid, Klaus Dilger, Gregor Banner and Harald Eibisch, Simulation-based prediction of the fracture elongation as a failure criterion for thin-walled high-pressure die casting components, International Journal of Metalcasting, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 47-54, 2014. doi.org/10.1007/BF03355594

107-14  Mehran Seyed Ahmadi, Dissolution of Si in Molten Al with Gas Injection, ProQuest Dissertations And Theses; Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Toronto (Canada), 2014; Publication Number: AAT 3637106; ISBN: 9781321195231; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 76-02(E), Section: B.; 191 p.

99-14   R. Bhola and S. Chandra, Predicting Castability for Thin-Walled HPDC Parts, Foundry Management Technology, December 2014

92-14   Warren Bishenden and Changhua Huang, Venting design and process optimization of die casting process for structural components; Part II: Venting design and process optimization, Die Casting Engineer, November 2014

90-14   Ken’ichi Kanazawa, Ken’ichi Yano, Jun’ichi Ogura, and Yasunori Nemoto, Optimum Runner Design for Die-Casting using CFD Simulations and Verification with Water-Model Experiments, Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2014, November 14-20, 2014, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, IMECE2014-37419

89-14   P. Kapranos, C. Carney, A. Pola, and M. Jolly, Advanced Casting Methodologies: Investment Casting, Centrifugal Casting, Squeeze Casting, Metal Spinning, and Batch Casting, In Comprehensive Materials Processing; McGeough, J., Ed.; 2014, Elsevier Ltd., 2014; Vol. 5, pp 39–67.

77-14   Andrei Y. Korotchenko, Development of Scientific and Technological Approaches to Casting Net-Shaped Castings in Sand Molds Free of Shrinkage Defects and Hot Tears, Post-doctoral thesis: Russian State Technological University, 2014. In Russian.

69-14   L. Xue, M.C. Carter, A.V. Catalina, Z. Lin, C. Li, and C. Qiu, Predicting, Preventing Core Gas Defects in Steel Castings, Modern Casting, September 2014

68-14   L. Xue, M.C. Carter, A.V. Catalina, Z. Lin, C. Li, and C. Qiu, Numerical Simulation of Core Gas Defects in Steel Castings, Copyright 2014 American Foundry Society, 118th Metalcasting Congress, April 8 – 11, 2014, Schaumburg, IL

51-14   Jesus M. Blanco, Primitivo Carranza, Rafael Pintos, Pedro Arriaga, and Lakhdar Remaki, Identification of Defects Originated during the Filling of Cast Pieces through Particles Modelling, 11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM XI), 5th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM V), 6th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ECFD VI), E. Oñate, J. Oliver and A. Huerta (Eds)

47-14   B. Vijaya Ramnatha, C.Elanchezhiana, Vishal Chandrasekhar, A. Arun Kumarb, S. Mohamed Asif, G. Riyaz Mohamed, D. Vinodh Raj , C .Suresh Kumar, Analysis and Optimization of Gating System for Commutator End Bracket, Procedia Materials Science 6 ( 2014 ) 1312 – 1328, 3rd International Conference on Materials Processing and Characterisation (ICMPC 2014)

42-14  Bing Zhou, Yong-lin Kang, Guo-ming Zhu, Jun-zhen Gao, Ming-fan Qi, and Huan-huan Zhang, Forced convection rheoforming process for preparation of 7075 aluminum alloy semisolid slurry and its numerical simulation, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 24(2014) 1109−1116

37-14    A. Karwinski, W. Lesniewski, P. Wieliczko, and M. Malysza, Casting of Titanium Alloys in Centrifugal Induction Furnaces, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, Volume 59, Issue 1, doi.org/10.2478/amm-2014-0068, 2014.

26-14    Bing Zhou, Yonglin Kang, Mingfan Qi, Huanhuan Zhang and Guoming ZhuR-HPDC Process with Forced Convection Mixing Device for Automotive Part of A380 Aluminum Alloy, Materials 2014, 7, 3084-3105; doi.org/10.3390/ma7043084

20-14  Johannes Hartmann, Tobias Fiegl, Carolin Körner, Aluminum integral foams with tailored density profile by adapted blowing agents, Applied Physics A, doi.org/10.1007/s00339-014-8377-4, March 2014.

19-14    A.Y. Korotchenko, N.A. Nikiforova, E.D. Demjanov, N.C. Larichev, The Influence of the Filling Conditions on the Service Properties of the Part Side Frame, Russian Foundryman, 1 (January), pp 40-43, 2014. In Russian.

11-14 B. Fuchs and C. Körner, Mesh resolution consideration for the viability prediction of lost salt cores in the high pressure die casting process, Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2014, Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

08-14 FY Hsu, SW Wang, and HJ Lin, The External and Internal Shrinkages in Aluminum Gravity Castings, Shape Casting: 5th International Symposium 2014. Available online at Google Books

103-13  B. Fuchs, H. Eibisch and C. Körner, Core Viability Simulation for Salt Core Technology in High-Pressure Die Casting, International Journal of Metalcasting, July 2013, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 39–45

94-13    Randall S. Fielding, J. Crapps, C. Unal, and J.R.Kennedy, Metallic Fuel Casting Development and Parameter Optimization Simulations, International Conference on Fast reators and Related Fuel Cycles (FR13), 4-7 March 2013, Paris France

90-13  A. Karwińskia, M. Małyszaa, A. Tchórza, A. Gila, B. Lipowska, Integration of Computer Tomography and Simulation Analysis in Evaluation of Quality of Ceramic-Carbon Bonded Foam Filter, Archives of Foundry Engineering, doi.org/10.2478/afe-2013-0084, Published quarterly as the organ of the Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ISSN, (2299-2944), Volume 13, Issue 4/2013

88-13  Litie and Metallurgia (Casting and Metallurgy), 3 (72), 2013, N.V.Sletova, I.N.Volnov, S.P.Zadrutsky, V.A.Chaikin, Modeling of the Process of Removing Non-metallic Inclusions in Aluminum Alloys Using the FLOW-3D program, pp 138-140. In Russian.

85-13    Michał Szucki,Tomasz Goraj, Janusz Lelito, Józef S. Suchy, Numerical Analysis of Solid Particles Flow in Liquid Metal, XXXVII International Scientific Conference Foundryman’ Day 2013, Krakow, 28-29 November 2013

84-13  Körner, C., Schwankl, M., Himmler, D., Aluminum-Aluminum compound castings by electroless deposited zinc layers, Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2014), doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.12.01483-13.

77-13  Antonio Armillotta & Raffaello Baraggi & Simone Fasoli, SLM tooling for die casting with conformal cooling channels, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, doi.org/10.1007/s00170-013-5523-7, December 2013.

64-13   Johannes Hartmann, Christina Blümel, Stefan Ernst, Tobias Fiegl, Karl-Ernst Wirth, Carolin Körner, Aluminum integral foam castings with microcellular cores by nano-functionalization, J Mater Sci, doi.org/10.1007/s10853-013-7668-z, September 2013.

46-13  Nicholas P. Orenstein, 3D Flow and Temperature Analysis of Filling a Plutonium Mold, LA-UR-13-25537, Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Los Alamos Annual Student Symposium 2013, 2013-07-24 (Rev.1)

42-13   Yang Yue, William D. Griffiths, and Nick R. Green, Modelling of the Effects of Entrainment Defects on Mechanical Properties in a Cast Al-Si-Mg Alloy, Materials Science Forum, 765, 225, 2013.

39-13  J. Crapps, D.S. DeCroix, J.D Galloway, D.A. Korzekwa, R. Aikin, R. Fielding, R. Kennedy, C. Unal, Separate effects identification via casting process modeling for experimental measurement of U-Pu-Zr alloys, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 15 July 2013.

35-13   A. Pari, Real Life Problem Solving through Simulations in the Die Casting Industry – Case Studies, © Die Casting Engineer, July 2013.

34-13  Martin Lagler, Use of Simulation to Predict the Viability of Salt Cores in the HPDC Process – Shot Curve as a Decisive Criterion, © Die Casting Engineer, July 2013.

24-13    I.N.Volnov, Optimizatsia Liteynoi Tekhnologii, (Casting Technology Optimization), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), 3, 2013, 27-29. In Russian

23-13  M.R. Barkhudarov, I.N. Volnov, Minimizatsia Zakhvata Vozdukha v Kamere Pressovania pri Litie pod Davleniem, (Minimization of Air Entrainment in the Shot Sleeve During High Pressure Die Casting), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), 3, 2013, 30-34. In Russian

09-13  M.C. Carter and L. Xue, Simulating the Parameters that Affect Core Gas Defects in Metal Castings, Copyright 2012 American Foundry Society, Presented at the 2013 CastExpo, St. Louis, Missouri, April 2013

08-13  C. Reilly, N.R. Green, M.R. Jolly, J.-C. Gebelin, The Modelling Of Oxide Film Entrainment In Casting Systems Using Computational Modelling, Applied Mathematical Modelling, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2013.03.061, April 2013.

03-13  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A fast simulation of transient metal flow and solidification in a narrow channel. Part II. Model validation and parametric study, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.12.061.

02-13  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A fast simulation of transient metal flow and solidification in a narrow channel. Part I: Model development using lubrication approximation, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.12.060.

116-12  Jufu Jianga, Ying Wang, Gang Chena, Jun Liua, Yuanfa Li and Shoujing Luo, “Comparison of mechanical properties and microstructure of AZ91D alloy motorcycle wheels formed by die casting and double control forming, Materials & Design, Volume 40, September 2012, Pages 541-549.

107-12  F.K. Arslan, A.H. Hatman, S.Ö. Ertürk, E. Güner, B. Güner, An Evaluation for Fundamentals of Die Casting Materials Selection and Design, IMMC’16 International Metallurgy & Materials Congress, Istanbul, Turkey, 2012.

103-12 WU Shu-sen, ZHONG Gu, AN Ping, WAN Li, H. NAKAE, Microstructural characteristics of Al−20Si−2Cu−0.4Mg−1Ni alloy formed by rheo-squeeze casting after ultrasonic vibration treatment, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 22 (2012) 2863-2870, November 2012. Full paper available online.

109-12 Alexandre Reikher, Numerical Analysis of Die-Casting Process in Thin Cavities Using Lubrication Approximation, Ph.D. Thesis: The University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Engineering Department (2012) Theses and Dissertations. Paper 65.

97-12 Hong Zhou and Li Heng Luo, Filling Pattern of Step Gating System in Lost Foam Casting Process and its Application, Advanced Materials Research, Volumes 602-604, Progress in Materials and Processes, 1916-1921, December 2012.

93-12  Liangchi Zhang, Chunliang Zhang, Jeng-Haur Horng and Zichen Chen, Functions of Step Gating System in the Lost Foam Casting Process, Advanced Materials Research, 591-593, 940, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.591-593.940, November 2012.

91-12  Hong Yan, Jian Bin Zhu, Ping Shan, Numerical Simulation on Rheo-Diecasting of Magnesium Matrix Composites, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.192-193.287, Solid State Phenomena, 192-193, 287.

89-12  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A Fast Numerical Simulation for Modeling Simultaneous Metal Flow and Solidification in Thin Cavities Using the Lubrication Approximation, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications: An International Journal of Computation and Methodology, 63:2, 75-100, November 2012.

82-12  Jufu Jiang, Gang Chen, Ying Wang, Zhiming Du, Weiwei Shan, and Yuanfa Li, Microstructure and mechanical properties of thin-wall and high-rib parts of AM60B Mg alloy formed by double control forming and die casting under the optimal conditions, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2012.10.086, October 2012.

78-12   A. Pari, Real Life Problem Solving through Simulations in the Die Casting Industry – Case Studies, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

77-12  Y. Wang, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian and R.A. Miller, Rheological behavior models of metal matrix alloys in semi-solid casting process, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

76-12  A. Reikher and H. Gerber, Analysis of Solidification Parameters During the Die Cast Process, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

75-12 R.A. Miller, Y. Wang and K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, Estimating Cavity Fill Time, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012Indianapolis, IN.

65-12  X.H. Yang, T.J. Lu, T. Kim, Influence of non-conducting pore inclusions on phase change behavior of porous media with constant heat flux boundaryInternational Journal of Thermal Sciences, Available online 10 October 2012. Available online at SciVerse.

55-12  Hejun Li, Pengyun Wang, Lehua Qi, Hansong Zuo, Songyi Zhong, Xianghui Hou, 3D numerical simulation of successive deposition of uniform molten Al droplets on a moving substrate and experimental validation, Computational Materials Science, Volume 65, December 2012, Pages 291–301.

52-12 Hongbing Ji, Yixin Chen and Shengzhou Chen, Numerical Simulation of Inner-Outer Couple Cooling Slab Continuous Casting in the Filling Process, Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 557-559), Advanced Materials and Processes II, pp. 2257-2260, July 2012.

47-12    Petri Väyrynen, Lauri Holappa, and Seppo Louhenkilpi, Simulation of Melting of Alloying Materials in Steel Ladle, SCANMET IV – 4th International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, Lulea, Sweden, June 10-13, 2012.

46-12  Bin Zhang and Dave Salee, Metal Flow and Heat Transfer in Billet DC Casting Using Wagstaff® Optifill™ Metal Distribution Systems, 5th International Metal Quality Workshop, United Arab Emirates Dubai, March 18-22, 2012.

45-12 D.R. Gunasegaram, M. Givord, R.G. O’Donnell and B.R. Finnin, Improvements engineered in UTS and elongation of aluminum alloy high pressure die castings through the alteration of runner geometry and plunger velocity, Materials Science & Engineering.

44-12    Antoni Drys and Stefano Mascetti, Aluminum Casting Simulations, Desktop Engineering, September 2012

42-12   Huizhen Duan, Jiangnan Shen and Yanping Li, Comparative analysis of HPDC process of an auto part with ProCAST and FLOW-3D, Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 184-185 (2012) pp 90-94, Online available since 2012/Jun/14 at www.scientific.net, © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.184-185.90.

41-12    Deniece R. Korzekwa, Cameron M. Knapp, David A. Korzekwa, and John W. Gibbs, Co-Design – Fabrication of Unalloyed Plutonium, LA-UR-12-23441, MDI Summer Research Group Workshop Advanced Manufacturing, 2012-07-25/2012-07-26 (Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States)

29-12  Dario Tiberto and Ulrich E. Klotz, Computer simulation applied to jewellery casting: challenges, results and future possibilities, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.33 012008. Full paper available at IOP.

28-12  Y Yue and N R Green, Modelling of different entrainment mechanisms and their influences on the mechanical reliability of Al-Si castings, 2012 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 33,012072.Full paper available at IOP.

27-12  E Kaschnitz, Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes, 2012 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 33 012031, Issue 1. Full paper available at IOP.

15-12  C. Reilly, N.R Green, M.R. Jolly, The Present State Of Modeling Entrainment Defects In The Shape Casting Process, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Available online 27 April 2012, ISSN 0307-904X, 10.1016/j.apm.2012.04.032.

12-12   Andrei Starobin, Tony Hirt, Hubert Lang, and Matthias Todte, Core drying simulation and validation, International Foundry Research, GIESSEREIFORSCHUNG 64 (2012) No. 1, ISSN 0046-5933, pp 2-5

10-12  H. Vladimir Martínez and Marco F. Valencia (2012). Semisolid Processing of Al/β-SiC Composites by Mechanical Stirring Casting and High Pressure Die Casting, Recent Researches in Metallurgical Engineering – From Extraction to Forming, Dr Mohammad Nusheh (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0356-1, InTech

07-12     Amir H. G. Isfahani and James M. Brethour, Simulating Thermal Stresses and Cooling Deformations, Die Casting Engineer, March 2012

06-12   Shuisheng Xie, Youfeng He and Xujun Mi, Study on Semi-solid Magnesium Alloys Slurry Preparation and Continuous Roll-casting Process, Magnesium Alloys – Design, Processing and Properties, ISBN: 978-953-307-520-4, InTech.

04-12 J. Spangenberg, N. Roussel, J.H. Hattel, H. Stang, J. Skocek, M.R. Geiker, Flow induced particle migration in fresh concrete: Theoretical frame, numerical simulations and experimental results on model fluids, Cement and Concrete Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.01.007, February 2012.

01-12   Lee, B., Baek, U., and Han, J., Optimization of Gating System Design for Die Casting of Thin Magnesium Alloy-Based Multi-Cavity LCD Housings, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Springer New York, Issn: 1059-9495, 10.1007/s11665-011-0111-1, Volume 1 / 1992 – Volume 21 / 2012. Available online at Springer Link.

104-11  Fu-Yuan Hsu and Huey Jiuan Lin, Foam Filters Used in Gravity Casting, Metall and Materi Trans B (2011) 42: 1110. doi:10.1007/s11663-011-9548-8.

99-11    Eduardo Trejo, Centrifugal Casting of an Aluminium Alloy, thesis: Doctor of Philosophy, Metallurgy and Materials School of Engineering University of Birmingham, October 2011. Full paper available upon request.

93-11  Olga Kononova, Andrejs Krasnikovs ,Videvuds Lapsa,Jurijs Kalinka and Angelina Galushchak, Internal Structure Formation in High Strength Fiber Concrete during Casting, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 59 2011

76-11  J. Hartmann, A. Trepper, and C. Körner, Aluminum Integral Foams with Near-Microcellular Structure, Advanced Engineering Materials 2011, Volume 13 (2011) No. 11, © Wiley-VCH

71-11  Fu-Yuan Hsu and Yao-Ming Yang Confluence Weld in an Aluminum Gravity Casting, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Available online 23 November 2011, ISSN 0924-0136, 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2011.11.006.

65-11     V.A. Chaikin, A.V. Chaikin, I.N.Volnov, A Study of the Process of Late Modification Using Simulation, in Zagotovitelnye Proizvodstva v Mashinostroenii, 10, 2011, 8-12. In Russian.

54-11  Ngadia Taha Niane and Jean-Pierre Michalet, Validation of Foundry Process for Aluminum Parts with FLOW-3D Software, Proceedings of the 2011 International Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, 2011.

51-11    A. Reikher and H. Gerber, Calculation of the Die Cast parameters of the Thin Wall Aluminum Cast Part, 2011 Die Casting Congress & Tabletop, Columbus, OH, September 19-21, 2011

50-11   Y. Wang, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, and R.A. Miller, Runner design optimization based on CFD simulation for a die with multiple cavities, 2011 Die Casting Congress & Tabletop, Columbus, OH, September 19-21, 2011

48-11 A. Karwiński, W. Leśniewski, S. Pysz, P. Wieliczko, The technology of precision casting of titanium alloys by centrifugal process, Archives of Foundry Engineering, ISSN: 1897-3310), Volume 11, Issue 3/2011, 73-80, 2011.

46-11  Daniel Einsiedler, Entwicklung einer Simulationsmethodik zur Simulation von Strömungs- und Trocknungsvorgängen bei Kernfertigungsprozessen mittels CFD (Development of a simulation methodology for simulating flow and drying operations in core production processes using CFD), MSc thesis at Technical University of Aalen in Germany (Hochschule Aalen), 2011.

44-11  Bin Zhang and Craig Shaber, Aluminum Ingot Thermal Stress Development Modeling of the Wagstaff® EpsilonTM Rolling Ingot DC Casting System during the Start-up Phase, Materials Science Forum Vol. 693 (2011) pp 196-207, © 2011 Trans Tech Publications, July, 2011.

43-11 Vu Nguyen, Patrick Rohan, John Grandfield, Alex Levin, Kevin Naidoo, Kurt Oswald, Guillaume Girard, Ben Harker, and Joe Rea, Implementation of CASTfill low-dross pouring system for ingot casting, Materials Science Forum Vol. 693 (2011) pp 227-234, © 2011 Trans Tech Publications, July, 2011.

40-11  A. Starobin, D. Goettsch, M. Walker, D. Burch, Gas Pressure in Aluminum Block Water Jacket Cores, © 2011 American Foundry Society, International Journal of Metalcasting/Summer 2011

37-11 Ferencz Peti, Lucian Grama, Analyze of the Possible Causes of Porosity Type Defects in Aluminum High Pressure Diecast Parts, Scientific Bulletin of the Petru Maior University of Targu Mures, Vol. 8 (XXV) no. 1, 2011, ISSN 1841-9267

31-11  Johannes Hartmann, André Trepper, Carolin Körner, Aluminum Integral Foams with Near-Microcellular Structure, Advanced Engineering Materials, 13: n/a. doi: 10.1002/adem.201100035, June 2011.

27-11  A. Pari, Optimization of HPDC Process using Flow Simulation Case Studies, Die Casting Engineer, July 2011

26-11    A. Reikher, H. Gerber, Calculation of the Die Cast Parameters of the Thin Wall Aluminum Die Casting Part, Die Casting Engineer, July 2011

21-11 Thang Nguyen, Vu Nguyen, Morris Murray, Gary Savage, John Carrig, Modelling Die Filling in Ultra-Thin Aluminium Castings, Materials Science Forum (Volume 690), Light Metals Technology V, pp 107-111, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.690.107, June 2011.

19-11 Jon Spangenberg, Cem Celal Tutum, Jesper Henri Hattel, Nicolas Roussel, Metter Rica Geiker, Optimization of Casting Process Parameters for Homogeneous Aggregate Distribution in Self-Compacting Concrete: A Feasibility Study, © IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2011, New Orleans, USA

16-11  A. Starobin, C.W. Hirt, H. Lang, and M. Todte, Core Drying Simulation and Validations, AFS Proceedings 2011, © American Foundry Society, Presented at the 115th Metalcasting Congress, Schaumburg, Illinois, April 2011.

15-11  J. J. Hernández-Ortega, R. Zamora, J. López, and F. Faura, Numerical Analysis of Air Pressure Effects on the Flow Pattern during the Filling of a Vertical Die Cavity, AIP Conf. Proc., Volume 1353, pp. 1238-1243, The 14th International Esaform Conference on Material Forming: Esaform 2011; doi:10.1063/1.3589686, May 2011. Available online.

10-11 Abbas A. Khalaf and Sumanth Shankar, Favorable Environment for Nondentric Morphology in Controlled Diffusion Solidification, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-011-0641-z, © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2011, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, March 11, 2011.

08-11 Hai Peng Li, Chun Yong Liang, Li Hui Wang, Hong Shui Wang, Numerical Simulation of Casting Process for Gray Iron Butterfly Valve, Advanced Materials Research, 189-193, 260, February 2011.

04-11  C.W. Hirt, Predicting Core Shooting, Drying and Defect Development, Foundry Management & Technology, January 2011.

76-10  Zhizhong Sun, Henry Hu, Alfred Yu, Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of Squeeze Casting Magnesium Alloy AM50, Magnesium Technology 2010, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & ExhibitionFebruary 14-18, 2010, Seattle, WA.

68-10  A. Reikher, H. Gerber, K.M. Pillai, T.-C. Jen, Natural Convection—An Overlooked Phenomenon of the Solidification Process, Die Casting Engineer, January 2010

54-10    Andrea Bernardoni, Andrea Borsi, Stefano Mascetti, Alessandro Incognito and Matteo Corrado, Fonderia Leonardo aveva ragione! L’enorme cavallo dedicato a Francesco Sforza era materialmente realizzabile, A&C – Analisis e Calcolo, Giugno 2010. In  Italian.

48-10  J. J. Hernández-Ortega, R. Zamora, J. Palacios, J. López and F. Faura, An Experimental and Numerical Study of Flow Patterns and Air Entrapment Phenomena During the Filling of a Vertical Die Cavity, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., October 2010, Volume 132, Issue 5, 05101, doi:10.1115/1.4002535.

47-10  A.V. Chaikin, I.N. Volnov, and V.A. Chaikin, Development of Dispersible Mixed Inoculant Compositions Using the FLOW-3D Program, Liteinoe Proizvodstvo, October, 2010, in Russian.

42-10  H. Lakshmi, M.C. Vinay Kumar, Raghunath, P. Kumar, V. Ramanarayanan, K.S.S. Murthy, P. Dutta, Induction reheating of A356.2 aluminum alloy and thixocasting as automobile component, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China 20(20101) s961-s967.

41-10  Pamela J. Waterman, Understanding Core-Gas Defects, Desktop Engineering, October 2010. Available online at Desktop Engineering. Also published in the Foundry Trade Journal, November 2010.

39-10  Liu Zheng, Jia Yingying, Mao Pingli, Li Yang, Wang Feng, Wang Hong, Zhou Le, Visualization of Die Casting Magnesium Alloy Steering Bracket, Special Casting & Nonferrous Alloys, ISSN: 1001-2249, CN: 42-1148/TG, 2010-04. In Chinese.

37-10  Morris Murray, Lars Feldager Hansen, and Carl Reinhardt, I Have Defects – Now What, Die Casting Engineer, September 2010

36-10  Stefano Mascetti, Using Flow Analysis Software to Optimize Piston Velocity for an HPDC Process, Die Casting Engineer, September 2010. Also available in Italian: Ottimizzare la velocita del pistone in pressofusione.  A & C, Analisi e Calcolo, Anno XII, n. 42, Gennaio 2011, ISSN 1128-3874.

32-10  Guan Hai Yan, Sheng Dun Zhao, Zheng Hui Sha, Parameters Optimization of Semisolid Diecasting Process for Air-Conditioner’s Triple Valve in HPb59-1 Alloy, Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 129 – 131), Vol. Material and Manufacturing Technology, pp. 936-941, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.129-131.936, August 2010.

29-10 Zheng Peng, Xu Jun, Zhang Zhifeng, Bai Yuelong, and Shi Likai, Numerical Simulation of Filling of Rheo-diecasting A357 Aluminum Alloy, Special Casting & Nonferrous Alloys, DOI: CNKI:SUN:TZZZ.0.2010-01-024, 2010.

27-10 For an Aerospace Diecasting, Littler Uses Simulation to Reveal Defects, and Win a New Order, Foundry Management & Technology, July 2010

23-10 Michael R. Barkhudarov, Minimizing Air Entrainment, The Canadian Die Caster, June 2010

15-10 David H. Kirkwood, Michel Suery, Plato Kapranos, Helen V. Atkinson, and Kenneth P. Young, Semi-solid Processing of Alloys, 2010, XII, 172 p. 103 illus., 19 in color., Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-642-00705-7.

09-10  Shannon Wetzel, Fullfilling Da Vinci’s Dream, Modern Casting, April 2010.

08-10 B.I. Semenov, K.M. Kushtarov, Semi-solid Manufacturing of Castings, New Industrial Technologies, Publication of Moscow State Technical University n.a. N.E. Bauman, 2009 (in Russian)

07-10 Carl Reilly, Development Of Quantitative Casting Quality Assessment Criteria Using Process Modelling, thesis: The University of Birmingham, March 2010 (Available upon request)

06-10 A. Pari, Optimization of HPDC Process using Flow Simulation – Case Studies, CastExpo ’10, NADCA, Orlando, Florida, March 2010

05-10 M.C. Carter, S. Palit, and M. Littler, Characterizing Flow Losses Occurring in Air Vents and Ejector Pins in High Pressure Die Castings, CastExpo ’10, NADCA, Orlando, Florida, March 2010

04-10 Pamela Waterman, Simulating Porosity Factors, Foundry Management Technology, March 2010, Article available at Foundry Management Technology

03-10 C. Reilly, M.R. Jolly, N.R. Green, JC Gebelin, Assessment of Casting Filling by Modeling Surface Entrainment Events Using CFD, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Jim Evans Honorary Symposium), Seattle, Washington, USA, February 14-18, 2010

02-10 P. Väyrynen, S. Wang, J. Laine and S.Louhenkilpi, Control of Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Inclusions in Continuous Casting – CFD and Neural Network Studies, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Jim Evans Honorary Symposium), Seattle, Washington, USA, February 14-18, 2010

60-09   Somlak Wannarumon, and Marco Actis Grande, Comparisons of Computer Fluid Dynamic Software Programs applied to Jewelry Investment Casting Process, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 55 2009.

59-09   Marco Actis Grande and Somlak Wannarumon, Numerical Simulation of Investment Casting of Gold Jewelry: Experiments and Validations, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol:3 2009-07-24

56-09  Jozef Kasala, Ondrej Híreš, Rudolf Pernis, Start-up Phase Modeling of Semi Continuous Casting Process of Brass Billets, Metal 2009, 19.-21.5.2009

51-09  In-Ting Hong, Huan-Chien Tung, Chun-Hao Chiu and Hung-Shang Huang, Effect of Casting Parameters on Microstructure and Casting Quality of Si-Al Alloy for Vacuum Sputtering, China Steel Technical Report, No. 22, pp. 33-40, 2009.

42-09  P. Väyrynen, S. Wang, S. Louhenkilpi and L. Holappa, Modeling and Removal of Inclusions in Continuous Casting, Materials Science & Technology 2009 Conference & Exhibition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, October 25-29, 2009

41-09 O.Smirnov, P.Väyrynen, A.Kravchenko and S.Louhenkilpi, Modern Methods of Modeling Fluid Flow and Inclusions Motion in Tundish Bath – General View, Proceedings of Steelsim 2009 – 3rd International Conference on Simulation and Modelling of Metallurgical Processes in Steelmaking, Leoben, Austria, September 8-10, 2009

21-09 A. Pari, Case Studies – Optimization of HPDC Process Using Flow Simulation, Die Casting Engineer, July 2009

20-09 M. Sirvio, M. Wos, Casting directly from a computer model by using advanced simulation software, FLOW-3D Cast, Archives of Foundry Engineering Volume 9, Issue 1/2009, 79-82

19-09 Andrei Starobin, C.W. Hirt, D. Goettsch, A Model for Binder Gas Generation and Transport in Sand Cores and Molds, Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Solidification Processes XII, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Minerals Society), June 2009

11-09 Michael Barkhudarov, Minimizing Air Entrainment in a Shot Sleeve during Slow-Shot Stage, Die Casting Engineer (The North American Die Casting Association ISSN 0012-253X), May 2009

10-09 A. Reikher, H. Gerber, Application of One-Dimensional Numerical Simulation to Optimize Process Parameters of a Thin-Wall Casting in High Pressure Die Casting, Die Casting Engineer (The North American Die Casting Association ISSN 0012-253X), May 2009

7-09 Andrei Starobin, Simulation of Core Gas Evolution and Flow, presented at the North American Die Casting Association – 113th Metalcasting Congress, April 7-10, 2009, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

6-09 A.Pari, Optimization of HPDC PROCESS: Case Studies, North American Die Casting Association – 113th Metalcasting Congress, April 7-10, 2009, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

2-09 C. Reilly, N.R. Green and M.R. Jolly, Oxide Entrainment Structures in Horizontal Running Systems, TMS 2009, San Francisco, California, February 2009

30-08 I.N.Volnov, Computer Modeling of Casting of Pipe Fittings, © 2008, Pipe Fittings, 5 (38), 2008. Russian version

28-08 A.V.Chaikin, I.N.Volnov, V.A.Chaikin, Y.A.Ukhanov, N.R.Petrov, Analysis of the Efficiency of Alloy Modifiers Using Statistics and Modeling, © 2008, Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), October, 2008

27-08 P. Scarber, Jr., H. Littleton, Simulating Macro-Porosity in Aluminum Lost Foam Castings, American Foundry Society, © 2008, AFS Lost Foam Conference, Asheville, North Carolina, October, 2008

25-08 FMT Staff, Forecasting Core Gas Pressures with Computer Simulation, Foundry Management and Technology, October 28, 2008 © 2008 Penton Media, Inc. Online article

24-08 Core and Mold Gas Evolution, Foundry Management and Technology, January 24, 2008 (excerpted from the FM&T May 2007 issue) © 2008 Penton Media, Inc.

22-08 Mark Littler, Simulation Eliminates Die Casting Scrap, Modern Casting/September 2008

21-08 X. Chen, D. Penumadu, Permeability Measurement and Numerical Modeling for Refractory Porous Materials, AFS Transactions © 2008 American Foundry Society, CastExpo ’08, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

20-08 Rolf Krack, Using Solidification Simulations for Optimising Die Cooling Systems, FTJ July/August 2008

19-08 Mark Littler, Simulation Software Eliminates Die Casting Scrap, ECS Casting Innovations, July/August 2008

13-08 T. Yoshimura, K. Yano, T. Fukui, S. Yamamoto, S. Nishido, M. Watanabe and Y. Nemoto, Optimum Design of Die Casting Plunger Tip Considering Air Entrainment, Proceedings of 10th Asian Foundry Congress (AFC10), Nagoya, Japan, May 2008

08-08 Stephen Instone, Andreas Buchholz and Gerd-Ulrich Gruen, Inclusion Transport Phenomena in Casting Furnaces, Light Metals 2008, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), 2008

07-08 P. Scarber, Jr., H. Littleton, Simulating Macro-Porosity in Aluminum Lost Foam Casting, AFS Transactions 2008 © American Foundry Society, CastExpo ’08, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

06-08 A. Reikher, H. Gerber and A. Starobin, Multi-Stage Plunger Deceleration System, CastExpo ’08, NADCA, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

05-08 Amol Palekar, Andrei Starobin, Alexander Reikher, Die-casting end-of-fill and drop forge viscometer flow transients examined with a coupled-motion numerical model, 68th World Foundry Congress, Chennai, India, February 2008

03-08 Petri J. Väyrynen, Sami K. Vapalahti and Seppo J. Louhenkilpi, On Validation of Mathematical Fluid Flow Models for Simulation of Tundish Water Models and Industrial Examples, AISTech 2008, May 2008

53-07   A. Kermanpur, Sh. Mahmoudi and A. Hajipour, Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Metal Flow and Solidification in the Multi-cavity Casting Moulds of Automotive Components, International Journal of Iron & Steel Society of Iran, Article 2, Volume 4, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2007, pages 8-15.

36-07 Duque Mesa A. F., Herrera J., Cruz L.J., Fernández G.P. y Martínez H.V., Caracterización Defectológica de Piezas Fundida por Lost Foam Casting Mediante Simulación Numérica, 8° Congreso Iberoamericano de Ingenieria Mecanica, Cusco, Peru, 23 al 25 de Octubre de 2007 (in Spanish)

27-07 A.Y. Korotchenko, A.M. Zarubin, I.A.Korotchenko, Modeling of High Pressure Die Casting Filling, Russian Foundryman, December 2007, pp 15-19. (in Russian)

26-07 I.N. Volnov, Modeling of Casting Processes with Variable Geometry, Russian Foundryman, November 2007, pp 27-30. (in Russian)

16-07 P. Väyrynen, S. Vapalahti, S. Louhenkilpi, L. Chatburn, M. Clark, T. Wagner, Tundish Flow Model Tuning and Validation – Steady State and Transient Casting Situations, STEELSIM 2007, Graz/Seggau, Austria, September 12-14 2007

11-07 Marco Actis Grande, Computer Simulation of the Investment Casting Process – Widening of the Filling Step, Santa Fe Symposium on Jewelry Manufacturing Technology, May 2007

09-07 Alexandre Reikher and Michael Barkhudarov, Casting: An Analytical Approach, Springer, 1st edition, August 2007, Hardcover ISBN: 978-1-84628-849-4. U.S. Order FormEurope Order Form.

07-07 I.N. Volnov, Casting Modeling Systems – Current State, Problems and Perspectives, (in Russian), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), June 2007

05-07 A.N. Turchin, D.G. Eskin, and L. Katgerman, Solidification under Forced-Flow Conditions in a Shallow Cavity, DOI: 10.1007/s1161-007-9183-9, © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2007

04-07 A.N. Turchin, M. Zuijderwijk, J. Pool, D.G. Eskin, and L. Katgerman, Feathery grain growth during solidification under forced flow conditions, © Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2007.02.030, April 2007

03-07 S. Kuyucak, Sponsored Research – Clean Steel Casting Production—Evaluation of Laboratory Castings, Transactions of the American Foundry Society, Volume 115, 111th Metalcasting Congress, May 2007

02-07 Fu-Yuan Hsu, Mark R. Jolly and John Campbell, The Design of L-Shaped Runners for Gravity Casting, Shape Casting: 2nd International Symposium, Edited by Paul N. Crepeau, Murat Tiryakioðlu and John Campbell, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), Orlando, FL, Feb 2007

30-06 X.J. Liu, S.H. Bhavnani, R.A. Overfelt, Simulation of EPS foam decomposition in the lost foam casting process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 182 (2007) 333–342, © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

25-06 Michael Barkhudarov and Gengsheng Wei, Modeling Casting on the Move, Modern Casting, August 2006; Modeling of Casting Processes with Variable Geometry, Russian Foundryman, December 2007, pp 10-15. (in Russian)

24-06 P. Scarber, Jr. and C.E. Bates, Simulation of Core Gas Production During Mold Fill, © 2006 American Foundry Society

7-06 M.Y.Smirnov, Y.V.Golenkov, Manufacturing of Cast Iron Bath Tubs Castings using Vacuum-Process in Russia, Russia’s Foundryman, July 2006. In Russian.

6-06 M. Barkhudarov, and G. Wei, Modeling of the Coupled Motion of Rigid Bodies in Liquid Metal, Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes – XI, May 28 – June 2, 2006, Opio, France, eds. Ch.-A. Gandin and M. Bellet, pp 71-78, 2006.

2-06 J.-C. Gebelin, M.R. Jolly and F.-Y. Hsu, ‘Designing-in’ Controlled Filling Using Numerical Simulation for Gravity Sand Casting of Aluminium Alloys, Int. J. Cast Met. Res., 2006, Vol.19 No.1

1-06 Michael Barkhudarov, Using Simulation to Control Microporosity Reduces Die Iterations, Die Casting Engineer, January 2006, pp. 52-54

30-05 H. Xue, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, R.A. Miller, Modeling Dynamic Cavity Pressure and Impact Spike in Die Casting, Cast Expo ’05, April 16-19, 2005

22-05 Blas Melissari & Stavros A. Argyropoulous, Measurement of Magnitude and Direction of Velocity in High-Temperature Liquid Metals; Part I, Mathematical Modeling, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Volume 36B, October 2005, pp. 691-700

21-05 M.R. Jolly, State of the Art Review of Use of Modeling Software for Casting, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 337-346

20-05 J-C Gebelin, M.R. Jolly & F-Y Hsu, ‘Designing-in’ Controlled Filling Using Numerical Simulation for Gravity Sand Casting of Aluminium Alloys, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 355-364

19-05 F-Y Hsu, M.R. Jolly & J Campbell, Vortex Gate Design for Gravity Castings, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 73-82

18-05 M.R. Jolly, Modelling the Investment Casting Process: Problems and Successes, Japanese Foundry Society, JFS, Tokyo, Sept. 2005

13-05 Xiaogang Yang, Xiaobing Huang, Xiaojun Dai, John Campbell and Joe Tatler, Numerical Modelling of the Entrainment of Oxide Film Defects in Filling of Aluminium Alloy Castings, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 17 (6), 2004, 321-331

10-05 Carlos Evaristo Esparza, Martha P. Guerro-Mata, Roger Z. Ríos-Mercado, Optimal Design of Gating Systems by Gradient Search Methods, Computational Materials Science, October 2005

6-05 Birgit Hummler-Schaufler, Fritz Hirning, Jurgen Schaufler, A World First for Hatz Diesel and Schaufler Tooling, Die Casting Engineer, May 2005, pp. 18-21

4-05 Rolf Krack, The W35 Topic—A World First, Die Casting World, March 2005, pp. 16-17

3-05 Joerg Frei, Casting Simulations Speed Up Development, Die Casting World, March 2005, p. 14

2-05 David Goettsch and Michael Barkhudarov, Analysis and Optimization of the Transient Stage of Stopper-Rod Pour, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2005

36-04  Ik Min Park, Il Dong Choi, Yong Ho Park, Development of Light-Weight Al Scroll Compressor for Car Air Conditioner, Materials Science Forum, Designing, Processing and Properties of Advanced Engineering Materials, 449-452, 149, March 2004.

32-04 D.H. Kirkwood and P.J Ward, Numerical Modelling of Semi-Solid Flow under Processing Conditions, steel research int. 75 (2004), No. 8/9

30-04 Haijing Mao, A Numerical Study of Externally Solidified Products in the Cold Chamber Die Casting Process, thesis: The Ohio State University, 2004 (Available upon request)

28-04 Z. Cao, Z. Yang, and X.L. Chen, Three-Dimensional Simulation of Transient GMA Weld Pool with Free Surface, Supplement to the Welding Journal, June 2004.

23-04 State of the Art Use of Computational Modelling in the Foundry Industry, 3rd International Conference Computational Modelling of Materials III, Sicily, Italy, June 2004, Advances in Science and Technology,  Eds P. Vincenzini & A Lami, Techna Group Srl, Italy, ISBN: 88-86538-46-4, Part B, pp 479-490

22-04 Jerry Fireman, Computer Simulation Helps Reduce Scrap, Die Casting Engineer, May 2004, pp. 46-49

21-04 Joerg Frei, Simulation—A Safe and Quick Way to Good Components, Aluminium World, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 42-43

20-04 J.-C. Gebelin, M.R. Jolly, A. M. Cendrowicz, J. Cirre and S. Blackburn, Simulation of Die Filling for the Wax Injection Process – Part II Numerical Simulation, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, Volume 35B, August 2004

14-04 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, Charles H. Sherwin, and Ruel A. Overfelt, Hot Distortion Studies In Phenolic Urethane Cold Box System, American Foundry Society, 108th Casting Congress, June 12-15, 2004, Rosemont, IL, USA

13-04 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov and Ruel A. Overfelt, First V-Process Casting of Magnesium, American Foundry Society, 108th Casting Congress, June 12-15, 2004, Rosemont, IL, USA

5-04 C. Schlumpberger & B. Hummler-Schaufler, Produktentwicklung auf hohem Niveau (Product Development on a High Level), Druckguss Praxis, January 2004, pp 39-42 (in German).

3-04 Charles Bates, Dealing with Defects, Foundry Management and Technology, February 2004, pp 23-25

1-04 Laihua Wang, Thang Nguyen, Gary Savage and Cameron Davidson, Thermal and Flow Modeling of Ladling and Injection in High Pressure Die Casting Process, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, vol. 16 No 4 2003, pp 409-417

2-03 J-C Gebelin, AM Cendrowicz, MR Jolly, Modeling of the Wax Injection Process for the Investment Casting Process – Prediction of Defects, presented at the Third International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Minerals and Process Industries, December 10-12, 2003, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 415-420

29-03 C. W. Hirt, Modeling Shrinkage Induced Micro-porosity, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-03-TN66)

28-03 Thixoforming at the University of Sheffield, Diecasting World, September 2003, pp 11-12

26-03 William Walkington, Gas Porosity-A Guide to Correcting the Problems, NADCA Publication: 516

22-03 G F Yao, C W Hirt, and M Barkhudarov, Development of a Numerical Approach for Simulation of Sand Blowing and Core Formation, in Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Process-X”, Ed. By Stefanescu et al pp. 633-639, 2003

21-03 E F Brush Jr, S P Midson, W G Walkington, D T Peters, J G Cowie, Porosity Control in Copper Rotor Die Castings, NADCA Indianapolis Convention Center, Indianapolis, IN September 15-18, 2003, T03-046

12-03 J-C Gebelin & M.R. Jolly, Modeling Filters in Light Alloy Casting Processes,  Trans AFS, 2002, 110, pp. 109-120

11-03 M.R. Jolly, Casting Simulation – How Well Do Reality and Virtual Casting Match – A State of the Art Review, Intl. J. Cast Metals Research, 2002, 14, pp. 303-313

10-03 Gebelin., J-C and Jolly, M.R., Modeling of the Investment Casting Process, Journal of  Materials Processing Tech., Vol. 135/2-3, pp. 291 – 300

9-03 Cox, M, Harding, R.A. and Campbell, J., Optimised Running System Design for Bottom Filled Aluminium Alloy 2L99 Investment Castings, J. Mat. Sci. Tech., May 2003, Vol. 19, pp. 613-625

8-03 Von Alexander Schrey and Regina Reek, Numerische Simulation der Kernherstellung, (Numerical Simulation of Core Blowing), Giesserei, June 2003, pp. 64-68 (in German)

7-03 J. Zuidema Jr., L Katgerman, Cyclone separation of particles in aluminum DC Casting, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 607-614

6-03 Jean-Christophe Gebelin and Mark Jolly, Numerical Modeling of Metal Flow Through Filters, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 431-438

5-03 N.W. Lai, W.D. Griffiths and J. Campbell, Modelling of the Potential for Oxide Film Entrainment in Light Metal Alloy Castings, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 415-422

21-02 Boris Lukezic, Case History: Process Modeling Solves Die Design Problems, Modern Casting, February 2003, P 59

20-02 C.W. Hirt and M.R. Barkhudarov, Predicting Defects in Lost Foam Castings, Modern Casting, December 2002, pp 31-33

19-02 Mark Jolly, Mike Cox, Ric Harding, Bill Griffiths and John Campbell, Quiescent Filling Applied to Investment Castings, Modern Casting, December 2002 pp. 36-38

18-02 Simulation Helps Overcome Challenges of Thin Wall Magnesium Diecasting, Foundry Management and Technology, October 2002, pp 13-15

17-02 G Messmer, Simulation of a Thixoforging Process of Aluminum Alloys with FLOW-3D, Institute for Metal Forming Technology, University of Stuttgart

16-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Computer Simulation of Lost Foam Process, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 319-324

15-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Computer Simulation of Inclusion Tracking, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 341-346

14-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Advanced Simulation of the Flow and Heat Transfer of an Alternator Housing, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 219-228

8-02 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, and Ruel A. Overfelt, Experimental and Numerical Study of Bonded Sand-Air Two-Phase Flow in PUA Process, Auburn University, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-091, Kansas City, MO

7-02 A Habibollah Zadeh, and J Campbell, Metal Flow Through a Filter System, University of Birmingham, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-020, Kansas City, MO

6-02 Phil Ward, and Helen Atkinson, Final Report for EPSRC Project: Modeling of Thixotropic Flow of Metal Alloys into a Die, GR/M17334/01, March 2002, University of Sheffield

5-02 S. I. Bakhtiyarov and R. A. Overfelt, Numerical and Experimental Study of Aluminum Casting in Vacuum-sealed Step Molding, Auburn University, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-050, Kansas City, MO

4-02 J. C. Gebelin and M. R. Jolly, Modelling Filters in Light Alloy Casting Processes, University of Birmingham, 2002 American Foundry Society AFS Transactions 02-079, Kansas City, MO

3-02 Mark Jolly, Mike Cox, Jean-Christophe Gebelin, Sam Jones, and Alex Cendrowicz, Fundamentals of Investment Casting (FOCAST), Modelling the Investment Casting Process, Some preliminary results from the UK Research Programme, IRC in Materials, University of Birmingham, UK, AFS2001

49-01   Hua Bai and Brian G. Thomas, Bubble formation during horizontal gas injection into downward-flowing liquid, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 1143-1159, 2001. doi.org/10.1007/s11663-001-0102-y

45-01 Jan Zuidema; Laurens Katgerman; Ivo J. Opstelten;Jan M. Rabenberg, Secondary Cooling in DC Casting: Modelling and Experimental Results, TMS 2001, New Orleans, Louisianna, February 11-15, 2001

43-01 James Andrew Yurko, Fluid Flow Behavior of Semi-Solid Aluminum at High Shear Rates,Ph.D. thesis; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2001. Abstract only; full thesis available at http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/8451 (for a fee).

33-01 Juang, S.H., CAE Application on Design of Die Casting Dies, 2001 Conference on CAE Technology and Application, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, November 2001, (article in Chinese with English-language abstract)

32-01 Juang, S.H. and C. M. Wang, Effect of Feeding Geometry on Flow Characteristics of Magnesium Die Casting by Numerical Analysis, The Preceedings of 6th FADMA Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, July 2001, Chinese language with English abstract

26-01 C. W. Hirt., Predicting Defects in Lost Foam Castings, December 13, 2001

21-01 P. Scarber Jr., Using Liquid Free Surface Areas as a Predictor of Reoxidation Tendency in Metal Alloy Castings, presented at the Steel Founders’ Society of American, Technical and Operating Conference, October 2001

20-01 P. Scarber Jr., J. Griffin, and C. E. Bates, The Effect of Gating and Pouring Practice on Reoxidation of Steel Castings, presented at the Steel Founders’ Society of American, Technical and Operating Conference, October 2001

19-01 L. Wang, T. Nguyen, M. Murray, Simulation of Flow Pattern and Temperature Profile in the Shot Sleeve of a High Pressure Die Casting Process, CSIRO Manufacturing Science and Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Presented by North American Die Casting Association, Oct 29-Nov 1, 2001, Cincinnati, To1-014

18-01 Rajiv Shivpuri, Venkatesh Sankararaman, Kaustubh Kulkarni, An Approach at Optimizing the Ingate Design for Reducing Filling and Shrinkage Defects, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, Presented by North American Die Casting Association, Oct 29-Nov 1, 2001, Cincinnati, TO1-052

5-01 Michael Barkhudarov, Simulation Helps Overcome Challenges of Thin Wall Magnesium Diecasting, Diecasting World, March 2001, pp. 5-6

2-01 J. Grindling, Customized CFD Codes to Simulate Casting of Thermosets in Full 3D, Electrical Manufacturing and Coil Winding 2000 Conference, October 31-November 2, 20

20-00 Richard Schuhmann, John Carrig, Thang Nguyen, Arne Dahle, Comparison of Water Analogue Modelling and Numerical Simulation Using Real-Time X-Ray Flow Data in Gravity Die Casting, Australian Die Casting Association Die Casting 2000 Conference, September 3-6, 2000, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

15-00 M. Sirvio, Vainola, J. Vartianinen, M. Vuorinen, J. Orkas, and S. Devenyi, Fluid Flow Analysis for Designing Gating of Aluminum Castings, Proc. NADCA Conf., Rosemont, IL, Nov 6-8, 1999

14-00 X. Yang, M. Jolly, and J. Campbell, Reduction of Surface Turbulence during Filling of Sand Castings Using a Vortex-flow Runner, Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August 2000

13-00 H. S. H. Lo and J. Campbell, The Modeling of Ceramic Foam Filters, Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August 2000

12-00 M. R. Jolly, H. S. H. Lo, M. Turan and J. Campbell, Use of Simulation Tools in the Practical Development of a Method for Manufacture of Cast Iron Camshafts,” Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August, 2000

14-99 J Koke, and M Modigell, Time-Dependent Rheological Properties of Semi-solid Metal Alloys, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Aachen University of Technology, Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials 3: 15-30, 1999

12-99 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, Schneider, Wolfgang, Ray, Steven, Marthinusen, Jan-Olaf, Recent Improvements in Ceramic Foam Filter Design by Coupled Heat and Fluid Flow Modeling, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1999, pp. 1041-1047

10-99 Bongcheol Park and Jerald R. Brevick, Computer Flow Modeling of Cavity Pre-fill Effects in High Pressure Die Casting, NADCA Proceedings, Cleveland T99-011, November, 1999

8-99 Brad Guthrie, Simulation Reduces Aluminum Die Casting Cost by Reducing Volume, Die Casting Engineer Magazine, September/October 1999, pp. 78-81

7-99 Fred L. Church, Virtual Reality Predicts Cast Metal Flow, Modern Metals, September, 1999, pp. 67F-J

19-98 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, & Schneider, Wolfgang, Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow Phenomena in the Launder-integrated Tool Within Casting Unit Development, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1998, pp. 1175-1182

18-98 X. Yang & J. Campbell, Liquid Metal Flow in a Pouring Basin, Int. J. Cast Metals Res, 1998, 10, pp. 239-253

15-98 R. Van Tol, Mould Filling of Horizontal Thin-Wall Castings, Delft University Press, The Netherlands, 1998

14-98 J. Daughtery and K. A. Williams, Thermal Modeling of Mold Material Candidates for Copper Pressure Die Casting of the Induction Motor Rotor Structure, Proc. Int’l Workshop on Permanent Mold Casting of Copper-Based Alloys, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Oct. 15-16, 1998

10-98 C. W. Hirt, and M.R. Barkhudarov, Lost Foam Casting Simulation with Defect Prediction, Flow Science Inc, presented at Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes VIII Conference, June 7-12, 1998, Catamaran Hotel, San Diego, California

9-98 M. R. Barkhudarov and C. W. Hirt, Tracking Defects, Flow Science Inc, presented at the 1st International Aluminum Casting Technology Symposium, 12-14 October 1998, Rosemont, IL

5-98 J. Righi, Computer Simulation Helps Eliminate Porosity, Die Casting Management Magazine, pp. 36-38, January 1998

3-98 P. Kapranos, M. R. Barkhudarov, D. H. Kirkwood, Modeling of Structural Breakdown during Rapid Compression of Semi-Solid Alloy Slugs, Dept. Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, U.K. and Flow Science Inc, USA, Presented at the 5th International Conference Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, 23-25 June 1998

1-98 U. Jerichow, T. Altan, and P. R. Sahm, Semi Solid Metal Forming of Aluminum Alloys-The Effect of Process Variables Upon Material Flow, Cavity Fill and Mechanical Properties, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, published in Die Casting Engineer, p. 26, Jan/Feb 1998

8-97 Michael Barkhudarov, High Pressure Die Casting Simulation Using FLOW-3D, Die Casting Engineer, 1997

15-97 M. R. Barkhudarov, Advanced Simulation of the Flow and Heat Transfer Process in Simultaneous Engineering, Flow Science report, presented at the Casting 1997 – International ADI and Simulation Conference, Helsinki, Finland, May 28-30, 1997

14-97 M. Ranganathan and R. Shivpuri, Reducing Scrap and Increasing Die Life in Low Pressure Die Casting through Flow Simulation and Accelerated Testing, Dept. Welding and Systems Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, presented at 19th International Die Casting Congress & Exposition, November 3-6, 1997

13-97 J. Koke, Modellierung und Simulation der Fließeigenschaften teilerstarrter Metallegierungen, Livt Information, Institut für Verfahrenstechnik, RWTH Aachen, October 1997

10-97 J. P. Greene and J. O. Wilkes, Numerical Analysis of Injection Molding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics – Part 2 Fiber Orientation, Body-in-White Center, General Motors Corp. and Dept. Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 37, No. 6, June 1997

9-97 J. P. Greene and J. O. Wilkes, Numerical Analysis of Injection Molding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics. Part 1 – Injection Pressures and Flow, Manufacturing Center, General Motors Corp. and Dept. Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 37, No. 3, March 1997

8-97 H. Grazzini and D. Nesa, Thermophysical Properties, Casting Simulation and Experiments for a Stainless Steel, AT Systemes (Renault) report, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

7-97 R. Van Tol, L. Katgerman and H. E. A. Van den Akker, Horizontal Mould Filling of a Thin Wall Aluminum Casting, Laboratory of Materials report, Delft University, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

6-97 M. R. Barkhudarov, Is Fluid Flow Important for Predicting Solidification, Flow Science report, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

22-96 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich & Schneider, Wolfgang, 3-D Modeling of the Start-up Phase of DC Casting of Sheet Ingots, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1996, pp. 971-981

9-96 M. R. Barkhudarov and C. W. Hirt, Thixotropic Flow Effects under Conditions of Strong Shear, Flow Science report FSI96-00-2, to be presented at the “Materials Week ’96” TMS Conference, Cincinnati, OH, 7-10 October 1996

4-96 C. W. Hirt, A Computational Model for the Lost Foam Process, Flow Science final report, February 1996 (FSI-96-57-R2)

3-96 M. R. Barkhudarov, C. L. Bronisz, C. W. Hirt, Three-Dimensional Thixotropic Flow Model, Flow Science report, FSI-96-00-1, published in the proceedings of (pp. 110- 114) and presented at the 4th International Conference on Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites, The University of Sheffield, 19-21 June 1996

1-96 M. R. Barkhudarov, J. Beech, K. Chang, and S. B. Chin, Numerical Simulation of Metal/Mould Interfacial Heat Transfer in Casting, Dept. Mech. & Process Engineering, Dept. Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield and Flow Science Inc, 9th Int. Symposium on Transport Phenomena in Thermal-Fluid Engineering, June 25-28, 1996, Singapore

11-95 Barkhudarov, M. R., Hirt, C.W., Casting Simulation Mold Filling and Solidification-Benchmark Calculations Using FLOW-3D, Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes VII, pp 935-946

10-95 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, & Schneider, Wolfgang, Optimal Design of a Distribution Pan for Level Pour Casting, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1995, pp. 1061-1070

9-95 E. Masuda, I. Itoh, K. Haraguchi, Application of Mold Filling Simulation to Die Casting Processes, Honda Engineering Co., Ltd., Tochigi, Japan, presented at the Modelling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes VII, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 1995

6-95 K. Venkatesan, Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Process Parameters on the Erosive Wear of Die Casting Dies, presented for Ph.D. degree at Ohio State University, 1995

5-95 J. Righi, A. F. LaCamera, S. A. Jones, W. G. Truckner, T. N. Rouns, Integration of Experience and Simulation Based Understanding in the Die Design Process, Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA 15069, presented by the North American Die Casting Association, 1995

2-95 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Simulation and Comparison with Water Modeling Studies of the Inertia Dominated Cavity Filling in Die Casting, NUMIFORM, 1995

1-95 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Gate Velocity and Gate Size on the Quality of Die Casting Parts, NAMRC, 1995.

15-94 D. Liang, Y. Bayraktar, S. A. Moir, M. Barkhudarov, and H. Jones, Primary Silicon Segregation During Isothermal Holding of Hypereutectic AI-18.3%Si Alloy in the Freezing Range, Dept. of Engr. Materials, U. of Sheffield, Metals and Materials, February 1994

13-94 Deniece Korzekwa and Paul Dunn, A Combined Experimental and Modeling Approach to Uranium Casting, Materials Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, presented at the Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, El Dorado Hotel, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1994

12-94 R. van Tol, H. E. A. van den Akker and L. Katgerman, CFD Study of the Mould Filling of a Horizontal Thin Wall Aluminum Casting, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, HTD-Vol. 284/AMD-Vol. 182, Transport Phenomena in Solidification, ASME 1994

11-94 M. R. Barkhudarov and K. A. Williams, Simulation of ‘Surface Turbulence’ Fluid Phenomena During the Mold Filling Phase of Gravity Castings, Flow Science Technical Note #41, November 1994 (FSI-94-TN41)

10-94 M. R. Barkhudarov and S. B. Chin, Stability of a Numerical Algorithm for Gas Bubble Modelling, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K., International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 19, 415-437 (1994)

16-93 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Simulation of Die Cavity Filling in Die Castings and an Evaluation of Process Parameters on Die Wear, Dept. of Industrial Systems Engineering, Presented by: N.A. Die Casting Association, Cleveland, Ohio, October 18-21, 1993

15-93 K. Venkatesen and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Modeling of Filling and Solidification for Improved Quality of Die Casting: A Literature Survey (Chapters II and III), Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, Report C-93-07, August 1993, Ohio State University

1-93 P-E Persson, Computer Simulation of the Solidification of a Hub Carrier for the Volvo 800 Series, AB Volvo Technological Development, Metals Laboratory, Technical Report No. LM 500014E, Jan. 1993

13-92 D. R. Korzekwa, M. A. K. Lewis, Experimentation and Simulation of Gravity Fed Lead Castings, in proceedings of a TMS Symposium on Concurrent Engineering Approach to Materials Processing, S. N. Dwivedi, A. J. Paul and F. R. Dax, eds., TMS-AIME Warrendale, p. 155 (1992)

12-92 M. A. K. Lewis, Near-Net-Shaiconpe Casting Simulation and Experimentation, MST 1992 Review, Los Alamos National Laboratory

2-92 M. R. Barkhudarov, H. You, J. Beech, S. B. Chin, D. H. Kirkwood, Validation and Development of FLOW-3D for Casting, School of Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, presented at the TMS/AIME Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 3, 1992

1-92 D. R. Korzekwa and L. A. Jacobson, Los Alamos National Laboratory and C.W. Hirt, Flow Science Inc, Modeling Planar Flow Casting with FLOW-3D, presented at the TMS/AIME Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 3, 1992

12-91 R. Shivpuri, M. Kuthirakulathu, and M. Mittal, Nonisothermal 3-D Finite Difference Simulation of Cavity Filling during the Die Casting Process, Dept. Industrial and Systems Engineering, Ohio State University, presented at the 1991 Winter Annual ASME Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1-6, 1991

3-91 C. W. Hirt, FLOW-3D Study of the Importance of Fluid Momentum in Mold Filling, presented at the 18th Annual Automotive Materials Symposium, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI, May 1-2, 1991 (FSI-91-00-2)

11-90 N. Saluja, O.J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, On the Calculation of the Electromagnetic Force Field in the Circular Stirring of Metallic Melts, accepted in J. Appl. Physics, 1990

10-90 N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, On the Calculation of the Electromagnetic Force Field in the Circular Stirring of Metallic Molds in Continuous Castings, presented at the 6th Iron and Steel Congress of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Nagoya, Japan, October 1990

9-90 N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, Fluid Flow in Phenomena in the Electromagnetic Stirring of Continuous Casting Systems, Part I. The Behavior of a Cylindrically Shaped, Laboratory Scale Installation, accepted for publication in Steel Research, 1990

8-89 C. W. Hirt, Gravity-Fed Casting, Flow Science Technical Note #20, July 1989 (FSI-89-TN20)

6-89 E. W. M. Hansen and F. Syvertsen, Numerical Simulation of Flow Behaviour in Moldfilling for Casting Analysis, SINTEF-Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway, Report No. STS20 A89001, June 1989

1-88 C. W. Hirt and R. P. Harper, Modeling Tests for Casting Processes, Flow Science report, Jan. 1988 (FSI-88-38-01)

2-87 C. W. Hirt, Addition of a Solidification/Melting Model to FLOW-3D, Flow Science report, April 1987 (FSI-87-33-1)

Investment Casting Workspace, 정밀주조

Workspace Highlights

  • 주조 패턴으로 쉘 생성을 능률적으로 수행할 수 있습니다.
  • 고급 방사 모델은 쉘 표면 사이의 완전한 복사 열 전달을 계산합니다.
  • 고급 모션 컨트롤에는 Bridgman, 레들 및 스핀 모션이 포함됩니다.

Workspace Overview

Investment Casting Workspace는 쉘 생성, 충전, 응고 (정적 또는 움직이는 Bridgman 쉘 금형) 및 냉각을 포함한 Investment Casting 주조의 모든 측면을 시뮬레이션하기 위한 사용하기 쉬운 도구를 Investment Casting 엔지니어에게 제공합니다.

쉘 몰드 생성 도구는 빠르고 신뢰할 수 있는 쉘 형상 생성을 위해 제공되며, radiative heat 및 view factor 모델은 쉘의 여러 부분 간의 복사 열전달(radiation heat transfer)을 정확하게 재현합니다. Directional solidification를 위해 쿨러 하부 단면과 분리된 뜨거운 상부 섹션이 있는 moving oven은 Bridgman 프로세스를 재현합니다. 용융 표면 진행 뿐만 아니라 몰드의 이동, 충진 양상 및 응고 패턴은 직관적인 후처리 도구를 통해 쉽게 평가되므로 공정 조건을 수정하여 주조 공정을 구현할 수 있습니다.

 프로세스 모델링

  • 유동
  • 고화 -고정 및 브리지먼
  • 냉각
 

쉘 몰드 생성

 

열 금형 모델링

  • 뷰 인자를 가진 전체 방사 모델링
  • 대류 및 전도 열 전달
 

멀티 블록 메시

 

유동 해석의 탁월한 정확도

  • 가스/버블 고립
  • 표면 산화물 계산
  • RNG 및 LES 난류 모델
 

래들 주입

 응고해석
  • 기공 예측
  • 수축 예측
  • 방향성 응고
 

결함 예측

  • 기공 예측
  • 공기 고립 예측
  • 조기 응고
  • 산화물 형성
 

동적 시뮬레이션 제어

  • 용탕 주입 제어
 

전체 분석 패키지

  • 다중 뷰포트가 있는 애니메이션 – 3D, 2D, 기록 플롯, 볼륨 렌더링
  • 다공성 분석 도구
  • 여러가지 해석 결과 비교
  • 용융 온도, 응고 분율 측정을 위한 센서 추가 기능
  • 파티클 트레이서
  • 일괄 후 처리
  • 보고서 생성

정밀주조품의 수축 결함 예측

정밀 주조품의 수축 결함 예측

정밀 주조 공정은 가장 오래된 주조 공정 중 하나로 기원전 4000년 이후에 보편화되었습니다. 이 과정은 용해된 금속을 소모품(왁스)패턴으로 생성된 세라믹 쉘에 주입하는 과정을 수반합니다. 일찍이 그것은 금, 은, 구리와 청동 합금으로 장신구와 우상을 만드는데 사용되었습니다.

정밀 주조공정은 1897년 아이오와 주, 위원회 블러프스의 Barabas Frederick Philbrook이 묘사한 대로 치과의사들이 왕관과 인레이를 만들기 위해 그것을 사용하기 시작한 19세기 말 현대 산업공정으로 사용되기 시작했습니다. 1940년대에는 제2차 세계대전 당시 기존 방법으로는 형성될 수 없거나 지나치게 많은 가공이 필요한 특수 합금의 정밀 순모형 제조 기술에 대한 수요로 인해 투자 주조 공정이 증가하였습니다.

오늘날 정밀 주조 공정은 표면 마감 및 치수 정확도가 우수하여 거의 순 형태에 가까운 철, 비철 및 초합금의 소형 산업용 부품을 생산하는데 주로 사용됩니다.

정밀 주조 공정은 다음 네 가지 주요 단계로 구성됩니다.

  • 왁스 패턴 생성 후, 패턴 클러스터 또는 ‘트리’를 만들기 위해 게이트 시스템으로 청소 및 조립합니다.
  • 나무는 세라믹 쉘을 얻기 위해 미세 모래와 Course한 모래 입자의 슬러리로 번갈아 코팅됩니다.
  • 용기는 건조되고, 왁스를 녹이기 위해 가열되며, 강도를 높이고 주입 준비합니다.
  • 마침내 주조 합금이 용해되어 예열된 쉘에 주입됩니다. 응고 후에 쉘이 파손되어 주조 부품을 얻습니다.

Figure 1. Solid model of the casting geometry

정밀 주조 공정에서 얻은 부품은 많은 중요한 용도에 사용되므로 내부적인 결함이 없어야 합니다. 정밀 주조 공정에서 발생하는 주요 결함은 세라믹 포함, 균열, 변형, 플래시, 주탕불량, 수축, 슬래그 포함, 탕경계등입니다. 얻은 주조물의 품질을 예측하려면 금속-몰드 열 전달계수, 주입 온도 등 다양한 주조 공정 매개 변수의 영향을 연구해야 합니다. 즉, 쉘 두께 및 쉘 열 전달계수가 그것입니다. 현대 컴퓨터 시스템 및 시뮬레이션 소프트웨어의 출현과 함께 금형 충진 및 응고 시뮬레이션은 주조공장에서 결함을 예측하고 설계를 최적화하는데 점점 더 많이 사용되고 있습니다.

이 연구의 주요 목적은 정밀 주조 공정에서 주요 요소인 복사 열 전달과 정밀 주조 공정에 고유한 쉘 금형이 FLOW-3D에서 효과적으로 구현될 수 있는지를 조사하는 것입니다. FLOW-3D를 사용하여 간단한 형상을 위한 정밀 주조공정의 주입 및 응고 시뮬레이션을 수행함으로써 두 구성요소의 서로 다른 효과를 조사합니다. 다양한 위치에서 얻은 온도의 수치는 문헌 [1]에보고 된 실험 결과로 검증됩니다. 복사 열 전달계수, 쉘 몰드 두께, 탕구 및 게이트의 위치에 대한 영향도 조사했습니다.

Shell mold

Figure 2. Shell mold

Methodology

현재 연구에서 사용된 계산 형상은 그림 1에 나와 있습니다. 쉘 몰드는 다음 단계를 사용하여 작성되었습니다.

  • complement 1로 형상을 FLOW-3D로 가져오고 지정된 셀 크기로 가져온 형상을 중심으로 메쉬 블록을 작성합니다.
  • “complement”유형의 component1의 첫 번째 하위 구성 요소를 만들어 하위 구성 요소 외부의 모든 항목을 메쉬의 범위까지 확고하게 만듭니다.
  • 솔리드 데이터베이스에서 이 솔리드 블록의 금형 재질 특성을 정의하십시오.
  • 솔리드 특성 GUI의 구성 요소 특성에서 “Thermal penetration depth”를 정의하는 옵션이 있습니다. 여기서 쉘 두께 값을 정의 할 수 있습니다.
  • 이제 전처리기를 실행하십시오.
  • Analyze 탭>3D 탭으로 이동 한 다음 이전 단계에서 생성 한 prpgrf 파일을 엽니다. ‘Iso-surface’와 ‘color variable’에서 “thermally active component volume”을 선택하고 “Render”을 선택하십시오.
  • Display에 이제 형상의 셸 부분 만 표시됩니다.
  • 개체 목록 (창의 왼쪽 하단)에서 “component 1″을 선택하고 “component 1″을 마우스 오른쪽 단추로 클릭 한 다음 “stl로 내보내기”를 선택하여 이 곡면을 STL 파일로 저장하십시오.
Two mesh blocks

Figure 3. The view of the two mesh blocks for the creation of a void with discretization

쉘 몰드 용 STL 파일을 만든 후에, 이 파일을 component 1로 새 시뮬레이션으로 가져오고 이전에 작성한 주조 형상을 하위 구성 요소로 가져오고 유형을 ‘hole’으로 선택합니다. 쉘 몰드와 함께 주조 형상이 그림 2에 나와 있습니다. 이것은 우리의 계산 영역으로 사용됩니다. 다음은 계산 영역을 cubical/rectangular셀로 분할하기 위한 메쉬를 만드는 것입니다. 메쉬 블록을 작성하여 FLOW-3D에서 메쉬를 생성합니다. 현재의 작업을 위해 2.5mm의 고정된 셀 크기가 선택된 그림 3에 표시된 균일한 메쉬 옵션을 선택했습니다. 입력 위치 주변에 메시 블록 2가 사용되는 현재 시뮬레이션을 위해 메시 블록 2개가 생성되었습니다. 쉘과 주변 공기 사이의 30°C에서의 열 전달을 고려하여 쉘 주위에 보이드 영역이 정의됩니다. 이 영역은 ‘heat transfer type 1’이 있는 보이드 영역으로 선택되며 셸과 주변 공기 사이에 열 전달 계수 값이 지정됩니다. heat transfer type 1은 방사선을 포함한 종합 열 전달 계수가 됩니다.
쉘 주형에 선택된 재료는 zircon이며 열 특성은 Sabau and Vishwanathan에 의해 수행된 실험에서 얻을 수 있습니다[2]. 표 1은 연구에 사용된 재료에 대해 지정된 값을 보여 줍니다.

MATERIAL PROPERTY VALUE UNIT
Fluid –AluminiumA356 alloy Density  2437 kg/m³
Thermal conductivity 116.8 W/(m K)
Specific heat 1074 J/(kg K)
Latent heat 433.22 kJ/m³
Liquidus temperature 608 0C
Solidus temperature 552.4 0C
Zircon Mold Thermal conductivity 1.09 W/(m K)
Specific heat* Density 1.63E+06 J/( m³ 

Initial and boundary conditions used are show in Table 2.

Mold temperature 430°C
Melt pouring temperature 680°C
Filling time 7 s
Interface heat transfer coefficient 850 W/m2K
Heat transfer coefficient between ambient and mold (radiation effect) 30 -100 W/m2K

Table 2. Initial and boundary conditions used for the simulation

Sprue basin에 들어가는 용융물의 초기 속도와 온도는 메시 블록 2의 상단 경계에서 속도 경계 조건으로 주어집니다. 기본적으로 다른 모든 경계는 대칭 유형으로 설정됩니다.

Results & Discussion

Validation with reported experimental results

Experimental and numerical comparison

충전 및 응고 동안 냉각 곡선을 얻기 위한 실험에서 Sabuet.al[1]에 의해 선택된 네 개의 위치가 검증 목적으로 사용되었습니다. 그들은 C1, C2, S11, S12및 S21로 언급됩니다. C1과 C2지점은 주물의 플레이트의 중심에 있으며 S11, S12및 S21은 모두 쉘에 위치합니다. 이러한 위치에서의 온도 변화는 그림 4와 같습니다.
온도 프로파일의 수치 및 실험결과의 차이가 허용한계 안에 있음을 알 수 있습니다. probe points C1과 C2의 경우, 수치와 실험 결과 사이의 차이는 응고 중에 5%, 응고 후 냉각 시 12% 이내입니다. 쉘의 점에 대한 수치 결과는 실험 결과보다 약 5% 높습니다. 이는 쉘 재료에 열 물리학적 특성을 할당할 때 발생하는 가정과 쉘 열 전달 계수의 값 때문일 수 있습니다.

Fill sequence & solidification pattern for two different sprue locations

2 개의 상이한 탕구 위치에서 용탕 충전 순서는 5a 및 5b에 나와 있습니다. 최종 탕구가 더 많은 splashing을 생성하므로 결함으로 이어질 수 있습니다. 탕구가 중간에 놓여지면 흐름은 보다 균일 해지고 두 주조 단면에서 비슷한 온도 분포를 보입니다. 50 % 응고 후의 온도 프로파일의 2D 도면은 두 경우 모두 그림 5c 및 5d에 나와 있습니다. 수축 위치에서 볼 때 두 탕구 위치가 결함을 일으키는 것은 분명합니다.

Fill sequence at different time intervals when the sprue is located at one end
Figure 5a. Fill sequence at different time intervals when the sprue is located at one end

 

Fill sequence at different time intervals when the sprue is located in the middle
Figure 5b. Fill sequence at different time intervals when the sprue is located in the middle

2D temperature profile after 50% solidification when the sprue is located at one end
Figure 5c. 2D temperature profile after 50% solidification when the sprue is located at one end
2D temperature profile after 50% solidification when the sprue is located in the middle
Figure 5d. 2D temperature profile after 50% solidification when the sprue is located in the middle
Effect of shell thickness

정밀 주조에 대한 쉘 두께의 효과를 연구하기 위해 두께가 7.2, 10, 15 및 20 mm인 주물을 선정하였습니다. 그림 6a 및 6b는 주조품의 특정 위치에서 냉각 곡선을 나타내며, 이는 C1으로 나타내고 쉘 몰드 내의 특정 위치에 있으며, 응고 중에 S11로 나타납니다. 세라믹 쉘의 두께가 7.2 mm에서 15 mm로 증가하면 냉각 속도가 감소하여 응고 시간이 길어지는 것을 볼 수 있습니다.

Effect of shell heat transfer coefficient

쉘 열 전달 계수는 열이 쉘 몰드의 외부 벽에서 방사선을 통해 주변 공기로 열을 방출하는 속도를 나타냅니다. 이 효과를 조사하기 위해 열 전달 계수의 값을 20에서 80W/m2K까지 다양하게 했습니다. 7a 및 7b로부터, h의 변화는 주조 재료 및 쉘의 냉각 속도에 중요한 영향을 미친다는 것을 알 수 있습니다. 열 전달 계수가 20에서 80W/m2K로 증가하면 C1에서의 응고 시간이 812 초에서 334 초 (약 44 %)로 감소되었음을 알 수 있습니다. 따라서, h의 값을 변화시키는 것은 주물의 미세 구조에 영향을 미칩니다.

Temperature profile 1
Figure 6a. Temperature profile at location C1 (casting) for the casting geometry where the sprue is located at one end for various shell thickness values
Temperature profile 2
Figure 6b. Temperature profile at location S11 (shell) for the casting geometry where the sprue is located at one end for various shell thickness values
Temperature profile at location C1
Figure 7a. Temperature profile at location C1 (casting) for the casting geometry where the sprue is located at one end for various heat transfer coefficient values between the shell mold & ambient
Temperature profile at location S11
Figure 7b. Temperature profile at location S11 (shell) for the casting geometry where the sprue is located at one end for various heat transfer coefficient values between the shell mold & ambient

Conclusions

정밀 주조 공정의 몰드 충진 및 응고 시뮬레이션은 FLOW-3D를 사용하여 수행되었습니다. 주조 공정에 대한 주조 매개변수의 영향을 연구하기 위해 파라메트릭 연구가 수행되었습니다. 본 연구에서 다음과 같은 결론을 도출 할 수 있습니다.

  • FLOW-3D는 멀티 캐비티 몰드의 주입 및 응고 모델링이 가능합니다. 프로브 위치의 예측 온도 프로파일은 실험 데이터의 허용오차 이내였다.
  • 쉘 두께의 경우, 두 경우 모두 셸의 임계 두께가 있으며, 그 이상으로 열 전달 특성이 역행하는 것으로 확인되었습니다. 셸 두께가 증가함에 따라 응고 시간이 임계 두께까지 증가하여 감소하기 시작했습니다. 원래 형상의 경우 임계 두께는 15~20mm인 반면 수정된 형상의 경우 10mm와 15mm 사이에 있다.
  • 쉘과 대기 사이의 열 전달 계수 h는 열 전달 특성에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났습니다. h가 20에서 80W/m2K로 4 배 증가할 때 탕구의 중심에서 응고 시간이 40 % 이상 감소했습니다.

References

Sabau, A.S., Numerical Simulation of the Investment Casting Process, Transactions of the American Foundry Society, vol. 113, Paper No. 05-160, 2005.

Sabau, A.S., and Viswanathan, S., Thermophysical Properties of Zircon and Fused Silica-based Shells used in the Investment Casting ProcessTransactions of the American Foundry Society, vol. 112, Paper No. 04-081, 2004.

Prediction of Shrinkage Defects During Investment Casting Process

Indianapolis Storm-Water System

하수도 시스템은 액션영화의 도피 루트로 사용되지 않는 한 흥미롭지 않을 것입니다. 폭우로 인해 이산화탄소 수치가 올라갈 때까지 여러분은 그것에 대해 생각조차 하지 않을 것입니다. 불행하게도, 770개 이상의 오래 된 미국 도시들 아래에 있는 하수구 시스템은 심한 폭풍으로 오염 문제를 일으킵니다. 이러한 구형 설계는 하수 및 폭풍 유실을 위한 비용 효율적인 단일 스타일 파이프를 사용했으며 연결된 파이프로 강 및 호수에 하수를 내보냅니다(CSO).

1994년 미국 환경보호청(EPA)은 주로 북동부 및 그레이트 레이크 지역의 관련 지방 자치 단체들에게 CSO관련 문제를 줄이거나 제거하도록 하는 정책을 발표했습니다. (2000년 “Clean Water Act”의 일부로 법률화된 정책). 인디애나 폴리스(Indianapolis)는 가벼운 비 폭풍으로 인해 하수 오물의 백업 및 범람이 발생할 수 있는 도시 중 하나였으므로, 주요 건설 조건에서 2025년까지 문제를 해결하는 것이 필요하였습니다.

인디애나 폴리스는 국제 디자인 회사인 AECOM에 Citizens Energy Group이 건설하고 있는 3개의 깊은 암석 저장 터널 중 첫 번째를 설계할 것을 요청했습니다. 총 25마일인 이 시스템은 대규모 지하 펌프장과 기존의 하수구에서 CSO를 수직으로 떨어뜨리는 연결 구조물을 포함합니다. 첫 번째 터널의 경우, 강우가 가라 앉은 후에 3 개의 커다란 강하 구조물이 CSO를 저장 터널로 전환하여 후속 처리를 수행했습니다.

프로젝트를 해결하기 위해 AECOM은 여러 가능한 낙하 구조물 설계의 동작을 시뮬레이션하기 위해 FLOW-3D를 선택하여, 구축 및 평가 예산이 책정 된 물리적 모델에 대한 재 작업의 필요성을 최소화했습니다. 테스트 결과는 예측 값과 일치하였으므로 재설계가 필요하지 않았습니다. 또한, 이제 AECOM은 유압 설계작업의 첫 번째 단계를 일반적으로 CFD시뮬레이션을 사용합니다.

Large Scale Project on a Tight Delivery Schedule

촉박한 납품 일정에 따른 대규모 프로젝트

20세기에 건설된 하수 처리장은 주거용, 상업용, 환경유출물의 유출로 무엇을 해야 할 것인지에 대한 새로운 인식을 가져다 주었습니다. CSO 방전은 정상적으로 운영되는 동안 처리시설로 직접 이동되며 모든 과정이 양호하게 운영됩니다. 불행하게도, 대규모 폭풍이 발생하는 동안, 발전소들의 초과 용량문제를 피하기 위해 인근 수역으로 과도한 유량을 방출합니다. 이들 배출은 기름과 살충제, 야생동물 배설물에 이르기까지 다양한 오염 물질을 포함합니다.
고무적인 성공의 신호로, 1990 년대에 착공된 새로운 CSO 분리, 저장 및 처리 시설로 오염의 영향에 대해 67 %의 개선을 이루었지만, 여전히 많은 연구가 이루어져야 합니다. 인디애나 폴리스의 경우, 인디애나 폴리스시 공공사업부가 CSO 장기 통제계획을 준비한 2008년에 그러한 노력이 시작되었습니다. 정상적인 처리 공장에서 처리 할 수 있을 때까지 오버플로우가 발생하는 “저장 및 운송”접근법의 핵심은 인디애나 폴리스 터널 저장 시스템 또는 인디애나라고 합니다.

이 시스템의 첫번째 단계는 딥 록 터널 커넥터(DRTC)라고 불리는 1억 8천만달러 가치의 프로젝트입니다. DRTC는 길이 7마일의 18피트 직경의 지하 터널로, 기존의 인디애나 폴리스의 3개의 서버 대 계층 유출 연결의 흐름 경로를 다시 만들 것입니다(그림 1). 목표는 과잉 강우 유출을 기존 하수구와 새 터널 사이의 낙하 구조를 통해 이들 대피소에서 거대한 터널로 안전하게 재배치하고, 폭풍 후 처리를 위해 처리장으로 펌핑 될 수있을 때까지 유지합니다.

Fig. 1. City of Indianapolis Deep Rock Tunnel Connector (DRTC), a “storage and transport” concept being built to handle combined sewage overflow (CSO) during heavy storms. Three vertical drop structures will capture this flow and divert it downwards to 18-foot-diameter storage tunnels running more than 250 feet underground; the tunnels store the CSO until sewage treatment plant capacity becomes available. (Image courtesy Citizens Energy Group)

평균적으로 지표면 아래 250피트 깊이에서, DRTC는 건설과 궁극적인 운영 동안 위의 주변 지역에 대한 혼란을 최소화하도록 설계되었습니다. 그러나 이 프로젝트의 규모와 복잡성은 AECOM의 과제에 긴급성을 더했습니다. 세 장소 각각에 대한 가능한 낙하 구조 설계와 평가, 구조물 설계의 60%를 7개월 이내에 마무리 지었습니다.

이러한 구조물의 목적은 표준 도시 하수 시스템에서 깊은 저장 터널로 하수 흐름을 전달하는 동시에, 효율적 손실( 느린 속도 또는 백업)과 장기적인 도심을 방지하는 것입니다. 각 섹션의 크기와 모양이 유입 흐름의 볼륨 및 속도와 세심하게 일치하지 않을 경우 발생할 수 있는 구조적 손상입니다.
AECOM의 수석 기술 전문가인 라이언 에디슨 컨설턴트는 계약의 스케줄링 요구 사항이 유효성 검사를 위해서는, 단 하나의 모델에만 물리적 건물과 테스트 활동을 제한할 것이라는 것을 알게되었습니다. 다른 주요 건설 프로젝트에 15년간 FLOW-3D 시뮬레이션 소프트웨어를 사용해 왔기 때문에, 난류, 과전압 및 에너지 낭비를 예측하는 능력은 충분하지 않고 디자인 프로젝트에 적합하다고 자신했습니다. 또한 여러 검증(what-if) 시나리오를 실행하기 위한 소프트웨어 옵션을 통해 설계 세부 사항을 다시 실행해야 하는 위험을 최소화할 수 있었습니다. 변경 사항이 적용될 경우 상당한 이점은 여러개의 병렬 시공 트랙이 있는 프로젝트에 있습니다.
시간 제약에도 불구하고, 에디슨은 특히 이 도전에 만족했습니다. 왜냐하면 “CFD로 드롭 구조 설계를 만들고 물리학에서 이것들은 너무 큰 구조이기 때문입니다.”라고 그는 말합니다. 그것들은 CFD는 실제로 사용되지 않는데 보통 물리적 모델이나 손으로 계산하는 것으로 이루어집니다.

DRTC 프로젝트를 위해서, 그는 먼저 시뮬레이션된 작동 조건에 대해서 컴퓨터 설계를 테스트할 것입니다. 에디슨은 3차원의 일시적이고 격동적인 흐름 조건을 모델링 할 수 있는 소프트웨어 패키지인 FLOW-3D를 사용했습니다. 각 설계에 대한 계산 메쉬를 변경하지 않고도 여러 설계 지오 메트리를 모델링 할 수 있는 기능이였습니다.
시뮬레이션 데이터로 무장한 에디슨은 그 결과를 아이오와 대학교 II. 시설에서 시험한 1:10 크기의 물리적 모델의 작동 데이터와 비교하였습니다. (후자는 원래 아이오와 유압 연구소라고 불렸지만, 지금은 그룹의 다양한 범위를 반영하여 IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering으로 알려져 있습니다.)

Zeroing in on the Drop-Structure Challenge

드롭 구조 과제에서 영점 조정

가장 제한적인 DRTC 사이트의 지오 메트리는 CSO 008로 지정된 레귤레이터에서 발생합니다. 기존 CSO 레귤레이터(기울기 약 75피트 아래)를 새 18피트 직경의 수집 터널과 연결하려면, 이 위치에서 150피트 이상의 수직 방향 주행이 필요합니다. 각 낙하 구조에 7백만달러 이상이 소요되는 경우, 프로젝트 관리자들은 물리적 모델이 구축된 후 비용과 시간이 많이 소요되는 재설계가 필요한 가능성을 낮추려고 애썼습니다.

역사적으로 낙하 구조는 이전 프로젝트를 적용하여 설계된 후 축소 모델로 구축되었으며, 테스트만으로도 6개월 이상이 소요될 수 있습니다. 가속화된 이 프로젝트에서, 2009년 가을에 시작한 AECOM의 초기 과제는 두가지 표준 개념 중에서 하나를 선택하는 것이었습니다. 포장-파운드 스타일과 접선 vortex버전, 둘 다 시속 35마일의 폭풍이 몰아치는 물 속에서 속도를 늦추고 통제하기 위해서 직접 계산 및 FLOW-3D에서 결정한 일반 구조 직경 및 구성 요소 크기를 사용한 초기 CFD분석으로, AECOM은 시공 가능성 및 비용 고려 사항을 평가하는 데 사용했습니다.
CSO 008의 현장 요구 사항과 비용 효율성을 고려할 때, 시 당국과 AECOM은 접선 소용돌이 낙하 구조를 선택했습니다. 이 설계의 핵심 요소는 흐름을 먼저 환상적인 제트로 유도한 다음, vortex 유도 나선형 흐름을 생성하는 테이퍼(확대) 접근 채널에 의해 공급되는 수직 튜브(드롭 샤프트)입니다. 이 통제 된 하강은 속도가 느려지고 하루 3 억 갤런 (mgd) 이상에 이르는 흐름을 안전하게 처리합니다. 스토리지 터널의 파괴적인 난류를 방지하는 것이 핵심 목표이므로 드롭 샤프트 흐름의 사전 차단이 설계의 핵심입니다.

구조 자체는 6 개의 주요 부분으로 구성됩니다. 1) 접근 채널 (기존의 하수 터널에서 나온 것), 2) 수평 흐름을 넓히고 수직 드롭 샤프트로 수평 흐름을 전달하는 직사각형 전이 테이퍼 채널, 3) 드롭 샤프트 자체 4) 탈 기실 (유량을 수평 방향으로 방향을 바꾸고 공기 유입을 감소시키는), 5) 수직 공기 배출구를 통해 낙하에서 유입 된 공기를 제거하고 적하 유체의 공기 코어가 열려 있고 6) 탈기 챔버와 저장 터널 챔버를 연결하는 파이프 (adit) (그림 2).

Fig. 2. CAD diagram of proposed Indianapolis DRTC combined sewage overflow (CSO) vertical drop structure, showing approach channel, taper channel and vortex dropshaft. Using FLOW-3D CFD analysis software, AECOM simulated the flow behavior, gaining confidence in the system performance prior to physical model testing. (Image courtesy AECOM)
Prediction of Shrinkage Defects During Investment Casting Process

This article was contributed by Dr. S. Savithri, Senior Principal Scientist at CSIR-NIIST

 

인베스트먼트 주조공정은 가장 오래된 주조 공정 중 하나로 기원전 4000년 이후에 보편화되었습니다. 이 과정은 용해된 금속을 소모품패턴으로 생성된 세라믹 쉘에 주입하는 과정을 수반합니다. 일찍이 그것은 금, 은, 구리와 청동 합금으로 장신구와 우상을 만드는데 사용되었습니다.

인베스트먼트 주조공정은 1897년 아이오와 주, 위원회 블러프스의 Barabas Frederick Philbrook이 묘사한 대로 치과의사들이 왕관과 인레이를 만들기 위해 그것을 사용하기 시작한 19세기 말 현대 산업공정으로 사용되기 시작했다. 1940년대에는 제2차 세계대전 당시 기존 방법으로는 형성될 수 없거나 지나치게 많은 가공이 필요한 특수 합금의 정밀 순모형 제조 기술에 대한 수요로 인해 투자 주조 공정이 증가하였다.

오늘날 투자 주조 공정은 표면 마감 및 치수 정확도가 우수하여 거의 순 형태에 가까운 철, 비철 및 초합금의 소형 산업용 부품을 생산하는데 주로 사용됩니다.

인베스트먼트 주조 공정은 다음 네 가지 주요 단계로 구성됩니다.

  • 왁스 패턴 생성 후, 패턴 클러스터를 만들기 위해 게이트 시스템으로 청소 및 조립합니다.
  • 나무는 세라믹 쉘을 얻기 위해 미세 모래와 Course한 모래 입자의 슬러리로 번갈아 코팅됩니다.
  • 용기는 건조되고, 왁스를 녹이기 위해 가열되며, 강도를 높이고 주입 준비합니다.
  • 마침내 주조 합금이 용해되어 예열된 쉘에 주입됩니다. 응고 후에 쉘이 파손되어 주조 부품을 얻습니다.

Figure 1. Solid model of the casting geometry

인베스트먼트 주조 공정에서 얻은 부품은 많은 중요한 용도에 사용되므로 내부적인 결함이 없어야 합니다. 투자 주조 공정에서 발생하는 주요 결함은 세라믹 포함, 균열, 변형, 플래시, 주탕불량, 수축, 슬래그 포함, 탕경계등입니다. 얻은 주조물의 품질을 예측하려면 금속-몰드 열 전달계수, 주입 온도 등 다양한 주조 공정 매개 변수의 영향을 연구해야 합니다. 즉, 쉘 두께 및 쉘 열 전달계수가 그것입니다. 현대 컴퓨터 시스템 및 시뮬레이션 소프트웨어의 출현과 함께 금형 충진 및 응고 시뮬레이션은 주조공장에서 결함을 예측하고 설계를 최적화하는데 점점 더 많이 사용되고 있습니다.

이 연구의 주요 목적은 투자 주조 공정에서 주요 요소인 복사 열 전달과 인베스트먼트 주조공정에 고유한 쉘 금형이 FLOW-3D에서 효과적으로 구현될 수 있는지를 조사하는 것입니다. FLOW-3D를 사용하여 간단한 형상을 위한 인베스트먼트 주조공정의 주입 및 응고 시뮬레이션을 수행함으로써 두 구성요소의 서로 다른 효과를 조사합니다. 다양한 위치에서 얻은 온도의 수치는 문헌 [1]에보고 된 실험 결과로 검증됩니다. 복사 열 전달계수, 쉘 몰드 두께, 탕구 및 게이트의 위치에 대한 영향도 조사했습니다.

Figure 2. Shell mold

 

Methodology

현재 연구에서 사용된 계산 형상은 그림 1에 나와 있습니다. 쉘 몰드는 다음 단계를 사용하여 작성되었습니다.

  • 구성 요소 1로 형상을 FLOW-3D로 가져오고 지정된 셀 크기로 가져온 형상을 중심으로 메쉬 블록을 작성합니다.
  • “보완”유형의 component1의 첫 번째 하위 구성 요소를 만들어 하위 구성 요소 외부의 모든 항목을 메쉬의 범위까지 확고하게 만듭니다.
  • 솔리드 데이터베이스에서 이 솔리드 블록의 금형 재질 특성을 정의하십시오.
  • 솔리드 특성 GUI의 구성 요소 특성에서 “열 침투 깊이”를 정의하는 옵션이 있습니다. 여기서 쉘 두께 값을 정의 할 수 있습니다.
  • 이제 전처리기를 실행하십시오.
  • 분석 탭> 3D 탭으로 이동 한 다음 이전 단계에서 생성 한 prpgrf 파일을 엽니다. ‘Iso-surface’와 ‘color variable’에서 “열 활성화 구성 요소 볼륨”을 선택하고 “렌더링”을 선택하십시오.
  • Display에 이제 형상의 셸 부분 만 표시됩니다.
  • 개체 목록 (창의 왼쪽 하단)에서 “구성 요소 1″을 선택하고 “구성 요소 1″을 마우스 오른쪽 단추로 클릭 한 다음 “stl로 내보내기”를 선택하여 이 곡면을 STL 파일로 저장하십시오.

Figure 3. The view of the two mesh blocks for the creation of a void with discretization

쉘 몰드 용 STL 파일을 만든 후 파일을 구성 요소 1로 새 시뮬레이션으로 가져오고 이전에 작성한 주조 형상을 하위 구성 요소로 가져오고 유형을 ‘hole’으로 선택합니다. 쉘 몰드와 함께 주조 형상이 그림 2에 나와 있습니다. 이것은 우리의 계산 영역으로 사용됩니다. 다음은 계산 영역을 cubical/rectangular셀로 분할하기 위한 메쉬를 만드는 것입니다. 메쉬 블록을 작성하여 FLOW-3D에서 메쉬를 생성합니다. 현재의 작업을 위해 우리는 2.5mm의 고정된 셀 크기가 선택된 그림 3에 표시된 균일한 메쉬 옵션을 선택했습니다. 입력 위치 주변에 메시 블록 2가 사용되는 현재 시뮬레이션을 위해 메시 블록 2개가 생성되었습니다. 쉘과 주변 공기 사이의 30°C에서의 열 전달을 고려하여 쉘 주위에 보이드 영역이 정의됩니다. 이 영역은 ‘열 전달 유형 1’이 있는 보이드 영역으로 선택되며 셸과 주변 공기 사이에 열 전달 계수 값이 지정됩니다. 열 전달 유형 1은 방사선을 포함한 종합 열 전달 계수가 됩니다.

쉘 주형에 선택된 재료는 zircon이며 열 특성은 Sabau and Vishwanathan에 의해 수행된 실험에서 얻을 수 있습니다[2]. 표 1은 연구에 사용된 재료에 대해 지정된 값을 보여 줍니다.

MATERIAL PROPERTY  VALUE UNIT
Fluid –AluminiumA356

alloy

Density   2437 kg/m³
Thermal conductivity 116.8 W/(mK)
Specific heat  1074 J/(kgK)
Latent heat  433.22 kJ/m³
Liquidus temperature 608 °C
Solidus temperature 552.4 °C
Zircon Mold Thermal conductivity 1.09 W/(mK)
Specific heat* Density 1.63E+06 J/( m³K)

Initial and boundary conditions used are show in Table 2.      

 

Mold temperature  430°C
Melt pouring temperature  680°C
Filling time  7 s
Interface heat transfer coefficient  850 W/m2K
Heat transfer coefficient between ambient and mold (radiation effect) 30 -100 W/m2K

Table 2. Initial and boundary conditions used for the simulation

 

탕구저에 들어가는 용융물의 초기 속도와 온도는 메시 블록 2의 상단 경계에서 속도 경계 조건으로 주어집니다. 기본적으로 다른 모든 경계는 대칭 유형으로 설정됩니다.

 

Results & Discussion

Validation with reported experimental results

충전 및 응고 동안 냉각 곡선을 얻기 위한 실험에서 Sabuet.al[1]에 의해 선택된 네 개의 위치가 검증 목적으로 사용되었습니다. 그들은 C1, C2, S11, S12및 S21로 언급됩니다. C1과 C2지점은 주물의 플레이트의 중심에 있으며 S11, S12및 S21은 모두 쉘에 위치합니다. 이러한 위치에서의 온도 변화는 그림 4와 같습니다.

온도 프로파일의 수치 및 실험결과의 차이가 허용한계 안에 있음을 알 수 있습니다. 프로브 포인트 C1과 C2의 경우, 수치와 실험 결과 사이의 차이는 응고 중에 5%, 응고 후 냉각 시 12% 이내입니다. 쉘의 점에 대한 수치 결과는 실험 결과보다 약 5% 높습니다. 이는 쉘 재료에 열 물리학적 특성을 할당할 때 발생하는 가정과 쉘 열 전달 계수의 값 때문일 수 있습니다.

 

Fill sequence & solidification pattern for two different sprue locations

두 가지 다른 스프 루 위치의 채우기 순서 및 응고 패턴

2 개의 상이한 탕구 위치에 주물충전 순서는5a 및5b에 나와 있습니다. 최종 탕구가 더 많은 스플라인을 생성하므로 결함으로 이어질 수 있습니다. 탕구가 중간에 놓여지면 흐름은 보다 균일 해지고 두 주조 단면에서 비슷한 온도 분포를 보입니다. 50 % 응고 후의 온도 프로파일의 2D 도면은 두 경우 모두 그림 5c 및 5d에 나와 있습니다. 수축 위치에서 볼 때 두 탕구 위치가 결함을 일으키는 것은 분명합니다.

Figure 5a. Fill sequence at different time intervals when the sprue is located at one end

Figure 5b. Fill sequence at different time intervals when the sprue is located in the middle

Figure 5c. 2D temperature profile after 50% solidification when the sprue is located at one end

Figure 5d. 2D temperature profile after 50% solidification when the sprue is located in the middle

Effect of shell thickness

인베스트먼트 주조에 대한 쉘 두께의 효과를 연구하기 위해 두께가 7.2, 10, 15 및 20 mm인 주물을 선정하였습니다. 그림 6a 및 6b는 주조품의 특정 위치에서 냉각 곡선을 나타내며, 이는 C1으로 나타내고 쉘 몰드 내의 특정 위치에 있으며, 응고 중에 S11로 나타납니다. 세라믹 쉘의 두께가 7.2 mm에서 15 mm로 증가하면 냉각 속도가 감소하여 응고 시간이 길어지는 것을 볼 수 있습니다.

Effect of shell heat transfer coefficient

셸 열 전달 계수는 열이 셸 금형의 외부 벽에서 방사선을 통해 주변 공기로 열을 방출하는 속도를 나타냅니다. 이 효과를 조사하기 위해 열 전달 계수의 값을 20에서 80W/m2K까지 다양하게 했습니다. 7a 및 7b로부터, h의 변화는 주조 재료 및 쉘의 냉각 속도에 중요한 영향을 미친다는 것을 알 수 있습니다. 열 전달 계수가 20에서 80W/m2K로 증가하면 C1에서의 응고 시간이 812 초에서 334 초 (약 44 %)로 감소되었음을 알 수 있습니다. 따라서, h의 값을 변화시키는 것은 주물의 미세 구조에 영향을 미칩니다.

Figure 6a. Temperature profile at location C1 (casting) for the casting geometry where the sprue is located at one end for various shell thickness values

 

F

Figure 6b. Temperature profile at location S11 (shell) for the casting geometry where the sprue is located at one end for various shell thickness values

Figure 7a. Temperature profile at location C1 (casting) for the casting geometry where the sprue is located at one end for various heat transfer coefficient values between the shell mold & ambient

Figure 7b. Temperature profile at location S11 (shell) for the casting geometry where the sprue is located at one end for various heat transfer coefficient values between the shell mold & ambient

Conclusions

인베스트먼트 주조 공정의 몰드 충진 및 응고 시뮬레이션은 FLOW-3D를 사용하여 수행되었습니다. 주조 공정에 대한 주조 매개변수의 영향을 연구하기 위해 파라메트릭 연구가 수행되었습니다. 본 연구에서 다음과 같은 결론을 도출 할 수 있습니다.

  • FLOW-3D는 멀티 캐비티 몰드의 주입 및 응고 모델링이 가능합니다. 프로브 위치의 예측 온도 프로파일은 실험 데이터의 허용오차 이내였다.
  • 쉘 두께의 경우, 두 경우 모두 셸의 임계 두께가 있으며, 그 이상으로 열 전달 특성이 역행하는 것으로 확인되었습니다. 셸 두께가 증가함에 따라 응고 시간이 임계 두께까지 증가하여 감소하기 시작했습니다. 원래 형상의 경우 임계 두께는 15~20mm인 반면 수정된 형상의 경우 10mm와 15mm 사이에 있다.
  • 쉘과 대기 사이의 열 전달 계수 h는 열 전달 특성에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났습니다. h가 20에서 80W/m2K로 4 배 증가할 때 탕구의 중심에서 응고 시간이 40 % 이상 감소했습니다.

References

Sabau, A.S., Numerical Simulation of the Investment Casting Process, Transactions of the American Foundry Society, vol. 113, Paper No. 05-160, 2005.

Sabau, A.S., and Viswanathan, S., Thermophysical Properties of Zircon and Fused Silica-based Shells used in the Investment Casting ProcessTransactions of the American Foundry Society, vol. 112, Paper No. 04-081, 2004.

 
Design and CFD Analysis

설계 및 CFD분석

일반적인 소용돌이 설계는 널리 받아들여지고 있지만, 각 낙하 구조는 최적의 접선 흐름 특성을 보장하기 위해 인디애나 폴리스의 위상에 맞는 적절한 크기를 가져야 했습니다. 특히, 가능한 설계에 대한 AECOM의 계획은 세가지 목표를 가지고 있었습니다. 결합된 접근법과 테이퍼 채널을 짧은 길이로 제한하는 현장, 고유의 제약이 있었는지를 결정합니다. 허용 가능하지만 접근 방식에서 과도한 난류 조건이 발생하지 않았습니다. 테이퍼 채널에 안정적인 흐름 조건이 존재하는지 확인하고 다양한 흐름 조건에서 흐름 안정성을 평가했고, 논리적 기준점은 밀워키 인라인 스토리지 프로젝트라고 불리는 잘 알려지고 문서화된 시스템이었습니다.

Edison은 DRTC 프로젝트 규모에 맞춰 H-4로 지정된 Milwaukee 드롭 구조 설계를 기반으로 초기 설계를 기반으로했습니다.
166 피트의 기본 낙하 길이를 포함하고 체적 유량, 벽, 대칭 및 기타 초기 매개 변수를 지정하는 FLOW-3D 분석을 설정합니다.
그는 우리가 CFD를 통해 발견한 것은 밀워키에서 이 디자인을 사용하면 우리의 어플리케이션에 잘 맞지 않는다는 것이라고 말합니다. FLOW-3D는 이것을 보여 주고 있었기 때문에 CFD를 사용하여 변형을 시도하고 우리의 수정된 디자인을 고안했습니다.
더 넓은 접근 경로, 더 넓은 테이퍼 및/또는 더 깊은 테이퍼 깊이를 사용한 수정은 에디슨은 FLOW-3D에서 각 변동 사항을 설정하는 것이 매우 빠르다고 말합니다. (그림 3,4,5). 개선의 진전은 고무적이었습니다. 시뮬레이션 결과의 높은 수준은 심지어 절삭(침식)을 개선하기 위해 드롭 축의 바닥에 의문스러운 플레이트가 수직 흐름이 수평으로 전환되는 난류 분리 및 감소가되도록 기능을 추가하도록 설득했습니다.

Figs. 3, 4 and 5. Tangential drop structure flow simulated with FLOW-3D. Structure dimensions were optimized through multiple design iterations. (Image courtesy AECOM)

9번째 설계 변동에 대한 FLOW-3D 출력 동작인 V9는 접근 섹션을 확장했으며, 모든 흐름 볼륨 레벨에서 300mg/d까지 양호한 흐름 안정성을 보였으며 유압식 점프는 없었습니다. 그리고 양호한 Froude numners(유체 움직임에 미치는 중력의 영향을 나타내기 위해 사용되는 치수 없는 수량), 2010년 2월부터 AECOM이 물리적 시험과 검증을 위해 선택하였습니다(그림 6). 그 계획은 아이오와 연구소의 시험 결과에 기초하여 CFD와 최적화를 추가하는 것이였습니다.

Fig. 6. Scale model (1:10) of vertical drop structure, tested at University of Iowa IIHR Hydroscience & Engineering facility. (Image courtesy AECOM)

에디슨은 V9에서 결정된 치수 매개 변수에 대해 그 디자인을 아이오와 주에 가져가서 CFD를 이용해 만들었는데 완벽하게 작동했습니다. (II.)직원들은 실제로 무언가를 설치한 것은 이번이 처음이며, 변경하라고 말할 만한 것이 아무것도 없다고 말했습니다. 측정된 데이터는 드롭 샤프트 연결 구조 내의 수면 높이, Adit내 공기 침투의 정량, 벤트 샤프트 위로 공기 흐름을 포함했습니다. 흐름이 증가함에 따라 와류량이 증가함에 따라 축 벽에 부착되어 탈산소까지 원활하게 회전하는 모습이 포착되었습니다(그림 7).

에디슨은 후속 실험을 위해 여러번 시험장을 돌아다녔습니다. 물리적 모델이 처음부터 올바르게 작동했기 때문에 시험 프로그램을 확장할 시간이 있었습니다. “재미 있는 것은 환기구를 움직이는 것과 같이 우리가 궁금했던 것들을 탐구해서 지적으로 그것을 가지고 놀 시간이 있었다는 것입니다.” 에디슨은 예정보다 앞서 있었기 때문에 잔여 프로젝트 시간을 이용해 탈염소와 adit 내의 유압 장치를 조사할 수 있었습니다.

Fig. 7. Operation of scale-model vertical drop structure, showing test run of 300 million gallons per day (mgd). Flow vortex development shows good rotation and attachment to the shaft wall all the way down to the de-aeration chamber. No design modifications were necessary to the simulated design. (Image courtesy AECOM)

Final Results

AECOM은 2010년 7월 DRTC에 대한 전반적인 작업을 마쳤습니다. 2013년 3월부터 18구경 터널을 굴착하기 시작했고, CSO드롭 구조 3개(CFD로 설계된 나머지 2개의 구조물만 있음)는 모두 현재 공사 중입니다.

에디슨의 의견으로는, 토목 공학은 전체적으로 CFD를 채택하는 데 느린 편이었습니다. 이를 입증하기 위해 그는 인천 국제 공항을 처음 방문한 당시 접선 소용돌이 모형의 소위 “묘지”에서 본것을 기술했습니다. 그러나 그는 이들을 다시 처리해야 했다고 말했습니다.  그는 유압 설계를 위한 시뮬레이션 사용으로 판매되는 것을 권장하고 있습니다.

에디슨은 DRTC노력을 요약하면서 “정말 재미 있었습니다. 물리적 모델링이 필요한 위치에 대해 더 자세히 알아보았고, 그렇다면 어떤 경우에는 순수한 RAID기반 설계를 수행할 수 있습니다. 많은 DRTC작업들이 그것의 증거입니다. 물리적 모델은 실제로 필요하지 않았지만 검증을 통해 위험을 줄일 수 있었습니다. 프로젝트에서 이 두가지를 모두 수행할 수 있었다는 것은 믿을 수 없는 일입니다.”라고 말했습니다.

This article first appeared in WaterWorld Magazine.

Metal Casting Bibliography

다음은 금속 주조 참고 문헌의 기술 문서 모음입니다. 
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  CAST  결과를 포함하고 있습니다. FLOW-3D  CAST 를 사용하여 금속 주조 산업의 어플리케이션을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션  하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

2021년 6월 25일 Update

05-21   Heqian Song, Lunyong Zhang, Fuyang Cao, Xu Gu, Jianfei Sun, Oxide bifilm defects in aluminum alloy castings, Materials Letters, 285; 129089, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2020.129089

127-20   Eric Riedel, Niklas Bergedieck, Stefan Scharf, CFD simulation based investigation of cavitation cynamics during high intensity ultrasonic treatment of A356, Metals, 10.11; 1529, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10111529

86-20       Malte Leonhard, Matthias Todte, Jörg Schäfer, Realistic simulation of the combustion of exothermic feeders, Modern Casting, August 2020; pp. 35-40, 2020. (See also 58-19)

52-20       Mingfan Qi, Yonglin Kang, Jingyuan Li, Zhumabieke Wulabieke, Yuzhao Xu, Yangde Li, Aisen Liu, Junchen Chen, Microstructures refinement and mechanical properties enhancement of aluminum and magnesium alloys by combining distributary-confluence channel process for semisolid slurry preparation with high pressure die-casting, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 285; 116800, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2020.116800

46-20       Yasushi Iwata, Shuxin Dong, Yoshio Sugiyama, Jun Yaokawa, Melt permeability changes during solidification of aluminum alloys and application to feeding simulation for die castings, Materials Transactions, 61.7; pp. 1381-1386, 2020. doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.F-M2020822

45-20       Daniel Bernal, Xabier Chamorro, Iñaki Hurtado, Iñaki Madariaga, Effect of boron content and cooling rate on the microstructure and boride formation of β-solidifying γ-TiAl TNM alloy, Metals, 10.5; 698, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10050698

33-20     Eric Riedel, Martin Liepe Stefan Scharf, Simulation of ultrasonic induced cavitation and acoustic streaming in liquid and solidifying aluminum, Metals, 10.4; 476, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10040476

20-20   Wu Yue, Li Zhuo and Lu Rong, Simulation and visual tester verification of solid propellant slurry vacuum plate casting, Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, 2020. doi.org/10.1002/prep.201900411

17-20   C.A. Jones, M.R. Jolly, A.E.W. Jarfors and M. Irwin, An experimental characterization of thermophysical properties of a porous ceramic shell used in the investment casting process, Supplimental Proceedings, pp. 1095-1105, TMS 2020 149th Annual Meeting and Exhibition, San Diego, CA, February 23-27, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36296-6_102

12-20   Franz Josef Feikus, Paul Bernsteiner, Ricardo Fernández Gutiérrez and Michal Luszczak , Further development of electric motor housings, MTZ Worldwide, 81, pp. 38-43, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s38313-019-0176-z

09-20   Mingfan Qi, Yonglin Kang, Yuzhao Xu, Zhumabieke Wulabieke and Jingyuan Li, A novel rheological high pressure die-casting process for preparing large thin-walled Al–Si–Fe–Mg–Sr alloy with high heat conductivity, high plasticity and medium strength, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 776, art. no. 139040, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2020.139040

07-20   Stefan Heugenhauser, Erhard Kaschnitz and Peter Schumacher, Development of an aluminum compound casting process – Experiments and numerical simulations, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 279, art. no. 116578, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.116578

05-20   Michail Papanikolaou, Emanuele Pagone, Mark Jolly and Konstantinos Salonitis, Numerical simulation and evaluation of Campbell running and gating systems, Metals, 10.1, art. no. 68, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10010068

102-19   Ferencz Peti and Gabriela Strnad, The effect of squeeze pin dimension and operational parameters on material homogeneity of aluminium high pressure die cast parts, Acta Marisiensis. Seria Technologica, 16.2, 2019. doi.org/0.2478/amset-2019-0010

94-19   E. Riedel, I. Horn, N. Stein, H. Stein, R. Bahr, and S. Scharf, Ultrasonic treatment: a clean technology that supports sustainability incasting processes, Procedia, 26th CIRP Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) Conference, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, May 7-9, 2019.

93-19   Adrian V. Catalina, Liping Xue, Charles A. Monroe, Robin D. Foley, and John A. Griffin, Modeling and Simulation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi- and AlCu-based Alloys, Transactions, 123rd Metalcasting Congress, Atlanta, GA, USA, April 27-30, 2019.

84-19   Arun Prabhakar, Michail Papanikolaou, Konstantinos Salonitis, and Mark Jolly, Sand casting of sheet lead: numerical simulation of metal flow and solidification, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, pp. 1-13, 2019. doi:10.1007/s00170-019-04522-3

72-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Eric Macdonald, Robert Voigt, and Guha Manogharan, Measurement of metal velocity in sand casting during mold filling, Metals, 9:1079, 2019. doi:10.3390/met9101079

71-19   Sebastian Findeisen, Robin Van Der Auwera, Michael Heuser, and Franz-Josef Wöstmann, Gießtechnische Fertigung von E-Motorengehäusen mit interner Kühling (Casting production of electric motor housings with internal cooling), Geisserei, 106, pp. 72-78, 2019 (in German).

58-19     Von Malte Leonhard, Matthias Todte, and Jörg Schäffer, Realistic simulation of the combustion of exothermic feeders, Casting, No. 2, pp. 28-32, 2019. In English and German.

52-19     S. Lakkum and P. Kowitwarangkul, Numerical investigations on the effect of gas flow rate in the gas stirred ladle with dual plugs, International Conference on Materials Research and Innovation (ICMARI), Bangkok, Thailand, December 17-21, 2018. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 526, 2019. doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/526/1/012028

47-19     Bing Zhou, Shuai Lu, Kaile Xu, Chun Xu, and Zhanyong Wang, Microstructure and simulation of semisolid aluminum alloy castings in the process of stirring integrated transfer-heat (SIT) with water cooling, International Journal of Metalcasting, Online edition, pp. 1-13, 2019. doi: 10.1007/s40962-019-00357-6

31-19     Zihao Yuan, Zhipeng Guo, and S.M. Xiong, Skin layer of A380 aluminium alloy die castings and its blistering during solution treatment, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, Vol. 35, No. 9, pp. 1906-1916, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.05.011

25-19     Stefano Mascetti, Raul Pirovano, and Giulio Timelli, Interazione metallo liquido/stampo: Il fenomeno della metallizzazione, La Metallurgia Italiana, No. 4, pp. 44-50, 2019. In Italian.

20-19     Fu-Yuan Hsu, Campbellology for runner system design, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 187-199, 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_19

19-19     Chengcheng Lyu, Michail Papanikolaou, and Mark Jolly, Numerical process modelling and simulation of Campbell running systems designs, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 53-64, 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_5

18-19     Adrian V. Catalina, Liping Xue, and Charles Monroe, A solidification model with application to AlSi-based alloys, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 201-213, 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_20

17-19     Fu-Yuan Hsu and Yu-Hung Chen, The validation of feeder modeling for ductile iron castings, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 227-238, 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_22

04-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

02-19   Jingying Sun, Qichi Le, Li Fu, Jing Bai, Johannes Tretter, Klaus Herbold and Hongwei Huo, Gas entrainment behavior of aluminum alloy engine crankcases during the low-pressure-die-casting-process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 266, pp. 274-282, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.11.016

82-18   Xu Zhao, Ping Wang, Tao Li, Bo-yu Zhang, Peng Wang, Guan-zhou Wang and Shi-qi Lu, Gating system optimization of high pressure die casting thin-wall AlSi10MnMg longitudinal loadbearing beam based on numerical simulation, China Foundry, Vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 436-442, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s41230-018-8052-z

80-18   Michail Papanikolaou, Emanuele Pagone, Konstantinos Salonitis, Mark Jolly and Charalampos Makatsoris, A computational framework towards energy efficient casting processes, Sustainable Design and Manufacturing 2018: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing (KES-SDM-18), Gold Coast, Australia, June 24-26 2018, SIST 130, pp. 263-276, 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-04290-5_27

64-18   Vasilios Fourlakidis, Ilia Belov and Attila Diószegi, Strength prediction for pearlitic lamellar graphite iron: Model validation, Metals, Vol. 8, No. 9, 2018. doi: 10.3390/met8090684

51-18   Xue-feng Zhu, Bao-yi Yu, Li Zheng, Bo-ning Yu, Qiang Li, Shu-ning Lü and Hao Zhang, Influence of pouring methods on filling process, microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 Mg alloy pipe by horizontal centrifugal casting, China Foundry, vol. 15, no. 3, pp.196-202, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s41230-018-7256-6

47-18   Santosh Reddy Sama, Jiayi Wang and Guha Manogharan, Non-conventional mold design for metal casting using 3D sand-printing, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, vol. 34-B, pp. 765-775, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.jmapro.2018.03.049

42-18   M. Koru and O. Serçe, The Effects of Thermal and Dynamical Parameters and Vacuum Application on Porosity in High-Pressure Die Casting of A383 Al-Alloy, International Journal of Metalcasting, pp. 1-17, 2018. /doi: 10.1007/s40962-018-0214-7

41-18   Abhilash Viswanath, S. Savithri, U.T.S. Pillai, Similitude analysis on flow characteristics of water, A356 and AM50 alloys during LPC process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 257, pp. 270-277, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.02.031

29-18   Seyboldt, Christoph and Liewald, Mathias, Investigation on thixojoining to produce hybrid components with intermetallic phase, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1960, no. 1, 2018. doi: 10.1063/1.5034992

28-18   Laura Schomer, Mathias Liewald and Kim Rouven Riedmüller, Simulation of the infiltration process of a ceramic open-pore body with a metal alloy in semi-solid state to design the manufacturing of interpenetrating phase composites, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1960, no. 1, 2018. doi: 10.1063/1.5034991

41-17   Y. N. Wu et al., Numerical Simulation on Filling Optimization of Copper Rotor for High Efficient Electric Motors in Die Casting Process, Materials Science Forum, Vol. 898, pp. 1163-1170, 2017.

12-17   A.M.  Zarubin and O.A. Zarubina, Controlling the flow rate of melt in gravity die casting of aluminum alloys, Liteynoe Proizvodstvo (Casting Manufacturing), pp 16-20, 6, 2017. In Russian.

10-17   A.Y. Korotchenko, Y.V. Golenkov, M.V. Tverskoy and D.E. Khilkov, Simulation of the Flow of Metal Mixtures in the Mold, Liteynoe Proizvodstvo (Casting Manufacturing), pp 18-22, 5, 2017. In Russian.

08-17   Morteza Morakabian Esfahani, Esmaeil Hajjari, Ali Farzadi and Seyed Reza Alavi Zaree, Prediction of the contact time through modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in compound casting process of Al/Mg light metals, Journal of Materials Research, © Materials Research Society 2017

04-17   Huihui Liu, Xiongwei He and Peng Guo, Numerical simulation on semi-solid die-casting of magnesium matrix composite based on orthogonal experiment, AIP Conference Proceedings 1829, 020037 (2017); doi: 10.1063/1.4979769.

100-16  Robert Watson, New numerical techniques to quantify and predict the effect of entrainment defects, applied to high pressure die casting, PhD Thesis: University of Birmingham, 2016.

88-16   M.C. Carter, T. Kauffung, L. Weyenberg and C. Peters, Low Pressure Die Casting Simulation Discovery through Short Shot, Cast Expo & Metal Casting Congress, April 16-19, 2016, Minneapolis, MN, Copyright 2016 American Foundry Society.

61-16   M. Koru and O. Serçe, Experimental and numerical determination of casting mold interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the high pressure die casting of a 360 aluminum alloy, ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, Vol. 129 (2016)

59-16   R. Pirovano and S. Mascetti, Tracking of collapsed bubbles during a filling simulation, La Metallurgia Italiana – n. 6 2016

43-16   Kevin Lee, Understanding shell cracking during de-wax process in investment casting, Ph.D Thesis: University of Birmingham, School of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2016.

35-16   Konstantinos Salonitis, Mark Jolly, Binxu Zeng, and Hamid Mehrabi, Improvements in energy consumption and environmental impact by novel single shot melting process for casting, Journal of Cleaner Production, doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.165, Open Access funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, June 29, 2016

20-16   Fu-Yuan Hsu, Bifilm Defect Formation in Hydraulic Jump of Liquid Aluminum, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 2016, Band: 47, Heft 3, 1634-1648.

15-16   Mingfan Qia, Yonglin Kanga, Bing Zhoua, Wanneng Liaoa, Guoming Zhua, Yangde Lib,and Weirong Li, A forced convection stirring process for Rheo-HPDC aluminum and magnesium alloys, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 234 (2016) 353–367

112-15   José Miguel Gonçalves Ledo Belo da Costa, Optimization of filling systems for low pressure by FLOW-3D, Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Mecânica, http://hdl.handle.net/1822/40132, 2015

89-15   B.W. Zhu, L.X. Li, X. Liu, L.Q. Zhang and R. Xu, Effect of Viscosity Measurement Method to Simulate High Pressure Die Casting of Thin-Wall AlSi10MnMg Alloy Castings, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Published online, November 2015, DOI: 10.1007/s11665-015-1783-8, © ASM International.

88-15   Peng Zhang, Zhenming Li, Baoliang Liu, Wenjiang Ding and Liming Peng, Improved tensile properties of a new aluminum alloy for high pressure die casting, Materials Science & Engineering A651(2016)376–390, Available online, November 2015.

83-15   Zu-Qi Hu, Xin-Jian Zhang and Shu-Sen Wu, Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Die-Filling Behavior of High-Performance Die-Cast Al–Mg–Si–Mn Alloy, Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.), DOI 10.1007/s40195-015-0332-7, © The Chinese Society for Metals and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.

82-15   J. Müller, L. Xue, M.C. Carter, C. Thoma, M. Fehlbier and M. Todte, A Die Spray Cooling Model for Thermal Die Cycling Simulations, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

81-15   M. T. Murray, L.F. Hansen, L. Chilcott, E. Li and A.M. Murray, Case Studies in the Use of Simulation- Improved Yield and Reduced Time to Market, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

80-15   R. Bhola, S. Chandra and D. Souders, Predicting Castability of Thin-Walled Parts for the HPDC Process Using Simulations, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

76-15   Prosenjit Das, Sudip K. Samanta, Shashank Tiwari and Pradip Dutta, Die Filling Behaviour of Semi Solid A356 Al Alloy Slurry During Rheo Pressure Die Casting, Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, pp 1-6, October 2015

74-15   Murat KORU and Orhan SERÇE, Yüksek Basınçlı Döküm Prosesinde Enjeksiyon Parametrelerine Bağlı Olarak Döküm Simülasyon, Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Science, Science Journal (CSJ), Vol. 36, No: 5 (2015) ISSN: 1300-1949, May 2015

69-15   A. Viswanath, S. Sivaraman, U. T. S. Pillai, Computer Simulation of Low Pressure Casting Process Using FLOW-3D, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 830-831, pp. 45-48, September 2015

68-15   J. Aneesh Kumar, K. Krishnakumar and S. Savithri, Computer Simulation of Centrifugal Casting Process Using FLOW-3D, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 830-831, pp. 53-56, September 2015

59-15   F. Hosseini Yekta and S. A. Sadough Vanini, Simulation of the flow of semi-solid steel alloy using an enhanced model, Metals and Materials International, August 2015.

44-15   Ulrich E. Klotz, Tiziana Heiss and Dario Tiberto, Platinum investment casting material properties, casting simulation and optimum process parameters, Jewelry Technology Forum 2015

41-15   M. Barkhudarov and R. Pirovano, Minimizing Air Entrainment in High Pressure Die Casting Shot Sleeves, GIFA 2015, Düsseldorf, Germany

40-15   M. Todte, A. Fent, and H. Lang, Simulation in support of the development of innovative processes in the casting industry, GIFA 2015, Düsseldorf, Germany

19-15   Bruce Morey, Virtual casting improves powertrain design, Automotive Engineering, SAE International, March 2015.

15-15   K.S. Oh, J.D. Lee, S.J. Kim and J.Y. Choi, Development of a large ingot continuous caster, Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 203 (2015) © EDP Sciences, 2015, DOI: 10.1051/metal/2015006, www.metallurgical-research.org

14-15   Tiziana Heiss, Ulrich E. Klotz and Dario Tiberto, Platinum Investment Casting, Part I: Simulation and Experimental Study of the Casting Process, Johnson Matthey Technol. Rev., 2015, 59, (2), 95, doi:10.1595/205651315×687399

138-14 Christopher Thoma, Wolfram Volk, Ruben Heid, Klaus Dilger, Gregor Banner and Harald Eibisch, Simulation-based prediction of the fracture elongation as a failure criterion for thin-walled high-pressure die casting components, International Journal of Metalcasting, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 47-54, 2014. doi:10.1007/BF03355594

107-14  Mehran Seyed Ahmadi, Dissolution of Si in Molten Al with Gas Injection, ProQuest Dissertations And Theses; Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Toronto (Canada), 2014; Publication Number: AAT 3637106; ISBN: 9781321195231; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 76-02(E), Section: B.; 191 p.

99-14   R. Bhola and S. Chandra, Predicting Castability for Thin-Walled HPDC Parts, Foundry Management Technology, December 2014

92-14   Warren Bishenden and Changhua Huang, Venting design and process optimization of die casting process for structural components; Part II: Venting design and process optimization, Die Casting Engineer, November 2014

90-14   Ken’ichi Kanazawa, Ken’ichi Yano, Jun’ichi Ogura, and Yasunori Nemoto, Optimum Runner Design for Die-Casting using CFD Simulations and Verification with Water-Model Experiments, Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2014, November 14-20, 2014, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, IMECE2014-37419

89-14   P. Kapranos, C. Carney, A. Pola, and M. Jolly, Advanced Casting Methodologies: Investment Casting, Centrifugal Casting, Squeeze Casting, Metal Spinning, and Batch Casting, In Comprehensive Materials Processing; McGeough, J., Ed.; 2014, Elsevier Ltd., 2014; Vol. 5, pp 39–67.

77-14   Andrei Y. Korotchenko, Development of Scientific and Technological Approaches to Casting Net-Shaped Castings in Sand Molds Free of Shrinkage Defects and Hot Tears, Post-doctoral thesis: Russian State Technological University, 2014. In Russian.

69-14   L. Xue, M.C. Carter, A.V. Catalina, Z. Lin, C. Li, and C. Qiu, Predicting, Preventing Core Gas Defects in Steel Castings, Modern Casting, September 2014

68-14   L. Xue, M.C. Carter, A.V. Catalina, Z. Lin, C. Li, and C. Qiu, Numerical Simulation of Core Gas Defects in Steel Castings, Copyright 2014 American Foundry Society, 118th Metalcasting Congress, April 8 – 11, 2014, Schaumburg, IL

51-14   Jesus M. Blanco, Primitivo Carranza, Rafael Pintos, Pedro Arriaga, and Lakhdar Remaki, Identification of Defects Originated during the Filling of Cast Pieces through Particles Modelling, 11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM XI), 5th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM V), 6th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ECFD VI), E. Oñate, J. Oliver and A. Huerta (Eds)

47-14   B. Vijaya Ramnatha, C.Elanchezhiana, Vishal Chandrasekhar, A. Arun Kumarb, S. Mohamed Asif, G. Riyaz Mohamed, D. Vinodh Raj , C .Suresh Kumar, Analysis and Optimization of Gating System for Commutator End Bracket, Procedia Materials Science 6 ( 2014 ) 1312 – 1328, 3rd International Conference on Materials Processing and Characterisation (ICMPC 2014)

42-14  Bing Zhou, Yong-lin Kang, Guo-ming Zhu, Jun-zhen Gao, Ming-fan Qi, and Huan-huan Zhang, Forced convection rheoforming process for preparation of 7075 aluminum alloy semisolid slurry and its numerical simulation, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 24(2014) 1109−1116

37-14    A. Karwinski, W. Lesniewski, P. Wieliczko, and M. Malysza, Casting of Titanium Alloys in Centrifugal Induction Furnaces, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, Volume 59, Issue 1, DOI: 10.2478/amm-2014-0068, 2014.

26-14    Bing Zhou, Yonglin Kang, Mingfan Qi, Huanhuan Zhang and Guoming ZhuR-HPDC Process with Forced Convection Mixing Device for Automotive Part of A380 Aluminum Alloy, Materials 2014, 7, 3084-3105; doi:10.3390/ma7043084

20-14  Johannes Hartmann, Tobias Fiegl, Carolin Körner, Aluminum integral foams with tailored density profile by adapted blowing agents, Applied Physics A, 10.1007/s00339-014-8377-4, March 2014.

19-14    A.Y. Korotchenko, N.A. Nikiforova, E.D. Demjanov, N.C. Larichev, The Influence of the Filling Conditions on the Service Properties of the Part Side Frame, Russian Foundryman, 1 (January), pp 40-43, 2014. In Russian.

11-14 B. Fuchs and C. Körner, Mesh resolution consideration for the viability prediction of lost salt cores in the high pressure die casting process, Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2014, Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

08-14 FY Hsu, SW Wang, and HJ Lin, The External and Internal Shrinkages in Aluminum Gravity Castings, Shape Casting: 5th International Symposium 2014. Available online at Google Books

103-13  B. Fuchs, H. Eibisch and C. Körner, Core Viability Simulation for Salt Core Technology in High-Pressure Die Casting, International Journal of Metalcasting, July 2013, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 39–45

94-13    Randall S. Fielding, J. Crapps, C. Unal, and J.R.Kennedy, Metallic Fuel Casting Development and Parameter Optimization Simulations, International Conference on Fast reators and Related Fuel Cycles (FR13), 4-7 March 2013, Paris France

90-13  A. Karwińskia, M. Małyszaa, A. Tchórza, A. Gila, B. Lipowska, Integration of Computer Tomography and Simulation Analysis in Evaluation of Quality of Ceramic-Carbon Bonded Foam Filter, Archives of Foundry Engineering, DOI: 10.2478/afe-2013-0084, Published quarterly as the organ of the Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ISSN, (2299-2944), Volume 13, Issue 4/2013

88-13  Litie and Metallurgia (Casting and Metallurgy), 3 (72), 2013, N.V.Sletova, I.N.Volnov, S.P.Zadrutsky, V.A.Chaikin, Modeling of the Process of Removing Non-metallic Inclusions in Aluminum Alloys Using the FLOW-3D program, pp 138-140. In Russian.

85-13    Michał Szucki,Tomasz Goraj, Janusz Lelito, Józef S. Suchy, Numerical Analysis of Solid Particles Flow in Liquid Metal, XXXVII International Scientific Conference Foundryman’ Day 2013, Krakow, 28-29 November 2013

84-13  Körner, C., Schwankl, M., Himmler, D., Aluminum-Aluminum compound castings by electroless deposited zinc layers, Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.12.01483-13.

77-13  Antonio Armillotta & Raffaello Baraggi & Simone Fasoli, SLM tooling for die casting with conformal cooling channels, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, DOI 10.1007/s00170-013-5523-7, December 2013.

64-13   Johannes Hartmann, Christina Blümel, Stefan Ernst, Tobias Fiegl, Karl-Ernst Wirth, Carolin Körner, Aluminum integral foam castings with microcellular cores by nano-functionalization, J Mater Sci, DOI: 10.1007/s10853-013-7668-z, September 2013.

46-13  Nicholas P. Orenstein, 3D Flow and Temperature Analysis of Filling a Plutonium Mold, LA-UR-13-25537, Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Los Alamos Annual Student Symposium 2013, 2013-07-24 (Rev.1)

42-13   Yang Yue, William D. Griffiths, and Nick R. Green, Modelling of the Effects of Entrainment Defects on Mechanical Properties in a Cast Al-Si-Mg Alloy, Materials Science Forum, 765, 225, 2013.

39-13  J. Crapps, D.S. DeCroix, J.D Galloway, D.A. Korzekwa, R. Aikin, R. Fielding, R. Kennedy, C. Unal, Separate effects identification via casting process modeling for experimental measurement of U-Pu-Zr alloys, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 15 July 2013.

35-13   A. Pari, Real Life Problem Solving through Simulations in the Die Casting Industry – Case Studies, © Die Casting Engineer, July 2013.

34-13  Martin Lagler, Use of Simulation to Predict the Viability of Salt Cores in the HPDC Process – Shot Curve as a Decisive Criterion, © Die Casting Engineer, July 2013.

24-13    I.N.Volnov, Optimizatsia Liteynoi Tekhnologii, (Casting Technology Optimization), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), 3, 2013, 27-29. In Russian

23-13  M.R. Barkhudarov, I.N. Volnov, Minimizatsia Zakhvata Vozdukha v Kamere Pressovania pri Litie pod Davleniem, (Minimization of Air Entrainment in the Shot Sleeve During High Pressure Die Casting), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), 3, 2013, 30-34. In Russian

09-13  M.C. Carter and L. Xue, Simulating the Parameters that Affect Core Gas Defects in Metal Castings, Copyright 2012 American Foundry Society, Presented at the 2013 CastExpo, St. Louis, Missouri, April 2013

08-13  C. Reilly, N.R. Green, M.R. Jolly, J.-C. Gebelin, The Modelling Of Oxide Film Entrainment In Casting Systems Using Computational Modelling, Applied Mathematical Modelling, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2013.03.061, April 2013.

03-13  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A fast simulation of transient metal flow and solidification in a narrow channel. Part II. Model validation and parametric study, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.12.061.

02-13  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A fast simulation of transient metal flow and solidification in a narrow channel. Part I: Model development using lubrication approximation, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.12.060.

116-12  Jufu Jianga, Ying Wang, Gang Chena, Jun Liua, Yuanfa Li and Shoujing Luo, “Comparison of mechanical properties and microstructure of AZ91D alloy motorcycle wheels formed by die casting and double control forming, Materials & Design, Volume 40, September 2012, Pages 541-549.

107-12  F.K. Arslan, A.H. Hatman, S.Ö. Ertürk, E. Güner, B. Güner, An Evaluation for Fundamentals of Die Casting Materials Selection and Design, IMMC’16 International Metallurgy & Materials Congress, Istanbul, Turkey, 2012.

103-12 WU Shu-sen, ZHONG Gu, AN Ping, WAN Li, H. NAKAE, Microstructural characteristics of Al−20Si−2Cu−0.4Mg−1Ni alloy formed by rheo-squeeze casting after ultrasonic vibration treatment, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 22 (2012) 2863-2870, November 2012. Full paper available online.

109-12 Alexandre Reikher, Numerical Analysis of Die-Casting Process in Thin Cavities Using Lubrication Approximation, Ph.D. Thesis: The University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Engineering Department (2012) Theses and Dissertations. Paper 65.

97-12 Hong Zhou and Li Heng Luo, Filling Pattern of Step Gating System in Lost Foam Casting Process and its Application, Advanced Materials Research, Volumes 602-604, Progress in Materials and Processes, 1916-1921, December 2012.

93-12  Liangchi Zhang, Chunliang Zhang, Jeng-Haur Horng and Zichen Chen, Functions of Step Gating System in the Lost Foam Casting Process, Advanced Materials Research, 591-593, 940, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.591-593.940, November 2012.

91-12  Hong Yan, Jian Bin Zhu, Ping Shan, Numerical Simulation on Rheo-Diecasting of Magnesium Matrix Composites, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.192-193.287, Solid State Phenomena, 192-193, 287.

89-12  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A Fast Numerical Simulation for Modeling Simultaneous Metal Flow and Solidification in Thin Cavities Using the Lubrication Approximation, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications: An International Journal of Computation and Methodology, 63:2, 75-100, November 2012.

82-12  Jufu Jiang, Gang Chen, Ying Wang, Zhiming Du, Weiwei Shan, and Yuanfa Li, Microstructure and mechanical properties of thin-wall and high-rib parts of AM60B Mg alloy formed by double control forming and die casting under the optimal conditions, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2012.10.086, October 2012.

78-12   A. Pari, Real Life Problem Solving through Simulations in the Die Casting Industry – Case Studies, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

77-12  Y. Wang, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian and R.A. Miller, Rheological behavior models of metal matrix alloys in semi-solid casting process, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

76-12  A. Reikher and H. Gerber, Analysis of Solidification Parameters During the Die Cast Process, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

75-12 R.A. Miller, Y. Wang and K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, Estimating Cavity Fill Time, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012Indianapolis, IN.

65-12  X.H. Yang, T.J. Lu, T. Kim, Influence of non-conducting pore inclusions on phase change behavior of porous media with constant heat flux boundaryInternational Journal of Thermal Sciences, Available online 10 October 2012. Available online at SciVerse.

55-12  Hejun Li, Pengyun Wang, Lehua Qi, Hansong Zuo, Songyi Zhong, Xianghui Hou, 3D numerical simulation of successive deposition of uniform molten Al droplets on a moving substrate and experimental validation, Computational Materials Science, Volume 65, December 2012, Pages 291–301.

52-12 Hongbing Ji, Yixin Chen and Shengzhou Chen, Numerical Simulation of Inner-Outer Couple Cooling Slab Continuous Casting in the Filling Process, Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 557-559), Advanced Materials and Processes II, pp. 2257-2260, July 2012.

47-12    Petri Väyrynen, Lauri Holappa, and Seppo Louhenkilpi, Simulation of Melting of Alloying Materials in Steel Ladle, SCANMET IV – 4th International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, Lulea, Sweden, June 10-13, 2012.

46-12  Bin Zhang and Dave Salee, Metal Flow and Heat Transfer in Billet DC Casting Using Wagstaff® Optifill™ Metal Distribution Systems, 5th International Metal Quality Workshop, United Arab Emirates Dubai, March 18-22, 2012.

45-12 D.R. Gunasegaram, M. Givord, R.G. O’Donnell and B.R. Finnin, Improvements engineered in UTS and elongation of aluminum alloy high pressure die castings through the alteration of runner geometry and plunger velocity, Materials Science & Engineering.

44-12    Antoni Drys and Stefano Mascetti, Aluminum Casting Simulations, Desktop Engineering, September 2012

42-12   Huizhen Duan, Jiangnan Shen and Yanping Li, Comparative analysis of HPDC process of an auto part with ProCAST and FLOW-3D, Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 184-185 (2012) pp 90-94, Online available since 2012/Jun/14 at www.scientific.net, © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.184-185.90.

41-12    Deniece R. Korzekwa, Cameron M. Knapp, David A. Korzekwa, and John W. Gibbs, Co-Design – Fabrication of Unalloyed Plutonium, LA-UR-12-23441, MDI Summer Research Group Workshop Advanced Manufacturing, 2012-07-25/2012-07-26 (Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States)

29-12  Dario Tiberto and Ulrich E. Klotz, Computer simulation applied to jewellery casting: challenges, results and future possibilities, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.33 012008. Full paper available at IOP.

28-12  Y Yue and N R Green, Modelling of different entrainment mechanisms and their influences on the mechanical reliability of Al-Si castings, 2012 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 33,012072.Full paper available at IOP.

27-12  E Kaschnitz, Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes, 2012 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 33 012031, Issue 1. Full paper available at IOP.

15-12  C. Reilly, N.R Green, M.R. Jolly, The Present State Of Modeling Entrainment Defects In The Shape Casting Process, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Available online 27 April 2012, ISSN 0307-904X, 10.1016/j.apm.2012.04.032.

12-12   Andrei Starobin, Tony Hirt, Hubert Lang, and Matthias Todte, Core drying simulation and validation, International Foundry Research, GIESSEREIFORSCHUNG 64 (2012) No. 1, ISSN 0046-5933, pp 2-5

10-12  H. Vladimir Martínez and Marco F. Valencia (2012). Semisolid Processing of Al/β-SiC Composites by Mechanical Stirring Casting and High Pressure Die Casting, Recent Researches in Metallurgical Engineering – From Extraction to Forming, Dr Mohammad Nusheh (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0356-1, InTech

07-12     Amir H. G. Isfahani and James M. Brethour, Simulating Thermal Stresses and Cooling Deformations, Die Casting Engineer, March 2012

06-12   Shuisheng Xie, Youfeng He and Xujun Mi, Study on Semi-solid Magnesium Alloys Slurry Preparation and Continuous Roll-casting Process, Magnesium Alloys – Design, Processing and Properties, ISBN: 978-953-307-520-4, InTech.

04-12 J. Spangenberg, N. Roussel, J.H. Hattel, H. Stang, J. Skocek, M.R. Geiker, Flow induced particle migration in fresh concrete: Theoretical frame, numerical simulations and experimental results on model fluids, Cement and Concrete Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.01.007, February 2012.

01-12   Lee, B., Baek, U., and Han, J., Optimization of Gating System Design for Die Casting of Thin Magnesium Alloy-Based Multi-Cavity LCD Housings, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Springer New York, Issn: 1059-9495, 10.1007/s11665-011-0111-1, Volume 1 / 1992 – Volume 21 / 2012. Available online at Springer Link.

104-11  Fu-Yuan Hsu and Huey Jiuan Lin, Foam Filters Used in Gravity Casting, Metall and Materi Trans B (2011) 42: 1110. doi:10.1007/s11663-011-9548-8.

99-11    Eduardo Trejo, Centrifugal Casting of an Aluminium Alloy, thesis: Doctor of Philosophy, Metallurgy and Materials School of Engineering University of Birmingham, October 2011. Full paper available upon request.

93-11  Olga Kononova, Andrejs Krasnikovs ,Videvuds Lapsa,Jurijs Kalinka and Angelina Galushchak, Internal Structure Formation in High Strength Fiber Concrete during Casting, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 59 2011

76-11  J. Hartmann, A. Trepper, and C. Körner, Aluminum Integral Foams with Near-Microcellular Structure, Advanced Engineering Materials 2011, Volume 13 (2011) No. 11, © Wiley-VCH

71-11  Fu-Yuan Hsu and Yao-Ming Yang Confluence Weld in an Aluminum Gravity Casting, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Available online 23 November 2011, ISSN 0924-0136, 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2011.11.006.

65-11     V.A. Chaikin, A.V. Chaikin, I.N.Volnov, A Study of the Process of Late Modification Using Simulation, in Zagotovitelnye Proizvodstva v Mashinostroenii, 10, 2011, 8-12. In Russian.

54-11  Ngadia Taha Niane and Jean-Pierre Michalet, Validation of Foundry Process for Aluminum Parts with FLOW-3D Software, Proceedings of the 2011 International Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, 2011.

51-11    A. Reikher and H. Gerber, Calculation of the Die Cast parameters of the Thin Wall Aluminum Cast Part, 2011 Die Casting Congress & Tabletop, Columbus, OH, September 19-21, 2011

50-11   Y. Wang, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, and R.A. Miller, Runner design optimization based on CFD simulation for a die with multiple cavities, 2011 Die Casting Congress & Tabletop, Columbus, OH, September 19-21, 2011

48-11 A. Karwiński, W. Leśniewski, S. Pysz, P. Wieliczko, The technology of precision casting of titanium alloys by centrifugal process, Archives of Foundry Engineering, ISSN: 1897-3310), Volume 11, Issue 3/2011, 73-80, 2011.

46-11  Daniel Einsiedler, Entwicklung einer Simulationsmethodik zur Simulation von Strömungs- und Trocknungsvorgängen bei Kernfertigungsprozessen mittels CFD (Development of a simulation methodology for simulating flow and drying operations in core production processes using CFD), MSc thesis at Technical University of Aalen in Germany (Hochschule Aalen), 2011.

44-11  Bin Zhang and Craig Shaber, Aluminum Ingot Thermal Stress Development Modeling of the Wagstaff® EpsilonTM Rolling Ingot DC Casting System during the Start-up Phase, Materials Science Forum Vol. 693 (2011) pp 196-207, © 2011 Trans Tech Publications, July, 2011.

43-11 Vu Nguyen, Patrick Rohan, John Grandfield, Alex Levin, Kevin Naidoo, Kurt Oswald, Guillaume Girard, Ben Harker, and Joe Rea, Implementation of CASTfill low-dross pouring system for ingot casting, Materials Science Forum Vol. 693 (2011) pp 227-234, © 2011 Trans Tech Publications, July, 2011.

40-11  A. Starobin, D. Goettsch, M. Walker, D. Burch, Gas Pressure in Aluminum Block Water Jacket Cores, © 2011 American Foundry Society, International Journal of Metalcasting/Summer 2011

37-11 Ferencz Peti, Lucian Grama, Analyze of the Possible Causes of Porosity Type Defects in Aluminum High Pressure Diecast Parts, Scientific Bulletin of the Petru Maior University of Targu Mures, Vol. 8 (XXV) no. 1, 2011, ISSN 1841-9267

31-11  Johannes Hartmann, André Trepper, Carolin Körner, Aluminum Integral Foams with Near-Microcellular Structure, Advanced Engineering Materials, 13: n/a. doi: 10.1002/adem.201100035, June 2011.

27-11  A. Pari, Optimization of HPDC Process using Flow Simulation Case Studies, Die Casting Engineer, July 2011

26-11    A. Reikher, H. Gerber, Calculation of the Die Cast Parameters of the Thin Wall Aluminum Die Casting Part, Die Casting Engineer, July 2011

21-11 Thang Nguyen, Vu Nguyen, Morris Murray, Gary Savage, John Carrig, Modelling Die Filling in Ultra-Thin Aluminium Castings, Materials Science Forum (Volume 690), Light Metals Technology V, pp 107-111, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.690.107, June 2011.

19-11 Jon Spangenberg, Cem Celal Tutum, Jesper Henri Hattel, Nicolas Roussel, Metter Rica Geiker, Optimization of Casting Process Parameters for Homogeneous Aggregate Distribution in Self-Compacting Concrete: A Feasibility Study, © IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2011, New Orleans, USA

16-11  A. Starobin, C.W. Hirt, H. Lang, and M. Todte, Core Drying Simulation and Validations, AFS Proceedings 2011, © American Foundry Society, Presented at the 115th Metalcasting Congress, Schaumburg, Illinois, April 2011.

15-11  J. J. Hernández-Ortega, R. Zamora, J. López, and F. Faura, Numerical Analysis of Air Pressure Effects on the Flow Pattern during the Filling of a Vertical Die Cavity, AIP Conf. Proc., Volume 1353, pp. 1238-1243, The 14th International Esaform Conference on Material Forming: Esaform 2011; doi:10.1063/1.3589686, May 2011. Available online.

10-11 Abbas A. Khalaf and Sumanth Shankar, Favorable Environment for Nondentric Morphology in Controlled Diffusion Solidification, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-011-0641-z, © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2011, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, March 11, 2011.

08-11 Hai Peng Li, Chun Yong Liang, Li Hui Wang, Hong Shui Wang, Numerical Simulation of Casting Process for Gray Iron Butterfly Valve, Advanced Materials Research, 189-193, 260, February 2011.

04-11  C.W. Hirt, Predicting Core Shooting, Drying and Defect Development, Foundry Management & Technology, January 2011.

76-10  Zhizhong Sun, Henry Hu, Alfred Yu, Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of Squeeze Casting Magnesium Alloy AM50, Magnesium Technology 2010, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & ExhibitionFebruary 14-18, 2010, Seattle, WA.

68-10  A. Reikher, H. Gerber, K.M. Pillai, T.-C. Jen, Natural Convection—An Overlooked Phenomenon of the Solidification Process, Die Casting Engineer, January 2010

54-10    Andrea Bernardoni, Andrea Borsi, Stefano Mascetti, Alessandro Incognito and Matteo Corrado, Fonderia Leonardo aveva ragione! L’enorme cavallo dedicato a Francesco Sforza era materialmente realizzabile, A&C – Analisis e Calcolo, Giugno 2010. In  Italian.

48-10  J. J. Hernández-Ortega, R. Zamora, J. Palacios, J. López and F. Faura, An Experimental and Numerical Study of Flow Patterns and Air Entrapment Phenomena During the Filling of a Vertical Die Cavity, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., October 2010, Volume 132, Issue 5, 05101, doi:10.1115/1.4002535.

47-10  A.V. Chaikin, I.N. Volnov, and V.A. Chaikin, Development of Dispersible Mixed Inoculant Compositions Using the FLOW-3D Program, Liteinoe Proizvodstvo, October, 2010, in Russian.

42-10  H. Lakshmi, M.C. Vinay Kumar, Raghunath, P. Kumar, V. Ramanarayanan, K.S.S. Murthy, P. Dutta, Induction reheating of A356.2 aluminum alloy and thixocasting as automobile component, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China 20(20101) s961-s967.

41-10  Pamela J. Waterman, Understanding Core-Gas Defects, Desktop Engineering, October 2010. Available online at Desktop Engineering. Also published in the Foundry Trade Journal, November 2010.

39-10  Liu Zheng, Jia Yingying, Mao Pingli, Li Yang, Wang Feng, Wang Hong, Zhou Le, Visualization of Die Casting Magnesium Alloy Steering Bracket, Special Casting & Nonferrous Alloys, ISSN: 1001-2249, CN: 42-1148/TG, 2010-04. In Chinese.

37-10  Morris Murray, Lars Feldager Hansen, and Carl Reinhardt, I Have Defects – Now What, Die Casting Engineer, September 2010

36-10  Stefano Mascetti, Using Flow Analysis Software to Optimize Piston Velocity for an HPDC Process, Die Casting Engineer, September 2010. Also available in Italian: Ottimizzare la velocita del pistone in pressofusione.  A & C, Analisi e Calcolo, Anno XII, n. 42, Gennaio 2011, ISSN 1128-3874.

32-10  Guan Hai Yan, Sheng Dun Zhao, Zheng Hui Sha, Parameters Optimization of Semisolid Diecasting Process for Air-Conditioner’s Triple Valve in HPb59-1 Alloy, Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 129 – 131), Vol. Material and Manufacturing Technology, pp. 936-941, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.129-131.936, August 2010.

29-10 Zheng Peng, Xu Jun, Zhang Zhifeng, Bai Yuelong, and Shi Likai, Numerical Simulation of Filling of Rheo-diecasting A357 Aluminum Alloy, Special Casting & Nonferrous Alloys, DOI: CNKI:SUN:TZZZ.0.2010-01-024, 2010.

27-10 For an Aerospace Diecasting, Littler Uses Simulation to Reveal Defects, and Win a New Order, Foundry Management & Technology, July 2010

23-10 Michael R. Barkhudarov, Minimizing Air Entrainment, The Canadian Die Caster, June 2010

15-10 David H. Kirkwood, Michel Suery, Plato Kapranos, Helen V. Atkinson, and Kenneth P. Young, Semi-solid Processing of Alloys, 2010, XII, 172 p. 103 illus., 19 in color., Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-642-00705-7.

09-10  Shannon Wetzel, Fullfilling Da Vinci’s Dream, Modern Casting, April 2010.

08-10 B.I. Semenov, K.M. Kushtarov, Semi-solid Manufacturing of Castings, New Industrial Technologies, Publication of Moscow State Technical University n.a. N.E. Bauman, 2009 (in Russian)

07-10 Carl Reilly, Development Of Quantitative Casting Quality Assessment Criteria Using Process Modelling, thesis: The University of Birmingham, March 2010 (Available upon request)

06-10 A. Pari, Optimization of HPDC Process using Flow Simulation – Case Studies, CastExpo ’10, NADCA, Orlando, Florida, March 2010

05-10 M.C. Carter, S. Palit, and M. Littler, Characterizing Flow Losses Occurring in Air Vents and Ejector Pins in High Pressure Die Castings, CastExpo ’10, NADCA, Orlando, Florida, March 2010

04-10 Pamela Waterman, Simulating Porosity Factors, Foundry Management Technology, March 2010, Article available at Foundry Management Technology

03-10 C. Reilly, M.R. Jolly, N.R. Green, JC Gebelin, Assessment of Casting Filling by Modeling Surface Entrainment Events Using CFD, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Jim Evans Honorary Symposium), Seattle, Washington, USA, February 14-18, 2010

02-10 P. Väyrynen, S. Wang, J. Laine and S.Louhenkilpi, Control of Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Inclusions in Continuous Casting – CFD and Neural Network Studies, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Jim Evans Honorary Symposium), Seattle, Washington, USA, February 14-18, 2010

60-09   Somlak Wannarumon, and Marco Actis Grande, Comparisons of Computer Fluid Dynamic Software Programs applied to Jewelry Investment Casting Process, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 55 2009.

59-09   Marco Actis Grande and Somlak Wannarumon, Numerical Simulation of Investment Casting of Gold Jewelry: Experiments and Validations, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol:3 2009-07-24

56-09  Jozef Kasala, Ondrej Híreš, Rudolf Pernis, Start-up Phase Modeling of Semi Continuous Casting Process of Brass Billets, Metal 2009, 19.-21.5.2009

51-09  In-Ting Hong, Huan-Chien Tung, Chun-Hao Chiu and Hung-Shang Huang, Effect of Casting Parameters on Microstructure and Casting Quality of Si-Al Alloy for Vacuum Sputtering, China Steel Technical Report, No. 22, pp. 33-40, 2009.

42-09  P. Väyrynen, S. Wang, S. Louhenkilpi and L. Holappa, Modeling and Removal of Inclusions in Continuous Casting, Materials Science & Technology 2009 Conference & Exhibition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, October 25-29, 2009

41-09 O.Smirnov, P.Väyrynen, A.Kravchenko and S.Louhenkilpi, Modern Methods of Modeling Fluid Flow and Inclusions Motion in Tundish Bath – General View, Proceedings of Steelsim 2009 – 3rd International Conference on Simulation and Modelling of Metallurgical Processes in Steelmaking, Leoben, Austria, September 8-10, 2009

21-09 A. Pari, Case Studies – Optimization of HPDC Process Using Flow Simulation, Die Casting Engineer, July 2009

20-09 M. Sirvio, M. Wos, Casting directly from a computer model by using advanced simulation software, FLOW-3D Cast, Archives of Foundry Engineering Volume 9, Issue 1/2009, 79-82

19-09 Andrei Starobin, C.W. Hirt, D. Goettsch, A Model for Binder Gas Generation and Transport in Sand Cores and Molds, Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Solidification Processes XII, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Minerals Society), June 2009

11-09 Michael Barkhudarov, Minimizing Air Entrainment in a Shot Sleeve during Slow-Shot Stage, Die Casting Engineer (The North American Die Casting Association ISSN 0012-253X), May 2009

10-09 A. Reikher, H. Gerber, Application of One-Dimensional Numerical Simulation to Optimize Process Parameters of a Thin-Wall Casting in High Pressure Die Casting, Die Casting Engineer (The North American Die Casting Association ISSN 0012-253X), May 2009

7-09 Andrei Starobin, Simulation of Core Gas Evolution and Flow, presented at the North American Die Casting Association – 113th Metalcasting Congress, April 7-10, 2009, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

6-09 A.Pari, Optimization of HPDC PROCESS: Case Studies, North American Die Casting Association – 113th Metalcasting Congress, April 7-10, 2009, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

2-09 C. Reilly, N.R. Green and M.R. Jolly, Oxide Entrainment Structures in Horizontal Running Systems, TMS 2009, San Francisco, California, February 2009

30-08 I.N.Volnov, Computer Modeling of Casting of Pipe Fittings, © 2008, Pipe Fittings, 5 (38), 2008. Russian version

28-08 A.V.Chaikin, I.N.Volnov, V.A.Chaikin, Y.A.Ukhanov, N.R.Petrov, Analysis of the Efficiency of Alloy Modifiers Using Statistics and Modeling, © 2008, Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), October, 2008

27-08 P. Scarber, Jr., H. Littleton, Simulating Macro-Porosity in Aluminum Lost Foam Castings, American Foundry Society, © 2008, AFS Lost Foam Conference, Asheville, North Carolina, October, 2008

25-08 FMT Staff, Forecasting Core Gas Pressures with Computer Simulation, Foundry Management and Technology, October 28, 2008 © 2008 Penton Media, Inc. Online article

24-08 Core and Mold Gas Evolution, Foundry Management and Technology, January 24, 2008 (excerpted from the FM&T May 2007 issue) © 2008 Penton Media, Inc.

22-08 Mark Littler, Simulation Eliminates Die Casting Scrap, Modern Casting/September 2008

21-08 X. Chen, D. Penumadu, Permeability Measurement and Numerical Modeling for Refractory Porous Materials, AFS Transactions © 2008 American Foundry Society, CastExpo ’08, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

20-08 Rolf Krack, Using Solidification Simulations for Optimising Die Cooling Systems, FTJ July/August 2008

19-08 Mark Littler, Simulation Software Eliminates Die Casting Scrap, ECS Casting Innovations, July/August 2008

13-08 T. Yoshimura, K. Yano, T. Fukui, S. Yamamoto, S. Nishido, M. Watanabe and Y. Nemoto, Optimum Design of Die Casting Plunger Tip Considering Air Entrainment, Proceedings of 10th Asian Foundry Congress (AFC10), Nagoya, Japan, May 2008

08-08 Stephen Instone, Andreas Buchholz and Gerd-Ulrich Gruen, Inclusion Transport Phenomena in Casting Furnaces, Light Metals 2008, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), 2008

07-08 P. Scarber, Jr., H. Littleton, Simulating Macro-Porosity in Aluminum Lost Foam Casting, AFS Transactions 2008 © American Foundry Society, CastExpo ’08, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

06-08 A. Reikher, H. Gerber and A. Starobin, Multi-Stage Plunger Deceleration System, CastExpo ’08, NADCA, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

05-08 Amol Palekar, Andrei Starobin, Alexander Reikher, Die-casting end-of-fill and drop forge viscometer flow transients examined with a coupled-motion numerical model, 68th World Foundry Congress, Chennai, India, February 2008

03-08 Petri J. Väyrynen, Sami K. Vapalahti and Seppo J. Louhenkilpi, On Validation of Mathematical Fluid Flow Models for Simulation of Tundish Water Models and Industrial Examples, AISTech 2008, May 2008

53-07   A. Kermanpur, Sh. Mahmoudi and A. Hajipour, Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Metal Flow and Solidification in the Multi-cavity Casting Moulds of Automotive Components, International Journal of Iron & Steel Society of Iran, Article 2, Volume 4, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2007, pages 8-15.

36-07 Duque Mesa A. F., Herrera J., Cruz L.J., Fernández G.P. y Martínez H.V., Caracterización Defectológica de Piezas Fundida por Lost Foam Casting Mediante Simulación Numérica, 8° Congreso Iberoamericano de Ingenieria Mecanica, Cusco, Peru, 23 al 25 de Octubre de 2007 (in Spanish)

27-07 A.Y. Korotchenko, A.M. Zarubin, I.A.Korotchenko, Modeling of High Pressure Die Casting Filling, Russian Foundryman, December 2007, pp 15-19. (in Russian)

26-07 I.N. Volnov, Modeling of Casting Processes with Variable Geometry, Russian Foundryman, November 2007, pp 27-30. (in Russian)

16-07 P. Väyrynen, S. Vapalahti, S. Louhenkilpi, L. Chatburn, M. Clark, T. Wagner, Tundish Flow Model Tuning and Validation – Steady State and Transient Casting Situations, STEELSIM 2007, Graz/Seggau, Austria, September 12-14 2007

11-07 Marco Actis Grande, Computer Simulation of the Investment Casting Process – Widening of the Filling Step, Santa Fe Symposium on Jewelry Manufacturing Technology, May 2007

09-07 Alexandre Reikher and Michael Barkhudarov, Casting: An Analytical Approach, Springer, 1st edition, August 2007, Hardcover ISBN: 978-1-84628-849-4. U.S. Order Form; Europe Order Form.

07-07 I.N. Volnov, Casting Modeling Systems – Current State, Problems and Perspectives, (in Russian), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), June 2007

05-07 A.N. Turchin, D.G. Eskin, and L. Katgerman, Solidification under Forced-Flow Conditions in a Shallow Cavity, DOI: 10.1007/s1161-007-9183-9, © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2007

04-07 A.N. Turchin, M. Zuijderwijk, J. Pool, D.G. Eskin, and L. Katgerman, Feathery grain growth during solidification under forced flow conditions, © Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2007.02.030, April 2007

03-07 S. Kuyucak, Sponsored Research – Clean Steel Casting Production—Evaluation of Laboratory Castings, Transactions of the American Foundry Society, Volume 115, 111th Metalcasting Congress, May 2007

02-07 Fu-Yuan Hsu, Mark R. Jolly and John Campbell, The Design of L-Shaped Runners for Gravity Casting, Shape Casting: 2nd International Symposium, Edited by Paul N. Crepeau, Murat Tiryakioðlu and John Campbell, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), Orlando, FL, Feb 2007

30-06 X.J. Liu, S.H. Bhavnani, R.A. Overfelt, Simulation of EPS foam decomposition in the lost foam casting process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 182 (2007) 333–342, © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

25-06 Michael Barkhudarov and Gengsheng Wei, Modeling Casting on the Move, Modern Casting, August 2006; Modeling of Casting Processes with Variable Geometry, Russian Foundryman, December 2007, pp 10-15. (in Russian)

24-06 P. Scarber, Jr. and C.E. Bates, Simulation of Core Gas Production During Mold Fill, © 2006 American Foundry Society

7-06 M.Y.Smirnov, Y.V.Golenkov, Manufacturing of Cast Iron Bath Tubs Castings using Vacuum-Process in Russia, Russia’s Foundryman, July 2006. In Russian.

6-06 M. Barkhudarov, and G. Wei, Modeling of the Coupled Motion of Rigid Bodies in Liquid Metal, Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes – XI, May 28 – June 2, 2006, Opio, France, eds. Ch.-A. Gandin and M. Bellet, pp 71-78, 2006.

2-06 J.-C. Gebelin, M.R. Jolly and F.-Y. Hsu, ‘Designing-in’ Controlled Filling Using Numerical Simulation for Gravity Sand Casting of Aluminium Alloys, Int. J. Cast Met. Res., 2006, Vol.19 No.1

1-06 Michael Barkhudarov, Using Simulation to Control Microporosity Reduces Die Iterations, Die Casting Engineer, January 2006, pp. 52-54

30-05 H. Xue, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, R.A. Miller, Modeling Dynamic Cavity Pressure and Impact Spike in Die Casting, Cast Expo ’05, April 16-19, 2005

22-05 Blas Melissari & Stavros A. Argyropoulous, Measurement of Magnitude and Direction of Velocity in High-Temperature Liquid Metals; Part I, Mathematical Modeling, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Volume 36B, October 2005, pp. 691-700

21-05 M.R. Jolly, State of the Art Review of Use of Modeling Software for Casting, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 337-346

20-05 J-C Gebelin, M.R. Jolly & F-Y Hsu, ‘Designing-in’ Controlled Filling Using Numerical Simulation for Gravity Sand Casting of Aluminium Alloys, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 355-364

19-05 F-Y Hsu, M.R. Jolly & J Campbell, Vortex Gate Design for Gravity Castings, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 73-82

18-05 M.R. Jolly, Modelling the Investment Casting Process: Problems and Successes, Japanese Foundry Society, JFS, Tokyo, Sept. 2005

13-05 Xiaogang Yang, Xiaobing Huang, Xiaojun Dai, John Campbell and Joe Tatler, Numerical Modelling of the Entrainment of Oxide Film Defects in Filling of Aluminium Alloy Castings, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 17 (6), 2004, 321-331

10-05 Carlos Evaristo Esparza, Martha P. Guerro-Mata, Roger Z. Ríos-Mercado, Optimal Design of Gating Systems by Gradient Search Methods, Computational Materials Science, October 2005

6-05 Birgit Hummler-Schaufler, Fritz Hirning, Jurgen Schaufler, A World First for Hatz Diesel and Schaufler Tooling, Die Casting Engineer, May 2005, pp. 18-21

4-05 Rolf Krack, The W35 Topic—A World First, Die Casting World, March 2005, pp. 16-17

3-05 Joerg Frei, Casting Simulations Speed Up Development, Die Casting World, March 2005, p. 14

2-05 David Goettsch and Michael Barkhudarov, Analysis and Optimization of the Transient Stage of Stopper-Rod Pour, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2005

36-04  Ik Min Park, Il Dong Choi, Yong Ho Park, Development of Light-Weight Al Scroll Compressor for Car Air Conditioner, Materials Science Forum, Designing, Processing and Properties of Advanced Engineering Materials, 449-452, 149, March 2004.

32-04 D.H. Kirkwood and P.J Ward, Numerical Modelling of Semi-Solid Flow under Processing Conditions, steel research int. 75 (2004), No. 8/9

30-04 Haijing Mao, A Numerical Study of Externally Solidified Products in the Cold Chamber Die Casting Process, thesis: The Ohio State University, 2004 (Available upon request)

28-04 Z. Cao, Z. Yang, and X.L. Chen, Three-Dimensional Simulation of Transient GMA Weld Pool with Free Surface, Supplement to the Welding Journal, June 2004.

23-04 State of the Art Use of Computational Modelling in the Foundry Industry, 3rd International Conference Computational Modelling of Materials III, Sicily, Italy, June 2004, Advances in Science and Technology,  Eds P. Vincenzini & A Lami, Techna Group Srl, Italy, ISBN: 88-86538-46-4, Part B, pp 479-490

22-04 Jerry Fireman, Computer Simulation Helps Reduce Scrap, Die Casting Engineer, May 2004, pp. 46-49

21-04 Joerg Frei, Simulation—A Safe and Quick Way to Good Components, Aluminium World, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 42-43

20-04 J.-C. Gebelin, M.R. Jolly, A. M. Cendrowicz, J. Cirre and S. Blackburn, Simulation of Die Filling for the Wax Injection Process – Part II Numerical Simulation, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, Volume 35B, August 2004

14-04 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, Charles H. Sherwin, and Ruel A. Overfelt, Hot Distortion Studies In Phenolic Urethane Cold Box System, American Foundry Society, 108th Casting Congress, June 12-15, 2004, Rosemont, IL, USA

13-04 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov and Ruel A. Overfelt, First V-Process Casting of Magnesium, American Foundry Society, 108th Casting Congress, June 12-15, 2004, Rosemont, IL, USA

5-04 C. Schlumpberger & B. Hummler-Schaufler, Produktentwicklung auf hohem Niveau (Product Development on a High Level), Druckguss Praxis, January 2004, pp 39-42 (in German).

3-04 Charles Bates, Dealing with Defects, Foundry Management and Technology, February 2004, pp 23-25

1-04 Laihua Wang, Thang Nguyen, Gary Savage and Cameron Davidson, Thermal and Flow Modeling of Ladling and Injection in High Pressure Die Casting Process, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, vol. 16 No 4 2003, pp 409-417

2-03 J-C Gebelin, AM Cendrowicz, MR Jolly, Modeling of the Wax Injection Process for the Investment Casting Process – Prediction of Defects, presented at the Third International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Minerals and Process Industries, December 10-12, 2003, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 415-420

29-03 C. W. Hirt, Modeling Shrinkage Induced Micro-porosity, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-03-TN66)

28-03 Thixoforming at the University of Sheffield, Diecasting World, September 2003, pp 11-12

26-03 William Walkington, Gas Porosity-A Guide to Correcting the Problems, NADCA Publication: 516

22-03 G F Yao, C W Hirt, and M Barkhudarov, Development of a Numerical Approach for Simulation of Sand Blowing and Core Formation, in Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Process-X”, Ed. By Stefanescu et al pp. 633-639, 2003

21-03 E F Brush Jr, S P Midson, W G Walkington, D T Peters, J G Cowie, Porosity Control in Copper Rotor Die Castings, NADCA Indianapolis Convention Center, Indianapolis, IN September 15-18, 2003, T03-046

12-03 J-C Gebelin & M.R. Jolly, Modeling Filters in Light Alloy Casting Processes,  Trans AFS, 2002, 110, pp. 109-120

11-03 M.R. Jolly, Casting Simulation – How Well Do Reality and Virtual Casting Match – A State of the Art Review, Intl. J. Cast Metals Research, 2002, 14, pp. 303-313

10-03 Gebelin., J-C and Jolly, M.R., Modeling of the Investment Casting Process, Journal of  Materials Processing Tech., Vol. 135/2-3, pp. 291 – 300

9-03 Cox, M, Harding, R.A. and Campbell, J., Optimised Running System Design for Bottom Filled Aluminium Alloy 2L99 Investment Castings, J. Mat. Sci. Tech., May 2003, Vol. 19, pp. 613-625

8-03 Von Alexander Schrey and Regina Reek, Numerische Simulation der Kernherstellung, (Numerical Simulation of Core Blowing), Giesserei, June 2003, pp. 64-68 (in German)

7-03 J. Zuidema Jr., L Katgerman, Cyclone separation of particles in aluminum DC Casting, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 607-614

6-03 Jean-Christophe Gebelin and Mark Jolly, Numerical Modeling of Metal Flow Through Filters, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 431-438

5-03 N.W. Lai, W.D. Griffiths and J. Campbell, Modelling of the Potential for Oxide Film Entrainment in Light Metal Alloy Castings, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 415-422

21-02 Boris Lukezic, Case History: Process Modeling Solves Die Design Problems, Modern Casting, February 2003, P 59

20-02 C.W. Hirt and M.R. Barkhudarov, Predicting Defects in Lost Foam Castings, Modern Casting, December 2002, pp 31-33

19-02 Mark Jolly, Mike Cox, Ric Harding, Bill Griffiths and John Campbell, Quiescent Filling Applied to Investment Castings, Modern Casting, December 2002 pp. 36-38

18-02 Simulation Helps Overcome Challenges of Thin Wall Magnesium Diecasting, Foundry Management and Technology, October 2002, pp 13-15

17-02 G Messmer, Simulation of a Thixoforging Process of Aluminum Alloys with FLOW-3D, Institute for Metal Forming Technology, University of Stuttgart

16-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Computer Simulation of Lost Foam Process, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 319-324

15-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Computer Simulation of Inclusion Tracking, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 341-346

14-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Advanced Simulation of the Flow and Heat Transfer of an Alternator Housing, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 219-228

8-02 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, and Ruel A. Overfelt, Experimental and Numerical Study of Bonded Sand-Air Two-Phase Flow in PUA Process, Auburn University, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-091, Kansas City, MO

7-02 A Habibollah Zadeh, and J Campbell, Metal Flow Through a Filter System, University of Birmingham, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-020, Kansas City, MO

6-02 Phil Ward, and Helen Atkinson, Final Report for EPSRC Project: Modeling of Thixotropic Flow of Metal Alloys into a Die, GR/M17334/01, March 2002, University of Sheffield

5-02 S. I. Bakhtiyarov and R. A. Overfelt, Numerical and Experimental Study of Aluminum Casting in Vacuum-sealed Step Molding, Auburn University, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-050, Kansas City, MO

4-02 J. C. Gebelin and M. R. Jolly, Modelling Filters in Light Alloy Casting Processes, University of Birmingham, 2002 American Foundry Society AFS Transactions 02-079, Kansas City, MO

3-02 Mark Jolly, Mike Cox, Jean-Christophe Gebelin, Sam Jones, and Alex Cendrowicz, Fundamentals of Investment Casting (FOCAST), Modelling the Investment Casting Process, Some preliminary results from the UK Research Programme, IRC in Materials, University of Birmingham, UK, AFS2001

49-01   Hua Bai and Brian G. Thomas, Bubble formation during horizontal gas injection into downward-flowing liquid, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 1143-1159, 2001. doi.org/10.1007/s11663-001-0102-y

45-01 Jan Zuidema; Laurens Katgerman; Ivo J. Opstelten;Jan M. Rabenberg, Secondary Cooling in DC Casting: Modelling and Experimental Results, TMS 2001, New Orleans, Louisianna, February 11-15, 2001

43-01 James Andrew Yurko, Fluid Flow Behavior of Semi-Solid Aluminum at High Shear Rates,Ph.D. thesis; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2001. Abstract only; full thesis available at http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/8451 (for a fee).

33-01 Juang, S.H., CAE Application on Design of Die Casting Dies, 2001 Conference on CAE Technology and Application, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, November 2001, (article in Chinese with English-language abstract)

32-01 Juang, S.H. and C. M. Wang, Effect of Feeding Geometry on Flow Characteristics of Magnesium Die Casting by Numerical Analysis, The Preceedings of 6th FADMA Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, July 2001, Chinese language with English abstract

26-01 C. W. Hirt., Predicting Defects in Lost Foam Castings, December 13, 2001

21-01 P. Scarber Jr., Using Liquid Free Surface Areas as a Predictor of Reoxidation Tendency in Metal Alloy Castings, presented at the Steel Founders’ Society of American, Technical and Operating Conference, October 2001

20-01 P. Scarber Jr., J. Griffin, and C. E. Bates, The Effect of Gating and Pouring Practice on Reoxidation of Steel Castings, presented at the Steel Founders’ Society of American, Technical and Operating Conference, October 2001

19-01 L. Wang, T. Nguyen, M. Murray, Simulation of Flow Pattern and Temperature Profile in the Shot Sleeve of a High Pressure Die Casting Process, CSIRO Manufacturing Science and Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Presented by North American Die Casting Association, Oct 29-Nov 1, 2001, Cincinnati, To1-014

18-01 Rajiv Shivpuri, Venkatesh Sankararaman, Kaustubh Kulkarni, An Approach at Optimizing the Ingate Design for Reducing Filling and Shrinkage Defects, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, Presented by North American Die Casting Association, Oct 29-Nov 1, 2001, Cincinnati, TO1-052

5-01 Michael Barkhudarov, Simulation Helps Overcome Challenges of Thin Wall Magnesium Diecasting, Diecasting World, March 2001, pp. 5-6

2-01 J. Grindling, Customized CFD Codes to Simulate Casting of Thermosets in Full 3D, Electrical Manufacturing and Coil Winding 2000 Conference, October 31-November 2, 20

20-00 Richard Schuhmann, John Carrig, Thang Nguyen, Arne Dahle, Comparison of Water Analogue Modelling and Numerical Simulation Using Real-Time X-Ray Flow Data in Gravity Die Casting, Australian Die Casting Association Die Casting 2000 Conference, September 3-6, 2000, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

15-00 M. Sirvio, Vainola, J. Vartianinen, M. Vuorinen, J. Orkas, and S. Devenyi, Fluid Flow Analysis for Designing Gating of Aluminum Castings, Proc. NADCA Conf., Rosemont, IL, Nov 6-8, 1999

14-00 X. Yang, M. Jolly, and J. Campbell, Reduction of Surface Turbulence during Filling of Sand Castings Using a Vortex-flow Runner, Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August 2000

13-00 H. S. H. Lo and J. Campbell, The Modeling of Ceramic Foam Filters, Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August 2000

12-00 M. R. Jolly, H. S. H. Lo, M. Turan and J. Campbell, Use of Simulation Tools in the Practical Development of a Method for Manufacture of Cast Iron Camshafts,” Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August, 2000

14-99 J Koke, and M Modigell, Time-Dependent Rheological Properties of Semi-solid Metal Alloys, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Aachen University of Technology, Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials 3: 15-30, 1999

12-99 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, Schneider, Wolfgang, Ray, Steven, Marthinusen, Jan-Olaf, Recent Improvements in Ceramic Foam Filter Design by Coupled Heat and Fluid Flow Modeling, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1999, pp. 1041-1047

10-99 Bongcheol Park and Jerald R. Brevick, Computer Flow Modeling of Cavity Pre-fill Effects in High Pressure Die Casting, NADCA Proceedings, Cleveland T99-011, November, 1999

8-99 Brad Guthrie, Simulation Reduces Aluminum Die Casting Cost by Reducing Volume, Die Casting Engineer Magazine, September/October 1999, pp. 78-81

7-99 Fred L. Church, Virtual Reality Predicts Cast Metal Flow, Modern Metals, September, 1999, pp. 67F-J

19-98 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, & Schneider, Wolfgang, Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow Phenomena in the Launder-integrated Tool Within Casting Unit Development, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1998, pp. 1175-1182

18-98 X. Yang & J. Campbell, Liquid Metal Flow in a Pouring Basin, Int. J. Cast Metals Res, 1998, 10, pp. 239-253

15-98 R. Van Tol, Mould Filling of Horizontal Thin-Wall Castings, Delft University Press, The Netherlands, 1998

14-98 J. Daughtery and K. A. Williams, Thermal Modeling of Mold Material Candidates for Copper Pressure Die Casting of the Induction Motor Rotor Structure, Proc. Int’l Workshop on Permanent Mold Casting of Copper-Based Alloys, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Oct. 15-16, 1998

10-98 C. W. Hirt, and M.R. Barkhudarov, Lost Foam Casting Simulation with Defect Prediction, Flow Science Inc, presented at Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes VIII Conference, June 7-12, 1998, Catamaran Hotel, San Diego, California

9-98 M. R. Barkhudarov and C. W. Hirt, Tracking Defects, Flow Science Inc, presented at the 1st International Aluminum Casting Technology Symposium, 12-14 October 1998, Rosemont, IL

5-98 J. Righi, Computer Simulation Helps Eliminate Porosity, Die Casting Management Magazine, pp. 36-38, January 1998

3-98 P. Kapranos, M. R. Barkhudarov, D. H. Kirkwood, Modeling of Structural Breakdown during Rapid Compression of Semi-Solid Alloy Slugs, Dept. Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, U.K. and Flow Science Inc, USA, Presented at the 5th International Conference Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, 23-25 June 1998

1-98 U. Jerichow, T. Altan, and P. R. Sahm, Semi Solid Metal Forming of Aluminum Alloys-The Effect of Process Variables Upon Material Flow, Cavity Fill and Mechanical Properties, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, published in Die Casting Engineer, p. 26, Jan/Feb 1998

8-97 Michael Barkhudarov, High Pressure Die Casting Simulation Using FLOW-3D, Die Casting Engineer, 1997

15-97 M. R. Barkhudarov, Advanced Simulation of the Flow and Heat Transfer Process in Simultaneous Engineering, Flow Science report, presented at the Casting 1997 – International ADI and Simulation Conference, Helsinki, Finland, May 28-30, 1997

14-97 M. Ranganathan and R. Shivpuri, Reducing Scrap and Increasing Die Life in Low Pressure Die Casting through Flow Simulation and Accelerated Testing, Dept. Welding and Systems Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, presented at 19th International Die Casting Congress & Exposition, November 3-6, 1997

13-97 J. Koke, Modellierung und Simulation der Fließeigenschaften teilerstarrter Metallegierungen, Livt Information, Institut für Verfahrenstechnik, RWTH Aachen, October 1997

10-97 J. P. Greene and J. O. Wilkes, Numerical Analysis of Injection Molding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics – Part 2 Fiber Orientation, Body-in-White Center, General Motors Corp. and Dept. Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 37, No. 6, June 1997

9-97 J. P. Greene and J. O. Wilkes, Numerical Analysis of Injection Molding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics. Part 1 – Injection Pressures and Flow, Manufacturing Center, General Motors Corp. and Dept. Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 37, No. 3, March 1997

8-97 H. Grazzini and D. Nesa, Thermophysical Properties, Casting Simulation and Experiments for a Stainless Steel, AT Systemes (Renault) report, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

7-97 R. Van Tol, L. Katgerman and H. E. A. Van den Akker, Horizontal Mould Filling of a Thin Wall Aluminum Casting, Laboratory of Materials report, Delft University, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

6-97 M. R. Barkhudarov, Is Fluid Flow Important for Predicting Solidification, Flow Science report, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

22-96 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich & Schneider, Wolfgang, 3-D Modeling of the Start-up Phase of DC Casting of Sheet Ingots, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1996, pp. 971-981

9-96 M. R. Barkhudarov and C. W. Hirt, Thixotropic Flow Effects under Conditions of Strong Shear, Flow Science report FSI96-00-2, to be presented at the “Materials Week ’96” TMS Conference, Cincinnati, OH, 7-10 October 1996

4-96 C. W. Hirt, A Computational Model for the Lost Foam Process, Flow Science final report, February 1996 (FSI-96-57-R2)

3-96 M. R. Barkhudarov, C. L. Bronisz, C. W. Hirt, Three-Dimensional Thixotropic Flow Model, Flow Science report, FSI-96-00-1, published in the proceedings of (pp. 110- 114) and presented at the 4th International Conference on Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites, The University of Sheffield, 19-21 June 1996

1-96 M. R. Barkhudarov, J. Beech, K. Chang, and S. B. Chin, Numerical Simulation of Metal/Mould Interfacial Heat Transfer in Casting, Dept. Mech. & Process Engineering, Dept. Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield and Flow Science Inc, 9th Int. Symposium on Transport Phenomena in Thermal-Fluid Engineering, June 25-28, 1996, Singapore

11-95 Barkhudarov, M. R., Hirt, C.W., Casting Simulation Mold Filling and Solidification-Benchmark Calculations Using FLOW-3D, Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes VII, pp 935-946

10-95 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, & Schneider, Wolfgang, Optimal Design of a Distribution Pan for Level Pour Casting, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1995, pp. 1061-1070

9-95 E. Masuda, I. Itoh, K. Haraguchi, Application of Mold Filling Simulation to Die Casting Processes, Honda Engineering Co., Ltd., Tochigi, Japan, presented at the Modelling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes VII, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 1995

6-95 K. Venkatesan, Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Process Parameters on the Erosive Wear of Die Casting Dies, presented for Ph.D. degree at Ohio State University, 1995

5-95 J. Righi, A. F. LaCamera, S. A. Jones, W. G. Truckner, T. N. Rouns, Integration of Experience and Simulation Based Understanding in the Die Design Process, Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA 15069, presented by the North American Die Casting Association, 1995

2-95 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Simulation and Comparison with Water Modeling Studies of the Inertia Dominated Cavity Filling in Die Casting, NUMIFORM, 1995

1-95 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Gate Velocity and Gate Size on the Quality of Die Casting Parts, NAMRC, 1995.

15-94 D. Liang, Y. Bayraktar, S. A. Moir, M. Barkhudarov, and H. Jones, Primary Silicon Segregation During Isothermal Holding of Hypereutectic AI-18.3%Si Alloy in the Freezing Range, Dept. of Engr. Materials, U. of Sheffield, Metals and Materials, February 1994

13-94 Deniece Korzekwa and Paul Dunn, A Combined Experimental and Modeling Approach to Uranium Casting, Materials Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, presented at the Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, El Dorado Hotel, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1994

12-94 R. van Tol, H. E. A. van den Akker and L. Katgerman, CFD Study of the Mould Filling of a Horizontal Thin Wall Aluminum Casting, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, HTD-Vol. 284/AMD-Vol. 182, Transport Phenomena in Solidification, ASME 1994

11-94 M. R. Barkhudarov and K. A. Williams, Simulation of ‘Surface Turbulence’ Fluid Phenomena During the Mold Filling Phase of Gravity Castings, Flow Science Technical Note #41, November 1994 (FSI-94-TN41)

10-94 M. R. Barkhudarov and S. B. Chin, Stability of a Numerical Algorithm for Gas Bubble Modelling, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K., International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 19, 415-437 (1994)

16-93 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Simulation of Die Cavity Filling in Die Castings and an Evaluation of Process Parameters on Die Wear, Dept. of Industrial Systems Engineering, Presented by: N.A. Die Casting Association, Cleveland, Ohio, October 18-21, 1993

15-93 K. Venkatesen and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Modeling of Filling and Solidification for Improved Quality of Die Casting: A Literature Survey (Chapters II and III), Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, Report C-93-07, August 1993, Ohio State University

1-93 P-E Persson, Computer Simulation of the Solidification of a Hub Carrier for the Volvo 800 Series, AB Volvo Technological Development, Metals Laboratory, Technical Report No. LM 500014E, Jan. 1993

13-92 D. R. Korzekwa, M. A. K. Lewis, Experimentation and Simulation of Gravity Fed Lead Castings, in proceedings of a TMS Symposium on Concurrent Engineering Approach to Materials Processing, S. N. Dwivedi, A. J. Paul and F. R. Dax, eds., TMS-AIME Warrendale, p. 155 (1992)

12-92 M. A. K. Lewis, Near-Net-Shaiconpe Casting Simulation and Experimentation, MST 1992 Review, Los Alamos National Laboratory

2-92 M. R. Barkhudarov, H. You, J. Beech, S. B. Chin, D. H. Kirkwood, Validation and Development of FLOW-3D for Casting, School of Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, presented at the TMS/AIME Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 3, 1992

1-92 D. R. Korzekwa and L. A. Jacobson, Los Alamos National Laboratory and C.W. Hirt, Flow Science Inc, Modeling Planar Flow Casting with FLOW-3D, presented at the TMS/AIME Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 3, 1992

12-91 R. Shivpuri, M. Kuthirakulathu, and M. Mittal, Nonisothermal 3-D Finite Difference Simulation of Cavity Filling during the Die Casting Process, Dept. Industrial and Systems Engineering, Ohio State University, presented at the 1991 Winter Annual ASME Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1-6, 1991

3-91 C. W. Hirt, FLOW-3D Study of the Importance of Fluid Momentum in Mold Filling, presented at the 18th Annual Automotive Materials Symposium, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI, May 1-2, 1991 (FSI-91-00-2)

11-90 N. Saluja, O.J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, On the Calculation of the Electromagnetic Force Field in the Circular Stirring of Metallic Melts, accepted in J. Appl. Physics, 1990

10-90 N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, On the Calculation of the Electromagnetic Force Field in the Circular Stirring of Metallic Molds in Continuous Castings, presented at the 6th Iron and Steel Congress of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Nagoya, Japan, October 1990

9-90 N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, Fluid Flow in Phenomena in the Electromagnetic Stirring of Continuous Casting Systems, Part I. The Behavior of a Cylindrically Shaped, Laboratory Scale Installation, accepted for publication in Steel Research, 1990

8-89 C. W. Hirt, Gravity-Fed Casting, Flow Science Technical Note #20, July 1989 (FSI-89-TN20)

6-89 E. W. M. Hansen and F. Syvertsen, Numerical Simulation of Flow Behaviour in Moldfilling for Casting Analysis, SINTEF-Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway, Report No. STS20 A89001, June 1989

1-88 C. W. Hirt and R. P. Harper, Modeling Tests for Casting Processes, Flow Science report, Jan. 1988 (FSI-88-38-01)

2-87 C. W. Hirt, Addition of a Solidification/Melting Model to FLOW-3D, Flow Science report, April 1987 (FSI-87-33-1)

격자 생성 시간 절약

Free Gridding Saves Time

본 자료는 국내 사용자들의 편의를 위해 원문 번역을 해서 제공하기 때문에 일부 오역이 있을 수 있어서 원문과 함께 수록합니다. 자료를 이용하실 때 참고하시기 바랍니다.

Computational fluid dynamic algorithms use a grid of small volume elements in which the average values of flow quantities are stored. In many programs the construction of a suitable grid is a formidable task requiring a considerable investment in time and effort.

전산 유체 역학 (CFD)의 알고리즘은 유량의 평균값이 저장되는 작은 부피의 요소로 이루어진 격자를 사용합니다.  많은 프로그램에서 적절한 격자를 구축하는 것은 시간과 노력에 상당한 투자가 필요한 어려운 작업입니다.

Most programs typically use one or more types of polyhedral elements that must be connected to one another as well as conform to the geometry of a flow region. For complex flow regions it is often necessary to use unstructured grids or separate blocks of regularly connected elements.

일반적으로 대부분의 프로그램은 하나 이상 유형의 다면체 요소를 사용하지만, 그들은 서로 결합하는 동시에 흐름 영역의 기하학적 형상에 맞게 해야 합니다.  복잡한 흐름 영역의 경우, 종종 비 구조 격자나 규칙적으로 결합된 요소의 개별 블록을 사용해야 합니다.

Even when automatic grid generators are employed there are requirements for users to supply data to control the number and type of elements, their connectivity, aspect ratios, and other features. In general, the generation of a geometry conforming grid can consume a significant amount of time and effort.

자동 격자 생성 기능을 선택하는 경우에도 사용자는 요소의 수와 유형, 요소의 결합 상태, 화면 비율, 기타 기능을 제어하기위한 데이터를 제공해야 합니다.  일반적으로 기하학적 형상에 적합한 격자를 생성하려면 상당한 시간과 노력이 소요될 수 있습니다.

In addition to generation difficulties, grids made from polyhedral elements may possess limitations because element faces must match up and elements must not be too distorted (which can be a problem when flow regions have rapidly changing cross sections). Most importantly, geometry conforming grids must be regenerated whenever a change is made in the geometry.

생성이 어려울뿐만 아니라, 다면체 요소에서 만들어진 격자에 제한이 있을 수 있습니다.  요소의 면이 잘 조화되어야 하고 요소가 너무 변형되면 안되기 때문입니다 (급변하는 횡단면이 흐름 영역에있는 경우 문제가 될 수 있습니다).  가장 중요한 것은 기하학적 형상에 적합한 격자는 기하 형상이 변경 될 때마다 다시 생성해야 한다는 것입니다.

Independent Gridding

In free gridding the operations of geometry building and grid generation are independent of one another. Changes in either the grid or geometry can be made freely without requiring changes in the other.

자유 그리딩에서 기하 형상의 생성 및 격자 생성 작업은 서로 독립적입니다.  격자 또는 기하 형상의 변경은 자유롭게 할 수 있으며, 다른 쪽을 변경할 필요가 없습니다.

The free gridding method used in FLOW-3D consists of a simple rectangular mesh with variable spacing controlled by a few parameters. Solid geometry (either constructed from primitives with the program’s preprocessor or imported from a CAD program) is then placed in the grid using the Fractional Area Volume Obstacle Representation (FAVOR™) method. In this technique, which is unique to FLOW-3D, those portions of element surfaces and volumes blocked by obstacles are computed and stored. The computations are done entirely by the preprocessor and require no user interaction.

FLOW-3D에서 사용되는 자유 그리딩 기법은 가변 간격 설정을 약간의 매개 변수로 제어하는 간단한 사각형 메쉬로 구성되어 있습니다.   Solid geometry (프로그램의 전처리기에서 처음 생성했는지, CAD 프로그램에서 가져온 것인지)에 따라 FAVOR TM (Fractional Area Volume Obstacle Representation) 법을 사용하여 격자를 배치합니다.  FLOW-3D에 관련된 이 기술은 요소의 표면 및 체적의 장애물에 의해 차단된 부분이 계산되어 저장됩니다.  계산은 모두 전처리기에 의해 이루어지므로 사용자의 개입은 필요하지 않습니다.

Advantages of Independent Gridding

Because grid and obstacle construction are decoupled, free gridding allows users to modify geometries without changing the grid. Conversely, grid refinement or other changes can be made without affecting the geometric model. This freedom means that complicated geometries described by CAD files can be gridded and ready for solution in a couple of hours, even allowing for a few iterations to get the desired level of local grid resolution.

격자와 장애물(obstacle)의 구축이 분리되어 있기 때문에 프리 그리딩에서는 사용자가 격자를 변경하지 않고 기하학적 형상을 수정할 수 있습니다.  반대로, 격자 세밀화 및 기타 변경도 기하 모델에 영향을주지 않고 할 수 있습니다.  이렇게 자유롭다는 것은 CAD 파일에 의해 표현되는 복잡한 기하학적 형상을 적은 시간으로 격자를 생성하고, 해석결과를 얻을 준비가 될 것입니다.  국소적인 격자의 해상도를 원하는 수준으로하기 위해 여러 번 반복 할 수 있습니다.

Free Gridding Example

An example of the free gridding technique used in FLOW-3D should make clear the advantages offered by this approach for CFD analysis. Figure 1 (left) shows a rather coarse grid developed for the study of flow into a dumbbell shaped cavity. The same geometry with a refined grid is shown in the middle. With FAVOR™ this change is made automatically by the preprocessor when the user changes the number of cells specified in the horizontal and the vertical directions. Decoupling the grid generation from geometry permits changes to the geometry without remeshing (right image). FAVOR™ makes the changes in a matter of seconds, freeing the user from the complexities of conforming grids.

FLOW-3D에서 사용되는 프리 그리딩의 예를 보면 이 방법이 CFD 해석에 제공하는 이점은 분명합니다.  그림 1은 아령 모양을 한 캐비티의 흐름을 조사하기 위해 개발 된 다소 거친 격자를 보여줍니다.  같은 기하학적 형상으로 격자를 정밀화 한 것이 그림 2에 나와 있습니다.  FAVOR TM를 사용하면 이러한 변경은 가로 세로 방향의 지정되는 셀 수를 사용자가 변경할 때 전처리기에 의해 자동으로 이루어집니다.  격자 생성과 기하형상을 분리하여 메쉬를 재 작성하지 않고 기하학적 형상의 변경이 가능합니다 (그림 3 참조).  FAVOR TM는 변경이 몇 초 만에 이루어지기 때문에 사용자는 격자를 준수하는 복잡한 작업에서 해방됩니다.

Figure 1: (left) Initial model, (middle) Refined grid, (right) Original grid with geometry change

FAVOR™ vs. Body-Fitted Coordinates

본 자료는 국내 사용자들의 편의를 위해 원문 번역을 해서 제공하기 때문에 일부 오역이 있을 수 있어서 원문과 함께 수록합니다. 자료를 이용하실 때 참고하시기 바랍니다.

FAVOR™ vs. Body-Fitted Coordinates

The simplicity of the fractional area/volume method FAVOR™ for modeling complex geometric regions is very attractive. But, can it compete in terms of accuracy with deformed grids such as those employed by finite-element or body-fitted coordinate methods? A comparison between these methods shows that there are only small differences between the capabilities of the two approaches.

복잡한 기하 영역을 모델링하기 위해 면적/체적 점유율을 측정하는 FAVOR TM 법의 간결함은 매우 매력적입니다.  그러나 유한 요소법과 BFC (body-fitted coordinate : 물체 적합 좌표) 법에서 사용되는  변형 격자와 비교할 때 정확도면에서 경쟁 할 수 있을까요?  이러한 기술을 비교함으로써 이 두 가지 방법의 기능의 차이는 매우 적다는 것을 알 수 있습니다.

In the absence of solid boundaries there is little fundamental difference between grids of differently shaped control volumes. Some methods require users to store more information (e.g., node locations and various geometric factors) and some exhibit differing levels of accuracy depending on the amount of element distortion. In all cases, however, the underlying idea is a discrete approximation in which fluid forces and fluxes are computed for each element in the grid.

고체 경계가 존재하지 않는 경우, 형상이 다른 컨트롤 볼륨 격자 사이에는 근본적인 차이는 거의 없습니다.  어떤 방법이 더 많은 정보를 저장하도록 요구할 경우 (노드 위치, 다양한 기하학적 형상 요소 등)나 요소의 왜곡의 양에 따라 정확도 수준은 다를 수 있습니다.  그러나 어떤 경우에도 기초가 되는 개념은 격자의 각 요소마다 유체의 힘과 플럭스가 계산된 근사치입니다.

It is the issue of obstacle boundaries that is most often raised as an advantage of deformable grids because they can be constructed to fit the geometry. Two consequences come with this flexibility. One consequence is that these grids must be unstructured for general use. This is because structured grids can only undergo limited distortion before elements are turned inside out. The other consequence is that the distortion of an element makes it more difficult to construct accurate numerical approximations.

이것은 기하학적 형상에 적합하도록 구축 될 수있는 변형 가능한 격자의 장점으로 거론되는 가장 흔한 장애물 경계의 문제입니다.  이러한 유연성은 2 개의 결과가 포함됩니다.  하나는 이러한 격자는 범용으로 비구조이어야한다는 것입니다.  구조 격자의 경우 조금 왜곡을 더한 것만으로 요소가 뒤집어지기 때문입니다.  또 하나는 요소의 왜곡에 의해 정확한 수치 근사를 구축하는 것이 더욱 어려워 질 것입니다.

Structured FAVOR™ Grids vs. Unstructured Grids

The FAVOR™ concept can be used in connection with any type of grid including grids consisting of rectangular or distorted elements and whether the grid is structured or unstructured. Structured grids are best because they are easy to generate and the indices for neighboring elements are known. Rectangular grid elements make it easy to compute the fractional areas and volumes of elements used by the FAVOR™ method.

FAVOR TM의 개념은 사각형 요소와 왜곡 요소로 이루어진 격자를 포함하여, 또한 구조 격자 또는 비구조 격자 여부에 관계없이 모든 종류의 격자와 관련시켜 사용할 수 있습니다.  그 중에서도 구조 격자가 좋습니다.  구조 격자는 쉽게 생성 할 수 인접한 요소의 인덱스를 알고 있기 때문입니다.  직사각형의 격자 요소를 사용하면 FAVOR TM 법에서 사용되는 요소의 면적 점유율과 체적 점유율을 쉽게 계산할 수 있습니다.

The ease with which structured, rectangular grids can be generated makes this an obvious choice for the FAVOR™ method. However, the specification of open and closed grid regions implicit in the FAVOR™ method introduces a type of unstructured computing environment, because only those elements having a finite amount of open volume are actually computed. This results in a computation that is analogous to an unstructured grid computation.

직사각형 구조 격자를 쉽게 생성 할 수 있기 때문에 FAVOR TM 법에서는이를 선택하는 것이 당연하게되어 있습니다.  그러나 FAVOR TM 법에서는 열린 격자 공간과 닫힌 격자 영역의 지정을 잠재적하는 일종의 비구조 계산 환경입니다.  이것은 열린 체적의 크기가 유한한 요소만 실제로 계산되어 그 결과, 비 구조 격자의 계산과 비슷한 계산이 되기 때문입니다.

The analogy with a true unstructured grid is not perfect. For example, the FAVOR™ method requires storage for all elements whether they are blocked or not, while unstructured grids require storage of neighbor lists. Storing all elements is the price paid for automatically knowing which elements are neighbors. Of course, if heat conduction is to be computed in the solid regions surrounding a fluid, then blocked elements must be kept anyway.

진짜 비구조 격자와 유사하지만 완전하지 않습니다.  예를 들어, FAVOR TM 법은 차단되어 있는지 여부에 관계없이 모든 요소의 스토리지가 필요하지만, 비 구조 격자는 인접리스트의 스토리지가 필요합니다.  어떤 요소가 인접해 있는지를 자동으로 알 수 있는 대신 모든 요소를 저장해야 합니다.  물론, 유체를 둘러싼 고체 영역에서 열전도가 계산되는 경우 차단되는 요소는 어느쪽으로도 유지해야합니다.

One disadvantage associated with rectangular, structured grids is that they cannot be distorted to increase resolution in a localized region. Grid lines can be constructed closer together in a particular region for increased resolution, but these grid lines then extend across the entire grid. As a result, the number of elements in a grid may become large. Offsetting this disadvantage is the simplicity of grid generation. There is also the possibility of introducing multiple grid blocks joined at their boundaries to provide increased local resolution without a large increase in the number of grid cells.

직사각형 구조 격자와 관련된 단점 중 하나는 국소화된 영역에서 변형시켜 해상도를 올릴 수 없는 것입니다.  격자선은 특정 영역에서 해상도를 높이기 위해 세밀하게 만들 수 있지만, 이러한 격자는 그 격자 전체에 퍼집니다.  그 결과 하나의 격자 내의 요소의 수가 증가 할 수 있습니다.  이 단점을 상쇄하는 것이 격자 생성의 간단함입니다.  또한 경계에 결합된 복수의 격자 블록을 도입하여 격자 셀의 수를 크게 증가시키지 않고 국소적인 해상도를 올릴 가능성도 있습니다.

The FAVOR™ method is seen to have properties analogous to unstructured grids but without the overhead associated with the construction of unstructured body-fitted or finite-element grids. Since grid generation often requires a major investment of time and effort, the elimination of this task makes FAVOR™ a very desirable alternative.

FAVOR TM 법은 비 구조 격자와 유사한 특성을 가진 것으로 볼 수 있지만, 비 구조의 물체 적합 격자와 유한 요소 격자의 구축과 관련된 오버 헤드는 없습니다.  격자 생성에 시간과 노력을 많이 투자해야하는 경우가 많기 때문에이 작업이 불필요하게 됨으로써 FAVOR TM은 매우 바람직한 선택이 되고 있습니다.

FAVOR™ Elements vs. Body-Fitted Coordinate Elements

A second issue with deformed grids is that their deformation can be used to fit a bounding solid surface. This is accomplished by moving the nodes of elements closest to the surface onto the surface. In contrast, in the FAVOR™ method a surface is allowed to cut through an element and its location is recorded not by moving the edges of the element but in terms of the fractional face areas and fractional volume of the element that are not covered by the solid.

변형 격자의 두 번째 문제는 경계의 고체 표면에 대한 적합성에 변형을 사용할 수 있는 것입니다.  이것은 표면에 가장 가까운 요소 노드를 표면으로 이동함으로써 달성됩니다.  반대로 FAVOR TM 법에서는 표면에서 요소를 자를 수 있도록 허용되고 그 위치는 요소의 끝을 이동함으로써가 아니라 고체로 덮여 있지 않은 요소의 표면적 점유율 및 볼륨 점유율로 기록됩니다.

What we wish to show is that this fractional area/volume technique for defining solid boundaries has the same consequences for numerical approximation as does a deformed (i.e., body-fitted coordinates) grid technique.

우리가 보여주고 싶은 것은 경계를 정의하는 면적/체적 점유율 기법의 수치 근사의 결과가 변형 (BFC) 격자 기법과 동일한 결과를 가지고 있다는 것 입니다.

The most important point to recognize about the FAVOR™ method is that approximations of fluid-dynamic quantities are restricted to the open regions of elements. This restriction introduces fractional areas and volumes of elements as factors directly into the discrete approximations. For example, the flux of a quantity from one element to another has the fractional area of the fluxing boundary that is open to flow as a multiplier.

FAVOR ™ 법에 대해 이해하는 가장 중요한 점은 유체 역학의 유량의 근사치는 요소가 열려있는 영역에 한정되는 것입니다.  이 제한은 요소의 면적/체적 점유율은 인자로 분리된 사치에 직접 도입됩니다.  예를 들어, 요소 요소에 유량의 플럭스는 승수(multiplier)로 흐름에 대해 열려있는 플럭스 경계의 면적 점유율을 가지고 있습니다.

In this way FAVOR™ and body-fitted coordinates both compute fluxes across the faces of elements that employ the same areas. In FAVOR™ the areas are stored as fractions of the original element face areas. In a BFC method the areas are computed from the coordinates of the nodes defining the faces, and often times they are also stored so they don’t have to be recomputed.

이처럼 FAVOR TM과 BFC는 모두 동일한 면적을 사용하는 요소의 면을 통과하는 유량을 계산합니다.  FAVOR TM는 면적은 원래 요소 표면적의 비율로 저장됩니다.  BFC 법에서는 면적은 표면을 정의하는 노드의 좌표에서 계산됩니다.  많은 경우 저장도 되기 때문에 재 계산의 필요가 없습니다.

FAVOR method in FLOW-3D

 

Figure 1: FAVOR™ blocked cell left (a) and BFC cell right (b). Solid region is shaded.

When constructing difference approximations in a grid of non-uniform elements it is necessary to know the effective element widths in different directions. A simple example is given in Fig. 1, which shows an element with a solid boundary. In this case the solid boundary is parallel with the vertical sides of the element. For a deformed element, Fig. 1b, the width of the cell would be h and this width would be used for computing differences in the horizontal direction.

불균일 요소 격자에서 차분 근사를 구축 할 때 다양한 방향의 유효 성분 폭을 알고 있어야 합니다.  간단한 예를 그림 1에 나타냅니다.  이것은 고체 경계를 가지는 요소를 보여줍니다.  이 경우 고체 경계 요소의 수직 측면과 평행하고 있습니다.  변형 된 요소 (그림 1b)에 대해 셀의 폭은 h되어,이 폭을 사용하여 가로 방향의 차이가 계산됩니다.

In FAVOR™ the width of the open portion of the cell is equal to the product of the open volume fraction and the original cell width. It is this product that is used in FAVOR™ for difference approximations in the horizontal direction and it is the same as the width of the deformed cell, h.

FAVOR TM에서 셀의 열 부분의 폭은 열린 체적 점유율과 원래의 셀 폭의 곱 같습니다.  이것은 수평방향에서의 근사 차이에 대한 FAVOR TM이 사용된 제품이며 이는 변형 된 셀의 폭 h와 같습니다.

When differences are computed in a vertical direction, for example, across the top of the element (i.e., parallel to the solid boundary in Fig. 1) the FAVOR™ method approximation involves a ratio of the fractional area at the top divided by the fractional volume. This ratio has a value of unity because the solid boundary blocks the same fraction of area horizontally as it does volume, which again makes the approximation similar to that of a BFC cell. Thus, there is no difference between the effective cell widths used in making difference approximations in FAVOR™ and body-fitted coordinate cells.

세로 방향, 예를 들어 요소의 표면과 교차 (그림 1의 고체 경계와 평행) 방향으로 차이를 계산하는 경우 FAVOR TM 법의 근사치는 윗면의 면적 점유율을 체적 점유율로 나눈 비율이 관계 합니다.  이 비율의 값은 1입니다.  이것은 고체 경계에 따라 부피와 마찬가지로 동일한 면적 점유율이 옆으로 차단되기 때문입니다.  따라서 여기서도 근사 BFC 셀과 비슷합니다.  이처럼 FAVOR TM 셀과 BFC 셀에서 차등 근사 할 때 사용하는 유효한 셀 폭에 차이는 없습니다.

FAVOR method in FLOW-3D for boundary-fitted coordinate systems

 

Figure 2: FAVOR™ cell left (a) and body-fitted coordinate cell right (b). Solid region is shaded.

If the solid surface is slanted as shown in Fig. 2, then the top and bottom face areas are different but are still known quantities in either case. Further, the average horizontal width of the open portion of the cell (h) is still the same because the volume fraction does not change when the solid surface is rotated about a midpoint within the cell (see dashed line). Here again there is little to distinguish between a FAVOR™ and a body-fitted coordinate cell.

그림 2와 같이 고체 표면이 경사져있는 경우에는 위 아래의 표면적은 다르지만 두 경우 모두 알려진 양입니다.  또한 셀의 열 부분의 가로 방향의 평균 폭 (h)도 마찬가지입니다.  이것은 셀의 중간 지점 (점선 참조)을 중심으로 단단한 표면을 회전해도, 체적 점유율은 변하지 않기 때문입니다.  여기서도 FAVOR TM 셀과 BFC 셀을 구별 할 수있는 것은 거의 없습니다.

Summary

It is well known that body-fitted coordinate grids can be difficult to construct, and there has been a huge effort devoted to the development of “automatic” grid generators. It is also well known that even with the best of grid generators it still takes a significant amount of time to establish a workable and well-behaved grid.

The simple rectangular construction of FAVOR™ grids makes them extremely easy to generate. Fractional areas and fractional volumes must be computed to define obstacles placed within a grid, but theses computations are well defined and easy to automate using simple algorithms.

Numerical accuracy is not sacrificed when selecting FAVOR™ over a body-fitted coordinate gridding method. The two approaches simply represent different ways to approximate bounding surfaces.

Finally, the numerical advantages inherent in the structured, smoothly varying, strictly orthogonal grids used by the FAVOR™ method should not be overlooked. These advantages, as well as the ability to automatically represent porous media (i.e., another example of a fractional area/volume region) are additional reasons why the FAVOR™ method was selected as the basis of FLOW-3D.

BFC 격자의 구축이 어려운 것은 잘 알려져 있으며 “자동”격자 생성 기능의 개발에 많은 노력을 쏟고 있습니다.  또한 최고 수준의 격자 생성 기능을 사용하더라도 유효하고 적절한 기능을 수행 격자를 조합하려면 상당한 시간이 걸릴 수 있다는 것이 잘 알려져 있습니다.

FAVOR TM 격자는 간단한 직사각형 구조이기 때문에 매우 쉽게 생성 할 수 있습니다.  격자에 배치 장애물을 정의하는 면적 점유율과 체적 점유율을 계산해야 하지만, 이러한 계산은 잘 정의되어 있으며, 간단한 알고리즘을 사용하여 쉽게 자동화 할 수 있습니다.

격자 생성 기법으로 BFC 대신 FAVOR TM을 선택하여 수치적 정확성이 희생되는 것은 아닙니다.  이 두 가지 방법은 경계 표면의 근사 방법이 다를 뿐입니다.

마지막으로, FAVOR TM 법에서 사용되는 구조화 된 변동이 부드럽고 엄격한 직교 격자 고유의 수많은 장점은 간과해서는 안됩니다.  이러한 장점과 다공성 매체 (면적 / 체적 점유율 영역의 또 다른 예)를 자동으로 표현하는 기능은 FAVOR TM 법이 FLOW-3D의 기초로 뽑힌 또 하나의 이유입니다.

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