Figure 2. Experimental setups for the (a) Al/Cu overlap joint and (b) laser welding process.

Investigation on Laser Welding of Al Ribbon to Cu Sheet: Weldability, Microstructure, and Mechanical and Electrical Properties

알루미늄 리본과 구리 시트의 레이저 용접에 대한 조사 : 용접성, 미세 구조, 기계적 및 전기적 특성

Won‐Sang Shin 1,†, Dae‐Won Cho 2,†, Donghyuck Jung 1, Heeshin Kang 3, Jeng O Kim 3, Yoon‐Jun Kim 1,*
and Changkyoo Park 3,*

Al 리본과 Cu 시트의 펄스 레이저 용접은 전력 전자 모듈의 전기적 상호 연결에 대해 조사되었습니다. 결함 없는 Al / Cu 조인트를 얻기 위해 레이저 출력, 스캔 속도 및 열 입력이 서로 다른 다양한 실험 조건이 사용되었습니다. Al / Cu 레이저 용접 중에 금속 간 화합물이 용접 영역에 형성되었습니다. 전자 탐침 마이크로 분석기와 투과 전자 현미경으로 Al4Cu9, Al2Cu, AlCu 등으로 밝혀진 금속 간 화합물의 상을 확인했습니다. 전산 유체 역학 시뮬레이션은 Marangoni 효과가 용융 풀의 순환을 유도하여 혼합물을 생성하는 것으로 나타났습니다. Al과 Cu의 결합과 Al / Cu 조인트에서 소용돌이 모양의 구조 형성. Al / Cu 접합부의 인장 전단강도와 전기 저항을 측정하였으며 용접 면적과 강한 상관 관계를 보였다. Al / Cu 접합부의 용접 면적이 증가함에 따라 기계적 강도의 감소와 전기 저항의 증가가 측정 되었습니다. 또한 무결점 Al / Cu 접합을 위한 공정 창을 개발하고 Al / Cu 레이저 브레이즈 용접을 위한 실험 조건을 조사하여 Al / Cu 접합에서 금속 간 화합물 형성을 최소화했습니다.

Introduction

전기 상호 연결은 전력 전자 모듈을 패키징하는 데 중요합니다. 우수한 기계적 및 전기적 특성을 가진 견고한 전기적 상호 연결은 전력 전자 모듈의 전기적 고장을 방지하는 데 필수적입니다. 저항 스폿 용접, 브레이징, 납땜 및 초음파 용접 (USW)이 전기 상호 연결에 사용되었습니다.

납땜과 납땜 모두 저온 공정으로 인해 접합부에서 한계 변형과 잔류 응력이 발생합니다 [1]. 필러 합금은 두 공정 모두 견고한 전기 접촉을 달성하는 데 필수적입니다. 따라서 조인트는 서로 접촉하는 서로 다른 금속으로 구성됩니다.

결과적으로 조인트는 부식 환경에서 갈바닉 부식에 취약 할 수 있습니다 [2,3]. 더욱이, 비금속과 충전재 사이의 친화도를 고려해야 하기 때문에 제한된 충전재 만 특정 조인트에 사용할 수 있습니다 [1]. USW는 용접 온도가 낮고 용접 시간이 짧기 때문에 접합부의 변형이 비교적 적습니다.

따라서 이는 특히 연질 재료 (예 : Al, Cu, Ag, Au 및 Ni)의 경우 기존 접합 방법을 대체하고 있습니다 [4–6]. 그러나 Cu를위한 USW 공정의 경우, 표면 산화물이 강해 용접성이 저하되는 것을 방지하기 위해 Cu 표면에 Sn 또는 Ni 코팅이 필요하며, 이는 공정 속도를 늦추고 산업적 응용을위한 경제적 측면을 악화시킨다 [7 , 8].

레이저 용접은 쉬운 제어, 고정밀 및 원격 처리의 특성으로 인해 전력 전자 모듈의 전기 연결에 대한 유망한 후보입니다. 열의 영향을 받는 작은 영역과 변형은 전기 접점의 손상을 최소화 할 것으로 예상됩니다 [9-11]. 또한 레이저 용접을 위해 추가 표면 준비가 필요하지 않습니다.

이종 재료의 용접은 산업 응용 분야에서 중요했습니다. 더욱이 그림 1 [12,13]에서 볼 수 있듯이 전기 연결을위한 와이어 또는 리본 본딩에 여러 다른 조인트가 필요하기 때문에 전력 전자 모듈에서 필수적인 기술이되고 있습니다.

전기 접점의 다양한 조합 중에서 Al과 Cu는 높은 전기 전도성으로 인해 전기 연결에 중요한 재료로 종종 간주됩니다 [14]. 그러나 Al과 Cu의 서로 다른 용접은 금속 간 화합물 (IMC)의 형성을 촉진하고 동시에 Al / Cu 조인트의 기계적 및 전기적 특성에 영향을 줍니다. 일반적으로 Al / Cu 조인트 내부에 IMC가 있으면 연성 및 전기 저항에 해를 끼치므로 균열이 쉽게 발생하고 용접을 통한 전기 전도도를 방해합니다 [15,16].

따라서 견고한 Al / Cu 조인트를 얻으려면 IMC의 형성을 피해야합니다. 여러 연구에서 Al 및 Cu 시트의 레이저 빔 용접을 조사했습니다. 연속파 (CW) 레이저가 Al / Cu 조인트에 사용되었습니다 [17-23]. 큰 열 입력과 상당한 IMC 형성으로 인해 용접 영역에서 많은 균열이 관찰되었습니다 [18,19].

CW 레이저 빔의 공간 진동은 Al / Cu 조인트의 용접 품질을 향상시키는 것으로 나타났습니다. 직선 CW 레이저 빔 [18-20]과 비교하여 용접 영역에서 IMC 크기가 더 작은 기공과 균열이 더 적습니다.

Al과 Cu 시트의 겹침 접합에는 CW 단일 모드 파이버 레이저를 사용했으며, IMC 형성을 억제하여 높은 용접 속도 (즉, 50m / min)에서 견고한 Al / Cu 접합을 얻었습니다 [22]. Mai et al. [23]은 다른 Al / Cu 용접을 달성하기 위해 펄스 레이저를 사용했습니다.

그들은 Al / Cu 용접성이 레이저 공정 매개 변수에 크게 의존한다는 것을 밝혔으며 100mm / min 미만의 스캔 속도에서 균열없는 Al / Cu 접합을 달성하는 데 성공했습니다.

본문 내용 생략 : 문서 하단부의 원문보기를 참고하시기 바랍니다.

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) power module. Red‐dotted box indicated the electrical connections
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) power module. Red‐dotted box indicated the electrical connections
Figure 2. Experimental setups for the (a) Al/Cu overlap joint and (b) laser welding process.
Figure 2. Experimental setups for the (a) Al/Cu overlap joint and (b) laser welding process.
Figure 3. Schematic diagram of the numerical simulation domain and boundary conditions.
Figure 3. Schematic diagram of the numerical simulation domain and boundary conditions.
Figure 4. Experimental setup for the four‐point electrical resistance measurement.
Figure 4. Experimental setup for the four‐point electrical resistance measurement.
Figure 5. Cross‐sectional OM image of the Al/Cu joints in parallel to the laser welding direction. The laser power and scan speed were set at 2300 W and 20 mm/s, respectively.
Figure 5. Cross‐sectional OM image of the Al/Cu joints in parallel to the laser welding direction. The laser power and scan speed were set at 2300 W and 20 mm/s, respectively.
Figure 6 shows the cross‐sectional SEM images of the Al/Cu joints, and corresponding EPMA element mapping of Al and Cu for the (a) 23/20, (b) 25/28.6, (c) 25/15.4, and (d) 27/20.
Figure 6 shows the cross‐sectional SEM images of the Al/Cu joints, and corresponding EPMA element mapping of Al and Cu for the (a) 23/20,
Figure 6. Cross‐sectional SEM image and elemental distribution mapping of Al and Cu elements for the (a) 23/20, (b) 25/28.6, (c) 25/15.4, and (d) 27/20.
Figure 6. Cross‐sectional SEM image and elemental distribution mapping of Al and Cu elements for the (d) 27/20.
Figure 7. EPMA line scan analysis and identification of the IMCs for the (a) 23/20 and (b) 25/15.4.
Figure 7. EPMA line scan analysis and identification of the IMCs for the (a) 23/20 and (b) 25/15.4.
Figure 8. TEM analysis for the 25/28.6. (a) Indicating the location of TEM analysis in SEM image of the welding zone. (b) TEM bright‐field image and SAED pattern insets, examined at the location (1) in figure (a), confirmed Al‐rich phase (white globular shape) and Al2Cu eutectic phase (gray region), and (c) TEM bright‐field image and SAED pattern inset of Al4Cu9, examined at the location (2) in figure (a).
Figure 8. TEM analysis for the 25/28.6. (a) Indicating the location of TEM analysis in SEM image of the welding zone. (b) TEM bright‐field image and SAED pattern insets, examined at the location (1) in figure (a), confirmed Al‐rich phase (white globular shape) and Al2Cu eutectic phase (gray region), and (c) TEM bright‐field image and SAED pattern inset of Al4Cu9, examined at the location (2) in figure (a).
Figure 9. Temperature profiles and molten pool flow on transverse cross‐section (y–z plane at x = 1.23 cm): (a) Negative surface tension gradient for the 23/20 (Case 1), (b) negative surface tension gradient for the 25/15.4 (Case 2), (c) positive surface tension gradient for the 25/15.4 (Case 3), and (d) without surface tension for the 25/15.4 (Case 4).
Figure 9. Temperature profiles and molten pool flow on transverse cross‐section (y–z plane at x = 1.23 cm): (a) Negative surface tension gradient for the 23/20 (Case 1), (b) negative surface tension gradient for the 25/15.4 (Case 2), (c) positive surface tension gradient for the 25/15.4 (Case 3), and (d) without surface tension for the 25/15.4 (Case 4).
Figure 12. Results of the tensile shear tests for the (a) 23/20: fracture at the Al ribbon and (b) 25/15.4: fracture at the weld
Figure 12. Results of the tensile shear tests for the (a) 23/20: fracture at the Al ribbon and (b) 25/15.4: fracture at the weld
Figure 13. Stress–strain curves obtained by the tensile shear tests.
Figure 13. Stress–strain curves obtained by the tensile shear tests.

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솔리드 요소를 이용한 레이저 가열 – Laser Brazing (레이저 브레이징, 레이저 경납땜)

레이저 브레이징?

  • 레이저 브레이징 공정은 모재를 녹이지 않고 2개 이상의 밀착 부품을 접합하기 위해 필러 금속을 사용함
  • 다음과 같은 장점을 포함
    – 높은 기계적 안정성
    – 지점에 최소의 열만 가함
    – 매끄러운 표면

CuSi3 필러 와이어를 사용한 아연 도금 강판의 레이저 브레이징

  • Southern Methodist University의 고급 제조 연구소 (RCAM)의 Radovan Kovacevic 박사와 Masoud Mohammadpour 박사의 연구
    – 레이저 브레이징 공정에서 공정 안정성 및 가능한 결함에 대한 브레이징 매개 변수 및 레이저 빔 위치의 영향 확인
    – 강철 패널 (0.7mm 두께)및 필러로드 (직경 1.6mm)
    – 시뮬레이션은 프로세스 매개 변수 및 배열을 수정하기 위하여 권장 사항을 제공함

Laser heating with solid components/고체요소를 사용한 레이저 가열

레이저 납땜(Laser soldering)

  • 레이저 irradiation을 이용하여 솔더(Solder)를 선택적으로 가열 밀 용융하고 두 부품 사이에 본드를 형성하는 프로세스
  • 장점
    – 민감한 부품을 선택적으로 가열
    – 100마이크로 정도의 스폿(Spot)크기로 높은 정밀도
    – 효율적이고 균일한 열 압력

레이저 브레이징(Laser brazing)

  • 레이저 brazing 공정은 기본 재료를 녹이지 않고 2개 이상의밀착 부품을 접합하기 위해 필러(Filler)금속을 사용
  • 장점
    – 높은 기계적 안정성
    – 최소 열 영향 구역
    – 매끄러운 표면

CuSi3 필러 와이어를 사용한 아연 도금 강판 레이저 브레이징

  • Southern Methodis Univ.의 고급 제조연구소(RCAM)의 Radovan Kovacevic 박사와 Masoud Mohammadpour박사의 연구
  • 레이저 브레이징 공정에서 공정 안정성 및 가능한 결함에 대한 브레이징 매개 변수 및 레이저 빔 위치의 영향 확인
  • 강철 패널 (0.7mm 두께) 및 필러로드 (직경 1.6mm)시뮬레이션은 프로세스 매개 변수 및 배열을 수정하기 위한 권장 사항을 제공

Additive Manufacturing & Welding Bibliography

Additive Manufacturing & Welding Bibliography

다음은 적층 제조 및 용접 참고 문헌의 기술 문서 모음입니다. 이 모든 논문에는 FLOW-3D AM 결과가 나와 있습니다. FLOW-3D AM을 사용하여 적층 제조, 레이저 용접 및 기타 용접 기술에서 발견되는 프로세스를 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

2022년 5월 23일 update

42-22   Islam Hassan, P. Ravi Selvaganapathy, Microfluidic printheads for highly switchable multimaterial 3D printing of soft materials, Advanced Materials Technologies, 2101709, 2022. doi.org/10.1002/admt.202101709

41-22   Nan Yang, Youping Gong, Honghao Chen, Wenxin Li, Chuanping Zhou, Rougang Zhou, Huifeng Shao, Personalized artificial tibia bone structure design and processing based on laser powder bed fusion, Machines, 10.3; 205, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/machines10030205

31-22   Bo Shen, Raghav Gnanasambandam, Rongxuan Wang, Zhenyu (James) Kong, Multi-Task Gaussian process upper confidence bound for hyperparameter tuning and its application for simulation studies of additive manufacturing, IISE Transactions, 2022. doi.org/10.1080/24725854.2022.2039813

27-22   Lida Zhu, Shuhao Wang, Hao Lu, Dongxing Qi, Dan Wang, Zhichao Yang, Investigation on synergism between additive and subtractive manufacturing for curved thin-walled structure, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 17.2; 2022. doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2022.2029009

24-22   Hoon Sohn, Peipei Liu, Hansol Yoon, Kiyoon Yi, Liu Yang, Sangjun Kim, Real-time porosity reduction during metal directed energy deposition using a pulse laser, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 116; pp. 214-223. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2021.12.013

18-22   Yaohong Xiao, Zixuan Wan, Pengwei Liu, Zhuo Wang, Jingjing Li, Lei Chen, Quantitative simulations of grain nucleation and growth at additively manufactured bimetallic interfaces of SS316L and IN625, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 302; 117506, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2022.117506

06-22   Amal Charles, Mohamad Bayat, Ahmed Elkaseer, Lore Thijs, Jesper Henri Hattel, Steffen Scholz, Elucidation of dross formation in laser powder bed fusion at down-facing surfaces: Phenomenon-oriented multiphysics simulation and experimental validation, Additive Manufacturing, 50; 102551, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102551

05-22   Feilong Ji, Xunpeng Qin, Zeqi Hu, Xiaochen Xiong, Mao Ni, Mengwu Wu, Influence of ultrasonic vibration on molten pool behavior and deposition layer forming morphology for wire and arc additive manufacturing, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 130; 105789, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2021.105789

150-21   Daniel Knüttel, Stefano Baraldo, Anna Valente, Konrad Wegener, Emanuele Carpanzano, Model based learning for efficient modelling of heat transfer dynamics, Procedia CIRP, 102; pp. 252-257, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2021.09.043

149-21   T. van Rhijn, W. du Preez, M. Maringa, D. Kouprianoff, Towards predicting process parameters for selective laser melting of titanium alloys through the modelling of melt pool characteristics, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskap en Tegnologie, 40.1; 2021. 

148-21   Qian Chen, Multiscale process modeling of residual deformation and defect formation for laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA USA, 2021. 

147-21   Pareekshith Allu, Developing process parameters through CFD simulations, Lasers in Manufacturing Conference, 2021.

143-21   Asif Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Fatih Pitir, Metin Uymaz Salamci, Andrei C. Popescu, Ion N. Mihailescu, Spatter formation and splashing induced defects in laser-based powder bed fusion of AlSi10Mg alloy: A novel hydrodynamics modelling with empirical testing, Metals, 11.12; 2023, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/met11122023

142-21   Islam Hassan, Ponnambalam Ravi Selvaganapathy, A microfluidic printhead with integrated hybrid mixing by sequential injection for multimaterial 3D printing, Additive Manufacturing, 102559, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102559

137-21   Ting-Yu Cheng, Ying-Chih Liao, Enhancing drop mixing in powder bed by alternative particle arrangements with contradictory hydrophilicity, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 104160, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2021.104160

134-21   Asif Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Fatih Pitir, Metin Uymaz Salamci, Andrei C. Popescu, Ion N. Mihailescu, Keyhole formation by laser drilling in laser powder bed fusion of Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy: Mesoscopic computational fluid dynamics simulation versus mathematical modelling using empirical validation, Nanomaterials, 11.2; 3284, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/nano11123284

128-21   Sang-Woo Han, Won-Ik Cho, Lin-Jie Zhang, Suck-Joo Na, Coupled simulation of thermal-metallurgical-mechanical behavior in laser keyhole welding of AH36 steel, Materials & Design, 212; 110275, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2021.110275

127-21   Jiankang Huang, Zhuoxuan Li, Shurong Yu, Xiaoquan Yu, Ding Fan, Real-time observation and numerical simulation of the molten pool flow and mass transfer behavior during wire arc additive manufacturing, Welding in the World, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s40194-021-01214-z

123-21   Boxue Song, Tianbiao Yu, Xingyu Jiang, Wenchao Xi, Xiaoli Lin, Zhelun Ma, ZhaoWang, Development of the molten pool and solidification characterization in single bead multilayer direct energy deposition, Additive Manufacturing, 102479, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102479

112-21   Kathryn Small, Ian D. McCue, Katrina Johnston, Ian Donaldson, Mitra L. Taheri, Precision modification of microstructure and properties through laser engraving, JOM, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s11837-021-04959-6

111-21   Yongki Lee, Jason Cheon, Byung-Kwon Min, Cheolhee Kim, Modelling of fume particle behaviour and coupling glass contamination during vacuum laser beam welding, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 2021. doi.org/10.1080/13621718.2021.1990658

110-21   Menglin Liu, Hao Yi, Huajun Cao, Rufeng Huang, Le Jia, Heat accumulation effect in metal droplet-based 3D printing: Evolution mechanism and elimination strategy, Additive Manufacturing, 48.A; 102413, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102413

108-21   Nozomi Taura, Akiya Mitsunobu, Tatsuhiko Sakai, Yasuhiro Okamoto, Akira Okada, Formation and its mechanism of high-speed micro-grooving on metal surface by angled CW laser irradiation, Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering, 16.2, 2021. doi.org/10.2961/jlmn.2021.02.2006

105-21   Jon Spangenberg, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Raphaël Comminal, Md. Tusher Mollah, Thomas Juul Andersen, Henrik Stang, Numerical simulation of multi-layer 3D concrete printing, RILEM Technical Letters, 6; pp. 119-123, 2021. doi.org/10.21809/rilemtechlett.2021.142

104-21   Lin Chen, Chunming Wang, Gaoyang Mi, Xiong Zhang, Effects of laser oscillating frequency on energy distribution, molten pool morphology and grain structure of AA6061/AA5182 aluminum alloys lap welding, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 15; pp. 3133-3148, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2021.09.141

101-21   R.J.M. Wolfs, T.A.M. Salet, N. Roussel, Filament geometry control in extrusion-based additive manufacturing of concrete: The good, the bad and the ugly, Cement and Concrete Research, 150; 106615, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2021.106615

89-21   Wenlin Ye, Jin Bao, Jie Lei, Yichang Huang, Zhihao Li, Peisheng Li, Ying Zhang, Multiphysics modeling of thermal behavior of commercial pure titanium powder during selective laser melting, Metals and Materials International, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s12540-021-01019-1

81-21   Lin Chen, Gaoyang Mi, Xiong Zhang, Chunming Wang, Effects of sinusoidal oscillating laser beam on weld formation, melt flow and grain structure during aluminum alloys lap welding, Journals of Materials Processing Technology, 298; 117314, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2021.117314

77-21   Yujie Cui, Yufan Zhao, Haruko Numata, Kenta Yamanaka, Huakang Bian, Kenta Aoyagi, Akihiko Chiba, Effects of process parameters and cooling gas on powder formation during the plasma rotating electrode process, Powder Technology, 393; pp. 301-311, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2021.07.062

76-21   Md Tusher Mollah, Raphaël Comminal, Marcin P. Serdeczny, David B. Pedersen, Jon Spangenberg, Stability and deformations of deposited layers in material extrusion additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing, 46; 102193, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102193

72-21   S. Sabooni, A. Chabok, S.C. Feng, H. Blaauw, T.C. Pijper, H.J. Yang, Y.T. Pei, Laser powder bed fusion of 17–4 PH stainless steel: A comparative study on the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties, Additive Manufacturing, 46; 102176, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102176

71-21   Yu Hao, Nannan Chena, Hui-Ping Wang, Blair E. Carlson, Fenggui Lu, Effect of zinc vapor forces on spattering in partial penetration laser welding of zinc-coated steels, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 298; 117282, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2021.117282

67-21   Lu Wang, Wentao Yan, Thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic model for laser-based metal additive manufacturing, Physical Review Applied, 15.6; 064051, 2021. doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.15.064051

61-21   Ian D. McCue, Gianna M. Valentino, Douglas B. Trigg, Andrew M. Lennon, Chuck E. Hebert, Drew P. Seker, Salahudin M. Nimer, James P. Mastrandrea, Morgana M. Trexler, Steven M. Storck, Controlled shape-morphing metallic components for deployable structures, Materials & Design, 208; 109935, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2021.109935

60-21   Mahyar Khorasani, AmirHossein Ghasemi, Martin Leary, William O’Neil, Ian Gibson, Laura Cordova, Bernard Rolfe, Numerical and analytical investigation on meltpool temperature of laser-based powder bed fusion of IN718, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 177; 121477, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2021.121477

57-21   Dae-Won Cho, Yeong-Do Park, Muralimohan Cheepu, Numerical simulation of slag movement from Marangoni flow for GMAW with computational fluid dynamics, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 125; 105243, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2021.105243

55-21   Won-Sang Shin, Dae-Won Cho, Donghyuck Jung, Heeshin Kang, Jeng O Kim, Yoon-Jun Kim, Changkyoo Park, Investigation on laser welding of Al ribbon to Cu sheet: Weldability, microstructure and mechanical and electrical properties, Metals, 11.5; 831, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/met11050831

50-21   Mohamad Bayat, Venkata K. Nadimpalli, Francesco G. Biondani, Sina Jafarzadeh, Jesper Thorborg, Niels S. Tiedje, Giuliano Bissacco, David B. Pedersen, Jesper H. Hattel, On the role of the powder stream on the heat and fluid flow conditions during directed energy deposition of maraging steel—Multiphysics modeling and experimental validation, Additive Manufacturing, 43;102021, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102021

47-21   Subin Shrestha, Kevin Chou, An investigation into melting modes in selective laser melting of Inconel 625 powder: single track geometry and porosity, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-021-07105-3

34-21   Haokun Sun, Xin Chu, Cheng Luo, Haoxiu Chen, Zhiying Liu, Yansong Zhang, Yu Zou, Selective laser melting for joining dissimilar materials: Investigations ofiInterfacial characteristics and in situ alloying, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 52; pp. 1540-1550, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s11661-021-06178-9

32-21   Shanshan Zhang, Subin Shrestha, Kevin Chou, On mesoscopic surface formation in metal laser powder-bed fusion process, Supplimental Proceedings, TMS 150th Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Virtual), pp. 149-161, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-65261-6_14

22-21   Patiparn Ninpetch, Pruet Kowitwarangkul, Sitthipong Mahathanabodee, Prasert Chalermkarnnon, Phadungsak Rattanadecho, Computational investigation of thermal behavior and molten metal flow with moving laser heat source for selective laser melting process, Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 24; 100860, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2021.100860

19-21   M.B. Abrami, C. Ransenigo, M. Tocci, A. Pola, M. Obeidi, D. Brabazon, Numerical simulation of laser powder bed fusion processes, La Metallurgia Italiana, February; pp. 81-89, 2021.

16-21   Wenjun Ge, Jerry Y.H. Fuh, Suck Joo Na, Numerical modelling of keyhole formation in selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 62; pp. 646-654, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2021.01.005

11-21   Mohamad Bayat, Venkata K. Nadimpalli, David B. Pedersen, Jesper H. Hattel, A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 166; 120766, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.120766

10-21   Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka, Akihiko Chiba, Thermal properties of powder beds in energy absorption and heat transfer during additive manufacturing with electron beam, Powder Technology, 381; pp. 44-54, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2020.11.082

9-21   Subin Shrestha, Kevin Chou, A study of transient and steady-state regions from single-track deposition in laser powder bed fusion, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 61; pp. 226-235, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2020.11.023

6-21   Qian Chen, Yunhao Zhao, Seth Strayer, Yufan Zhao, Kenta Aoyagi, Yuichiro Koizumi, Akihiko Chiba, Wei Xiong, Albert C. To, Elucidating the effect of preheating temperature on melt pool morphology variation in Inconel 718 laser powder bed fusion via simulation and experiment, Additive Manufacturing, 37; 101642, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101642

04-21   Won-Ik Cho, Peer Woizeschke, Analysis of molten pool dynamics in laser welding with beam oscillation and filler wire feeding, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 164; 120623, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.120623

121-20   Yufan Zhao, Yujie Cui, Haruko Numata, Huakang Bian, Kimio Wako, Kenta Yamanaka, Kenta Aoyagi, Akihiko Chiba, Centrifugal granulation behavior in metallic powder fabrication by plasma rotating electrode process, Scientific Reports, 10; 18446, 2020. doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75503-w

116-20   Raphael Comminal, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Thomas Juul Andersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg, Modelling of 3D concrete printing based on computational fluid dynamics, Cement and Concrete Research, 138; 106256, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2020.106256

112-20   Peng Liu, Lijin Huan, Yu Gan, Yuyu Lei, Effect of plate thickness on weld pool dynamics and keyhole-induced porosity formation in laser welding of Al alloy, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 111; pp. 735-747, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05818-5

108-20   Fan Chen, Wentao Yan, High-fidelity modelling of thermal stress for additive manufacturing by linking thermal-fluid and mechanical models, Materials & Design, 196; 109185, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.109185

104-20   Yunfu Tian, Lijun Yang, Dejin Zhao, Yiming Huang, Jiajing Pan, Numerical analysis of powder bed generation and single track forming for selective laser melting of SS316L stainless steel, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 58; pp. 964-974, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2020.09.002

100-20   Raphaël Comminal, Sina Jafarzadeh, Marcin Serdeczny, Jon Spangenberg, Estimations of interlayer contacts in extrusion additive manufacturing using a CFD model, International Conference on Additive Manufacturing in Products and Applications (AMPA), Zurich, Switzerland, September 1-3: Industrializing Additive Manufacturing, pp. 241-250, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-54334-1_17

97-20   Paree Allu, CFD simulation for metal Additive Manufacturing: Applications in laser- and sinter-based processes, Metal AM, 6.4; pp. 151-158, 2020.

95-20   Yufan Zhao, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka, Akihiko Chiba, Role of operating and environmental conditions in determining molten pool dynamics during electron beam melting and selective laser melting, Additive Manufacturing, 36; 101559, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101559

94-20   Yan Zeng, David Himmler, Peter Randelzhofer, Carolin Körner, Processing of in situ Al3Ti/Al composites by advanced high shear technology: influence of mixing speed, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 110; pp. 1589-1599, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05956-w

93-20   H. Hamed Zargari, K. Ito, M. Kumar, A. Sharma, Visualizing the vibration effect on the tandem-pulsed gas metal arc welding in the presence of surface tension active elements, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 161; 120310, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.120310

90-20   Guangxi Zhao, Jun Du, Zhengying Wei, Siyuan Xu, Ruwei Geng, Numerical analysis of aluminum alloy fused coating process, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Science and Engineering, 42; 483, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s40430-020-02569-y

85-20   Wenkang Huang, Hongliang Wang, Teresa Rinker, Wenda Tan, Investigation of metal mixing in laser keyhold welding of dissimilar metals, Materials & Design, 195; 109056, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.109056

82-20   Pan Lu, Zhang Cheng-Lin, Wang Liang, Liu Tong, Liu Jiang-lin, Molten pool structure, temperature and velocity flow in selective laser melting AlCu5MnCdVA alloy, Materials Research Express, 7; 086516, 2020. doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/abadcf

80-20   Yujie Cui, Yufan Zhao, Haruko Numata, Huakang Bian, Kimio Wako, Kento Yamanaka, Kenta Aoyagi, Chen Zhang, Akihiko Chiba, Effects of plasma rotating electrode process parameters on the particle size distribution and microstructure of Ti-6Al-4 V alloy powder, Powder Technology, 376; pp. 363-372, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2020.08.027

78-20   F.Q. Liu, L. Wei, S.Q. Shi, H.L. Wei, On the varieties of build features during multi-layer laser directed energy deposition, Additive Manufacturing, 36; 101491, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101491

75-20   Nannan Chen, Zixuan Wan, Hui-Ping Wang, Jingjing Li, Joshua Solomon, Blair E. Carlson, Effect of Al single bond Si coating on laser spot welding of press hardened steel and process improvement with annular stirring, Materials & Design, 195; 108986, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.108986

72-20   Yujie Cui, Kenta Aoyagi, Yufan Zhao, Kenta Yamanaka, Yuichiro Hayasaka, Yuichiro Koizumi, Tadashi Fujieda, Akihiko Chiba, Manufacturing of a nanosized TiB strengthened Ti-based alloy via electron beam powder bed fusion, Additive Manufacturing, 36; 101472, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101472

64-20   Dong-Rong Liu, Shuhao Wang, Wentao Yan, Grain structure evolution in transition-mode melting in direct energy deposition, Materials & Design, 194; 108919, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.108919

61-20   Raphael Comminal, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Thomas Juul Andersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg, Influence of processing parameters on the layer geometry in 3D concrete printing: Experiments and modelling, 2nd RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication, RILEM Bookseries, 28; pp. 852-862, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-49916-7_83

60-20   Marcin P. Serdeczny, Raphaël Comminal, Md. Tusher Mollah, David B. Pedersen, Jon Spangenberg, Numerical modeling of the polymer flow through the hot-end in filament-based material extrusion additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing, 36; 101454, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101454

58-20   H.L. Wei, T. Mukherjee, W. Zhang, J.S. Zuback, G.L. Knapp, A. De, T. DebRoy, Mechanistic models for additive manufacturing of metallic components, Progress in Materials Science, preprint, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2020.100703

55-20   Masoud Mohammadpour, Experimental study and numerical simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser welded and brazed joints, Thesis, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, US; Available in Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertations, 24, 2020.

48-20   Masoud Mohammadpour, Baixuan Yang, Hui-Ping Wang, John Forrest, Michael Poss, Blair Carlson, Radovan Kovacevica, Influence of laser beam inclination angle on galvanized steel laser braze quality, Optics and Laser Technology, 129; 106303, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2020.106303

34-20   Binqi Liu, Gang Fang, Liping Lei, Wei Liu, A new ray tracing heat source model for mesoscale CFD simulation of selective laser melting (SLM), Applied Mathematical Modeling, 79; pp. 506-520, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2019.10.049

27-20   Xuesong Gao, Guilherme Abreu Farira, Wei Zhang and Kevin Wheeler, Numerical analysis of non-spherical particle effect on molten pool dynamics in laser-powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Computational Materials Science, 179, art. no. 109648, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2020.109648

26-20   Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka and Akihiko Chiba, Isothermal γ → ε phase transformation behavior in a Co-Cr-Mo alloy depending on thermal history during electron beam powder-bed additive manufacturing, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 50, pp. 162-170, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2019.11.040

21-20   Won-Ik Cho and Peer Woizeschke, Analysis of molten pool behavior with buttonhole formation in laser keyhole welding of sheet metal, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 152, art. no. 119528, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.119528

06-20  Wei Xing, Di Ouyang, Zhen Chen and Lin Liu, Effect of energy density on defect evolution in 3D printed Zr-based metallic glasses by selective laser melting, Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 63, art. no. 226111, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s11433-019-1485-8

04-20   Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

02-20   Dongsheng Wu, Shinichi Tashiro, Ziang Wu, Kazufumi Nomura, Xueming Hua, and Manabu Tanaka, Analysis of heat transfer and material flow in hybrid KPAW-GMAW process based on the novel three dimensional CFD simulation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 147, art. no. 118921, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.118921

01-20   Xiang Huang, Siying Lin, Zhenxiang Bu, Xiaolong Lin, Weijin Yi, Zhihong Lin, Peiqin Xie, and Lingyun Wang, Research on nozzle and needle combination for high frequency piezostack-driven dispenser, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 96, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2019.102453

88-19   Bo Cheng and Charles Tuffile, Numerical study of porosity formation with implementation of laser multiple reflection in selective laser melting, Proceedings Volume 1: Additive Manufacturing; Manufacturing Equipment and Systems; Bio and Sustainable Manufacturing, ASME 2019 14th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, Erie, Pennsylvania, USA, June 10-14, 2019. doi.org/10.1115/MSEC2019-2891

87-19   Shuhao Wang, Lida Zhu, Jerry Ying His Fuh, Haiquan Zhang, and Wentao Yan, Multi-physics modeling and Gaussian process regression analysis of cladding track geometry for direct energy deposition, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 127:105950, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2019.105950

78-19   Bo Cheng, Lukas Loeber, Hannes Willeck, Udo Hartel, and Charles Tuffile, Computational investigation of melt pool process dynamics and pore formation in laser powder bed fusion, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 28:11, 6565-6578, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s11665-019-04435-y

77-19   David Souders, Pareekshith Allu, Anurag Chandorkar, and Ruendy Castillo, Application of computational fluid dynamics in developing process parameters for additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing Journal, 9th International Conference on 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing Technologies (AM 2019), Bangalore, India, September 7-9, 2019.

75-19   Raphaël Comminal, Marcin Piotr Serdeczny, Navid Ranjbar, Mehdi Mehrali, David Bue Pedersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg, Modelling of material deposition in big area additive manufacturing and 3D concrete printing, Proceedings, Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing, Nantes, France, September 16-18, 2019.

73-19   Baohua Chang, Zhang Yuan, Hao Cheng, Haigang Li, Dong Du 1, and Jiguo Shan, A study on the influences of welding position on the keyhole and molten pool behavior in laser welding of a titanium alloy, Metals, 9:1082, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/met9101082

57-19     Shengjie Deng, Hui-Ping Wang, Fenggui Lu, Joshua Solomon, and Blair E. Carlson, Investigation of spatter occurrence in remote laser spiral welding of zinc-coated steels, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 140, pp. 269-280, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.06.009

53-19     Mohamad Bayat, Aditi Thanki, Sankhya Mohanty, Ann Witvrouw, Shoufeng Yang, Jesper Thorborg, Niels Skat Tieldje, and Jesper Henri Hattel, Keyhole-induced porosities in Laser-based Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) of Ti6Al4V: High-fidelity modelling and experimental validation, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 30, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2019.100835

51-19     P. Ninpetch, P. Kowitwarangkul, S. Mahathanabodee, R. Tongsri, and P. Ratanadecho, Thermal and melting track simulations of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF), International Conference on Materials Research and Innovation (ICMARI), Bangkok, Thailand, December 17-21, 2018. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 526, 2019. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/526/1/012030

46-19     Hongze Wang and Yu Zou, Microscale interaction between laser and metal powder in powder-bed additive manufacturing: Conduction mode versus keyhole mode, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 142, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.118473

45-19     Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka, and Akihiko Chiba, Manipulating local heat accumulation towards controlled quality and microstructure of a Co-Cr-Mo alloy in powder bed fusion with electron beam, Materials Letters, Vol. 254, pp. 269-272, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2019.07.078

44-19     Guoxiang Xu, Lin Li, Houxiao Wang, Pengfei Li, Qinghu Guo, Qingxian Hu, and Baoshuai Du, Simulation and experimental studies of keyhole induced porosity in laser-MIG hybrid fillet welding of aluminum alloy in the horizontal position, Optics & Laser Technology, Vol. 119, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2019.105667

38-19     Subin Shrestha and Y. Kevin Chou, A numerical study on the keyhole formation during laser powder bed fusion process, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 141, No. 10, 2019. doi.org/10.1115/1.4044100

34-19     Dae-Won Cho, Jin-Hyeong Park, and Hyeong-Soon Moon, A study on molten pool behavior in the one pulse one drop GMAW process using computational fluid dynamics, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 139, pp. 848-859, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.05.038

30-19     Mohamad Bayat, Sankhya Mohanty, and Jesper Henri Hattel, Multiphysics modelling of lack-of-fusion voids formation and evolution in IN718 made by multi-track/multi-layer L-PBF, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 139, pp. 95-114, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.05.003

29-19     Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Daixiu Wei, Kenta Yamanaka, and Akihiko Chiba, Comprehensive study on mechanisms for grain morphology evolution and texture development in powder bed fusion with electron beam of Co–Cr–Mo alloy, Materialia, Vol. 6, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.mtla.2019.100346

28-19     Pareekshith Allu, Computational fluid dynamics modeling in additive manufacturing processes, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) 148th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, March 10-14, 2019.

24-19     Simulation Software: Use, Advantages & Limitations, The Additive Manufacturing and Welding Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2019

22-19     Hunchul Jeong, Kyungbae Park, Sungjin Baek, and Jungho Cho, Thermal efficiency decision of variable polarity aluminum arc welding through molten pool analysis, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 138, pp. 729-737, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.04.089

07-19   Guangxi Zhao, Jun Du, Zhengying Wei, Ruwei Geng and Siyuan Xu, Numerical analysis of arc driving forces and temperature distribution in pulsed TIG welding, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 41, No. 60, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s40430-018-1563-0

04-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

03-19   Dongsheng Wu, Anh Van Nguyen, Shinichi Tashiro, Xueming Hua and Manabu Tanaka, Elucidation of the weld pool convection and keyhole formation mechanism in the keyhold plasma arc welding, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 131, pp. 920-931, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.11.108

97-18   Wentao Yan, Ya Qian, Wenjun Ge, Stephen Lin, Wing Kam Liu, Feng Lin, Gregory J. Wagner, Meso-scale modeling of multiple-layer fabrication process in Selective Electron Beam Melting: Inter-layer/track voids formation, Materials & Design, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.12.031

84-18   Bo Cheng, Xiaobai Li, Charles Tuffile, Alexander Ilin, Hannes Willeck and Udo Hartel, Multi-physics modeling of single track scanning in selective laser melting: Powder compaction effect, Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, pp. 1887-1902, 2018.

81-18 Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Daixiu Wei, Kenta Yamanaka and Akihiko Chiba, Molten pool behavior and effect of fluid flow on solidification conditions in selective electron beam melting (SEBM) of a biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloy, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 26, pp. 202-214, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.002

77-18   Jun Du and Zhengying Wei, Numerical investigation of thermocapillary-induced deposited shape in fused-coating additive manufacturing process of aluminum alloy, Journal of Physics Communications, Vol. 2, No. 11, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/2399-6528/aaedc7

76-18   Yu Xiang, Shuzhe Zhang, Zhengying We, Junfeng Li, Pei Wei, Zhen Chen, Lixiang Yang and Lihao Jiang, Forming and defect analysis for single track scanning in selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V, Applied Physics A, 124:685, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s00339-018-2056-9

74-18   Paree Allu, CFD simulations for laser welding of Al Alloys, Proceedings, Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 15-17, 2018.

72-18   Hunchul Jeong, Kyungbae Park, Sungjin Baek, Dong-Yoon Kim, Moon-Jin Kang and Jungho Cho, Three-dimensional numerical analysis of weld pool in GMAW with fillet joint, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol. 19, No. 8, pp. 1171-1177, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s12541-018-0138-4

60-18   R.W. Geng, J. Du, Z.Y. Wei and G.X. Zhao, An adaptive-domain-growth method for phase field simulation of dendrite growth in arc preheated fused-coating additive manufacturing, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063, 012077, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012077 (Available at http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012077/pdf and in shared drive)

59-18   Guangxi Zhao, Jun Du, Zhengying Wei, Ruwei Geng and Siyuan Xu, Coupling analysis of molten pool during fused coating process with arc preheating, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063, 012076, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012076 (Available at http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012076/pdf and in shared drive)

58-18   Siyuan Xu, Zhengying Wei, Jun Du, Guangxi Zhao and Wei Liu, Numerical simulation and analysis of metal fused coating forming, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063, 012075, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012075

55-18   Jason Cheon, Jin-Young Yoon, Cheolhee Kim and Suck-Joo Na, A study on transient flow characteristic in friction stir welding with realtime interface tracking by direct surface calculation, Journal of Materials Processing Tech., vol. 255, pp. 621-634, 2018.

54-18   V. Sukhotskiy, P. Vishnoi, I. H. Karampelas, S. Vader, Z. Vader, and E. P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic drop-on-demand liquid metal additive manufacturing: System overview and modeling, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of Fluid Flow, Heat and Mass Transfer, Niagara Falls, Canada, June 7 – 9, 2018; Paper no. 155, 2018. doi.org/10.11159/ffhmt18.155

52-18   Michael Hilbinger, Claudia Stadelmann, Matthias List and Robert F. Singer, Temconex® – Kontinuierliche Pulverextrusion: Verbessertes Verständnis mit Hilfe der numerischen Simulation, Hochleistungsmetalle und Prozesse für den Leichtbau der Zukunft, Tagungsband 10. Ranshofener Leichtmetalltage, 13-14 Juni 2018, Linz, pp. 175-186, 2018.

38-18   Zhen Chen, Yu Xiang, Zhengying Wei, Pei Wei, Bingheng Lu, Lijuan Zhang and Jun Du, Thermal dynamic behavior during selective laser melting of K418 superalloy: numerical simulation and experimental verification, Applied Physics A, vol. 124, pp. 313, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s00339-018-1737-8

19-18   Chenxiao Zhu, Jason Cheon, Xinhua Tang, Suck-Joo Na, and Haichao Cui, Molten pool behaviors and their influences on welding defects in narrow gap GMAW of 5083 Al-alloy, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 126:A, pp.1206-1221, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.05.132

16-18   P. Schneider, V. Sukhotskiy, T. Siskar, L. Christie and I.H. Karampelas, Additive Manufacturing of Microfluidic Components via Wax Extrusion, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, vol. 3, pp. 162 – 165, 2018.

09-18   The Furlani Research Group, Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal 3D Printing, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, © University at Buffalo, May 2018.

08-18   Benjamin Himmel, Dominik Rumschöttel and Wolfram Volk, Thermal process simulation of droplet based metal printing with aluminium, Production Engineering, March 2018 © German Academic Society for Production Engineering (WGP) 2018.

07-18   Yu-Che Wu, Cheng-Hung San, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Huey-Jiuan Lin, Raed Marwan, Shuhei Baba and Weng-Sing Hwang, Numerical modeling of melt-pool behavior in selective laser melting with random powder distribution and experimental validation, Journal of Materials Processing Tech. 254 (2018) 72–78.

60-17   Pei Wei, Zhengying Wei, Zhen Chen, Yuyang He and Jun Du, Thermal behavior in single track during selective laser melting of AlSi10Mg powder, Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 123:604, 2017. doi.org/10.1007/z00339-017-1194-9

51-17   Koichi Ishizaka, Keijiro Saitoh, Eisaku Ito, Masanori Yuri, and Junichiro Masada, Key Technologies for 1700°C Class Ultra High Temperature Gas Turbine, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Review, vol. 54, no. 3, 2017.

49-17   Yu-Che Wu, Weng-Sing Hwang, Cheng-Hung San, Chih-Hsiang Chang and Huey-Jiuan Lin, Parametric study of surface morphology for selective laser melting on Ti6Al4V powder bed with numerical and experimental methods, International Journal of Material Forming, © Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2017. doi.org/10.1007/s12289-017-1391-2.

37-17   V. Sukhotskiy, I. H. Karampelas, G. Garg, A. Verma, M. Tong, S. Vader, Z. Vader, and E. P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic Drop-on-Demand Liquid Metal 3D Printing, Solid Freeform Fabrication 2017: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference

15-17   I.H. Karampelas, S. Vader, Z. Vader, V. Sukhotskiy, A. Verma, G. Garg, M. Tong and E.P. Furlani, Drop-on-Demand 3D Metal Printing, Informatics, Electronics and Microsystems TechConnect Briefs 2017, Vol. 4

14-17   Jason Cheon and Suck-Joo Na, Prediction of welding residual stress with real-time phase transformation by CFD thermal analysis, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 131–132 (2017) 37–51.

91-16   Y. S. Lee and D. F. Farson, Surface tension-powered build dimension control in laser additive manufacturing process, Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2016) 85:1035–1044, doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7974-5.

84-16   Runqi Lin, Hui-ping Wang, Fenggui Lu, Joshua Solomon, Blair E. Carlson, Numerical study of keyhole dynamics and keyhole-induced porosity formation in remote laser welding of Al alloys, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 108 (2017) 244–256, Available online December 2016.

68-16   Dongsheng Wu, Xueming Hua, Dingjian Ye and Fang Li, Understanding of humping formation and suppression mechanisms using the numerical simulation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 104, January 2017, Pages 634–643, Published online 2016.

39-16   Chien-Hsun Wang, Ho-Lin Tsai, Yu-Che Wu and Weng-Sing Hwang, Investigation of molten metal droplet deposition and solidification for 3D printing techniques, IOP Publishing, J. Micromech. Microeng. 26 (2016) 095012 (14pp), doi: 10.1088/0960-1317/26/9/095012, July 8, 2016

29-16   Scott Vader, Zachary Vader, Ioannis H. Karampelas and Edward P. Furlani, Advances in Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing, Nanotech 2016 Conference & Expo, May 22-25, Washington, DC.

26-16   Y.S. Lee and W. Zhang, Modeling of heat transfer, fluid flow and solidification microstructure of nickel-base superalloy fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, S2214-8604(16)30087-2, doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2016.05.003, ADDMA 86.

123-15   Koji Tsukimoto, Masashi Kitamura, Shuji Tanigawa, Sachio Shimohata, and Masahiko Mega, Laser welding repair for single crystal blades, Proceedings of International Gas Turbine Congress, pp. 1354-1358, 2015.

116-15   Yousub Lee, Simulation of Laser Additive Manufacturing and its Applications, Ph.D. Thesis: Graduate Program in Welding Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2015, Copyright by Yousub Lee 2015

103-15   Ligang Wu, Jason Cheon, Degala Venkata Kiran, and Suck-Joo Na, CFD Simulations of GMA Welding of Horizontal Fillet Joints based on Coordinate Rotation of Arc Models, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Available online December 29, 2015

96-15   Jason Cheon, Degala Venkata Kiran, and Suck-Joo Na, Thermal metallurgical analysis of GMA welded AH36 steel using CFD – FEM framework, Materials & Design, Volume 91, February 5 2016, Pages 230-241, published online November 2015

86-15   Yousub Lee and Dave F. Farson, Simulation of transport phenomena and melt pool shape for multiple layer additive manufacturing, J. Laser Appl. 28, 012006 (2016). doi: 10.2351/1.4935711, published online 2015.

63-15   Scott Vader, Zachary Vader, Ioannis H. Karampelas and Edward P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing, TechConnect World Innovation Conference & Expo, Washington, D.C., June 14-17, 2015

46-15   Adwaith Gupta, 3D Printing Multi-Material, Single Printhead Simulation, Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop, July 20 – 21, 2015, Santa Fe, NM

25-15   Dae-Won Cho and Suck-Joo Na, Molten pool behaviors for second pass V-groove GMAW, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 88 (2015) 945–956.

21-15   Jungho Cho, Dave F. Farson, Kendall J. Hollis and John O. Milewski, Numerical analysis of weld pool oscillation in laser welding, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 29 (4) (2015) 1715~1722, www.springerlink.com/content/1738-494x, doi.org/10.1007/s12206-015-0344-2.

82-14  Yousub Lee, Mark Nordin, Sudarsanam Suresh Babu, and Dave F. Farson, Effect of Fluid Convection on Dendrite Arm Spacing in Laser Deposition, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, August 2014, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 1520-1529

59-14   Y.S. Lee, M. Nordin, S.S. Babu, and D.F. Farson, Influence of Fluid Convection on Weld Pool Formation in Laser Cladding, Welding Research/ August 2014, VOL. 93

18-14  L.J. Zhang, J.X. Zhang, A. Gumenyuk, M. Rethmeier, and S.J. Na, Numerical simulation of full penetration laser welding of thick steel plate with high power high brightness laser, Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2014), doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.03.016.

36-13  Dae-Won Cho,Woo-Hyun Song, Min-Hyun Cho, and Suck-Joo Na, Analysis of Submerged Arc Welding Process by Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2013. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.06.017

12-13 D.W. Cho, S.J. Na, M.H. Cho, J.S. Lee, A study on V-groove GMAW for various welding positions, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, April 2013, doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.02.015.

01-13  Dae-Won Cho & Suck-Joo Na & Min-Hyun Cho & Jong-Sub Lee, Simulations of weld pool dynamics in V-groove GTA and GMA welding, Weld World, doi.org/10.1007/s40194-012-0017-z, © International Institute of Welding 2013.

63-12  D.W. Cho, S.H. Lee, S.J. Na, Characterization of welding arc and weld pool formation in vacuum gas hollow tungsten arc welding, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2012.09.024, September 2012.

77-10  Lim, Y. C.; Yu, X.; Cho, J. H.; et al., Effect of magnetic stirring on grain structure refinement Part 1-Autogenous nickel alloy welds, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Volume: 15 Issue: 7, Pages: 583-589, doi.org/10.1179/136217110X12720264008277, October 2010

18-10 K Saida, H Ohnishi, K Nishimoto, Fluxless laser brazing of aluminium alloy to galvanized steel using a tandem beam–dissimilar laser brazing of aluminium alloy and steels, Welding International, 2010

58-09  Cho, Jung-Ho; Farson, Dave F.; Milewski, John O.; et al., Weld pool flows during initial stages of keyhole formation in laser welding, Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics, Volume: 42 Issue: 17 Article Number: 175502 ; doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/42/17/175502, September 2009

57-09  Lim, Y. C.; Farson, D. F.; Cho, M. H.; et al., Stationary GMAW-P weld metal deposit spreading, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Volume: 14 Issue: 7 ;Pages: 626-635, doi.org/10.1179/136217109X441173, October 2009

1-09 J.-H. Cho and S.-J. Na, Three-Dimensional Analysis of Molten Pool in GMA-Laser Hybrid Welding, Welding Journal, February 2009, Vol. 88

52-07   Huey-Jiuan Lin and Wei-Kuo Chang, Design of a sheet forming apparatus for overflow fusion process by numerical simulation, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 353 (2007) 2817–2825.

50-07  Cho, Min Hyun; Farson, Dave F., Understanding bead hump formation in gas metal arc welding using a numerical simulation, Metallurgical and Mateials Transactions B-Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science, Volume: 38, Issue: 2, Pages: 305-319, doi.org/10.1007/s11663-007-9034-5, April 2007

49-07  Cho, M. H.; Farson, D. F., Simulation study of a hybrid process for the prevention of weld bead hump formation, Welding Journal Volume: 86, Issue: 9, Pages: 253S-262S, September 2007

48-07  Cho, M. H.; Farson, D. F.; Lim, Y. C.; et al., Hybrid laser/arc welding process for controlling bead profile, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Volume: 12 Issue: 8, Pages: 677-688, doi.org/10.1179/174329307X236878, November 2007

47-07   Min Hyun Cho, Dave F. Farson, Understanding Bead Hump Formation in Gas Metal Arc Welding Using a Numerical Simulation, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 305-319, April 2007

36-06  Cho, M. H.; Lim, Y. C.; Farson, D. F., Simulation of weld pool dynamics in the stationary pulsed gas metal arc welding process and final weld shape, Welding Journal, Volume: 85 Issue: 12, Pages: 271S-283S, December 2006