FLOW-3D CAST

FLOW-3D CAST는 다양한 금속 주조 해석이 가능한 완벽한 열유동 해석 프로그램으로, 매우 정확한 모델링과 다기능성, 사용 용이성 및 고성능 클라우드 컴퓨팅 기능을 결합한 최첨단 금속 주조 해석 시뮬레이션 플랫폼입니다. 모든 금속 주조 공정에 대해 FLOW-3D CAST는  빠르고 직관적인 해석이 가능한 작업 공간을 제공합니다. 11개 공정에 대한 Workspace, 강력한 후처리, 충진 예측, 응고 및 결함 분석을 통해 FLOW-3D CAST는 최적의 주조 제품 설계에 필요한 도구와 로드맵을 모두 제공합니다.

FLOW-3D Cast는 거의 모든 주조 공정을 모델링 할 수 있도록 설계되었습니다. FLOW-3D Cast의 매우 정확한 유동 및 응고 결과는 표면 산화물, 혼입된 공기, 매크로 및 미세 다공성과 같은 중요한 주조 결함을 포착합니다. 다른 특별한 모델링 기능으로는 로봇 스프레이 냉각 및 윤활, 샷 슬리브 흐름 프로필, 스퀴즈 핀 및 열 응력을 모델링 할 수있는 열 다이 사이클링이 있습니다.

최적화된 시뮬레이션 설계를 통해 개발 시간을 단축하고 출시 시간을 단축하며 수율을 높일 수 있습니다. FLOW-3D CAST를 사용하면 설계 및 개발 비용을 절감할 수 있습니다.

FLOW-3D CAST Continuous Casting WorkspaceFLOW-3D CAST Gravity Die Casting Workspace
FLOW-3D CAST HPDC WorkspaceFLOW-3D CAST Investment Casting WorkspaceFLOW-3D CAST Low Pressure Sand Casting Workspace
FLOW-3D CAST Low Pressure Die Casting WorkspaceFLOW-3D CAST Sand Casting WorkspaceFLOW-3D CAST Sand Core Making Workspace
Lost Foam CastingFLOW-3D CAST Tilt Pour Casting
HPDC Oxides Simulation | FLOW-3D CAST
BMW Injector Casting Process – Innovative ingate system for gravity casting
Continuous Slab Casting | FLOW-3D CAST
Horizontal Centrifugal Pipe Casting | FLOW-3D CAST

FLOW-3D CAST Bibliography

FLOW-3D CAST bibliography

아래는 FSI의 금속 주조 참고 문헌에 수록된 기술 논문 모음입니다. 이 모든 논문에는 FLOW-3D CAST 해석 결과가 수록되어 있습니다. FLOW-3D CAST를 사용하여 금속 주조 산업의 응용 프로그램을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Metal Casting Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D CAST results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D CAST can be used to successfully simulate applications for the Metal Casting Industry.

33-20     Eric Riedel, Martin Liepe Stefan Scharf, Simulation of ultrasonic induced cavitation and acoustic streaming in liquid and solidifying aluminum, Metals, 10.4; 476, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10040476

20-20   Wu Yue, Li Zhuo and Lu Rong, Simulation and visual tester verification of solid propellant slurry vacuum plate casting, Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, 2020. doi.org/10.1002/prep.201900411

17-20   C.A. Jones, M.R. Jolly, A.E.W. Jarfors and M. Irwin, An experimental characterization of thermophysical properties of a porous ceramic shell used in the investment casting process, Supplimental Proceedings, pp. 1095-1105, TMS 2020 149th Annual Meeting and Exhibition, San Diego, CA, February 23-27, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36296-6_102

12-20   Franz Josef Feikus, Paul Bernsteiner, Ricardo Fernández Gutiérrez and Michal Luszczak , Further development of electric motor housings, MTZ Worldwide, 81, pp. 38-43, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s38313-019-0176-z

09-20   Mingfan Qi, Yonglin Kang, Yuzhao Xu, Zhumabieke Wulabieke and Jingyuan Li, A novel rheological high pressure die-casting process for preparing large thin-walled Al–Si–Fe–Mg–Sr alloy with high heat conductivity, high plasticity and medium strength, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 776, art. no. 139040, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2020.139040

07-20   Stefan Heugenhauser, Erhard Kaschnitz and Peter Schumacher, Development of an aluminum compound casting process – Experiments and numerical simulations, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 279, art. no. 116578, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.116578

05-20   Michail Papanikolaou, Emanuele Pagone, Mark Jolly and Konstantinos Salonitis, Numerical simulation and evaluation of Campbell running and gating systems, Metals, 10.1, art. no. 68, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10010068

102-19   Ferencz Peti and Gabriela Strnad, The effect of squeeze pin dimension and operational parameters on material homogeneity of aluminium high pressure die cast parts, Acta Marisiensis. Seria Technologica, 16.2, 2019. doi.org/0.2478/amset-2019-0010

94-19   E. Riedel, I. Horn, N. Stein, H. Stein, R. Bahr, and S. Scharf, Ultrasonic treatment: a clean technology that supports sustainability incasting processes, Procedia, 26th CIRP Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) Conference, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, May 7-9, 2019. 

93-19   Adrian V. Catalina, Liping Xue, Charles A. Monroe, Robin D. Foley, and John A. Griffin, Modeling and Simulation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi- and AlCu-based Alloys, Transactions, 123rd Metalcasting Congress, Atlanta, GA, USA, April 27-30, 2019. 

84-19   Arun Prabhakar, Michail Papanikolaou, Konstantinos Salonitis, and Mark Jolly, Sand casting of sheet lead: numerical simulation of metal flow and solidification, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, pp. 1-13, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-019-04522-3

72-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Eric Macdonald, Robert Voigt, and Guha Manogharan, Measurement of metal velocity in sand casting during mold filling, Metals, 9:1079, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/met9101079

71-19   Sebastian Findeisen, Robin Van Der Auwera, Michael Heuser, and Franz-Josef Wöstmann, Gießtechnische Fertigung von E-Motorengehäusen mit interner Kühling (Casting production of electric motor housings with internal cooling), Geisserei, 106, pp. 72-78, 2019 (in German).

58-19     Von Malte Leonhard, Matthias Todte, and Jörg Schäffer, Realistic simulation of the combustion of exothermic feeders, Casting, No. 2, pp. 28-32, 2019. In English and German.

52-19     S. Lakkum and P. Kowitwarangkul, Numerical investigations on the effect of gas flow rate in the gas stirred ladle with dual plugs, International Conference on Materials Research and Innovation (ICMARI), Bangkok, Thailand, December 17-21, 2018. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 526, 2019. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/526/1/012028

47-19     Bing Zhou, Shuai Lu, Kaile Xu, Chun Xu, and Zhanyong Wang, Microstructure and simulation of semisolid aluminum alloy castings in the process of stirring integrated transfer-heat (SIT) with water cooling, International Journal of Metalcasting, Online edition, pp. 1-13, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-019-00357-6

31-19     Zihao Yuan, Zhipeng Guo, and S.M. Xiong, Skin layer of A380 aluminium alloy die castings and its blistering during solution treatment, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, Vol. 35, No. 9, pp. 1906-1916, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2019.05.011

25-19     Stefano Mascetti, Raul Pirovano, and Giulio Timelli, Interazione metallo liquido/stampo: Il fenomeno della metallizzazione, La Metallurgia Italiana, No. 4, pp. 44-50, 2019. In Italian.

20-19     Fu-Yuan Hsu, Campbellology for runner system design, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 187-199, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_19

19-19     Chengcheng Lyu, Michail Papanikolaou, and Mark Jolly, Numerical process modelling and simulation of Campbell running systems designs, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 53-64, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_5

18-19     Adrian V. Catalina, Liping Xue, and Charles Monroe, A solidification model with application to AlSi-based alloys, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 201-213, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_20

17-19     Fu-Yuan Hsu and Yu-Hung Chen, The validation of feeder modeling for ductile iron castings, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 227-238, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_22

04-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

02-19   Jingying Sun, Qichi Le, Li Fu, Jing Bai, Johannes Tretter, Klaus Herbold and Hongwei Huo, Gas entrainment behavior of aluminum alloy engine crankcases during the low-pressure-die-casting-process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 266, pp. 274-282, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.11.016

92-18   Fast, Flexible… More Versatile, Foundry Management Technology, March, 2018. 

82-18   Xu Zhao, Ping Wang, Tao Li, Bo-yu Zhang, Peng Wang, Guan-zhou Wang and Shi-qi Lu, Gating system optimization of high pressure die casting thin-wall AlSi10MnMg longitudinal loadbearing beam based on numerical simulation, China Foundry, Vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 436-442, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s41230-018-8052-z

80-18   Michail Papanikolaou, Emanuele Pagone, Konstantinos Salonitis, Mark Jolly and Charalampos Makatsoris, A computational framework towards energy efficient casting processes, Sustainable Design and Manufacturing 2018: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing (KES-SDM-18), Gold Coast, Australia, June 24-26 2018, SIST 130, pp. 263-276, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04290-5_27

64-18   Vasilios Fourlakidis, Ilia Belov and Attila Diószegi, Strength prediction for pearlitic lamellar graphite iron: Model validation, Metals, Vol. 8, No. 9, 2018. doi.org/10.3390/met8090684

51-18   Xue-feng Zhu, Bao-yi Yu, Li Zheng, Bo-ning Yu, Qiang Li, Shu-ning Lü and Hao Zhang, Influence of pouring methods on filling process, microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 Mg alloy pipe by horizontal centrifugal casting, China Foundry, vol. 15, no. 3, pp.196-202, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s41230-018-7256-6

47-18   Santosh Reddy Sama, Jiayi Wang and Guha Manogharan, Non-conventional mold design for metal casting using 3D sand-printing, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, vol. 34-B, pp. 765-775, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2018.03.049

42-18   M. Koru and O. Serçe, The Effects of Thermal and Dynamical Parameters and Vacuum Application on Porosity in High-Pressure Die Casting of A383 Al-Alloy, International Journal of Metalcasting, pp. 1-17, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-018-0214-7

41-18   Abhilash Viswanath, S. Savithri, U.T.S. Pillai, Similitude analysis on flow characteristics of water, A356 and AM50 alloys during LPC process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 257, pp. 270-277, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.02.031

29-18   Seyboldt, Christoph and Liewald, Mathias, Investigation on thixojoining to produce hybrid components with intermetallic phase, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1960, no. 1, 2018. doi.org/10.1063/1.5034992

28-18   Laura Schomer, Mathias Liewald and Kim Rouven Riedmüller, Simulation of the infiltration process of a ceramic open-pore body with a metal alloy in semi-solid state to design the manufacturing of interpenetrating phase composites, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1960, no. 1, 2018. doi.org/10.1063/1.5034991

41-17   Y. N. Wu et al., Numerical Simulation on Filling Optimization of Copper Rotor for High Efficient Electric Motors in Die Casting Process, Materials Science Forum, Vol. 898, pp. 1163-1170, 2017.

12-17   A.M.  Zarubin and O.A. Zarubina, Controlling the flow rate of melt in gravity die casting of aluminum alloys, Liteynoe Proizvodstvo (Casting Manufacturing), pp 16-20, 6, 2017. In Russian.

10-17   A.Y. Korotchenko, Y.V. Golenkov, M.V. Tverskoy and D.E. Khilkov, Simulation of the Flow of Metal Mixtures in the Mold, Liteynoe Proizvodstvo (Casting Manufacturing), pp 18-22, 5, 2017. In Russian.

08-17   Morteza Morakabian Esfahani, Esmaeil Hajjari, Ali Farzadi and Seyed Reza Alavi Zaree, Prediction of the contact time through modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in compound casting process of Al/Mg light metals, Journal of Materials Research, © Materials Research Society 2017

04-17   Huihui Liu, Xiongwei He and Peng Guo, Numerical simulation on semi-solid die-casting of magnesium matrix composite based on orthogonal experiment, AIP Conference Proceedings 1829, 020037 (2017); doi.org/10.1063/1.4979769.

100-16  Robert Watson, New numerical techniques to quantify and predict the effect of entrainment defects, applied to high pressure die casting, PhD Thesis: University of Birmingham, 2016.

88-16   M.C. Carter, T. Kauffung, L. Weyenberg and C. Peters, Low Pressure Die Casting Simulation Discovery through Short Shot, Cast Expo & Metal Casting Congress, April 16-19, 2016, Minneapolis, MN, Copyright 2016 American Foundry Society.

61-16   M. Koru and O. Serçe, Experimental and numerical determination of casting mold interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the high pressure die casting of a 360 aluminum alloy, ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, Vol. 129 (2016)

59-16   R. Pirovano and S. Mascetti, Tracking of collapsed bubbles during a filling simulation, La Metallurgia Italiana – n. 6 2016

43-16   Kevin Lee, Understanding shell cracking during de-wax process in investment casting, Ph.D Thesis: University of Birmingham, School of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2016.

35-16   Konstantinos Salonitis, Mark Jolly, Binxu Zeng, and Hamid Mehrabi, Improvements in energy consumption and environmental impact by novel single shot melting process for casting, Journal of Cleaner Production, doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.165, Open Access funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, June 29, 2016

20-16   Fu-Yuan Hsu, Bifilm Defect Formation in Hydraulic Jump of Liquid Aluminum, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 2016, Band: 47, Heft 3, 1634-1648.

15-16   Mingfan Qia, Yonglin Kanga, Bing Zhoua, Wanneng Liaoa, Guoming Zhua, Yangde Lib,and Weirong Li, A forced convection stirring process for Rheo-HPDC aluminum and magnesium alloys, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 234 (2016) 353–367

112-15   José Miguel Gonçalves Ledo Belo da Costa, Optimization of filling systems for low pressure by FLOW-3D, Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Mecânica, 2015.

89-15   B.W. Zhu, L.X. Li, X. Liu, L.Q. Zhang and R. Xu, Effect of Viscosity Measurement Method to Simulate High Pressure Die Casting of Thin-Wall AlSi10MnMg Alloy Castings, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Published online, November 2015, doi.org/10.1007/s11665-015-1783-8, © ASM International.

88-15   Peng Zhang, Zhenming Li, Baoliang Liu, Wenjiang Ding and Liming Peng, Improved tensile properties of a new aluminum alloy for high pressure die casting, Materials Science & Engineering A651(2016)376–390, Available online, November 2015.

83-15   Zu-Qi Hu, Xin-Jian Zhang and Shu-Sen Wu, Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Die-Filling Behavior of High-Performance Die-Cast Al–Mg–Si–Mn Alloy, Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.), doi.org/10.1007/s40195-015-0332-7, © The Chinese Society for Metals and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.

82-15   J. Müller, L. Xue, M.C. Carter, C. Thoma, M. Fehlbier and M. Todte, A Die Spray Cooling Model for Thermal Die Cycling Simulations, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

81-15   M. T. Murray, L.F. Hansen, L. Chilcott, E. Li and A.M. Murray, Case Studies in the Use of Simulation- Improved Yield and Reduced Time to Market, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

80-15   R. Bhola, S. Chandra and D. Souders, Predicting Castability of Thin-Walled Parts for the HPDC Process Using Simulations, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

76-15   Prosenjit Das, Sudip K. Samanta, Shashank Tiwari and Pradip Dutta, Die Filling Behaviour of Semi Solid A356 Al Alloy Slurry During Rheo Pressure Die Casting, Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, pp 1-6, October 2015

74-15   Murat KORU and Orhan SERÇE, Yüksek Basınçlı Döküm Prosesinde Enjeksiyon Parametrelerine Bağlı Olarak Döküm Simülasyon, Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Science, Science Journal (CSJ), Vol. 36, No: 5 (2015) ISSN: 1300-1949, May 2015

69-15   A. Viswanath, S. Sivaraman, U. T. S. Pillai, Computer Simulation of Low Pressure Casting Process Using FLOW-3D, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 830-831, pp. 45-48, September 2015

68-15   J. Aneesh Kumar, K. Krishnakumar and S. Savithri, Computer Simulation of Centrifugal Casting Process Using FLOW-3D, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 830-831, pp. 53-56, September 2015

59-15   F. Hosseini Yekta and S. A. Sadough Vanini, Simulation of the flow of semi-solid steel alloy using an enhanced model, Metals and Materials International, August 2015.

44-15   Ulrich E. Klotz, Tiziana Heiss and Dario Tiberto, Platinum investment casting material properties, casting simulation and optimum process parameters, Jewelry Technology Forum 2015

41-15   M. Barkhudarov and R. Pirovano, Minimizing Air Entrainment in High Pressure Die Casting Shot Sleeves, GIFA 2015, Düsseldorf, Germany

40-15   M. Todte, A. Fent, and H. Lang, Simulation in support of the development of innovative processes in the casting industry, GIFA 2015, Düsseldorf, Germany

19-15   Bruce Morey, Virtual casting improves powertrain design, Automotive Engineering, SAE International, March 2015.

15-15   K.S. Oh, J.D. Lee, S.J. Kim and J.Y. Choi, Development of a large ingot continuous caster, Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 203 (2015) © EDP Sciences, 2015, doi.org/10.1051/metal/2015006, www.metallurgical-research.org

14-15   Tiziana Heiss, Ulrich E. Klotz and Dario Tiberto, Platinum Investment Casting, Part I: Simulation and Experimental Study of the Casting Process, Johnson Matthey Technol. Rev., 2015, 59, (2), 95, doi.org/10.1595/205651315×687399

138-14 Christopher Thoma, Wolfram Volk, Ruben Heid, Klaus Dilger, Gregor Banner and Harald Eibisch, Simulation-based prediction of the fracture elongation as a failure criterion for thin-walled high-pressure die casting components, International Journal of Metalcasting, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 47-54, 2014. doi.org/10.1007/BF03355594

107-14  Mehran Seyed Ahmadi, Dissolution of Si in Molten Al with Gas Injection, ProQuest Dissertations And Theses; Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Toronto (Canada), 2014; Publication Number: AAT 3637106; ISBN: 9781321195231; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 76-02(E), Section: B.; 191 p.

99-14   R. Bhola and S. Chandra, Predicting Castability for Thin-Walled HPDC Parts, Foundry Management Technology, December 2014

92-14   Warren Bishenden and Changhua Huang, Venting design and process optimization of die casting process for structural components; Part II: Venting design and process optimization, Die Casting Engineer, November 2014

90-14   Ken’ichi Kanazawa, Ken’ichi Yano, Jun’ichi Ogura, and Yasunori Nemoto, Optimum Runner Design for Die-Casting using CFD Simulations and Verification with Water-Model Experiments, Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2014, November 14-20, 2014, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, IMECE2014-37419

89-14   P. Kapranos, C. Carney, A. Pola, and M. Jolly, Advanced Casting Methodologies: Investment Casting, Centrifugal Casting, Squeeze Casting, Metal Spinning, and Batch Casting, In Comprehensive Materials Processing; McGeough, J., Ed.; 2014, Elsevier Ltd., 2014; Vol. 5, pp 39–67.

77-14   Andrei Y. Korotchenko, Development of Scientific and Technological Approaches to Casting Net-Shaped Castings in Sand Molds Free of Shrinkage Defects and Hot Tears, Post-doctoral thesis: Russian State Technological University, 2014. In Russian.

69-14   L. Xue, M.C. Carter, A.V. Catalina, Z. Lin, C. Li, and C. Qiu, Predicting, Preventing Core Gas Defects in Steel Castings, Modern Casting, September 2014

68-14   L. Xue, M.C. Carter, A.V. Catalina, Z. Lin, C. Li, and C. Qiu, Numerical Simulation of Core Gas Defects in Steel Castings, Copyright 2014 American Foundry Society, 118th Metalcasting Congress, April 8 – 11, 2014, Schaumburg, IL

51-14   Jesus M. Blanco, Primitivo Carranza, Rafael Pintos, Pedro Arriaga, and Lakhdar Remaki, Identification of Defects Originated during the Filling of Cast Pieces through Particles Modelling, 11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM XI), 5th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM V), 6th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ECFD VI), E. Oñate, J. Oliver and A. Huerta (Eds)

47-14   B. Vijaya Ramnatha, C.Elanchezhiana, Vishal Chandrasekhar, A. Arun Kumarb, S. Mohamed Asif, G. Riyaz Mohamed, D. Vinodh Raj , C .Suresh Kumar, Analysis and Optimization of Gating System for Commutator End Bracket, Procedia Materials Science 6 ( 2014 ) 1312 – 1328, 3rd International Conference on Materials Processing and Characterisation (ICMPC 2014)

42-14  Bing Zhou, Yong-lin Kang, Guo-ming Zhu, Jun-zhen Gao, Ming-fan Qi, and Huan-huan Zhang, Forced convection rheoforming process for preparation of 7075 aluminum alloy semisolid slurry and its numerical simulation, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 24(2014) 1109−1116

37-14    A. Karwinski, W. Lesniewski, P. Wieliczko, and M. Malysza, Casting of Titanium Alloys in Centrifugal Induction Furnaces, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, Volume 59, Issue 1, doi.org/10.2478/amm-2014-0068, 2014.

26-14    Bing Zhou, Yonglin Kang, Mingfan Qi, Huanhuan Zhang and Guoming ZhuR-HPDC Process with Forced Convection Mixing Device for Automotive Part of A380 Aluminum Alloy, Materials 2014, 7, 3084-3105; doi.org/10.3390/ma7043084

20-14  Johannes Hartmann, Tobias Fiegl, Carolin Körner, Aluminum integral foams with tailored density profile by adapted blowing agents, Applied Physics A, doi.org/10.1007/s00339-014-8377-4, March 2014.

19-14    A.Y. Korotchenko, N.A. Nikiforova, E.D. Demjanov, N.C. Larichev, The Influence of the Filling Conditions on the Service Properties of the Part Side Frame, Russian Foundryman, 1 (January), pp 40-43, 2014. In Russian.

11-14 B. Fuchs and C. Körner, Mesh resolution consideration for the viability prediction of lost salt cores in the high pressure die casting process, Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2014, Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

08-14 FY Hsu, SW Wang, and HJ Lin, The External and Internal Shrinkages in Aluminum Gravity Castings, Shape Casting: 5th International Symposium 2014. Available online at Google Books

103-13  B. Fuchs, H. Eibisch and C. Körner, Core Viability Simulation for Salt Core Technology in High-Pressure Die Casting, International Journal of Metalcasting, July 2013, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 39–45

94-13    Randall S. Fielding, J. Crapps, C. Unal, and J.R.Kennedy, Metallic Fuel Casting Development and Parameter Optimization Simulations, International Conference on Fast reators and Related Fuel Cycles (FR13), 4-7 March 2013, Paris France

90-13  A. Karwińskia, M. Małyszaa, A. Tchórza, A. Gila, B. Lipowska, Integration of Computer Tomography and Simulation Analysis in Evaluation of Quality of Ceramic-Carbon Bonded Foam Filter, Archives of Foundry Engineering, doi.org/10.2478/afe-2013-0084, Published quarterly as the organ of the Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ISSN, (2299-2944), Volume 13, Issue 4/2013

88-13  Litie and Metallurgia (Casting and Metallurgy), 3 (72), 2013, N.V.Sletova, I.N.Volnov, S.P.Zadrutsky, V.A.Chaikin, Modeling of the Process of Removing Non-metallic Inclusions in Aluminum Alloys Using the FLOW-3D program, pp 138-140. In Russian.

85-13    Michał Szucki,Tomasz Goraj, Janusz Lelito, Józef S. Suchy, Numerical Analysis of Solid Particles Flow in Liquid Metal, XXXVII International Scientific Conference Foundryman’ Day 2013, Krakow, 28-29 November 2013

84-13  Körner, C., Schwankl, M., Himmler, D., Aluminum-Aluminum compound castings by electroless deposited zinc layers, Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2014), doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.12.01483-13.

77-13  Antonio Armillotta & Raffaello Baraggi & Simone Fasoli, SLM tooling for die casting with conformal cooling channels, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, doi.org/10.1007/s00170-013-5523-7, December 2013.

64-13   Johannes Hartmann, Christina Blümel, Stefan Ernst, Tobias Fiegl, Karl-Ernst Wirth, Carolin Körner, Aluminum integral foam castings with microcellular cores by nano-functionalization, J Mater Sci, doi.org/10.1007/s10853-013-7668-z, September 2013.

46-13  Nicholas P. Orenstein, 3D Flow and Temperature Analysis of Filling a Plutonium Mold, LA-UR-13-25537, Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Los Alamos Annual Student Symposium 2013, 2013-07-24 (Rev.1)

42-13   Yang Yue, William D. Griffiths, and Nick R. Green, Modelling of the Effects of Entrainment Defects on Mechanical Properties in a Cast Al-Si-Mg Alloy, Materials Science Forum, 765, 225, 2013.

39-13  J. Crapps, D.S. DeCroix, J.D Galloway, D.A. Korzekwa, R. Aikin, R. Fielding, R. Kennedy, C. Unal, Separate effects identification via casting process modeling for experimental measurement of U-Pu-Zr alloys, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 15 July 2013.

35-13   A. Pari, Real Life Problem Solving through Simulations in the Die Casting Industry – Case Studies, © Die Casting Engineer, July 2013.

34-13  Martin Lagler, Use of Simulation to Predict the Viability of Salt Cores in the HPDC Process – Shot Curve as a Decisive Criterion, © Die Casting Engineer, July 2013.

24-13    I.N.Volnov, Optimizatsia Liteynoi Tekhnologii, (Casting Technology Optimization), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), 3, 2013, 27-29. In Russian

23-13  M.R. Barkhudarov, I.N. Volnov, Minimizatsia Zakhvata Vozdukha v Kamere Pressovania pri Litie pod Davleniem, (Minimization of Air Entrainment in the Shot Sleeve During High Pressure Die Casting), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), 3, 2013, 30-34. In Russian

09-13  M.C. Carter and L. Xue, Simulating the Parameters that Affect Core Gas Defects in Metal Castings, Copyright 2012 American Foundry Society, Presented at the 2013 CastExpo, St. Louis, Missouri, April 2013

08-13  C. Reilly, N.R. Green, M.R. Jolly, J.-C. Gebelin, The Modelling Of Oxide Film Entrainment In Casting Systems Using Computational Modelling, Applied Mathematical Modelling, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2013.03.061, April 2013.

03-13  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A fast simulation of transient metal flow and solidification in a narrow channel. Part II. Model validation and parametric study, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.12.061.

02-13  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A fast simulation of transient metal flow and solidification in a narrow channel. Part I: Model development using lubrication approximation, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.12.060.

116-12  Jufu Jianga, Ying Wang, Gang Chena, Jun Liua, Yuanfa Li and Shoujing Luo, “Comparison of mechanical properties and microstructure of AZ91D alloy motorcycle wheels formed by die casting and double control forming, Materials & Design, Volume 40, September 2012, Pages 541-549.

107-12  F.K. Arslan, A.H. Hatman, S.Ö. Ertürk, E. Güner, B. Güner, An Evaluation for Fundamentals of Die Casting Materials Selection and Design, IMMC’16 International Metallurgy & Materials Congress, Istanbul, Turkey, 2012.

103-12 WU Shu-sen, ZHONG Gu, AN Ping, WAN Li, H. NAKAE, Microstructural characteristics of Al−20Si−2Cu−0.4Mg−1Ni alloy formed by rheo-squeeze casting after ultrasonic vibration treatment, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 22 (2012) 2863-2870, November 2012. Full paper available online.

109-12 Alexandre Reikher, Numerical Analysis of Die-Casting Process in Thin Cavities Using Lubrication Approximation, Ph.D. Thesis: The University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Engineering Department (2012) Theses and Dissertations. Paper 65.

97-12 Hong Zhou and Li Heng Luo, Filling Pattern of Step Gating System in Lost Foam Casting Process and its Application, Advanced Materials Research, Volumes 602-604, Progress in Materials and Processes, 1916-1921, December 2012.

93-12  Liangchi Zhang, Chunliang Zhang, Jeng-Haur Horng and Zichen Chen, Functions of Step Gating System in the Lost Foam Casting Process, Advanced Materials Research, 591-593, 940, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.591-593.940, November 2012.

91-12  Hong Yan, Jian Bin Zhu, Ping Shan, Numerical Simulation on Rheo-Diecasting of Magnesium Matrix Composites, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.192-193.287, Solid State Phenomena, 192-193, 287.

89-12  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A Fast Numerical Simulation for Modeling Simultaneous Metal Flow and Solidification in Thin Cavities Using the Lubrication Approximation, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications: An International Journal of Computation and Methodology, 63:2, 75-100, November 2012.

82-12  Jufu Jiang, Gang Chen, Ying Wang, Zhiming Du, Weiwei Shan, and Yuanfa Li, Microstructure and mechanical properties of thin-wall and high-rib parts of AM60B Mg alloy formed by double control forming and die casting under the optimal conditions, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2012.10.086, October 2012.

78-12   A. Pari, Real Life Problem Solving through Simulations in the Die Casting Industry – Case Studies, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

77-12  Y. Wang, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian and R.A. Miller, Rheological behavior models of metal matrix alloys in semi-solid casting process, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

76-12  A. Reikher and H. Gerber, Analysis of Solidification Parameters During the Die Cast Process, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

75-12 R.A. Miller, Y. Wang and K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, Estimating Cavity Fill Time, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012Indianapolis, IN.

65-12  X.H. Yang, T.J. Lu, T. Kim, Influence of non-conducting pore inclusions on phase change behavior of porous media with constant heat flux boundaryInternational Journal of Thermal Sciences, Available online 10 October 2012. Available online at SciVerse.

55-12  Hejun Li, Pengyun Wang, Lehua Qi, Hansong Zuo, Songyi Zhong, Xianghui Hou, 3D numerical simulation of successive deposition of uniform molten Al droplets on a moving substrate and experimental validation, Computational Materials Science, Volume 65, December 2012, Pages 291–301.

52-12 Hongbing Ji, Yixin Chen and Shengzhou Chen, Numerical Simulation of Inner-Outer Couple Cooling Slab Continuous Casting in the Filling Process, Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 557-559), Advanced Materials and Processes II, pp. 2257-2260, July 2012.

47-12    Petri Väyrynen, Lauri Holappa, and Seppo Louhenkilpi, Simulation of Melting of Alloying Materials in Steel Ladle, SCANMET IV – 4th International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, Lulea, Sweden, June 10-13, 2012.

46-12  Bin Zhang and Dave Salee, Metal Flow and Heat Transfer in Billet DC Casting Using Wagstaff® Optifill™ Metal Distribution Systems, 5th International Metal Quality Workshop, United Arab Emirates Dubai, March 18-22, 2012.

45-12 D.R. Gunasegaram, M. Givord, R.G. O’Donnell and B.R. Finnin, Improvements engineered in UTS and elongation of aluminum alloy high pressure die castings through the alteration of runner geometry and plunger velocity, Materials Science & Engineering.

44-12    Antoni Drys and Stefano Mascetti, Aluminum Casting Simulations, Desktop Engineering, September 2012

42-12   Huizhen Duan, Jiangnan Shen and Yanping Li, Comparative analysis of HPDC process of an auto part with ProCAST and FLOW-3D, Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 184-185 (2012) pp 90-94, Online available since 2012/Jun/14 at www.scientific.net, © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.184-185.90.

41-12    Deniece R. Korzekwa, Cameron M. Knapp, David A. Korzekwa, and John W. Gibbs, Co-Design – Fabrication of Unalloyed Plutonium, LA-UR-12-23441, MDI Summer Research Group Workshop Advanced Manufacturing, 2012-07-25/2012-07-26 (Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States)

29-12  Dario Tiberto and Ulrich E. Klotz, Computer simulation applied to jewellery casting: challenges, results and future possibilities, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.33 012008. Full paper available at IOP.

28-12  Y Yue and N R Green, Modelling of different entrainment mechanisms and their influences on the mechanical reliability of Al-Si castings, 2012 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 33,012072.Full paper available at IOP.

27-12  E Kaschnitz, Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes, 2012 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 33 012031, Issue 1. Full paper available at IOP.

15-12  C. Reilly, N.R Green, M.R. Jolly, The Present State Of Modeling Entrainment Defects In The Shape Casting Process, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Available online 27 April 2012, ISSN 0307-904X, 10.1016/j.apm.2012.04.032.

12-12   Andrei Starobin, Tony Hirt, Hubert Lang, and Matthias Todte, Core drying simulation and validation, International Foundry Research, GIESSEREIFORSCHUNG 64 (2012) No. 1, ISSN 0046-5933, pp 2-5

10-12  H. Vladimir Martínez and Marco F. Valencia (2012). Semisolid Processing of Al/β-SiC Composites by Mechanical Stirring Casting and High Pressure Die Casting, Recent Researches in Metallurgical Engineering – From Extraction to Forming, Dr Mohammad Nusheh (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0356-1, InTech

07-12     Amir H. G. Isfahani and James M. Brethour, Simulating Thermal Stresses and Cooling Deformations, Die Casting Engineer, March 2012

06-12   Shuisheng Xie, Youfeng He and Xujun Mi, Study on Semi-solid Magnesium Alloys Slurry Preparation and Continuous Roll-casting Process, Magnesium Alloys – Design, Processing and Properties, ISBN: 978-953-307-520-4, InTech.

04-12 J. Spangenberg, N. Roussel, J.H. Hattel, H. Stang, J. Skocek, M.R. Geiker, Flow induced particle migration in fresh concrete: Theoretical frame, numerical simulations and experimental results on model fluids, Cement and Concrete Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.01.007, February 2012.

01-12   Lee, B., Baek, U., and Han, J., Optimization of Gating System Design for Die Casting of Thin Magnesium Alloy-Based Multi-Cavity LCD Housings, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Springer New York, Issn: 1059-9495, 10.1007/s11665-011-0111-1, Volume 1 / 1992 – Volume 21 / 2012. Available online at Springer Link.

104-11  Fu-Yuan Hsu and Huey Jiuan Lin, Foam Filters Used in Gravity Casting, Metall and Materi Trans B (2011) 42: 1110. doi:10.1007/s11663-011-9548-8.

99-11    Eduardo Trejo, Centrifugal Casting of an Aluminium Alloy, thesis: Doctor of Philosophy, Metallurgy and Materials School of Engineering University of Birmingham, October 2011. Full paper available upon request.

93-11  Olga Kononova, Andrejs Krasnikovs ,Videvuds Lapsa,Jurijs Kalinka and Angelina Galushchak, Internal Structure Formation in High Strength Fiber Concrete during Casting, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 59 2011

76-11  J. Hartmann, A. Trepper, and C. Körner, Aluminum Integral Foams with Near-Microcellular Structure, Advanced Engineering Materials 2011, Volume 13 (2011) No. 11, © Wiley-VCH

71-11  Fu-Yuan Hsu and Yao-Ming Yang Confluence Weld in an Aluminum Gravity Casting, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Available online 23 November 2011, ISSN 0924-0136, 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2011.11.006.

65-11     V.A. Chaikin, A.V. Chaikin, I.N.Volnov, A Study of the Process of Late Modification Using Simulation, in Zagotovitelnye Proizvodstva v Mashinostroenii, 10, 2011, 8-12. In Russian.

54-11  Ngadia Taha Niane and Jean-Pierre Michalet, Validation of Foundry Process for Aluminum Parts with FLOW-3D Software, Proceedings of the 2011 International Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, 2011.

51-11    A. Reikher and H. Gerber, Calculation of the Die Cast parameters of the Thin Wall Aluminum Cast Part, 2011 Die Casting Congress & Tabletop, Columbus, OH, September 19-21, 2011

50-11   Y. Wang, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, and R.A. Miller, Runner design optimization based on CFD simulation for a die with multiple cavities, 2011 Die Casting Congress & Tabletop, Columbus, OH, September 19-21, 2011

48-11 A. Karwiński, W. Leśniewski, S. Pysz, P. Wieliczko, The technology of precision casting of titanium alloys by centrifugal process, Archives of Foundry Engineering, ISSN: 1897-3310), Volume 11, Issue 3/2011, 73-80, 2011.

46-11  Daniel Einsiedler, Entwicklung einer Simulationsmethodik zur Simulation von Strömungs- und Trocknungsvorgängen bei Kernfertigungsprozessen mittels CFD (Development of a simulation methodology for simulating flow and drying operations in core production processes using CFD), MSc thesis at Technical University of Aalen in Germany (Hochschule Aalen), 2011.

44-11  Bin Zhang and Craig Shaber, Aluminum Ingot Thermal Stress Development Modeling of the Wagstaff® EpsilonTM Rolling Ingot DC Casting System during the Start-up Phase, Materials Science Forum Vol. 693 (2011) pp 196-207, © 2011 Trans Tech Publications, July, 2011.

43-11 Vu Nguyen, Patrick Rohan, John Grandfield, Alex Levin, Kevin Naidoo, Kurt Oswald, Guillaume Girard, Ben Harker, and Joe Rea, Implementation of CASTfill low-dross pouring system for ingot casting, Materials Science Forum Vol. 693 (2011) pp 227-234, © 2011 Trans Tech Publications, July, 2011.

40-11  A. Starobin, D. Goettsch, M. Walker, D. Burch, Gas Pressure in Aluminum Block Water Jacket Cores, © 2011 American Foundry Society, International Journal of Metalcasting/Summer 2011

37-11 Ferencz Peti, Lucian Grama, Analyze of the Possible Causes of Porosity Type Defects in Aluminum High Pressure Diecast Parts, Scientific Bulletin of the Petru Maior University of Targu Mures, Vol. 8 (XXV) no. 1, 2011, ISSN 1841-9267

31-11  Johannes Hartmann, André Trepper, Carolin Körner, Aluminum Integral Foams with Near-Microcellular Structure, Advanced Engineering Materials, 13: n/a. doi: 10.1002/adem.201100035, June 2011.

27-11  A. Pari, Optimization of HPDC Process using Flow Simulation Case Studies, Die Casting Engineer, July 2011

26-11    A. Reikher, H. Gerber, Calculation of the Die Cast Parameters of the Thin Wall Aluminum Die Casting Part, Die Casting Engineer, July 2011

21-11 Thang Nguyen, Vu Nguyen, Morris Murray, Gary Savage, John Carrig, Modelling Die Filling in Ultra-Thin Aluminium Castings, Materials Science Forum (Volume 690), Light Metals Technology V, pp 107-111, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.690.107, June 2011.

19-11 Jon Spangenberg, Cem Celal Tutum, Jesper Henri Hattel, Nicolas Roussel, Metter Rica Geiker, Optimization of Casting Process Parameters for Homogeneous Aggregate Distribution in Self-Compacting Concrete: A Feasibility Study, © IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2011, New Orleans, USA

16-11  A. Starobin, C.W. Hirt, H. Lang, and M. Todte, Core Drying Simulation and Validations, AFS Proceedings 2011, © American Foundry Society, Presented at the 115th Metalcasting Congress, Schaumburg, Illinois, April 2011.

15-11  J. J. Hernández-Ortega, R. Zamora, J. López, and F. Faura, Numerical Analysis of Air Pressure Effects on the Flow Pattern during the Filling of a Vertical Die Cavity, AIP Conf. Proc., Volume 1353, pp. 1238-1243, The 14th International Esaform Conference on Material Forming: Esaform 2011; doi:10.1063/1.3589686, May 2011. Available online.

10-11 Abbas A. Khalaf and Sumanth Shankar, Favorable Environment for Nondentric Morphology in Controlled Diffusion Solidification, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-011-0641-z, © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2011, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, March 11, 2011.

08-11 Hai Peng Li, Chun Yong Liang, Li Hui Wang, Hong Shui Wang, Numerical Simulation of Casting Process for Gray Iron Butterfly Valve, Advanced Materials Research, 189-193, 260, February 2011.

04-11  C.W. Hirt, Predicting Core Shooting, Drying and Defect Development, Foundry Management & Technology, January 2011.

76-10  Zhizhong Sun, Henry Hu, Alfred Yu, Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of Squeeze Casting Magnesium Alloy AM50, Magnesium Technology 2010, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & ExhibitionFebruary 14-18, 2010, Seattle, WA.

68-10  A. Reikher, H. Gerber, K.M. Pillai, T.-C. Jen, Natural Convection—An Overlooked Phenomenon of the Solidification Process, Die Casting Engineer, January 2010

54-10    Andrea Bernardoni, Andrea Borsi, Stefano Mascetti, Alessandro Incognito and Matteo Corrado, Fonderia Leonardo aveva ragione! L’enorme cavallo dedicato a Francesco Sforza era materialmente realizzabile, A&C – Analisis e Calcolo, Giugno 2010. In  Italian.

48-10  J. J. Hernández-Ortega, R. Zamora, J. Palacios, J. López and F. Faura, An Experimental and Numerical Study of Flow Patterns and Air Entrapment Phenomena During the Filling of a Vertical Die Cavity, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., October 2010, Volume 132, Issue 5, 05101, doi:10.1115/1.4002535.

47-10  A.V. Chaikin, I.N. Volnov, and V.A. Chaikin, Development of Dispersible Mixed Inoculant Compositions Using the FLOW-3D Program, Liteinoe Proizvodstvo, October, 2010, in Russian.

42-10  H. Lakshmi, M.C. Vinay Kumar, Raghunath, P. Kumar, V. Ramanarayanan, K.S.S. Murthy, P. Dutta, Induction reheating of A356.2 aluminum alloy and thixocasting as automobile component, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China 20(20101) s961-s967.

41-10  Pamela J. Waterman, Understanding Core-Gas Defects, Desktop Engineering, October 2010. Available online at Desktop Engineering. Also published in the Foundry Trade Journal, November 2010.

39-10  Liu Zheng, Jia Yingying, Mao Pingli, Li Yang, Wang Feng, Wang Hong, Zhou Le, Visualization of Die Casting Magnesium Alloy Steering Bracket, Special Casting & Nonferrous Alloys, ISSN: 1001-2249, CN: 42-1148/TG, 2010-04. In Chinese.

37-10  Morris Murray, Lars Feldager Hansen, and Carl Reinhardt, I Have Defects – Now What, Die Casting Engineer, September 2010

36-10  Stefano Mascetti, Using Flow Analysis Software to Optimize Piston Velocity for an HPDC Process, Die Casting Engineer, September 2010. Also available in Italian: Ottimizzare la velocita del pistone in pressofusione.  A & C, Analisi e Calcolo, Anno XII, n. 42, Gennaio 2011, ISSN 1128-3874.

32-10  Guan Hai Yan, Sheng Dun Zhao, Zheng Hui Sha, Parameters Optimization of Semisolid Diecasting Process for Air-Conditioner’s Triple Valve in HPb59-1 Alloy, Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 129 – 131), Vol. Material and Manufacturing Technology, pp. 936-941, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.129-131.936, August 2010.

29-10 Zheng Peng, Xu Jun, Zhang Zhifeng, Bai Yuelong, and Shi Likai, Numerical Simulation of Filling of Rheo-diecasting A357 Aluminum Alloy, Special Casting & Nonferrous Alloys, DOI: CNKI:SUN:TZZZ.0.2010-01-024, 2010.

27-10 For an Aerospace Diecasting, Littler Uses Simulation to Reveal Defects, and Win a New Order, Foundry Management & Technology, July 2010

23-10 Michael R. Barkhudarov, Minimizing Air Entrainment, The Canadian Die Caster, June 2010

15-10 David H. Kirkwood, Michel Suery, Plato Kapranos, Helen V. Atkinson, and Kenneth P. Young, Semi-solid Processing of Alloys, 2010, XII, 172 p. 103 illus., 19 in color., Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-642-00705-7.

09-10  Shannon Wetzel, Fullfilling Da Vinci’s Dream, Modern Casting, April 2010.

08-10 B.I. Semenov, K.M. Kushtarov, Semi-solid Manufacturing of Castings, New Industrial Technologies, Publication of Moscow State Technical University n.a. N.E. Bauman, 2009 (in Russian)

07-10 Carl Reilly, Development Of Quantitative Casting Quality Assessment Criteria Using Process Modelling, thesis: The University of Birmingham, March 2010 (Available upon request)

06-10 A. Pari, Optimization of HPDC Process using Flow Simulation – Case Studies, CastExpo ’10, NADCA, Orlando, Florida, March 2010

05-10 M.C. Carter, S. Palit, and M. Littler, Characterizing Flow Losses Occurring in Air Vents and Ejector Pins in High Pressure Die Castings, CastExpo ’10, NADCA, Orlando, Florida, March 2010

04-10 Pamela Waterman, Simulating Porosity Factors, Foundry Management Technology, March 2010, Article available at Foundry Management Technology

03-10 C. Reilly, M.R. Jolly, N.R. Green, JC Gebelin, Assessment of Casting Filling by Modeling Surface Entrainment Events Using CFD, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Jim Evans Honorary Symposium), Seattle, Washington, USA, February 14-18, 2010

02-10 P. Väyrynen, S. Wang, J. Laine and S.Louhenkilpi, Control of Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Inclusions in Continuous Casting – CFD and Neural Network Studies, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Jim Evans Honorary Symposium), Seattle, Washington, USA, February 14-18, 2010

60-09   Somlak Wannarumon, and Marco Actis Grande, Comparisons of Computer Fluid Dynamic Software Programs applied to Jewelry Investment Casting Process, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 55 2009.

59-09   Marco Actis Grande and Somlak Wannarumon, Numerical Simulation of Investment Casting of Gold Jewelry: Experiments and Validations, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol:3 2009-07-24

56-09  Jozef Kasala, Ondrej Híreš, Rudolf Pernis, Start-up Phase Modeling of Semi Continuous Casting Process of Brass Billets, Metal 2009, 19.-21.5.2009

51-09  In-Ting Hong, Huan-Chien Tung, Chun-Hao Chiu and Hung-Shang Huang, Effect of Casting Parameters on Microstructure and Casting Quality of Si-Al Alloy for Vacuum Sputtering, China Steel Technical Report, No. 22, pp. 33-40, 2009.

42-09  P. Väyrynen, S. Wang, S. Louhenkilpi and L. Holappa, Modeling and Removal of Inclusions in Continuous Casting, Materials Science & Technology 2009 Conference & Exhibition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, October 25-29, 2009

41-09 O.Smirnov, P.Väyrynen, A.Kravchenko and S.Louhenkilpi, Modern Methods of Modeling Fluid Flow and Inclusions Motion in Tundish Bath – General View, Proceedings of Steelsim 2009 – 3rd International Conference on Simulation and Modelling of Metallurgical Processes in Steelmaking, Leoben, Austria, September 8-10, 2009

21-09 A. Pari, Case Studies – Optimization of HPDC Process Using Flow Simulation, Die Casting Engineer, July 2009

20-09 M. Sirvio, M. Wos, Casting directly from a computer model by using advanced simulation software, FLOW-3D Cast, Archives of Foundry Engineering Volume 9, Issue 1/2009, 79-82

19-09 Andrei Starobin, C.W. Hirt, D. Goettsch, A Model for Binder Gas Generation and Transport in Sand Cores and Molds, Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Solidification Processes XII, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Minerals Society), June 2009

11-09 Michael Barkhudarov, Minimizing Air Entrainment in a Shot Sleeve during Slow-Shot Stage, Die Casting Engineer (The North American Die Casting Association ISSN 0012-253X), May 2009

10-09 A. Reikher, H. Gerber, Application of One-Dimensional Numerical Simulation to Optimize Process Parameters of a Thin-Wall Casting in High Pressure Die Casting, Die Casting Engineer (The North American Die Casting Association ISSN 0012-253X), May 2009

7-09 Andrei Starobin, Simulation of Core Gas Evolution and Flow, presented at the North American Die Casting Association – 113th Metalcasting Congress, April 7-10, 2009, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

6-09 A.Pari, Optimization of HPDC PROCESS: Case Studies, North American Die Casting Association – 113th Metalcasting Congress, April 7-10, 2009, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

2-09 C. Reilly, N.R. Green and M.R. Jolly, Oxide Entrainment Structures in Horizontal Running Systems, TMS 2009, San Francisco, California, February 2009

30-08 I.N.Volnov, Computer Modeling of Casting of Pipe Fittings, © 2008, Pipe Fittings, 5 (38), 2008. Russian version

28-08 A.V.Chaikin, I.N.Volnov, V.A.Chaikin, Y.A.Ukhanov, N.R.Petrov, Analysis of the Efficiency of Alloy Modifiers Using Statistics and Modeling, © 2008, Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), October, 2008

27-08 P. Scarber, Jr., H. Littleton, Simulating Macro-Porosity in Aluminum Lost Foam Castings, American Foundry Society, © 2008, AFS Lost Foam Conference, Asheville, North Carolina, October, 2008

25-08 FMT Staff, Forecasting Core Gas Pressures with Computer Simulation, Foundry Management and Technology, October 28, 2008 © 2008 Penton Media, Inc. Online article

24-08 Core and Mold Gas Evolution, Foundry Management and Technology, January 24, 2008 (excerpted from the FM&T May 2007 issue) © 2008 Penton Media, Inc.

22-08 Mark Littler, Simulation Eliminates Die Casting Scrap, Modern Casting/September 2008

21-08 X. Chen, D. Penumadu, Permeability Measurement and Numerical Modeling for Refractory Porous Materials, AFS Transactions © 2008 American Foundry Society, CastExpo ’08, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

20-08 Rolf Krack, Using Solidification Simulations for Optimising Die Cooling Systems, FTJ July/August 2008

19-08 Mark Littler, Simulation Software Eliminates Die Casting Scrap, ECS Casting Innovations, July/August 2008

13-08 T. Yoshimura, K. Yano, T. Fukui, S. Yamamoto, S. Nishido, M. Watanabe and Y. Nemoto, Optimum Design of Die Casting Plunger Tip Considering Air Entrainment, Proceedings of 10th Asian Foundry Congress (AFC10), Nagoya, Japan, May 2008

08-08 Stephen Instone, Andreas Buchholz and Gerd-Ulrich Gruen, Inclusion Transport Phenomena in Casting Furnaces, Light Metals 2008, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), 2008

07-08 P. Scarber, Jr., H. Littleton, Simulating Macro-Porosity in Aluminum Lost Foam Casting, AFS Transactions 2008 © American Foundry Society, CastExpo ’08, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

06-08 A. Reikher, H. Gerber and A. Starobin, Multi-Stage Plunger Deceleration System, CastExpo ’08, NADCA, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

05-08 Amol Palekar, Andrei Starobin, Alexander Reikher, Die-casting end-of-fill and drop forge viscometer flow transients examined with a coupled-motion numerical model, 68th World Foundry Congress, Chennai, India, February 2008

03-08 Petri J. Väyrynen, Sami K. Vapalahti and Seppo J. Louhenkilpi, On Validation of Mathematical Fluid Flow Models for Simulation of Tundish Water Models and Industrial Examples, AISTech 2008, May 2008

53-07   A. Kermanpur, Sh. Mahmoudi and A. Hajipour, Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Metal Flow and Solidification in the Multi-cavity Casting Moulds of Automotive Components, International Journal of Iron & Steel Society of Iran, Article 2, Volume 4, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2007, pages 8-15.

36-07 Duque Mesa A. F., Herrera J., Cruz L.J., Fernández G.P. y Martínez H.V., Caracterización Defectológica de Piezas Fundida por Lost Foam Casting Mediante Simulación Numérica, 8° Congreso Iberoamericano de Ingenieria Mecanica, Cusco, Peru, 23 al 25 de Octubre de 2007 (in Spanish)

27-07 A.Y. Korotchenko, A.M. Zarubin, I.A.Korotchenko, Modeling of High Pressure Die Casting Filling, Russian Foundryman, December 2007, pp 15-19. (in Russian)

26-07 I.N. Volnov, Modeling of Casting Processes with Variable Geometry, Russian Foundryman, November 2007, pp 27-30. (in Russian)

16-07 P. Väyrynen, S. Vapalahti, S. Louhenkilpi, L. Chatburn, M. Clark, T. Wagner, Tundish Flow Model Tuning and Validation – Steady State and Transient Casting Situations, STEELSIM 2007, Graz/Seggau, Austria, September 12-14 2007

11-07 Marco Actis Grande, Computer Simulation of the Investment Casting Process – Widening of the Filling Step, Santa Fe Symposium on Jewelry Manufacturing Technology, May 2007

09-07 Alexandre Reikher and Michael Barkhudarov, Casting: An Analytical Approach, Springer, 1st edition, August 2007, Hardcover ISBN: 978-1-84628-849-4. U.S. Order FormEurope Order Form.

07-07 I.N. Volnov, Casting Modeling Systems – Current State, Problems and Perspectives, (in Russian), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), June 2007

05-07 A.N. Turchin, D.G. Eskin, and L. Katgerman, Solidification under Forced-Flow Conditions in a Shallow Cavity, DOI: 10.1007/s1161-007-9183-9, © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2007

04-07 A.N. Turchin, M. Zuijderwijk, J. Pool, D.G. Eskin, and L. Katgerman, Feathery grain growth during solidification under forced flow conditions, © Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2007.02.030, April 2007

03-07 S. Kuyucak, Sponsored Research – Clean Steel Casting Production—Evaluation of Laboratory Castings, Transactions of the American Foundry Society, Volume 115, 111th Metalcasting Congress, May 2007

02-07 Fu-Yuan Hsu, Mark R. Jolly and John Campbell, The Design of L-Shaped Runners for Gravity Casting, Shape Casting: 2nd International Symposium, Edited by Paul N. Crepeau, Murat Tiryakioðlu and John Campbell, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), Orlando, FL, Feb 2007

30-06 X.J. Liu, S.H. Bhavnani, R.A. Overfelt, Simulation of EPS foam decomposition in the lost foam casting process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 182 (2007) 333–342, © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

25-06 Michael Barkhudarov and Gengsheng Wei, Modeling Casting on the Move, Modern Casting, August 2006; Modeling of Casting Processes with Variable Geometry, Russian Foundryman, December 2007, pp 10-15. (in Russian)

24-06 P. Scarber, Jr. and C.E. Bates, Simulation of Core Gas Production During Mold Fill, © 2006 American Foundry Society

7-06 M.Y.Smirnov, Y.V.Golenkov, Manufacturing of Cast Iron Bath Tubs Castings using Vacuum-Process in Russia, Russia’s Foundryman, July 2006. In Russian.

6-06 M. Barkhudarov, and G. Wei, Modeling of the Coupled Motion of Rigid Bodies in Liquid Metal, Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes – XI, May 28 – June 2, 2006, Opio, France, eds. Ch.-A. Gandin and M. Bellet, pp 71-78, 2006.

2-06 J.-C. Gebelin, M.R. Jolly and F.-Y. Hsu, ‘Designing-in’ Controlled Filling Using Numerical Simulation for Gravity Sand Casting of Aluminium Alloys, Int. J. Cast Met. Res., 2006, Vol.19 No.1

1-06 Michael Barkhudarov, Using Simulation to Control Microporosity Reduces Die Iterations, Die Casting Engineer, January 2006, pp. 52-54

30-05 H. Xue, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, R.A. Miller, Modeling Dynamic Cavity Pressure and Impact Spike in Die Casting, Cast Expo ’05, April 16-19, 2005

22-05 Blas Melissari & Stavros A. Argyropoulous, Measurement of Magnitude and Direction of Velocity in High-Temperature Liquid Metals; Part I, Mathematical Modeling, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Volume 36B, October 2005, pp. 691-700

21-05 M.R. Jolly, State of the Art Review of Use of Modeling Software for Casting, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 337-346

20-05 J-C Gebelin, M.R. Jolly & F-Y Hsu, ‘Designing-in’ Controlled Filling Using Numerical Simulation for Gravity Sand Casting of Aluminium Alloys, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 355-364

19-05 F-Y Hsu, M.R. Jolly & J Campbell, Vortex Gate Design for Gravity Castings, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 73-82

18-05 M.R. Jolly, Modelling the Investment Casting Process: Problems and Successes, Japanese Foundry Society, JFS, Tokyo, Sept. 2005

13-05 Xiaogang Yang, Xiaobing Huang, Xiaojun Dai, John Campbell and Joe Tatler, Numerical Modelling of the Entrainment of Oxide Film Defects in Filling of Aluminium Alloy Castings, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 17 (6), 2004, 321-331

10-05 Carlos Evaristo Esparza, Martha P. Guerro-Mata, Roger Z. Ríos-Mercado, Optimal Design of Gating Systems by Gradient Search Methods, Computational Materials Science, October 2005

6-05 Birgit Hummler-Schaufler, Fritz Hirning, Jurgen Schaufler, A World First for Hatz Diesel and Schaufler Tooling, Die Casting Engineer, May 2005, pp. 18-21

4-05 Rolf Krack, The W35 Topic—A World First, Die Casting World, March 2005, pp. 16-17

3-05 Joerg Frei, Casting Simulations Speed Up Development, Die Casting World, March 2005, p. 14

2-05 David Goettsch and Michael Barkhudarov, Analysis and Optimization of the Transient Stage of Stopper-Rod Pour, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2005

36-04  Ik Min Park, Il Dong Choi, Yong Ho Park, Development of Light-Weight Al Scroll Compressor for Car Air Conditioner, Materials Science Forum, Designing, Processing and Properties of Advanced Engineering Materials, 449-452, 149, March 2004.

32-04 D.H. Kirkwood and P.J Ward, Numerical Modelling of Semi-Solid Flow under Processing Conditions, steel research int. 75 (2004), No. 8/9

30-04 Haijing Mao, A Numerical Study of Externally Solidified Products in the Cold Chamber Die Casting Process, thesis: The Ohio State University, 2004 (Available upon request)

28-04 Z. Cao, Z. Yang, and X.L. Chen, Three-Dimensional Simulation of Transient GMA Weld Pool with Free Surface, Supplement to the Welding Journal, June 2004.

23-04 State of the Art Use of Computational Modelling in the Foundry Industry, 3rd International Conference Computational Modelling of Materials III, Sicily, Italy, June 2004, Advances in Science and Technology,  Eds P. Vincenzini & A Lami, Techna Group Srl, Italy, ISBN: 88-86538-46-4, Part B, pp 479-490

22-04 Jerry Fireman, Computer Simulation Helps Reduce Scrap, Die Casting Engineer, May 2004, pp. 46-49

21-04 Joerg Frei, Simulation—A Safe and Quick Way to Good Components, Aluminium World, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 42-43

20-04 J.-C. Gebelin, M.R. Jolly, A. M. Cendrowicz, J. Cirre and S. Blackburn, Simulation of Die Filling for the Wax Injection Process – Part II Numerical Simulation, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, Volume 35B, August 2004

14-04 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, Charles H. Sherwin, and Ruel A. Overfelt, Hot Distortion Studies In Phenolic Urethane Cold Box System, American Foundry Society, 108th Casting Congress, June 12-15, 2004, Rosemont, IL, USA

13-04 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov and Ruel A. Overfelt, First V-Process Casting of Magnesium, American Foundry Society, 108th Casting Congress, June 12-15, 2004, Rosemont, IL, USA

5-04 C. Schlumpberger & B. Hummler-Schaufler, Produktentwicklung auf hohem Niveau (Product Development on a High Level), Druckguss Praxis, January 2004, pp 39-42 (in German).

3-04 Charles Bates, Dealing with Defects, Foundry Management and Technology, February 2004, pp 23-25

1-04 Laihua Wang, Thang Nguyen, Gary Savage and Cameron Davidson, Thermal and Flow Modeling of Ladling and Injection in High Pressure Die Casting Process, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, vol. 16 No 4 2003, pp 409-417

2-03 J-C Gebelin, AM Cendrowicz, MR Jolly, Modeling of the Wax Injection Process for the Investment Casting Process – Prediction of Defects, presented at the Third International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Minerals and Process Industries, December 10-12, 2003, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 415-420

29-03 C. W. Hirt, Modeling Shrinkage Induced Micro-porosity, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-03-TN66)

28-03 Thixoforming at the University of Sheffield, Diecasting World, September 2003, pp 11-12

26-03 William Walkington, Gas Porosity-A Guide to Correcting the Problems, NADCA Publication: 516

22-03 G F Yao, C W Hirt, and M Barkhudarov, Development of a Numerical Approach for Simulation of Sand Blowing and Core Formation, in Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Process-X”, Ed. By Stefanescu et al pp. 633-639, 2003

21-03 E F Brush Jr, S P Midson, W G Walkington, D T Peters, J G Cowie, Porosity Control in Copper Rotor Die Castings, NADCA Indianapolis Convention Center, Indianapolis, IN September 15-18, 2003, T03-046

12-03 J-C Gebelin & M.R. Jolly, Modeling Filters in Light Alloy Casting Processes,  Trans AFS, 2002, 110, pp. 109-120

11-03 M.R. Jolly, Casting Simulation – How Well Do Reality and Virtual Casting Match – A State of the Art Review, Intl. J. Cast Metals Research, 2002, 14, pp. 303-313

10-03 Gebelin., J-C and Jolly, M.R., Modeling of the Investment Casting Process, Journal of  Materials Processing Tech., Vol. 135/2-3, pp. 291 – 300

9-03 Cox, M, Harding, R.A. and Campbell, J., Optimised Running System Design for Bottom Filled Aluminium Alloy 2L99 Investment Castings, J. Mat. Sci. Tech., May 2003, Vol. 19, pp. 613-625

8-03 Von Alexander Schrey and Regina Reek, Numerische Simulation der Kernherstellung, (Numerical Simulation of Core Blowing), Giesserei, June 2003, pp. 64-68 (in German)

7-03 J. Zuidema Jr., L Katgerman, Cyclone separation of particles in aluminum DC Casting, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 607-614

6-03 Jean-Christophe Gebelin and Mark Jolly, Numerical Modeling of Metal Flow Through Filters, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 431-438

5-03 N.W. Lai, W.D. Griffiths and J. Campbell, Modelling of the Potential for Oxide Film Entrainment in Light Metal Alloy Castings, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 415-422

21-02 Boris Lukezic, Case History: Process Modeling Solves Die Design Problems, Modern Casting, February 2003, P 59

20-02 C.W. Hirt and M.R. Barkhudarov, Predicting Defects in Lost Foam Castings, Modern Casting, December 2002, pp 31-33

19-02 Mark Jolly, Mike Cox, Ric Harding, Bill Griffiths and John Campbell, Quiescent Filling Applied to Investment Castings, Modern Casting, December 2002 pp. 36-38

18-02 Simulation Helps Overcome Challenges of Thin Wall Magnesium Diecasting, Foundry Management and Technology, October 2002, pp 13-15

17-02 G Messmer, Simulation of a Thixoforging Process of Aluminum Alloys with FLOW-3D, Institute for Metal Forming Technology, University of Stuttgart

16-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Computer Simulation of Lost Foam Process, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 319-324

15-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Computer Simulation of Inclusion Tracking, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 341-346

14-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Advanced Simulation of the Flow and Heat Transfer of an Alternator Housing, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 219-228

8-02 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, and Ruel A. Overfelt, Experimental and Numerical Study of Bonded Sand-Air Two-Phase Flow in PUA Process, Auburn University, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-091, Kansas City, MO

7-02 A Habibollah Zadeh, and J Campbell, Metal Flow Through a Filter System, University of Birmingham, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-020, Kansas City, MO

6-02 Phil Ward, and Helen Atkinson, Final Report for EPSRC Project: Modeling of Thixotropic Flow of Metal Alloys into a Die, GR/M17334/01, March 2002, University of Sheffield

5-02 S. I. Bakhtiyarov and R. A. Overfelt, Numerical and Experimental Study of Aluminum Casting in Vacuum-sealed Step Molding, Auburn University, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-050, Kansas City, MO

4-02 J. C. Gebelin and M. R. Jolly, Modelling Filters in Light Alloy Casting Processes, University of Birmingham, 2002 American Foundry Society AFS Transactions 02-079, Kansas City, MO

3-02 Mark Jolly, Mike Cox, Jean-Christophe Gebelin, Sam Jones, and Alex Cendrowicz, Fundamentals of Investment Casting (FOCAST), Modelling the Investment Casting Process, Some preliminary results from the UK Research Programme, IRC in Materials, University of Birmingham, UK, AFS2001

49-01   Hua Bai and Brian G. Thomas, Bubble formation during horizontal gas injection into downward-flowing liquid, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 1143-1159, 2001. doi.org/10.1007/s11663-001-0102-y

45-01 Jan Zuidema; Laurens Katgerman; Ivo J. Opstelten;Jan M. Rabenberg, Secondary Cooling in DC Casting: Modelling and Experimental Results, TMS 2001, New Orleans, Louisianna, February 11-15, 2001

43-01 James Andrew Yurko, Fluid Flow Behavior of Semi-Solid Aluminum at High Shear Rates,Ph.D. thesis; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2001. Abstract only; full thesis available at http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/8451 (for a fee).

33-01 Juang, S.H., CAE Application on Design of Die Casting Dies, 2001 Conference on CAE Technology and Application, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, November 2001, (article in Chinese with English-language abstract)

32-01 Juang, S.H. and C. M. Wang, Effect of Feeding Geometry on Flow Characteristics of Magnesium Die Casting by Numerical Analysis, The Preceedings of 6th FADMA Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, July 2001, Chinese language with English abstract

26-01 C. W. Hirt., Predicting Defects in Lost Foam Castings, December 13, 2001

21-01 P. Scarber Jr., Using Liquid Free Surface Areas as a Predictor of Reoxidation Tendency in Metal Alloy Castings, presented at the Steel Founders’ Society of American, Technical and Operating Conference, October 2001

20-01 P. Scarber Jr., J. Griffin, and C. E. Bates, The Effect of Gating and Pouring Practice on Reoxidation of Steel Castings, presented at the Steel Founders’ Society of American, Technical and Operating Conference, October 2001

19-01 L. Wang, T. Nguyen, M. Murray, Simulation of Flow Pattern and Temperature Profile in the Shot Sleeve of a High Pressure Die Casting Process, CSIRO Manufacturing Science and Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Presented by North American Die Casting Association, Oct 29-Nov 1, 2001, Cincinnati, To1-014

18-01 Rajiv Shivpuri, Venkatesh Sankararaman, Kaustubh Kulkarni, An Approach at Optimizing the Ingate Design for Reducing Filling and Shrinkage Defects, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, Presented by North American Die Casting Association, Oct 29-Nov 1, 2001, Cincinnati, TO1-052

5-01 Michael Barkhudarov, Simulation Helps Overcome Challenges of Thin Wall Magnesium Diecasting, Diecasting World, March 2001, pp. 5-6

2-01 J. Grindling, Customized CFD Codes to Simulate Casting of Thermosets in Full 3D, Electrical Manufacturing and Coil Winding 2000 Conference, October 31-November 2, 20

20-00 Richard Schuhmann, John Carrig, Thang Nguyen, Arne Dahle, Comparison of Water Analogue Modelling and Numerical Simulation Using Real-Time X-Ray Flow Data in Gravity Die Casting, Australian Die Casting Association Die Casting 2000 Conference, September 3-6, 2000, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

15-00 M. Sirvio, Vainola, J. Vartianinen, M. Vuorinen, J. Orkas, and S. Devenyi, Fluid Flow Analysis for Designing Gating of Aluminum Castings, Proc. NADCA Conf., Rosemont, IL, Nov 6-8, 1999

14-00 X. Yang, M. Jolly, and J. Campbell, Reduction of Surface Turbulence during Filling of Sand Castings Using a Vortex-flow Runner, Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August 2000

13-00 H. S. H. Lo and J. Campbell, The Modeling of Ceramic Foam Filters, Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August 2000

12-00 M. R. Jolly, H. S. H. Lo, M. Turan and J. Campbell, Use of Simulation Tools in the Practical Development of a Method for Manufacture of Cast Iron Camshafts,” Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August, 2000

14-99 J Koke, and M Modigell, Time-Dependent Rheological Properties of Semi-solid Metal Alloys, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Aachen University of Technology, Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials 3: 15-30, 1999

12-99 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, Schneider, Wolfgang, Ray, Steven, Marthinusen, Jan-Olaf, Recent Improvements in Ceramic Foam Filter Design by Coupled Heat and Fluid Flow Modeling, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1999, pp. 1041-1047

10-99 Bongcheol Park and Jerald R. Brevick, Computer Flow Modeling of Cavity Pre-fill Effects in High Pressure Die Casting, NADCA Proceedings, Cleveland T99-011, November, 1999

8-99 Brad Guthrie, Simulation Reduces Aluminum Die Casting Cost by Reducing Volume, Die Casting Engineer Magazine, September/October 1999, pp. 78-81

7-99 Fred L. Church, Virtual Reality Predicts Cast Metal Flow, Modern Metals, September, 1999, pp. 67F-J

19-98 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, & Schneider, Wolfgang, Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow Phenomena in the Launder-integrated Tool Within Casting Unit Development, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1998, pp. 1175-1182

18-98 X. Yang & J. Campbell, Liquid Metal Flow in a Pouring Basin, Int. J. Cast Metals Res, 1998, 10, pp. 239-253

15-98 R. Van Tol, Mould Filling of Horizontal Thin-Wall Castings, Delft University Press, The Netherlands, 1998

14-98 J. Daughtery and K. A. Williams, Thermal Modeling of Mold Material Candidates for Copper Pressure Die Casting of the Induction Motor Rotor Structure, Proc. Int’l Workshop on Permanent Mold Casting of Copper-Based Alloys, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Oct. 15-16, 1998

10-98 C. W. Hirt, and M.R. Barkhudarov, Lost Foam Casting Simulation with Defect Prediction, Flow Science Inc, presented at Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes VIII Conference, June 7-12, 1998, Catamaran Hotel, San Diego, California

9-98 M. R. Barkhudarov and C. W. Hirt, Tracking Defects, Flow Science Inc, presented at the 1st International Aluminum Casting Technology Symposium, 12-14 October 1998, Rosemont, IL

5-98 J. Righi, Computer Simulation Helps Eliminate Porosity, Die Casting Management Magazine, pp. 36-38, January 1998

3-98 P. Kapranos, M. R. Barkhudarov, D. H. Kirkwood, Modeling of Structural Breakdown during Rapid Compression of Semi-Solid Alloy Slugs, Dept. Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, U.K. and Flow Science Inc, USA, Presented at the 5th International Conference Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, 23-25 June 1998

1-98 U. Jerichow, T. Altan, and P. R. Sahm, Semi Solid Metal Forming of Aluminum Alloys-The Effect of Process Variables Upon Material Flow, Cavity Fill and Mechanical Properties, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, published in Die Casting Engineer, p. 26, Jan/Feb 1998

8-97 Michael Barkhudarov, High Pressure Die Casting Simulation Using FLOW-3D, Die Casting Engineer, 1997

15-97 M. R. Barkhudarov, Advanced Simulation of the Flow and Heat Transfer Process in Simultaneous Engineering, Flow Science report, presented at the Casting 1997 – International ADI and Simulation Conference, Helsinki, Finland, May 28-30, 1997

14-97 M. Ranganathan and R. Shivpuri, Reducing Scrap and Increasing Die Life in Low Pressure Die Casting through Flow Simulation and Accelerated Testing, Dept. Welding and Systems Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, presented at 19th International Die Casting Congress & Exposition, November 3-6, 1997

13-97 J. Koke, Modellierung und Simulation der Fließeigenschaften teilerstarrter Metallegierungen, Livt Information, Institut für Verfahrenstechnik, RWTH Aachen, October 1997

10-97 J. P. Greene and J. O. Wilkes, Numerical Analysis of Injection Molding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics – Part 2 Fiber Orientation, Body-in-White Center, General Motors Corp. and Dept. Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 37, No. 6, June 1997

9-97 J. P. Greene and J. O. Wilkes, Numerical Analysis of Injection Molding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics. Part 1 – Injection Pressures and Flow, Manufacturing Center, General Motors Corp. and Dept. Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 37, No. 3, March 1997

8-97 H. Grazzini and D. Nesa, Thermophysical Properties, Casting Simulation and Experiments for a Stainless Steel, AT Systemes (Renault) report, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

7-97 R. Van Tol, L. Katgerman and H. E. A. Van den Akker, Horizontal Mould Filling of a Thin Wall Aluminum Casting, Laboratory of Materials report, Delft University, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

6-97 M. R. Barkhudarov, Is Fluid Flow Important for Predicting Solidification, Flow Science report, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

22-96 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich & Schneider, Wolfgang, 3-D Modeling of the Start-up Phase of DC Casting of Sheet Ingots, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1996, pp. 971-981

9-96 M. R. Barkhudarov and C. W. Hirt, Thixotropic Flow Effects under Conditions of Strong Shear, Flow Science report FSI96-00-2, to be presented at the “Materials Week ’96” TMS Conference, Cincinnati, OH, 7-10 October 1996

4-96 C. W. Hirt, A Computational Model for the Lost Foam Process, Flow Science final report, February 1996 (FSI-96-57-R2)

3-96 M. R. Barkhudarov, C. L. Bronisz, C. W. Hirt, Three-Dimensional Thixotropic Flow Model, Flow Science report, FSI-96-00-1, published in the proceedings of (pp. 110- 114) and presented at the 4th International Conference on Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites, The University of Sheffield, 19-21 June 1996

1-96 M. R. Barkhudarov, J. Beech, K. Chang, and S. B. Chin, Numerical Simulation of Metal/Mould Interfacial Heat Transfer in Casting, Dept. Mech. & Process Engineering, Dept. Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield and Flow Science Inc, 9th Int. Symposium on Transport Phenomena in Thermal-Fluid Engineering, June 25-28, 1996, Singapore

11-95 Barkhudarov, M. R., Hirt, C.W., Casting Simulation Mold Filling and Solidification-Benchmark Calculations Using FLOW-3D, Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes VII, pp 935-946

10-95 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, & Schneider, Wolfgang, Optimal Design of a Distribution Pan for Level Pour Casting, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1995, pp. 1061-1070

9-95 E. Masuda, I. Itoh, K. Haraguchi, Application of Mold Filling Simulation to Die Casting Processes, Honda Engineering Co., Ltd., Tochigi, Japan, presented at the Modelling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes VII, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 1995

6-95 K. Venkatesan, Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Process Parameters on the Erosive Wear of Die Casting Dies, presented for Ph.D. degree at Ohio State University, 1995

5-95 J. Righi, A. F. LaCamera, S. A. Jones, W. G. Truckner, T. N. Rouns, Integration of Experience and Simulation Based Understanding in the Die Design Process, Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA 15069, presented by the North American Die Casting Association, 1995

2-95 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Simulation and Comparison with Water Modeling Studies of the Inertia Dominated Cavity Filling in Die Casting, NUMIFORM, 1995

1-95 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Gate Velocity and Gate Size on the Quality of Die Casting Parts, NAMRC, 1995.

15-94 D. Liang, Y. Bayraktar, S. A. Moir, M. Barkhudarov, and H. Jones, Primary Silicon Segregation During Isothermal Holding of Hypereutectic AI-18.3%Si Alloy in the Freezing Range, Dept. of Engr. Materials, U. of Sheffield, Metals and Materials, February 1994

13-94 Deniece Korzekwa and Paul Dunn, A Combined Experimental and Modeling Approach to Uranium Casting, Materials Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, presented at the Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, El Dorado Hotel, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1994

12-94 R. van Tol, H. E. A. van den Akker and L. Katgerman, CFD Study of the Mould Filling of a Horizontal Thin Wall Aluminum Casting, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, HTD-Vol. 284/AMD-Vol. 182, Transport Phenomena in Solidification, ASME 1994

11-94 M. R. Barkhudarov and K. A. Williams, Simulation of ‘Surface Turbulence’ Fluid Phenomena During the Mold Filling Phase of Gravity Castings, Flow Science Technical Note #41, November 1994 (FSI-94-TN41)

10-94 M. R. Barkhudarov and S. B. Chin, Stability of a Numerical Algorithm for Gas Bubble Modelling, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K., International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 19, 415-437 (1994)

16-93 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Simulation of Die Cavity Filling in Die Castings and an Evaluation of Process Parameters on Die Wear, Dept. of Industrial Systems Engineering, Presented by: N.A. Die Casting Association, Cleveland, Ohio, October 18-21, 1993

15-93 K. Venkatesen and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Modeling of Filling and Solidification for Improved Quality of Die Casting: A Literature Survey (Chapters II and III), Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, Report C-93-07, August 1993, Ohio State University

1-93 P-E Persson, Computer Simulation of the Solidification of a Hub Carrier for the Volvo 800 Series, AB Volvo Technological Development, Metals Laboratory, Technical Report No. LM 500014E, Jan. 1993

13-92 D. R. Korzekwa, M. A. K. Lewis, Experimentation and Simulation of Gravity Fed Lead Castings, in proceedings of a TMS Symposium on Concurrent Engineering Approach to Materials Processing, S. N. Dwivedi, A. J. Paul and F. R. Dax, eds., TMS-AIME Warrendale, p. 155 (1992)

12-92 M. A. K. Lewis, Near-Net-Shaiconpe Casting Simulation and Experimentation, MST 1992 Review, Los Alamos National Laboratory

2-92 M. R. Barkhudarov, H. You, J. Beech, S. B. Chin, D. H. Kirkwood, Validation and Development of FLOW-3D for Casting, School of Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, presented at the TMS/AIME Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 3, 1992

1-92 D. R. Korzekwa and L. A. Jacobson, Los Alamos National Laboratory and C.W. Hirt, Flow Science Inc, Modeling Planar Flow Casting with FLOW-3D, presented at the TMS/AIME Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 3, 1992

12-91 R. Shivpuri, M. Kuthirakulathu, and M. Mittal, Nonisothermal 3-D Finite Difference Simulation of Cavity Filling during the Die Casting Process, Dept. Industrial and Systems Engineering, Ohio State University, presented at the 1991 Winter Annual ASME Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1-6, 1991

3-91 C. W. Hirt, FLOW-3D Study of the Importance of Fluid Momentum in Mold Filling, presented at the 18th Annual Automotive Materials Symposium, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI, May 1-2, 1991 (FSI-91-00-2)

11-90 N. Saluja, O.J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, On the Calculation of the Electromagnetic Force Field in the Circular Stirring of Metallic Melts, accepted in J. Appl. Physics, 1990

10-90 N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, On the Calculation of the Electromagnetic Force Field in the Circular Stirring of Metallic Molds in Continuous Castings, presented at the 6th Iron and Steel Congress of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Nagoya, Japan, October 1990

9-90 N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, Fluid Flow in Phenomena in the Electromagnetic Stirring of Continuous Casting Systems, Part I. The Behavior of a Cylindrically Shaped, Laboratory Scale Installation, accepted for publication in Steel Research, 1990

8-89 C. W. Hirt, Gravity-Fed Casting, Flow Science Technical Note #20, July 1989 (FSI-89-TN20)

6-89 E. W. M. Hansen and F. Syvertsen, Numerical Simulation of Flow Behaviour in Moldfilling for Casting Analysis, SINTEF-Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway, Report No. STS20 A89001, June 1989

1-88 C. W. Hirt and R. P. Harper, Modeling Tests for Casting Processes, Flow Science report, Jan. 1988 (FSI-88-38-01)

2-87 C. W. Hirt, Addition of a Solidification/Melting Model to FLOW-3D, Flow Science report, April 1987 (FSI-87-33-1)

High Pressure Die Casting Workspace, 고압다이캐스팅

High Pressure Die Casting Workspace Highlights

  • 주입 정확도가 탁월합니다.
  • 전체 프로세스 모델링에는 고급 환기, PQ2 및 스프레이 냉각이 포함됩니다.
  • 동적 시뮬레이션 제어를 통해 동적 런타임 프로세스를 제어할 수 있습니다.
  • 최첨단 알루미늄 실리콘 합금 고형화입니다.

고압 다이 캐스팅 Workspace

고압 다이 캐스팅 Workspace은 엔지니어가 FLOW-3D CAST를 사용하여, 고압 다이 캐스팅 제품을 성공적으로 모델링할 수 있도록 설계된 직관적인 모델링 환경입니다.

FLOW-3D CAST v5.1은 첨단 다이 열 제어, 기계 파라미터 모델링,주입 및 배압 조건의 정확한 해석기능과 결합된 샷 슬리브 모션의 완전한 제어는 가장 까다로운 HPDC 시뮬레이션에 필요한 최적화된 솔루션입니다. HPDC Workspace에는 진보된 미세수축공 예측 및 후처리 기능 외에도 Al-Si 및 Al-Cu 기반 합금에 대한 최첨단 화학 기반 응고 및 재료 강도 모델이 포함되어 있습니다.

모델링된 프로세스

  • 고압 다이 주조
 

유연한 메시

  • FAVOR™ 간단한 메쉬 생성 도구
  • 멀티 블록 메시
  • 중첩 메시
 

다이 열 관리

  • 열 다이 사이클링
  • 열 포화도
  • 전체 열 전달 모델링
  • 스마트 냉각 채널 제어
  • 스프레이 냉각 경로 모델링
 

고급 응고

  • 다공성 예측
  • 수축
  • 핫스팟 식별
  • 기계적 특성 예측
  • 미세 구조 예측
 

국자 모션

  • 자유 모션 정의 6도
 

진공 및 환기

  • 대화형 프로브 배치
  • 지역 및 손실 계수 계산기
 

충전 정확도

  • 느리고 빠른 샷 모델링
  • 강화 압력 효과
  • 가스 및 버블 함정
  • 표면 산화물 계산
  • RNG 및 레 난류 모델
  • 역압력
 

결함 예측

  • 매크로 및 마이크로 다공성
  • 가스 다공성
  • 조기 응고
  • 산화물 형성
  • 표면 결함 분석
 

표면 결함 분석

  • PQ2 분석
  • 프로브 기반 트리거
  • 열 제어
  • 진공 및 환기 제어
 

전체 분석 패키지

  • 다중 뷰포트가 있는 애니메이션 – 3D, 2D, 기록 플롯, 볼륨 렌더링
  • 다공성 분석 도구
  • 나란히 시뮬레이션 결과 비교
  • 용융 온도, 고체 분획 측정을 위한 센서
  • 파티클 트레이서
  • 배치 후 처리
  • 보고서 생성

HPDC Part 1 – Thermal Die Cycling

Design workflow의 유연성


냉각 채널

  • 냉각 채널 기능
    -냉각 채널 제어
    -에너지 제거
    -열전대
    -시간 제어
    -HTC 계산기
    -HTC 데이터베이스

Thermal Die Cycle을 사용하는 이유

  • 다이캐스팅 시설의 표준 실무
  • 고품질의 부품을 얻기 위해서는 금형 온도가 중요
  • 급격한 온도 구배는 최종 주조제품에 다이 조각을 뒤틀리게하고 치수도 부정확해질 수 있음

시뮬레이션이 어떻게 도움이 되는가

  • 다이 전체의 열 분포 최적화
  • 냉각 채널의 효율성 평가
    -배치 및 전체 온도 제거에 대한 안목
  • 스프레이 냉각을 정확하게 모델링
    -다이 표면의 과도된 히트 맵
  • 필요한 온도까지 다이캐스팅 시간을 대폭 감소
  • TDC 스테이지 시간 단축 가능

FLOW-3D Cast 의 TDC 스테이지


스프레이 냉각

  • shot 사이에서 다이를 냉각하는데 사용
  • 적절한 다이의 성능을 보장
  • 프로그래밍이 가능한 로봇으로 수행

스프레이 냉각을 정확하게 모델링하는 것이 중요한 이유

  • 오래된 스프레이 모델은 전체 다이 캐비티에 걸친 일정한 HTC를 가정
    -공간적으로 변화하는 다이 냉각을 포착할 수 없음
    -시뮬레이션 파라미터를 설정하기 어려움
    -스프레이 냉각 디자인을 최적화할 수 없음

스프레이 냉각


High pressure die casting workspace:Advanced simulation options / 고압 다이캐스팅 workspace : 고급 시뮬레이션 옵션

고압 다이 캐스팅의 이점

  • 고압 다이캐스팅 기술은 매우 큰 경합금 부품을 대량으로 생산가능
  • 높은 정밀도, 우수한 표면 조도, 우수한 균일성 및 최적의 기계적 특성
  • 고압 다이캐스팅 공정은 또한 얇은 벽을 가진 부품과 스크류 및 라이너와 같은 다른 유형의 인서트를 가진 “공동 주조된”부품을 생산하여 제품 자체의 필수 부품이 될 수 있음

PQ2 해석

  • 다이 캐스팅 기의 기능과 게이트 속도를 일치시키는 표준 절차
  • 작동 시간은 충전 시간, 게이트 속도 및 금속 압력 등에 따라 다름
  • 기계 기능 내에서 유지되도록 샷 프로파일의 속도 변경
  • 정확한 샷 슬리브 모델링
  • No adjustment
  • With adjustment

Filling

Thermal die cycling

Spray cooling model

Filling with shot sleeve – fast shot activation

Solidification and porosity prediction

FLOW-3D CAST Suites

FLOW-3D CAST Suites

FLOW-3D CAST v5 comes in Suites of relevant casting processes: 

HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING SUITE

Process Workspace

High Pressure Die Casting

Features

Thermal Die Cycling
– Cooling/heating channels
– Spray cooling
Filling
– Shot sleeve with Plunger
– Shot motion
– Ladles, stoppers
– Venting efficiency
– PQ^2 analysis
– HPDC machine database
Solidification
– Squeeze pins
Cooling


PERMANENT MOLD CASTING SUITE

Process Workspaces

Permanent Mold Casting
Low Pressure Die Casting
Tilt Pour Casting

Features

Thermal Die Cycling
– Cooling/heating channels
Filling
– Tilt pouring
Solidification
– Squeeze pins
Cooling


SAND CASTING SUITE

Process Workspaces

Sand Casting
Low Pressure Sand Casting

Features

Filling
– Permeable molds
– Moisture evaporation in molds
– Gas generation in cores
– Ladle model
Solidification
– Exothermic sleeves
– Chills
– Cast iron solidification
Cooling


LOST FOAM CASTING SUITE

Process Workspaces

Lost Foam
Sand Casting
Low Pressure Sand Casting

Features

Filling
– Permeable molds
– Moisture evaporation in molds
– Gas generation in cores
– Ladle model
– Lost foam pattern evaporation models (Fast model and Full model)
– Lost foam defect prediction
Solidification
– Exothermic sleeves
– Chills
– Cast iron solidification
Cooling

 


ALL SUITES INCLUDE THESE CORE FEATURES:

Solver Engine

  • TruVOF – The most accurate filling simulation tool in the industry
  • Heat transfer and solidification
  • Shrinkage – Rapid Shrinkage model and Shrinkage with flow model
  • Temperature dependent properties
  • Multi-block meshing including conforming meshes
  • Turbulence models
  • Non-Newtonian viscosity (shear thinning/thickening, thixotropic)
  • Flow tracers
  • Active Simulation Control with Global Conditions
  • Surface tension model
  • Thermal stress analysis with warpage
  • General moving geometry w/6 DOF

FlowSight

  • Multi-case analysis
  • Porosity analysis tool

Defect Prediction Tools

  • Gas entrainment model
  • Thermal Modulus output
  • Hot Spot identification
  • Micro and macro porosity prediction
  • Surface defect prediction
  • Shrinkage
  • Cavitation and Cavitation Potential
  • Particle models (Inclusion modeling, collapsed bubble tracking)

User Conveniences

  • Process-oriented workspaces
  • Configurable Simulation Monitor
  • Metal and solid material databases
  • Heat transfer database
  • Filter database
  • Remote solving queues
  • Quick Analyze/Display tool

ALL NEW FLOW-3D CAST v5

ALL NEW FLOW-3D CAST v5

HPC version of FLOW-3D CAST v5 releasedALL NEW FLOW-3D CAST v5 는 금속 주조 시뮬레이션 및 공정 모델링에 있어 큰 발전입니다. 이제 FLOW-3D CAST는 시뮬레이션 할 프로세스를 선택할 수 있으며, 소프트웨어는 적절한 프로세스 매개 변수, 지오메트리 유형 및 합리적인 기본 값을 제공합니다. 이렇게 하면 시뮬레이션 설정이 상당히 간소화됩니다. 또한 FLOW-3D CAST의 강력한 시뮬레이션 엔진과 결함 예측을 위한 새로운 도구는 설계 주기를 단축하고 비용을 절감하는 통찰력을 제공합니다. 대표적인 개발 기능으로 응고 시뮬레이션을 위한 열 계수 및 핫 스팟 식별 출력, 갇혀 있는 가스를 식별하고 환기 효율을 예측하기 위한 결함 채우기 도구 등이 포함됩니다. 그리고 더 빠르고 더 강력한 압력과 및 응력 해소 기능이 모두 포함합니다.

ALL NEW FLOW-3D CAST v5 는 관련 프로세스가 포함된 Suite제품으로 제공됩니다. 영구 금형 제품군은 중력 다이 캐스팅, 저압 다이캐스팅(LPDC), 틸트 주입 주조와 같은 프로세스 작업 공간을 포함합니다. 각 프로세스에 대해 사용자 인터페이스는 특정 프로세스와 관련된 내용만 표시합니다. 모래 주조 Suite에는 중력 사형 주조 및 저압 사형 주조(LPSC)와 같은 프로세스가 포함되어 있습니다. 소실 폼 제품 군에는 사형 주조 Suite의 모든 것과 소실 폼 공정 작업 공간이 포함됩니다. HPDC 제품군은 열 응력 및 변형을 포함하여 고압 다이 캐스팅과 관련된 모든 것을 포함합니다. 각 프로세스 작업 공간 내에서 채우기, 응고 및 냉각과 같은 하위 프로세스는 서로 연결된 시뮬레이션으로, 처음부터 끝까지 차례로 전체 프로세스를 모델링 합니다. 사용자가 그것을 작업장 바닥에서 하는 것처럼. 사용자는 레들을 용융 풀 안에 담갔다가, 숏 슬리브 또는 주입 컵에 옮겨, 전체 이동 및 주입과 같은 단계를 포함하도록 프로세스를 확장할 수 있습니다. LPDC의 경우 프로세스 엔지니어는 도가니의 가압 및 금속 흐름을 주형으로 모델링 할 수 있습니다.  FLOW-3D CAST v5를 사용하면 가능성이 무한해 집니다.

WYSIWYN Process Workspaces

What-You-See-Is-What-You-Need (WYSIWYN) 프로세스 작업 공간은 FLOW-3D CAST의 다기능성을 간소화하여 사용 편의성과 탁월한 솔루션입니다. 대부분의 인터페이스는 사용자가 제공해야 하는 정보만을 요구하고, 사용자 설계 원칙을 적용하여 단순화되었습니다.

FLOW-3D CAST v4.2에 도입된 프로세스 중심 작업 공간은 중력 다이 주조, 저압 주조 및 경사 주입, 모래 등과 같은 영구 금형 공정으로 확장되었습니다. 중력 모래 주조, 저압 모래 주조 및 소실 폼과 같은 주조 공정 지속적인 주조, 투자 주조, 모래 코어 제작, 원심 주조를 포함한 더 많은 공정 작업 공간이 현재 진행 중에 있습니다.

Simulation setup is simplified by only showing the components applicable for a given process.

Types of casting components available in a HPDC simulation. Mold pieces available in a high pressure die casting include cover and ejector dies, sliders, and shot sleeves.

Defect Prediction / 결함 예측

Identify Filling Defects using Particles  결함 예측 및 입자를 이용한 주입 결함 식별

파티클을 사용하는 FLOW-3D CAST v5를 통해 유입된 가스로 인한 충전 결함을 식별하는 것이 훨씬 쉬워 졌습니다. 결함을 식별하기가 훨씬 용이할 뿐만 아니라, 결함 예측에 따른 계산 비용도 크게 절감되었습니다.

붕괴된 가스 지역을 나타내는 보이드 입자가 도입되었습니다. 이전에 붕괴된 가스 영역은 너무 압축되어 수치 메쉬에서 해결할 수 없으면 시뮬레이션에서 사라졌습니다. 보이드 입자는 작은 기포처럼 작용하며 드래그와 압력을 통해 금속과 상호 작용합니다. 주변의 금속 압력에 따라 크기가 변하며, 주입이 끝난 후 최종 위치를 보면 공기 침투 및 산화물로 인한 잠재적인 결함이 있음을 알 수 있습니다.

Predict filling defects caused by entrapped gas using the Particle Model.

Metal/Wall Contact Time 금속/벽 접촉 시간

벽면 접촉 시간은 금형 표면에서 다른 부위보다 금속에 더 오래 노출된 부위를 식별하는 데 유용합니다. 금속 접촉 시간은 금속이 고체 구성 요소와 접촉한 시간을 나타냅니다. 예를 들어 모래 입자가 핵분해 부위의 역할을 하기 때문에 미세 먼지가 발생할 수 있습니다. 개별 솔리드 구성 요소와의 금속 접촉 시간 출력이 모든 구성 요소와의 접촉 시간을 포함하도록 확장되었습니다. 접촉 시간 계산은 출력 탭에서 벽 접촉 시간을 선택하여 활성화합니다.

Identify solidification defects with the new Thermal Modulus output.

Solidification Defect Identification 응고 결함 식별

일반적으로 라이저 크기 조정에 사용되는 열 모듈은 이제 응고 시뮬레이션에서 출력됩니다.

Risers will likely need to be placed on the circled regions.

Hot Spots  핫 스팟

또 다른 결과인 “핫 스팟”은 라이저를 찾고 크기를 조정하며, 응고 관련 결함의 가능성을 식별하는 데 유용합니다. 핫 스팟은 최종적으로 응고된 부위를 나타냅니다. 이것들은 입자들로 표현되고 뜨거운 점 크기에 의해 색깔이 변하기도 합니다. 라이저는 핫 스팟 크기가 가장 큰 곳에 배치해야 합니다.

Porosity Analysis Tool

FlowSight의 새로운 Porosity Analysis Tool은 실제적인 측면에서 porosity-related 결점을 식별합니다. 결점은 이제 순 볼륨, 최대 선형 범위, 모양 인자 및 total count로 식별됩니다.

New defect identification tools allow users to analyze porosity.

Arbitrary 2D Clips 임의 2D 클립

기능 지향적인 2D 클립은 결함을 찾기 위해 전면적으로 살펴 볼 때 유용합니다. 이전에는 클립에 표시된 금속 영역이 솔리드에 의해 점유된 셀로 확장되었습니다. 잡식의 FLOW-3D CAST v5에서 이 클립은 구성 요소를 숨기는 옵션을 선택해야만 열린 공간(예:주조 부품)의 금속을 보여 줄 수 있습니다.

Intensification Pressure 강화 압력

고압 주조 시뮬레이션에 지정된 강화 압력은 이제 매크로 및 마이크로 Porosity모델 모두에 결합되어 형성 사이의 보다 현실적인 관계를 형성합니다. 이러한 결함의 크기 및 플런저에 의해 가해지는 압력의 크기입니다.

Adjusting Shrinkage Porosity 수축 기공 조절

사용자가 금속의 특성을 수정할 필요 없이 수축 다공성의 양과 크기를 미세 조정할 수 있도록 수축 조정 계수가 추가되었습니다. 계수를 사용하면 응고 중에 체적 수축의 양을 전화로 설정하거나 줄일 수 있습니다.

Gas Pressure and Venting Efficiency  가스 압력 및 밴트 효율성 검토

사용자가 충전 결함을 식별하고 다이캐스트에서 밴트 시스템을 설계하는 데 도움을 주기 위해 마지막 국부적인 가스 압력 및 밴트 효율성 검토 결과가 주조 시뮬레이션 출력에 추가되었습니다. 가스 압력은 셀이 금속으로 채워지기 전에 셀의 마지막 보이드 압력을 기록하며, 밴트 효율은 환기구를 배치하는 것이 밴트 위치에서 공기를 배출하는 데 가장 효율적인 영역을 보여 줍니다.

Databases 데이터베이스

주조 공정에서 일반적으로 사용되는 정보의 데이터베이스는 설정 오류를 줄이고 시뮬레이션 workflow 를 개선합니다.

Configurable Simulation Monitor 구성 가능한 시뮬레이션 모니터

시뮬레이션을 실행할 때 발생하는 중요하지만 종종 힘든 작업은 시뮬레이션을 모니터링하는 것입니다. FLOW-3D CAST를 사용하면 다음과 같은 일반적인 시뮬레이션 목표를 모니터링할 수 있습니다.

  • 게이트 속도
    주형 내 고상 분율
    최저/최고 용탕 온도 및 금형 온도
    다양한 프로브 위치에서의 온도
    시뮬레이션 진단(예:시간 스텝, 안정성 한계)

Plotting Capabilities  Plotting기능

이제 시뮬레이션 관리자에는 더 많은 플롯 기능이 포함됩니다. 플롯은 사용자가 구성할 수 있으며 구성은 다른 시뮬레이션에서 사용하기 위해 데이터베이스에 저장됩니다. 사용자는 시뮬레이션 런타임 그래프와 history-data 에서 모니터링할 이력 데이터 변수를 지정할 수 있습니다. 다중 변수를 각 그래프에 입력합니다.

Conforming Meshes

임의 형상의 활성 계산 영역을 정의할 수 있도록 적합한 메쉬 기능이 확장되었습니다. 이는 메쉬 블록이 준수할 수 있는 열린 볼륨과 솔리드 볼륨을 모두 포함하여 계산 도메인의 영역을 정의하는 meshing구성 요소라고 하는 새로운 유형의 지오메트리 구성 요소를 사용합니다.
메쉬 블록은 냉각 채널이나 공동에 선택적으로 조합할 수 있어 사용자가 이러한 기하학적 객체에 대해 최적의 해상도를 선택할 수 있습니다. 이제 확인할 수 있는 메쉬가 FAVORize 탭에 표시될 수 있습니다.

Summary Views of Components/Cooling Channels

FLOW-3D CAST v5의 인터페이스는 주조 시뮬레이션에서 다양한 형상 구성 요소를 꽉 차게 보여줍니다. 2개의 새로운 형상 요약 뷰인 구성 요소 요약 뷰와 냉각 채널 요약 뷰는 기하학적 구성 요소 및 냉각 채널의 플라이 아웃을 제공하여 사용자가 신속하게 수행할 수 있도록 합니다. 중요 설정을 한 눈에 파악하고 필요한 경우 변경 할 수 있습니다.

Under the Hood

FLOW-3D CAST의 많은 강력한 구성 요소들은 Solver Engine이라고 부르는 것 들에서 중요합니다. 아래에서는 이면에서 무거운 작업을 수행하는 데 도움이 되는 몇가지 중요한 사항을 설명합니다.

Thermal Die Cycling (TDC) Model TDC(열 다이 사이클)모델

열 다이 사이클 시뮬레이션의 주입/응고 단계는 균일하지 않은 캐비티 온도를 사용하여 개선할 수 있습니다. 이제 캐비티에 있는 금속의 초기 온도는 재시작 중에 채우기 시뮬레이션을 통해 지정하거나 초기 유체 영역을 사용하는 사용자 정의 분포에서 지정할 수 있습니다. 이 기능은 옵션으로 사용할 수 있는 균일한 초기 금속 온도에 비해 다이 사이클링의 열해석의 정확성과 현실성을 높여줍니다.

Melt temperatures in the casting cavity read from a filling simulation are applied to ejector die during filling/solidification stage of thermal die cycling simulation.

Heat Transfer Coefficient Calculator for Spray Cooling 분사 냉각을 위한 열 전달 계수 계산기

스프레이 유체와 다이 표면 사이의 열 전달 계수(HTC)를 추정하는 것은 어려운 일입니다. 계산 또는 측정을 통해 값을 사용할 수 있는 경우 사용자는 이러한 값을 스프레이 거리 및 각도의 함수로 직접 지정할 수 있습니다. 새로운 기능을 통해 노즐의 스프레이 액의 유량을 기준으로 HTC를 동적으로 계산할 수 있습니다. 단일 조정 계수를 통해 스프레이 유출량을 기준으로 HTC를 미세 조정할 수 있습니다.

FLOW-3D CAST 소개

FLOW-3D CAST

FLOW-3D CAST는 광범위한 금속 주조 공정을 위한 완벽한 해석 솔루션을 제공합니다. 시뮬레이션을 통해 다양한 종류의 다공성, 표면 산화물, 공기 및 기포, 열 응력 및 변형 등과 같은 다양한 결함을 추적하면서, 주조 부품의 충진 및 응고에 대한 상세한 통찰력을 제공합니다. 금형을 분석하거나 FLOW-3D CAST로 코어의 가스 처리 같은 열 특성 및 기타 특성을 제거 할 수 있습니다.

최적화된 시뮬레이션을 통한 설계는 생산 현장에서의 개발 시간이 단축되고 출시 시간이 단축되며 생산량이 늘어나게 됩니다. FLOW-3D CAST는 담당자가 새로운 주조 공정 또는 합금을 배치 할 때 설계 및 개발 비용을 절감 할 수 있습니다.

직관적이고 편의성 높은 사용자 인터페이스를 결합한 FLOW-3D CAST는 성공적인 프로젝트를 통해 충진 및 응고 결함에 대한 정확한 예측을 제공합니다. 공정 요구 사항에 가장 적합한 샌드 캐스팅, 금형 주조 및 고압 다이 캐스팅을 사용할 수 있습니다.

High Performance Computing: in-House or in the Cloud

대규모 시뮬레이션의 경우 많은 계산 시간이 필요하게 되는데 이를 극복하기 위한 최고의 컴퓨팅 성능이 필요하십니까? FLOW-3D CAST는 필요 시 고성능 클라우드 컴퓨팅 환경인 클러스터 버전으로 손 쉽게 전활할 수 있습니다.

Courtesy Littler Diecasting Corporation

금속 주조 애플리케이션은 매우 어려운 시뮬레이션 중 하나입니다. 관련된 물리학의 복잡성과 적용 범위, 박막 주조, 주조 장비 정교함 등 고객의 높은 눈높이가 증가함에 따라 FLOW-3D CAST도 이를 충족하기 위한 다양한 솔루션과 기능을 제공합니다. 사형 주조, LPDC, HPDC, LostForm, 원심주조 등 FLOW-3D CAST사용자 인터페이스 안에는 고유의 전용 모델링 워크 플로우가 있습니다.

FLOW-3D CAST는 매우 정확한 흐름과 응고 결과를 통해 표면 산화물, 발생 기포, 매크로 및 미세 극성을 포함한 중요한 주조 결함을 포착할 수 있습니다. 다른 고유한 모델링 기능으로는 로봇 스프레이 냉각 및 윤활을 모델링 할 수 있는 열 다이 사이클링, 샷 슬리브 흐름 프로파일, 압착 핀 및 열 스트레스가 있습니다.

Customer Case Studies

금속 주물의 결함 식별, 보다 가볍고 강한 주조 부품을 위한 새로운 재료로 부품 설계 또는 최적 설계를 위한 반복 설계 작업은 다음과 같은 방법 중 일부입니다. 고객은 당사의 소프트웨어를 사용하여 작업 요구 사항을 충족하고 폐기율을 줄이고 시장 진출 시간을 단축하며 경쟁 업체보다 앞서 나감으로써 조직을 위한 비용을 절감합니다.

“ The more you can do on a computer ahead of time, the better. It all comes down to saving time.”

“컴퓨터에서 좀 더 많은 것을 할 수 있으면 더욱 좋습니다. 모든 것은 시간 절약에 달려있습니다.”

– Elizabeth Ryder of Graham-White Manufacturing Co.

HPDC (High Pressure Die Casting, 고압다이캐스팅)

HPDC (High Pressure Die Casting, 고압다이캐스팅)

주조 기술 중 하나인 고압 다이 캐스팅 해석시 다른 많은 주조해석 소프트웨어에서 큰 문제들이 나타납니다. 충진되어야 할 부분은 대부분 매우 얇은 두께를 가지고 있어서 형상 구현에 필요한 격자의 수가 크게 증가되어야 합니다. 무엇보다도 금속은 높은 압력과 매우 빠른 속도로 금형안의 빈 공간에 충진됩니다. 금형 내부로 분사되고 비산하는 유동은 이 과정에서 혼입 된 공기로 인한 기포결함, 제품이 완전히 충진되기 전에 냉각이 시작하면서 발생하는 탕주름과 산화물 결함으로 이어질 수 있습니다.  FLOW-3D는 실질적인 금형 충진 해석의 정밀도를 향상시키기 위해 정확성이 고도로 향상된 TruVOF™ 추적기법과 복잡한 형상을 모델링하는FAVOR ™ 기법을 포함하고 있습니다. 또한 FLOW-3D는 혼입 된 공기, 열 응력, 미세 결함 영역을 검출하기 위한 다양한 모델을 가지고 있습니다.

Thermal Die Cycling (금형온도분포,  금형싸이클링)

Die cycling 해석은 다이캐스팅 금형이 수천 개의 제품 생산에 반복적으로 사용되기 때문에 고압 다이 캐스팅에 필수적인 공정입니다. 생산시 모든 주조품에 대해서 동일한 금형 온도를 유지하는 것은 매우 중요한데, 이는 금형온도에 따라 주조품의 결괌이 발생할 수 있기 때문입니다. FLOW-3D는 다이캐스팅 싸이클에서 발생하는  금형 가열(충진, 응고), 스프레이, 에어 블로우로부터 온도 분포를 해석하므로 사용자는 냉각 채널의 위치를 정확하고 효과적으로 예측할 수 있습니다.

Shot Sleeve Optimization (슬리브 유동 최적화)

고압다이캐스팅에서 슬리브는 금형 속에 용탕을 빠르게 밀어넣는 데 사용됩니다. 일반적으로 슬리브는 수평으로 위치되고, 용탕은 슬리브 상면의 주입구를 통해 부어집니다. 플런저는 금형 반대편에서 슬리브를 통해 금형 안쪽으로 용탕을 밀어 넣게 됩니다. 적절하게 설계된  플런저 이동조건은 슬리브 내부의 공기 혼입을 최소화하고 슬리브에서의 응고를 피하기 위해 가능한 한 빨리 금형에 용탕을 충진하게 설계되어야 합니다. 하지만,  피스톤이 너무 빨리 이동하는 경우, 슬리브 내에서 용탕의 겹침현상이 발생하여 주조품에 공기 갇힘 결함이 나타날 수 있습니다. FLOW-3D는 다이캐스팅 해석시 플런저 이동에 따른 슬리브 내부의 유동을 실제와 동일하게 반영하여 이와 같은 기포 결함을 최소화할 수 있습니다.

Filling Simulations (충진해석)

고압 다이 캐스팅을 해석할 때, 가장 어려운 과제는 고압 및 고속으로 금형에 충진되는 용탕의 유동을 정확하게 추적하는 것입니다. 많은 주조해석 소프트웨어에서 용탕의 분사와 비산을 정확하게 모사하지 못하는 것이 제품의 결함 예측에 가장 큰 장애물이됩니다. FLOW-3D의 TruVOF™ method는 설계 엔지니어들이 금형내부에서 최적의 유동 패턴을 유도하기 위해 게이트의 위치를 확인하고, 오버 플로우의 위치를 확인하는데 핵심적인 역할을 할 수 있습니다.

Modeling Solidification (응고모델링)


Courtesy of Littler Diecast Corporation

FLOW-3D는 엔지니어로 하여금 최종 제품의 품질에 영향을 미칠 수 있는 내부 기공(porosity)의 발생을 알수 있도록 합니다. FLOW-3D는 2원계합금(binary alloy)의 편석(segregation)을 해석할 수 있습니다. 해석에 의한 온도 이력은 냉금(chill)  또는 냉각라인(cooling line)이 추가되거나 수정 될 필요가 있는지, 초기 용탕 온도를 변경해야 하는지 등을 결정하는데 도움을 줍니다. FLOW-3D는 내부 미세수축공의 형성, 열응력 및 2원계합금의 편석을 예측할 수 있습니다.

HPDC Videos

Defect Prediction (주조결함 예측)

Defect Prediction (주조결함 예측)

Prevent Defects in Your Castings

금형 설계 시 항상 마주치게 되는 문제는 최종 주조품이 결함을 가져는지 아닌지를 판단하는 것입니다. 설계자는 설계기준과 경험, 양호한 설계사례(gate, runner, riser, 용탕의 온도, 냉각범위 등)을 참조하여 좋은 품질의 부품을 생산할 수도 있습니다. 그러나, 오늘날의 비즈니스 환경에서, 이와 같은 방법으로는 경쟁사를 이기기에 충분하지 않습니다. FLOW-3D의 강력한 결함 예측 기능은 설계자에게 신속하고 정확하게 판단할 수 있게 하고, 짧은 시간에 더 높은 품질로 제품을 제조 할 수 있도록 주조결함을 판단하고 찾을 수 있게 해 줍니다.

HPDC filling colored by surface defect concentration. Final locations of defects such as oxides are shown at the end the filling.

주조 분야

Metal Casting

주조제품, 금형의 설계 과정에서 FLOW-3D의 사용은 회사의 수익성 개선에 직접적인 영향을 줍니다.
(주)에스티아이씨앤디에서는  FLOW-3D를 통해 해결한 수많은 경험과 전문 지식을 엔지니어와 설계자에게 제공합니다.
품질 및 생산성 문제는 빠른 시간 안에 시뮬레이션을 통해 예측하므로써 낮은 비용으로 해결 될 수 있습니다. FLOW-3D는 특별히 주조해석의 정확성향상을 위한 다양한 설계 물리 모델들을 포함하고 있습니다.
이 모델에는 lost foam 주조, Non-newtonian 유체 및 금형의 다이싸이클링 해석에 대한 알고리즘등을 포함하고 있습니다.
시뮬레이션의 정확성과 주조 제품의 품질을 향상시키고자 한다면, FLOW-3D는 여러분들의 이러한 요구를 충족시키는 제품입니다.

Ladle Pour Simulation by Nemak Poland Sp. z o.o.