Capillary Flows/Capillary Filling/Thermocapillary Switch/Capillary Absorption/Marangoni flow

Capillary Flows

모세관 흐름은 일반적으로 미세 유체 장치에서 발생합니다. 예를 들어, 바이오 칩 설계에서는 한 곳에서 다른 곳으로 액체 용액을 전달하기 위해 긴 마이크로 채널이 자주 사용됩니다. 입구 채널은 액체 저장소에 연결되고 표면 장력은 액체를 마이크로 채널로 끌어 당깁니다 (액체가 칩 표면에 “젖은”경우). 이 페이지에서는 충진, 흡수 및 전환과 같은 모세관 흐름 분석에서 FLOW-3D의 특정 응용 분야를 다룹니다.

Marangoni flow in a dish of water that is heated at its center.

Marangoni flow는 중앙에서 데워진 물이 담긴 접시에 흐릅니다. 불균일한 표면 장력에 의해 생성 된 흐름은 20ºC의 초기 온도에서 0.75cm 깊이의 얕은 8.0cm 직경의 물 접시에 의해 입증됩니다. 원형 접시의 중앙에는 직경 0.5cm의 원통형 막대가 있습니다. 80 Cº의 온도로 가열하고 0.05 cm 깊이까지 수면에 담근다. 핫로드 근처의 물이 가열됨에 따라 표면 장력이 0.1678 dyne / cm / ºC만큼 감소하여 표면이 접시의 바깥 쪽 테두리쪽으로 후퇴합니다. Retraction는 처음에 표면에 뿌려진 질량없는 마커 입자로 표시됩니다.

Capillary Absorption

고체 물질의 기공에 모세관 흡수 때문에 액체와 고체 사이의 접착 발생합니다. 이 같은 흡수의 간단하면서도 유용한 시험은 핀란드 ABO Akademi 대학의 마르티 Toivakka에 의해 제안되었습니다. 테스트 기공은 ± 1.0 μm의 측면 벽 1.0 μm의 반경 원호입니다. 팽창 목에 연결된 넓은 2차원 채널로 구성되어 있습니다. 체적력의 부재 하에서, 표면장력 과 wall adhesion pull liquid 는 액체와 고체 사이의 static contact angle에 의해 결정됩니다. 첨부된 그림은 FLOW-3D가 올바르게 특정 접촉 각도 (유체는 적색표현) 충전 레벨을 계산하는 것을 나타냅니다.

Thermocapillary Switch

액체의 작은 덩어리나 가벼운 빔의 경로에서 움직이는 굴절, 혹은 반사로 다른 길로 리디렉션 할 수 있습니다. 이 개념은 특히나 한번 빔 내부 반사로 인해 갇혀 있는 섬유에 들어가 광학 섬유로 연결에서 매력적입니다. 어떠한 복잡성의 광 회로를 만들려면, 하나의 광섬유에서 다른 가벼운 방향을 바꿀 수 있는“스위치”를 둘 필요가 있습니다.

The animation above shows a FLOW-3D simulation of a drop of water in a 14mm-wide channel that is being heated at the bottom.

Capillary Filling

모세관 충전 과정을 이해하는 것은 칩 설계에 중요합니다.. 액체 흐름 통로의 다른 형상 포획 기포의 가능성 등의 충전 공정의 기술은, 같은 챔버와 칩의 내부 구조를 배치 기둥 분할하고, 밸브 결합에 설계자 안내 등 다양한 모세관 충전 동작이 발생할 수 있습니다.

시뮬레이션은 아래의 모세관 작용의 분석 예측의 유효성을 검사합니다. 모세관 채우기는 정확하게 표면 장력과 중력에 의해 균형을 잡습니다.이것은 FLOW-3D에 의해서 정확하게 예측되는 기본적인 과정입니다.

Thermocapillary Actuation

Thermocapillary Actuation

표면 장력의 온도 의존성은 유체 방울을 패턴 있는 표면 위로 전달하는 데 사용될 수 있습니다. 표면은 유체 방울이 친수성-수소성 인터페이스에 의해 형성된 채널을 따르도록 제한되도록 친수성 또는 친수성 접촉 각도로 패턴화됩니다. 또한 프로그램 가능한 방식으로 가열된 마이크로 히터의 배열은 열전압 작동을 유발하여 유체 방울을 뜨거운 영역에서 차가운 지역으로 유도합니다. 아래 이미지는 문제 설정의 상단 및 단면 뷰(Anton A)를 보여줍니다. Darhuber 외.) 다음에 Flow-3D를 설정합니다.

Liquid droplet moving along hydrophilic microstripe
Top-view of a liquid droplet moving along a hydrophilic microstripe. The array of Ti-resistors (shown in light gray) beneath the hydrophilic stripes locally heat the droplet thereby modifying the surface tension and propelling the liquid toward the colder regions of the device surface. The dark gray stripes represent the leads and contacts (Au) for the heating resistors.
Cross sectional view of device
Cross-sectional view of a portion of the device containing two micro-heaters and an overlying droplet.

더 차가운 표면 온도 영역은 인접한 따뜻한 지점보다 더 높은 표면 장력을 유지하여 액체를 당기는 접선 표면 힘을가합니다. 부분적 습윤 (접촉각> 0) 표면은 전체 습윤 표면 (접촉각 = 0)에 비해 부피 손실이 적은 유체 수송을 허용하기 때문에 바람직한 옵션입니다.

FLOW-3D setup of three microheaters

Top view of the setup in FLOW-3D showing three microheaters in pink, yellow and blue respectively. The central hydrophilic strip is shown in black with a fluid (water) droplet in sky blue.

아래 애니메이션은 완전히 젖은 표면과 부분적으로 젖은 표면의 비교를 보여줍니다. 예상대로 완전히 젖은 표면은 부분적으로 젖은 표면보다 액적을 더 평평하게 (그리고 더 많이 퍼지게) 만듭니다. 히터가 한 번에 하나씩 활성화되면 물방울이 더 차가운 영역으로 이동됩니다. 더 많은 유체가 남겨질수록 시뮬레이션이 끝날 때까지 완전히 젖은 표면은 더 많은 유체 볼륨을 잃는 것을 볼 수 있습니다. 따라서 부분적으로 젖은 표면은 유체 손실을 줄이기위한 더 바람직한 옵션입니다. 두 경우 모두 소수성 표면으로 둘러싸인 중앙 친수성 스트립으로 인해 물방울이 중앙에 머물러야합니다.

Animation of the results post-processed in FlowSight.

References

Anton A. Darhuber, Joseph P. Valentino, Sandra M. Trian and Sigurd Wagner, Thermocapillary Actuation of Droplets on Chemically Patterned Surfaces by Programmable Microheater Arrays, Journal of Microelectrochemical Systems, Vol. 12, No. 6, December 2003

Digital Microfluidics

Electrowetting은 전기장을 사용하여 표면 습윤 특성을 변경하는 과정입니다. Digital microfluidics는 전기 습식이 개별 유체 방울을 제어하고 조작하는데 사용되는 미세 유체 분야입니다. 이 아이디어는 디지털 마이크로 일렉트로닉스에서 영감을 얻었지만 전류 대신 이산 (또는 디지털화 된)액적을 사용하여 특정 시간 내에 특정 거리에 포함된 특정 양의 유체 또는 반응물을 이동합니다. 디지털 마이크로 플루이딕스는 높은 재구성 가능성과 대규모 병렬화를 통해 프로세스 속도를 높일 수있는 능력 때문에 다양한 바이오칩 설계에서 응용 분야를 찾습니다.

가장 중요한 표면 습윤 특성은 유체와 표면 사이의 접촉각입니다. FLOW-3D의 강력한 표면장력 모델은 전기 운동 모델과 함께 유전 영동, 열 모세관 작동 (온도에 따른 표면 장력을 통한 작동) 및 전기 습윤 자체와 같은 디지털 미세 유체 공정에서 습윤 역학을 포착하는 데 사용됩니다.

Capillary Flows

Capillary Flows

모세관 흐름은 일반적으로 미세 유체 장치에서 발생합니다. 예를 들어, 바이오 칩 설계에서 긴 마이크로 채널은 종종 액체 용액을 한 장소에서 다른 장소로 전달하는 데 사용됩니다. 입구 채널은 액체 저장소에 연결되고 표면 장력이 액체를 마이크로 채널로 당깁니다(액체가 칩 표면에 “습기”되는 경우). 이 페이지에서는 충전, 흡수 및 전환과 같은 모세관 흐름 분석에서 FLOW-3D에 대한 몇 가지 특정 용도에 대해 다룹니다.

Marangoni Flows

마랑고니는 그 중심에 가열된 물 접시에 흐릅니다. 균일하지 않은 표면 장력에 의해 발생하는 흐름은 20ºC의 초기 온도에서 깊이 0.75cm의 얕은 8.0cm의 물 접시에 의해 입증됩니다. 원형 접시 중앙에 놓인 원통형 막대는 직경 0.5cm로 80Cº의 온도로 가열되고 0.05cm의 깊이까지 수면에 잠깁니다. 핫 로드 주변의 물이 가열되면 표면 장력이 0.1678dyne/cm/ºC만큼 감소하여 표면이 접시의 바깥쪽 림 쪽으로 수축됩니다. 수축은 처음에 표면에 뿌려진 질량이 없는 마커 입자에 의해 나타납니다.

Capillary Filling

모세관 충전 공정을 이해하는 것은 칩 설계에 중요합니다. 액체 흐름 경로의 기하학적 구조가 다르면 기포를 고정할 수 있는 등의 모세관 충진 동작이 달라질 수 있습니다. 충전 프로세스에 대한 지식은 설계자가 챔버, 결합 기둥, 분할 및 밸브와 같은 칩의 내부 구조를 정렬하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 오른쪽의 시뮬레이션은 모세관 작용의 분석적 예측을 검증합니다. 모세관 충전은 표면 장력과 중력에 의해 균형을 이루며, 이는 FLOW-3D로 정확하게 예측되는 기본 공정입니다.

Thermocapillary Switch

910/5000광선의 경로 안팎으로 이동하는 소량의 액체는 굴절이나 반사를 통해 다른 경로로 방향을 바꿀 수 있습니다. 이 개념은 광선이 광섬유에 들어가면 내부 반사에 의해 포착되는 광섬유와 관련하여 특히 매력적입니다. 복잡한 광학 회로를 만들려면 한 광섬유에서 다른 광섬유로 빛을 리디렉션 할 수있는 “스위치”가 필요합니다.

제안 된 한 가지 개념은 열 모세관을 기반으로합니다. 광섬유 광선을 교차하는 마이크로 채널에 액체의 작은 방울을 놓습니다. 방울이 채널을 따라 빔이 통과해야하는 곳으로 이동하면 빔이 다른 섬유로 반사됩니다. 방울은 양면을 다르게 가열하여 이동합니다. 이것은 방울이 채널의 더 차가운 끝쪽으로 당겨 지도록 방울의 양쪽에있는 반월판의 표면 장력의 변화를 일으 킵니다.

Whole Blood Spontaneous Capillary Flow

Sketch of the cross section of the device (w=150 µm, h1=300 µm, h2=1200 µm, α=14.5o)

모세관 기반 마이크로 시스템은 추가 작동 메커니즘이 필요하지 않기 때문에 저렴하고 제작하기 쉽습니다. 마이크로펌프나 주사기와 같은 일반적인 마이크로 시스템은 부피가 크고 휴대할 수 없는 흐름 작동을 필요로 합니다.

버팔로 대학의 최근 연구는 모세관 유동 작용을 사용하여 미세 기기에서 액체를 이동시키는 간단한 해결책을 연구했습니다. 이 작업은 FLOW-3D를 사용하여 수정된 V-그루브 채널에서 자발적 모세관 흐름을 시뮬레이션합니다. 좁은 V-그루브 기하학(왼쪽)은 전혈과 같은 높은 점도의 유체도 이 유체를 통해 이동할 수 있기 때문에 좋은 솔루션을 제공합니다. 홈의 끝부분은 자발적인 모세관 흐름을 촉진하고 평행판은 충분한 혈액수송을 보장합니다.

본 연구에서는 FLOW-3D를 사용하여 채널 내 유체 헤드의 유속과 액체 전방의 진행을 추정합니다.

결과는 실험 및 분석(간단한) 결과와 비교됩니다. 아래 그림은 수치, 실험 및 분석 결과의 비교를 보여줍니다. FLOW-3D 결과는 실험 결과와 매우 일치합니다.

FLOW-3D Results

Analysis A: FLOW-3D results in red circles at the mid flow height, experimental results in green dots recorded at the medium fluid height, analytical results in green dashes
Analysis B: FLOW-3D results in red circles at the mid flow height, experimental results in green dots recorded at the medium fluid height, analytical results in green dashes

Animation of the results post-processed in FlowSight.

References

J. Berthiera, K.A. Brakke, E.P. Furlani, I.H. Karampelas, V. Pohera, D. Gosselin, M. Cubizolles, P. Pouteau, Whole blood spontaneous capillary flow in narrow V-groove microchannels, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2014

Lab-on-a-chip – Thermocapillary actuation (열 모세관 작동)

Thermocapillary actuation (열 모세관 작동)

  • 열 효과를 사용한 랩온어칩의 미세 액체의 길
    – 온도에 의존하는 표면 장력
    – 외부의 기계적인 힘이 필요하지 않음
    – 프로그래밍이 가능한 마이크로 히터 어레이를 통해 열 효과 추가
  • 유체의 고유한 습윤성으로 인해 유체 손실이 발생
    – 열 모세관 작동 외에도 패턴화 된 (친수성 또는 소수성) 표면을 배치하여 손실을 최소화 할 수 있음

공간의 다양한 표면 장력

  • 차가운 유체에서 표면 장력이 높기 때문에 공간의 변화가 발생함
    – 높은 표면 장력으로 유체를 함께 유지
    – 유체가 따뜻한 곳에서 차가운 곳으로 당겨짐
    – 유체의 움직임은 다음의 식을 통해 알 수 있음

FLOW-3D에서의 시뮬레이션

  • 미세 액체는 인접 구역의 온도에 따라 움직임 (소수성과 친수성)

Additive Manufacturing & Welding Bibliography

적층제조 및 용접 해석 참고문헌

아래는 당사의 적층 제조 및 용접 참고 문헌에 수록된 기술 문서 모음입니다. 이 모든 논문에는 FLOW-3D AM 결과가 나와 있습니다. FLOW-3D AM을 사용하여 적층 제조, 레이저 용접 및 기타 용접 기술에 있는 프로세스를 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아봅니다.

Additive Manufacturing & Welding Bibliography

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Additive Manufacturing and Welding Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D AM results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D AM can be used to successfully simulate the processes found in Additive ManufacturingLaser Welding, and other welding technologies.

61-20       Raphael Comminal, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Thomas Juul Andersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg, Influence of processing parameters on the layer geometry in 3D concrete printing: Experiments and modelling, 2nd RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication, RILEM Bookseries, 28; pp. 852-862, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-49916-7_83

60-20       Marcin P. Serdeczny, Raphaël Comminal, Md. Tusher Mollah, David B. Pedersen, Jon Spangenberg, Numerical modeling of the polymer flow through the hot-end in filament-based material extrusion additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing, 36; 101454, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101454

58-20       H.L. Wei, T. Mukherjee, W. Zhang, J.S. Zuback, G.L. Knapp, A. De, T. DebRoy, Mechanistic models for additive manufacturing of metallic components, Progress in Materials Science, preprint, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2020.100703

55-20       Masoud Mohammadpour, Experimental study and numerical simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser welded and brazed joints, Thesis, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, US; Available in Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertations, 24, 2020.

48-20     Masoud Mohammadpour, Baixuan Yang, Hui-Ping Wang, John Forrest, Michael Poss, Blair Carlson, Radovan Kovacevica, Influence of laser beam inclination angle on galvanized steel laser braze quality, Optics and Laser Technology, 129; 106303, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2020.106303

34-20       Binqi Liu, Gang Fang, Liping Lei, Wei Liu, A new ray tracing heat source model for mesoscale CFD simulation of selective laser melting (SLM), Applied Mathematical Modeling, 79; pp. 506-520, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2019.10.049

27-20   Xuesong Gao, Guilherme Abreu Farira, Wei Zhang and Kevin Wheeler, Numerical analysis of non-spherical particle effect on molten pool dynamics in laser-powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Computational Materials Science, 179, art. no. 109648, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2020.109648

26-20   Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka and Akihiko Chiba, Isothermal γ → ε phase transformation behavior in a Co-Cr-Mo alloy depending on thermal history during electron beam powder-bed additive manufacturing, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 50, pp. 162-170, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2019.11.040

21-20   Won-Ik Cho and Peer Woizeschke, Analysis of molten pool behavior with buttonhole formation in laser keyhole welding of sheet metal, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 152, art. no. 119528, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.119528

06-20   Wei Xing, Di Ouyang, Zhen Chen and Lin Liu, Effect of energy density on defect evolution in 3D printed Zr-based metallic glasses by selective laser melting, Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 63, art. no. 226111, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s11433-019-1485-8

04-20    Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

02-20   Dongsheng Wu, Shinichi Tashiro, Ziang Wu, Kazufumi Nomura, Xueming Hua, and Manabu Tanaka, Analysis of heat transfer and material flow in hybrid KPAW-GMAW process based on the novel three dimensional CFD simulation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 147, art. no. 118921, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.118921

01-20   Xiang Huang, Siying Lin, Zhenxiang Bu, Xiaolong Lin, Weijin Yi, Zhihong Lin, Peiqin Xie, and Lingyun Wang, Research on nozzle and needle combination for high frequency piezostack-driven dispenser, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 96, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2019.102453

101-19   Wei Xing, Di Ouyang, Zhen Chen and Lin Liu, Effect of energy density on defect evolution in 3D printed Zr-based metallic glasses by selective laser melting, Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 63, art. no. 226111, 2019.

88-19   Bo Cheng and Charles Tuffile, Numerical study of porosity formation with implementation of laser multiple reflection in selective laser melting, Proceedings Volume 1: Additive Manufacturing; Manufacturing Equipment and Systems; Bio and Sustainable Manufacturing, ASME 2019 14th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, Erie, Pennsylvania, USA, June 10-14, 2019. doi.org/10.1115/MSEC2019-2891

87-19   Shuhao Wang, Lida Zhu, Jerry Ying His Fuh, Haiquan Zhang, and Wentao Yan, Multi-physics modeling and Gaussian process regression analysis of cladding track geometry for direct energy deposition, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 127:105950, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2019.105950

78-19   Bo Cheng, Lukas Loeber, Hannes Willeck, Udo Hartel, and Charles Tuffile, Computational investigation of melt pool process dynamics and pore formation in laser powder bed fusion, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 28:11, 6565-6578, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s11665-019-04435-y

77-19   David Souders, Pareekshith Allu, Anurag Chandorkar, and Ruendy Castillo, Application of computational fluid dynamics in developing process parameters for additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing Journal, 9th International Conference on 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing Technologies (AM 2019), Bangalore, India, September 7-9, 2019.

75-19   Raphaël Comminal, Marcin Piotr Serdeczny, Navid Ranjbar, Mehdi Mehrali, David Bue Pedersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg, Modelling of material deposition in big area additive manufacturing and 3D concrete printing, Proceedings, Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing, Nantes, France, September 16-18, 2019.

73-19   Baohua Chang, Zhang Yuan, Hao Cheng, Haigang Li, Dong Du 1, and Jiguo Shan, A study on the influences of welding position on the keyhole and molten pool behavior in laser welding of a titanium alloy, Metals, 9:1082, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/met9101082

60-19   Binqi Liu, Gang Fang, Liping Lei, and Wei Liu, A new ray tracing heat source model for mesoscale CFD simulation of selective laser melting (SLM), Applied Mathematical Modeling, in press, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2019.10.049

57-19     Shengjie Deng, Hui-Ping Wang, Fenggui Lu, Joshua Solomon, and Blair E. Carlson, Investigation of spatter occurrence in remote laser spiral welding of zinc-coated steels, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 140, pp. 269-280, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.06.009

53-19     Mohamad Bayat, Aditi Thanki, Sankhya Mohanty, Ann Witvrouw, Shoufeng Yang, Jesper Thorborg, Niels Skat Tieldje, and Jesper Henri Hattel, Keyhole-induced porosities in Laser-based Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) of Ti6Al4V: High-fidelity modelling and experimental validation, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 30, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2019.100835

51-19     P. Ninpetch, P. Kowitwarangkul, S. Mahathanabodee, R. Tongsri, and P. Ratanadecho, Thermal and melting track simulations of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF), International Conference on Materials Research and Innovation (ICMARI), Bangkok, Thailand, December 17-21, 2018. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 526, 2019. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/526/1/012030

46-19     Hongze Wang and Yu Zou, Microscale interaction between laser and metal powder in powder-bed additive manufacturing: Conduction mode versus keyhole mode, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 142, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.118473

45-19     Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka, and Akihiko Chiba, Manipulating local heat accumulation towards controlled quality and microstructure of a Co-Cr-Mo alloy in powder bed fusion with electron beam, Materials Letters, Vol. 254, pp. 269-272, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2019.07.078

44-19     Guoxiang Xu, Lin Li, Houxiao Wang, Pengfei Li, Qinghu Guo, Qingxian Hu, and Baoshuai Du, Simulation and experimental studies of keyhole induced porosity in laser-MIG hybrid fillet welding of aluminum alloy in the horizontal position, Optics & Laser Technology, Vol. 119, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2019.105667

38-19     Subin Shrestha and Y. Kevin Chou, A numerical study on the keyhole formation during laser powder bed fusion process, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 141, No. 10, 2019. doi.org/10.1115/1.4044100

34-19     Dae-Won Cho, Jin-Hyeong Park, and Hyeong-Soon Moon, A study on molten pool behavior in the one pulse one drop GMAW process using computational fluid dynamics, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 139, pp. 848-859, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.05.038

30-19     Mohamad Bayat, Sankhya Mohanty, and Jesper Henri Hattel, Multiphysics modelling of lack-of-fusion voids formation and evolution in IN718 made by multi-track/multi-layer L-PBF, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 139, pp. 95-114, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.05.003

29-19     Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Daixiu Wei, Kenta Yamanaka, and Akihiko Chiba, Comprehensive study on mechanisms for grain morphology evolution and texture development in powder bed fusion with electron beam of Co–Cr–Mo alloy, Materialia, Vol. 6, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.mtla.2019.100346

28-19     Pareekshith Allu, Computational fluid dynamics modeling in additive manufacturing processes, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) 148th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, March 10-14, 2019.

24-19     Simulation Software: Use, Advantages & Limitations, The Additive Manufacturing and Welding Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2019

22-19     Hunchul Jeong, Kyungbae Park, Sungjin Baek, and Jungho Cho, Thermal efficiency decision of variable polarity aluminum arc welding through molten pool analysis, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 138, pp. 729-737, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.04.089

07-19   Guangxi Zhao, Jun Du, Zhengying Wei, Ruwei Geng and Siyuan Xu, Numerical analysis of arc driving forces and temperature distribution in pulsed TIG welding, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 41, No. 60, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s40430-018-1563-0

04-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

03-19   Dongsheng Wu, Anh Van Nguyen, Shinichi Tashiro, Xueming Hua and Manabu Tanaka, Elucidation of the weld pool convection and keyhole formation mechanism in the keyhold plasma arc welding, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 131, pp. 920-931, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.11.108

84-18   Bo Cheng, Xiaobai Li, Charles Tuffile, Alexander Ilin, Hannes Willeck and Udo Hartel, Multi-physics modeling of single track scanning in selective laser melting: Powder compaction effect, Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, pp. 1887-1902, 2018.

81-18 Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Daixiu Wei, Kenta Yamanaka and Akihiko Chiba, Molten pool behavior and effect of fluid flow on solidification conditions in selective electron beam melting (SEBM) of a biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloy, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 26, pp. 202-214, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.002

77-18   Jun Du and Zhengying Wei, Numerical investigation of thermocapillary-induced deposited shape in fused-coating additive manufacturing process of aluminum alloy, Journal of Physics Communications, Vol. 2, No. 11, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/2399-6528/aaedc7

76-18   Yu Xiang, Shuzhe Zhang, Zhengying We, Junfeng Li, Pei Wei, Zhen Chen, Lixiang Yang and Lihao Jiang, Forming and defect analysis for single track scanning in selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V, Applied Physics A, 124:685, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s00339-018-2056-9

74-18   Paree Allu, CFD simulations for laser welding of Al Alloys, Proceedings, Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 15-17, 2018.

72-18   Hunchul Jeong, Kyungbae Park, Sungjin Baek, Dong-Yoon Kim, Moon-Jin Kang and Jungho Cho, Three-dimensional numerical analysis of weld pool in GMAW with fillet joint, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol. 19, No. 8, pp. 1171-1177, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s12541-018-0138-4

60-18   R.W. Geng, J. Du, Z.Y. Wei and G.X. Zhao, An adaptive-domain-growth method for phase field simulation of dendrite growth in arc preheated fused-coating additive manufacturing, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063, 012077, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012077 (Available at http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012077/pdf and in shared drive)

59-18   Guangxi Zhao, Jun Du, Zhengying Wei, Ruwei Geng and Siyuan Xu, Coupling analysis of molten pool during fused coating process with arc preheating, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063, 012076, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012076 (Available at http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012076/pdf and in shared drive)

58-18   Siyuan Xu, Zhengying Wei, Jun Du, Guangxi Zhao and Wei Liu, Numerical simulation and analysis of metal fused coating forming, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063, 012075, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012075

55-18   Jason Cheon, Jin-Young Yoon, Cheolhee Kim and Suck-Joo Na, A study on transient flow characteristic in friction stir welding with realtime interface tracking by direct surface calculation, Journal of Materials Processing Tech., vol. 255, pp. 621-634, 2018.

54-18   V. Sukhotskiy, P. Vishnoi, I. H. Karampelas, S. Vader, Z. Vader, and E. P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic drop-on-demand liquid metal additive manufacturing: System overview and modeling, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of Fluid Flow, Heat and Mass Transfer, Niagara Falls, Canada, June 7 – 9, 2018; Paper no. 155, 2018. doi.org/10.11159/ffhmt18.155

52-18   Michael Hilbinger, Claudia Stadelmann, Matthias List and Robert F. Singer, Temconex® – Kontinuierliche Pulverextrusion: Verbessertes Verständnis mit Hilfe der numerischen Simulation, Hochleistungsmetalle und Prozesse für den Leichtbau der Zukunft, Tagungsband 10. Ranshofener Leichtmetalltage, 13-14 Juni 2018, Linz, pp. 175-186, 2018.

38-18   Zhen Chen, Yu Xiang, Zhengying Wei, Pei Wei, Bingheng Lu, Lijuan Zhang and Jun Du, Thermal dynamic behavior during selective laser melting of K418 superalloy: numerical simulation and experimental verification, Applied Physics A, vol. 124, pp. 313, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s00339-018-1737-8

19-18   Chenxiao Zhu, Jason Cheon, Xinhua Tang, Suck-Joo Na, and Haichao Cui, Molten pool behaviors and their influences on welding defects in narrow gap GMAW of 5083 Al-alloy, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 126:A, pp.1206-1221, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.05.132

16-18   P. Schneider, V. Sukhotskiy, T. Siskar, L. Christie and I.H. Karampelas, Additive Manufacturing of Microfluidic Components via Wax Extrusion, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, vol. 3, pp. 162 – 165, 2018.

09-18   The Furlani Research Group, Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal 3D Printing, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, © University at Buffalo, May 2018.

08-18   Benjamin Himmel, Dominik Rumschöttel and Wolfram Volk, Thermal process simulation of droplet based metal printing with aluminium, Production Engineering, March 2018 © German Academic Society for Production Engineering (WGP) 2018.

07-18   Yu-Che Wu, Cheng-Hung San, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Huey-Jiuan Lin, Raed Marwan, Shuhei Baba and Weng-Sing Hwang, Numerical modeling of melt-pool behavior in selective laser melting with random powder distribution and experimental validation, Journal of Materials Processing Tech. 254 (2018) 72–78.

60-17   Pei Wei, Zhengying Wei, Zhen Chen, Yuyang He and Jun Du, Thermal behavior in single track during selective laser melting of AlSi10Mg powder, Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 123:604, 2017. doi.org/10.1007/z00339-017-1194-9

51-17   Koichi Ishizaka, Keijiro Saitoh, Eisaku Ito, Masanori Yuri, and Junichiro Masada, Key Technologies for 1700°C Class Ultra High Temperature Gas Turbine, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Review, vol. 54, no. 3, 2017.

49-17   Yu-Che Wu, Weng-Sing Hwang, Cheng-Hung San, Chih-Hsiang Chang and Huey-Jiuan Lin, Parametric study of surface morphology for selective laser melting on Ti6Al4V powder bed with numerical and experimental methods, International Journal of Material Forming, © Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2017. doi.org/10.1007/s12289-017-1391-2.

37-17   V. Sukhotskiy, I. H. Karampelas, G. Garg, A. Verma, M. Tong, S. Vader, Z. Vader, and E. P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic Drop-on-Demand Liquid Metal 3D Printing, Solid Freeform Fabrication 2017: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference

14-17   Jason Cheon and Suck-Joo Na, Prediction of welding residual stress with real-time phase transformation by CFD thermal analysis, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 131–132 (2017) 37–51.

91-16   Y. S. Lee and D. F. Farson, Surface tension-powered build dimension control in laser additive manufacturing process, Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2016) 85:1035–1044, doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7974-5.

84-16   Runqi Lin, Hui-ping Wang, Fenggui Lu, Joshua Solomon, Blair E. Carlson, Numerical study of keyhole dynamics and keyhole-induced porosity formation in remote laser welding of Al alloys, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 108 (2017) 244–256, Available online December 2016.

68-16   Dongsheng Wu, Xueming Hua, Dingjian Ye and Fang Li, Understanding of humping formation and suppression mechanisms using the numerical simulation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 104, January 2017, Pages 634–643, Published online 2016.

26-16   Y.S. Lee and W. Zhang, Modeling of heat transfer, fluid flow and solidification microstructure of nickel-base superalloy fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, S2214-8604(16)30087-2, doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2016.05.003, ADDMA 86.

123-15   Koji Tsukimoto, Masashi Kitamura, Shuji Tanigawa, Sachio Shimohata, and Masahiko Mega, Laser welding repair for single crystal blades, Proceedings of International Gas Turbine Congress, pp. 1354-1358, 2015.

116-15   Yousub Lee, Simulation of Laser Additive Manufacturing and its Applications, Ph.D. Thesis: Graduate Program in Welding Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2015, Copyright by Yousub Lee 2015

103-15   Ligang Wu, Jason Cheon, Degala Venkata Kiran, and Suck-Joo Na, CFD Simulations of GMA Welding of Horizontal Fillet Joints based on Coordinate Rotation of Arc Models, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Available online December 29, 2015

96-15   Jason Cheon, Degala Venkata Kiran, and Suck-Joo Na, Thermal metallurgical analysis of GMA welded AH36 steel using CFD – FEM framework, Materials & Design, Volume 91, February 5 2016, Pages 230-241, published online November 2015

25-15   Dae-Won Cho and Suck-Joo Na, Molten pool behaviors for second pass V-groove GMAW, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 88 (2015) 945–956.

21-15   Jungho Cho, Dave F. Farson, Kendall J. Hollis and John O. Milewski, Numerical analysis of weld pool oscillation in laser welding, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 29 (4) (2015) 1715~1722, www.springerlink.com/content/1738-494x, doi.org/10.1007/s12206-015-0344-2.

82-14  Yousub Lee, Mark Nordin, Sudarsanam Suresh Babu, and Dave F. Farson, Effect of Fluid Convection on Dendrite Arm Spacing in Laser Deposition, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, August 2014, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 1520-1529

59-14   Y.S. Lee, M. Nordin, S.S. Babu, and D.F. Farson, Influence of Fluid Convection on Weld Pool Formation in Laser Cladding, Welding Research/ August 2014, VOL. 93

18-14  L.J. Zhang, J.X. Zhang, A. Gumenyuk, M. Rethmeier, and S.J. Na, Numerical simulation of full penetration laser welding of thick steel plate with high power high brightness laser, Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2014), doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.03.016.

36-13  Dae-Won Cho,Woo-Hyun Song, Min-Hyun Cho, and Suck-Joo Na, Analysis of Submerged Arc Welding Process by Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2013. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.06.017

12-13 D.W. Cho, S.J. Na, M.H. Cho, J.S. Lee, A study on V-groove GMAW for various welding positions, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, April 2013, doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.02.015.

01-13  Dae-Won Cho & Suck-Joo Na & Min-Hyun Cho & Jong-Sub Lee, Simulations of weld pool dynamics in V-groove GTA and GMA welding, Weld World, doi.org/10.1007/s40194-012-0017-z, © International Institute of Welding 2013.

63-12  D.W. Cho, S.H. Lee, S.J. Na, Characterization of welding arc and weld pool formation in vacuum gas hollow tungsten arc welding, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2012.09.024, September 2012.

77-10  Lim, Y. C.; Yu, X.; Cho, J. H.; et al., Effect of magnetic stirring on grain structure refinement Part 1-Autogenous nickel alloy welds, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Volume: 15 Issue: 7, Pages: 583-589, doi.org/10.1179/136217110X12720264008277, October 2010

18-10 K Saida, H Ohnishi, K Nishimoto, Fluxless laser brazing of aluminium alloy to galvanized steel using a tandem beam–dissimilar laser brazing of aluminium alloy and steels, Welding International, 2010

58-09  Cho, Jung-Ho; Farson, Dave F.; Milewski, John O.; et al., Weld pool flows during initial stages of keyhole formation in laser welding, Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics, Volume: 42 Issue: 17 Article Number: 175502 ; doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/42/17/175502, September 2009

57-09  Lim, Y. C.; Farson, D. F.; Cho, M. H.; et al., Stationary GMAW-P weld metal deposit spreading, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Volume: 14 Issue: 7 ;Pages: 626-635, doi.org/10.1179/136217109X441173, October 2009

1-09 J.-H. Cho and S.-J. Na, Three-Dimensional Analysis of Molten Pool in GMA-Laser Hybrid Welding, Welding Journal, February 2009, Vol. 88

52-07   Huey-Jiuan Lin and Wei-Kuo Chang, Design of a sheet forming apparatus for overflow fusion process by numerical simulation, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 353 (2007) 2817–2825.

50-07  Cho, Min Hyun; Farson, Dave F., Understanding bead hump formation in gas metal arc welding using a numerical simulation, Metallurgical and Mateials Transactions B-Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science, Volume: 38, Issue: 2, Pages: 305-319, doi.org/10.1007/s11663-007-9034-5, April 2007

49-07  Cho, M. H.; Farson, D. F., Simulation study of a hybrid process for the prevention of weld bead hump formation, Welding Journal Volume: 86, Issue: 9, Pages: 253S-262S, September 2007

48-07  Cho, M. H.; Farson, D. F.; Lim, Y. C.; et al., Hybrid laser/arc welding process for controlling bead profile, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Volume: 12 Issue: 8, Pages: 677-688, doi.org/10.1179/174329307X236878, November 2007

47-07   Min Hyun Cho, Dave F. Farson, Understanding Bead Hump Formation in Gas Metal Arc Welding Using a Numerical Simulation, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 305-319, April 2007

36-06  Cho, M. H.; Lim, Y. C.; Farson, D. F., Simulation of weld pool dynamics in the stationary pulsed gas metal arc welding process and final weld shape, Welding Journal, Volume: 85 Issue: 12, Pages: 271S-283S, December 2006

Aerospace Bibliography

아래는 항공 우주 분야에 대한 기술 문서 모음입니다.
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  결과를 포함하고 있습니다. FLOW-3D를 사용하여 항공 우주 산업을 위한 응용 프로그램을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션  하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

Aerospace Bibliography

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Aerospace Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how  FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate applications for the Aerospace Industry.

08-20   Li Yong-Qiang, Dong Jun-Yan and Rui Wei, Numerical simulation for capillary driven flow in capsule-type vane tank with clearances under microgravity, Microgravity Science and Technology, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s12217-019-09773-z

107-19   Martin Konopka, Extension of a standard flow solver for simulating phase change in cryogenic tanks, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 33.3, 2019. doi.org/10.2514/1.T5546

79-19   Baotang Zhuang, Yong Li, Jintao Liu, and Wei Rui, Numerical simulation of fluid transport along parallel vanes for vane type propellant tanks, Microgravity Science and Technology, pp. 1-10, 2019. doi:10.1007/s12217-019-09746-2

54-19     Robert E. Manning, Ian Ballinger, Manoj Bhatia, and Mack Dowdy, Design of the Europa Clipper propellant management device, AIAA Propulsion and Energy 2019 Forum, Indianapolis, Indiana, August 19-22, 2019. doi:10.2514/6.2019-3858

48-19     Lei Wang, Tian Yan, Jiaojiao Wang, Shixuan Ye, Yanzhong Li, Rui Zhuan, and Bin Wang, CFD investigation on thermodynamic characteristics in liquid hydrogen tank during successive varied-gravity conditions, Cryogenics, Vol. 103, 2019. doi:10.1016/j.cryogenics.2019.102973

01-18   Martin Konopka, Extension of a Standard Flow Solver for Simulating Phase Change in Cryogenic Tanks, 018 AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AIAA SciTech Forum, (AIAA 2018-1818), https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2018-1818

69-16   Philipp Behruzi and Francesco De Rose, Coupling sloshing, GNC and rigid body motions during ballistic flight phases, Propulsion and Energy Forum, 52nd AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, July 25-27, 2016, Salt Lake City, UT.

55-16   Martin Konopka, Peter Noeding, Jörg Klatte, Philipp Behruzi, Jens Gerstmann, Anton Stark, Nicolas Darkow, Analysis of LN2 Filling, Draining, Stratification and Sloshing Experiments, 46th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, Washington, D.C.

95-15   D Frank, Control of fluid mass center in the Gravity Probe B space mission Dewar, © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Volume 32, Number 22, November 17, 2015

58-15   Diana Gaulke and Michael E. Dreyer, CFD Simulation of Capillary Transport of Liquid Between Parallel Perforated Plates using FLOW-3D, Microgravity Science and Technology, August 2015

55-15   Sebastian Schmitt and Michael E. Dreyer, Free Surface Oscillations of Liquid Hydrogen in Microgravity Conditions, Cryogenics, doi:10.1016/j.cryogenics.2015.07.004, July 26, 2015

53-15   Jeffrey Moder and Kevin Breisacher, Preliminary Simulations of Ullage Dynamics in Microgravity during Jet Mixing Portion of the Tank Pressure Control Experiments, 51st AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, 2015

52-15   Philipp Behruzi, Diana Gaulke, Joerg Klatte, Nicolas Fries, Development of the MPCV ESM propellant tanks, 51st AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, 2015

51-15   Grant O. Musgrove and Shane B. Coogan, Validation and Rules-of-Thumb for Computational Predictions of Liquid Slosh Dynamics, 51st AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, 2015

23-15   Eckart Fuhrmann, Michael Dreyer, Steffen Basting, and Eberhard Bänsch, Free surface deformation and heat transfer by thermocapillary convection, Heat and Mass Transfer, June 2015, © SpringerLink

09-15   Zhicheng Zhou and Hua Huang, Constraint Surface Model for Large Amplitude Sloshing of the spacecraft with Multiple Tanks, Acta Astronautica, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2015.02.023

43-14   C. Ludwig and M.E. Dreyer, Investigations on thermodynamic phenomena of the active-pressurization process of a cryogenic propellant tankCryogenics (2014), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryogenics.2014.05.005.

40-14   M. Berci, S. Mascetti; A. Incognito, P. H. Gaskell, and V. V. Toropov, Dynamic Response of Typical Section Using Variable-Fidelity Fluid Dynamics and Gust-Modeling Approaches—With Correction Methods, Journal of Aerospace Engineering, © ASCE, ISSN 0893-1321/04014026(20), May 2014.

22-14  M. Lazzarin, M. Biolo, A. Bettella, M. Manente, R. DaForno, and D. Pavarin, EUCLID satellite: Sloshing model development through computational fluid dynamics, Aerospace Science and Technology, JID:AESCTE AID:3040 /FLA, Available online 12 April 2014.

75-13   Carina Ludwig and Michael Dreyer, Analyses of Cryogenic Propellant Tank Pressurization based upon Experiments and Numerical Simulations, 5TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR AERONAUTICS AND SPACE SCIENCES (EUCASS), Munich, Germany, 1-5 July 2013

49-13 Damien Theureau, Astrium; Jean Mignot, French Space Agency (CNES); Sebastien Tanguy, Fluid Mechanics Institute of Toulouse (IMFT), Integration of low g sloshing models with spacecraft attitude control simulators, Chapter DOI: 10.2514/6.2013-4961, August 2013.

44-13  Philipp Behruzi, Jörg Klatte and Gaston Netter, Passive Phase Separation in Cryogenic Upper Stage Tanks, 49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, July 14 – 17, 2013, San Jose, CA.

43-13  Philipp Behruzi, Jörg Klatte, Nicolas Fries, Andreas Schütte, Burkhard Schmitz and Horst Köhler, Cryogenic Propellant Management Sounding Rocket Experiments on TEXUS 48, 49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, July 14 – 17, 2013, San Jose, CA.

113-12  M. Lazzarin, M. Biolo, A. Bettella, and R. Da Forno, EUCLID Mission: Theoretical Sloshing Model and CFD Comparison, 48th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, 30 July – 01 August 2012, Atlanta, Georgia

34-12  N. Fries , P. Behruzi, T. Arndt, M. Winter, G. Netter, U. Renner, Modelling of fluid motion in spacecraft propellant tanks – Sloshing, Space Propulsion 2012 conference, 7th-10th May 2012, Bordeaux

55-11   P. Behruzi, F. de Rose, P. Netzlaf, H. Strauch, Ballistic Phase Management for Cryogenic Upper Stages, DGLR Conference, Bremen, Germany, 2011

11-11 Philipp Behruzi, Hans Strauch, and Francesco de Rose, Coasting Phase Propellant Management for Upper Stages, 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 18-15 July 2010, Bremen, Germany. PowerPoint presentation.

73-10    Amber Bakkum, Kimberly Schultz, Jonathan Braun, Kevin M Crosby, Stephanie Finnvik, Isa Fritz, Bradley Frye, Cecilia Grove, Katelyn Hartstern, Samantha Kreppel and Emily Schiavone, Investigation of Propellant Sloshing and Zero Gravity Equilibrium for the Orion Service Module Propellant Tanks, Wisconsin Space Conference, Yingst, R. A., & Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium. (2010). Dawn of a new age: 20th Annual Wisconsin Space Conference, August 19-20, 2010. Green Bay, Wis: Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium; University of Wisconsin-Green Bay.

35-10   Kevin Breisacher and Jeffrey Moder, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations of Jet Mixing in Tanks of Different Scales, NASA/TM—2010-216749

21-10 Berci M., Mascetti S., Incognito A., Gaskell P.H., Toropov V.V., Gust Response of a Typical Section Via CFD and Analytical Solutions, V European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics, ECCOMAS CFD 2010, Lisbon, Portugal, 14-17 June 2010 (A companion PowerPoint presentation in pdf format is available upon request)

49-08   Jens Gerstmann, Michael Dreyer, et al., Dependency of the apparent contact angle on nonisothermal conditions, PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 20, 042101 (2008)

35-07 N. Fries, K. Odic and M. Dreyer, Wicking of Perfectly Wetting Liquids into a Metallic Mesh, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Porous Media and its Applications in Science and Engineering, ICPM2, Kauai, Hawaii, USA, June 17-21, 2007

08-07 Gary Grayson, Alfredo Lopez, Frank Chandler, Leon Hastings, Ali Hedayat, and James Brethour, CFD Modeling of Helium Pressurant Effects on Cryogenic Tank Pressure Rise Rates in Normal Gravity, 43rd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, © 2007 by The Boeing Company. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. with permission. AIAA 2007-5524, 8 – 11 July 2007

34-06 Phillipp Behruzi, Mark Michaelis and Gaël Khimeche, Behavior of the Cryogenic Propellant Tanks during the First Flight of the Ariane 5 ESC-A Upper Stage, 42nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, 9-12 July 2006, Sacramento, California, © 2006 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.

12-06 G. D. Grayson, A. Lopez, F. O. Chandler, L. J. Hastings, S. P. Tucker, Cryogenic Tank Modeling for the Saturn AS-203 Experiment, AIAA 2006-5258, presented at the 42nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, July 9-12, 2006, Sacramento, CA.

29-02 O. Bayle, V. L’Hullier, M. Ganet, P. Delpy, J.L. Francart and D. Paris, Influence of the ATV Propellant Sloshing on the GNC Performance, AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference and Exhibit, Monterey, California, 5-8 August 2002, © 2002 by EADS Launch Vehicles

42-01 C. Figus and L. Ounougha, Correlations between Neutral Buoyancy Tests and CFD, Spacecraft Propulsion, Third International Conference held 10-13 October, 2000 at Cannes, France. European Space Agency ESASP-465, 2001, p.547

24-01 Hiroshi Nishino, Shujiro Sawai, & Katsumi Furukawa, Prediction of Sloshing Dynamics in Spinning Spherical Tanks, Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science 9th Workshop on Astrodynamics and Flight Mechanics (1999)

5-96 D. J. Frank, Dynamics of Superfluid Helium in Low-Gravity: A Progress Report, Advanced Technology Center, Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA, To be published in Proceedings of 1996 NASA/JPL Microgravity Low Temperature Physics Workshop, April 1996

7-95 G. D. Grayson, Coupled Thermodynamic-Fluid-Dynamic Solution for a Liquid Hydrogen Tank, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 32, No. 5, September-October 1995

5-94 G. Ross, Dynamics of Superfluid Helium in Low Gravity, dissertation submitted to Dept. Mech. Engrg. and Committee on Graduate Studies of Stanford University for Ph.D. degree, July 1994

9-93 N. H. Hughes, Numerical Stability Problem Encountered Modeling Large Liquid Mass in Micro Gravity, The Boeing Company, presented at the AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Victoria, B.C., Canada, August 16-19, 1993

8-93 G. D. Grayson and J. Navickas, Interaction Between Fluid-Dynamic and Thermodynamic Phenomena in a Cryogenic Upper Stage, McDonnell Douglas, AIAA-93-2753, presented at the AIAA 28th Thermophysics Conference, Orlando, FL, July 6-9, 1993

7-93 G. Grayson and E. DiStefano, Propellant Acquisition for Single Stage Rocket Technology, McDonnell Douglas, AIAA-93-2283, presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 29th Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Monterey, CA, June 28-30, 1993

6-93 Y. Letourneur and J. Sicilian, Propellant Reorientation Effects on the Attitude of the Main Cryotechnic Stage of Ariane V, Aerospatiale, Les Mureaux and Flow Science Inc, presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 29th Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Monterey, CA, June 28-30, 1993

4-92 J. M. Sicilian, Evaluation of Space Vehicle Dynamics Including Fluid Slosh and Applied Forces, Flow Science report (FSI-92-47-01), August 1992

9-91 G. P. Sasmal, J. I. Hochstein, M. C. Wendl, Washington University and T. L. Hardy, NASA Lewis Research Center, Computational Modeling of the Pressurization Process in a NASP Vehicle Propellant Tank Experimental Simulation, (AIAA 91-2407), AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 27th Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, CA, June 24-26, 1991

8-91 M. F. Fisher, G. R. Schmidt, and J. J. Martin,  Analysis of Cryogenic Propellant Behavior in Microgravity and Low Thrust Environments, NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 27th Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, CA, June 24-26, 1991

15-90 T. L. Hardy and T. M. Tomasik, Prediction of the Ullage Gas Thermal Stratification in a NASP Vehicle Propellant Tank Experimental Simulation Using FLOW-3D, NASA Technical Memorandum 103217, NASA-Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, July 1990

6-90 J. Navickas, McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Co., Huntington Beach, CA and P.Y. Cheng, McDonnell Douglas Aircraft Co., St. Louis, MO, Effect of Propellant Sloshing on the Design of Space Vehicle Propellant Storage Systems, presented at the 26th AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Orlando World Center, Orlando, FL, July 16-18, 1990

1-90 S. M. Dominick and J. R. Tegart, Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics of a Low Gravity Liquid Tank Filling Method, AIAA 28th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AAIA-90-0509, Reno, NV, January 1990.

9-89 S. Lin and D. K. Warinner, FLOW-3D Analysis of Pressure Responses in an Enclosed Launching System, presented at the Symposium on Computational Experiments, PVP ASME Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 22-27, 1989

3-89 C. W. Hirt, Flow in a Solid-Propellant Rocket Chamber, Flow Science Technical Note #17, March 1989 (FSI-89-TN17)

1-89 J. Navickas, E. C. Cady, and J. L. Ditter, Suspension of Solid Particles in the Aerospace Plane’s Slush Hydrogen Tanks, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. report, Huntington Beach, CA, 1988, presented at the Symposium on Computational Experiments, PVP ASME Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 22-27, 1989

11-88 J. Navickas, Prediction of a Liquid Tank Thermal Stratification by a Finite Difference Computing Method, presented to AIAA/ASEE/ASME/SAE 24th Joint Propulsion Conference, Boston, MA, 11-14 July 1988

10-88 J. Navickas, Space-Based System Disturbances Caused by On-Board Fluid Motion During System Maneuvers, presented to 1st National Fluid Dynamics Congress, Cincinnati, OH, July 24-28, 1988

9-88 J. Navickas, E. C. Cady, and T. L. Flaska, Modeling of Solid-Liquid Circulation in the National Aerospace Plane’s Slush Hydrogen Tanks, Advanced Propulsion, Advanced Technology Center, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co., Huntington Beach, CA, May 24, 1988

3-88 J. M. Sicilian and C. W. Hirt, Nozzle/Case Joint Analysis with CFD Analysis Using the FLOW-3D Program, in Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor Circumferential Flow Technical Interchange Meeting Final Report, NASA-TWR-17788, February 1988

11-87 C. W. Hirt, A Perspective on NASA-VOF3D vs. FLOW-3D, Flow Science report, December 1987 (FSI-87-00-3)

8-87 J. M. Sicilian, Fluid Slosh in a Rotating and Accelerating Tank, Flow Science report, Sept. 1987 (FSI-87-37-1)

5-87 J. J. Der and C.L. Stevens, Liquid Propellant Tank Ullage Bubble Deformation and Breakup in Low Gravity Reorientation, AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 23rd Joint Propulsion Conference, San Diego, Calif., June 1987 (AIAA-87-2021)

3-87 J. Navickas and J. Ditter, Effect of the Propellant Storage Tank Geometric Configuration on the Resultant Disturbing Forces and Moments during Low-Gravity Maneuvers, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics report, MDAC H2589, April 1987, presented at 1987 ASME Winter Annual Meeting

1-87 J. J. Der and C. L. Stevens, Low-Gravity Bubble Reorientation in Liquid Propellant Tanks, AIAA 25th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, January 12-15, 1987 (AIAA-87-0622)

7-86 J. Navickas, C. R. Cross, and D. D. Van Winkle, Propellant Tank Forces Resulting from Fluid Motion in a Low-Gravity Field, ASME Symposium in Microgravity Fluid Mechanics, Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, December 7-12, 1986

6-86 J. Navickas and C. R. Cross, Some Typical Applications of the HYDR3D CodeFLOW-3D Experience Conference, Redondo Beach, California, November 6-7, 1986

5-86 R. E. Martin, Effects of Transient Propellant Dynamics on Deployment of Large Liquid Stages in Zero-Gravity with Application to Shuttle-Centaur, 37th Annual Astronautical Congress, Innsbruck, Austria, Oct. 3-10, 1986 (IAF-86-119), Acta Astronautical Vol. 15, No. 6/7, pp. 331-340, 1987

4-86 C. W. Hirt, FLOW-3D Test Problems for Two-Fluid Sloshing, Flow Science report, July 1986 (FSI-86-31-1)

6-85 John I. Hochstein, Computational Prediction of Propellant Motion During Separation of a Centaur G-Prime Vehicle from the Shuttle, NASA report, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, December 1985 (WU/CFDL-85/1)

4-85 T. W. Eastes, Y. M. Chang, C. W. Hirt, and J. M. Sicilian, Zero-Gravity Slosh Analysis, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Miami, Florida, November 1985

3-84 J. M. Sicilian and C. W. Hirt, Numerical Simulation of Propellant Sloshing for Spacecraft, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, December 9-14, 1984

FLOW-3D/MP Features List

FLOW-3D/MP Features

FLOW-3D/MP v6.1 은 FLOW-3D v11.1 솔버에 기초하여 물리 모델, 특징 및 그래픽 사용자 인터페이스가 동일합니다. FLOW-3D v11.1의 새로운 기능은 아래 파란색으로 표시되어 있으며 FLOW-3D/MP v6.1 에서 사용할 수 있습니다. 새로운 개발 기능에 대한 자세한 설명은 FLOW-3D v11.1에서 새로운 기능을 참조하십시오.

Meshing & Geometry

  • Structured finite difference/control volume meshes for fluid and thermal solutions
  • Finite element meshes in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates for structural analysis
  • Multi-Block gridding with nested, linked, partially overlapping and conforming mesh blocks
  • Fractional areas/volumes (FAVOR™) for efficient & accurate geometry definition
  • Mesh quality checking
  • Basic Solids Modeler
  • Import CAD data
  • Import/export finite element meshes via Exodus-II file format
  • Grid & geometry independence
  • Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates
Flow Type Options
  • Internal, external & free-surface flows
  • 3D, 2D & 1D problems
  • Transient flows
  • Inviscid, viscous laminar & turbulent flows
  • Hybrid shallow water/3D flows
  • Non-inertial reference frame motion
  • Multiple scalar species
  • Two-phase flows
  • Heat transfer with phase change
  • Saturated & unsaturated porous media
Physical Modeling Options
  • Fluid structure interaction
  • Thermally-induced stresses
  • Plastic deformation of solids
  • Granular flow
  • Moisture drying
  • Solid solute dissolution
  • Sediment transport and scour
  • Cavitation (potential, passive tracking, active tracking)
  • Phase change (liquid-vapor, liquid-solid)
  • Surface tension
  • Thermocapillary effects
  • Wall adhesion
  • Wall roughness
  • Vapor & gas bubbles
  • Solidification & melting
  • Mass/momentum/energy sources
  • Shear, density & temperature-dependent viscosity
  • Thixotropic viscosity
  • Visco-elastic-plastic fluids
  • Elastic membranes & walls
  • Evaporation residue
  • Electro-mechanical effects
  • Dielectric phenomena
  • Electro-osmosis
  • Electrostatic particles
  • Joule heating
  • Air entrainment
  • Molecular & turbulent diffusion
  • Temperature-dependent material properties
  • Spray cooling
Flow Definition Options
  • General boundary conditions
    • Symmetry
    • Rigid and flexible walls
    • Continuative
    • Periodic
    • Specified pressure
    • Specified velocity
    • Outflow
    • Grid overlay
    • Hydrostatic pressure
    • Volume flow rate
    • Non-linear periodic and solitary surface waves
    • Rating curve and natural hydraulics
    • Wave absorbing layer
  • Restart from previous simulation
  • Continuation of a simulation
  • Overlay boundary conditions
  • Change mesh and modeling options
  • Change model parameters
Thermal Modeling Options
  • Natural convection
  • Forced convection
  • Conduction in fluid & solid
  • Fluid-solid heat transfer
  • Distributed energy sources/sinks in fluids and solids
  • Radiation
  • Viscous heating
  • Orthotropic thermal conductivity
  • Thermally-induced stresses
Turbulence Models
  • RNG model
  • Two-equation k-epsilon model
  • Two-equation k-omega model
  • Large eddy simulation
Metal Casting Models
  • Thermal stress & deformations
  • Iron solidification
  • Sand core blowing
  • Sand core drying
  • Permeable molds
  • Solidification & melting
  • Solidification shrinkage with interdendritic feeding
  • Micro & macro porosity
  • Binary alloy segregation
  • Thermal die cycling
  • Surface oxide defects
  • Cavitation potential
  • Lost-foam casting
  • Semi-solid material
  • Core gas generation
  • Back pressure & vents
  • Shot sleeves
  • PQ2 diagram
  • Squeeze pins
  • Filters
  • Air entrainment
  • Temperature-dependent material properties
  • Cooling channels
  • Fluid/wall contact time
Numerical Modeling Options
  • TruVOF Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method for fluid interfaces
  • First and second order advection
  • Sharp and diffuse interface tracking
  • Implicit & explicit numerical methods
  • GMRES, point and line relaxation pressure solvers
  • User-defined variables, subroutines & output
  • Utilities for runtime interaction during execution
Fluid Modeling Options
  • One incompressible fluid – confined or with free surfaces
  • Two incompressible fluids – miscible or with sharp interfaces
  • Compressible fluid – subsonic, transonic, supersonic
  • Stratified fluid
  • Acoustic phenomena
  • Mass particles with variable density or diameter
Shallow Flow Models
  • General topography
  • Raster data interface
  • Subcomponent-specific surface roughness
  • Wind shear
  • Ground roughness effects
  • Laminar & turbulent flow
  • Sediment transport and scour
  • Surface tension
  • Heat transfer
  • Wetting & drying
Advanced Physical Models
  • General Moving Object model with 6 DOF–prescribed and fully-coupled motion
  • Rotating/spinning objects
  • Collision model
  • Tethered moving objects (springs, ropes, mooring lines)
  • Flexing membranes and walls
  • Porosity
  • Finite element based elastic-plastic deformation
  • Finite element based thermal stress evolution due to thermal changes in a solidifying fluid
  • Combusting solid components
Chemistry Models
  • Stiff equation solver for chemical rate equations
  • Stationary or advected species
Porous Media Models
  • Saturated and unsaturated flow
  • Variable porosity
  • Directional porosity
  • General flow losses (linear & quadratic)
  • Capillary pressure
  • Heat transfer in porous media
  • Van Genunchten model for unsaturated flow
Discrete Particle Models
  • Massless marker particles
  • Mass particles of variable size/mass
  • Linear & quadratic fluid-dynamic drag
  • Monte-Carlo diffusion
  • Particle-Fluid momentum coupling
  • Coefficient of restitution or sticky particles
  • Point or volumetric particle sources
  • Charged particles
  • Probe particles
Two-Phase & Two-Component Models
  • Liquid/liquid & gas/liquid interfaces
  • Variable density mixtures
  • Compressible fluid with a dispersed incompressible component
  • Drift flux
  • Two-component, vapor/non-condensable gases
  • Phase transformations for gas-liquid & liquid-solid
  • Adiabatic bubbles
  • Bubbles with phase change
  • Continuum fluid with discrete particles
  • Scalar transport
  • Homogeneous bubbles
  • Super-cooling
Coupling with Other Programs
  • Geometry input from Stereolithography (STL) files – binary or ASCII
  • Direct interfaces with EnSight®, FieldView® & Tecplot® visualization software
  • Finite element solution import/export via Exodus-II file format
  • PLOT3D output
  • Neutral file output
  • Extensive customization possibilities
  • Solid Properties Materials Database
Data Processing Options
  • State-of-the-art post-processing tool, FlowSight™
  • Batch post-processing
  • Report generation
  • Automatic or custom results analysis
  • High-quality OpenGL-based graphics
  • Color or B/W vector, contour, 3D surface & particle plots
  • Moving and stationary probes
  • Measurement baffles
  • Arbitrary sampling volumes
  • Force & moment output
  • Animation output
  • PostScript, JPEG & Bitmap output
  • Streamlines
  • Flow tracers
User Conveniences
  • Active simulation control (based on measurement of probes)
  • Mesh generators
  • Mesh quality checking
  • Tabular time-dependent input using external files
  • Automatic time-step control for accuracy & stability
  • Automatic convergence control
  • Mentor help to optimize efficiency
  • Change simulation parameters while solver runs
  • Launch and manage multiple simulations
  • Automatic simulation termination based on user-defined criteria
  • Run simulation on remote servers using remote solving
Multi-Processor Computing

FLOW-3D Features

The features in blue are newly-released in FLOW-3D v12.0.

Meshing & Geometry

  • Structured finite difference/control volume meshes for fluid and thermal solutions
  • Finite element meshes in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates for structural analysis
  • Multi-Block gridding with nested, linked, partially overlapping and conforming mesh blocks
  • Conforming meshes extended to arbitrary shapes
  • Fractional areas/volumes (FAVOR™) for efficient & accurate geometry definition
  • Closing gaps in geometry
  • Mesh quality checking
  • Basic Solids Modeler
  • Import CAD data
  • Import/export finite element meshes via Exodus-II file format
  • Grid & geometry independence
  • Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates

Flow Type Options

  • Internal, external & free-surface flows
  • 3D, 2D & 1D problems
  • Transient flows
  • Inviscid, viscous laminar & turbulent flows
  • Hybrid shallow water/3D flows
  • Non-inertial reference frame motion
  • Multiple scalar species
  • Two-phase flows
  • Heat transfer with phase change
  • Saturated & unsaturated porous media

Physical Modeling Options

  • Fluid structure interaction
  • Thermally-induced stresses
  • Plastic deformation of solids
  • Granular flow
  • Moisture drying
  • Solid solute dissolution
  • Sediment transport and scour
  • Sludge settling
  • Cavitation (potential, passive tracking, active tracking)
  • Phase change (liquid-vapor, liquid-solid)
  • Surface tension
  • Thermocapillary effects
  • Wall adhesion
  • Wall roughness
  • Vapor & gas bubbles
  • Solidification & melting
  • Mass/momentum/energy sources
  • Shear, density & temperature-dependent viscosity
  • Thixotropic viscosity
  • Visco-elastic-plastic fluids
  • Elastic membranes & walls
  • Evaporation residue
  • Electro-mechanical effects
  • Dielectric phenomena
  • Electro-osmosis
  • Electrostatic particles
  • Joule heating
  • Air entrainment
  • Molecular & turbulent diffusion
  • Temperature-dependent material properties
  • Spray cooling

Flow Definition Options

  • General boundary conditions
    • Symmetry
    • Rigid and flexible walls
    • Continuative
    • Periodic
    • Specified pressure
    • Specified velocity
    • Outflow
    • Outflow pressure
    • Outflow boundaries with wave absorbing layers
    • Grid overlay
    • Hydrostatic pressure
    • Volume flow rate
    • Non-linear periodic and solitary surface waves
    • Rating curve and natural hydraulics
    • Wave absorbing layer
  • Restart from previous simulation
  • Continuation of a simulation
  • Overlay boundary conditions
  • Change mesh and modeling options
  • Change model parameters

Thermal Modeling Options

  • Natural convection
  • Forced convection
  • Conduction in fluid & solid
  • Fluid-solid heat transfer
  • Distributed energy sources/sinks in fluids and solids
  • Radiation
  • Viscous heating
  • Orthotropic thermal conductivity
  • Thermally-induced stresses

Numerical Modeling Options

  • TruVOF Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method for fluid interfaces
  • Steady state accelerator for free-surface flows
  • First and second order advection
  • Sharp and diffuse interface tracking
  • Implicit & explicit numerical methods
  • Immersed boundary method
  • GMRES, point and line relaxation pressure solvers
  • User-defined variables, subroutines & output
  • Utilities for runtime interaction during execution

Fluid Modeling Options

  • One incompressible fluid – confined or with free surfaces
  • Two incompressible fluids – miscible or with sharp interfaces
  • Compressible fluid – subsonic, transonic, supersonic
  • Stratified fluid
  • Acoustic phenomena
  • Mass particles with variable density or diameter

Shallow Flow Models

  • General topography
  • Raster data interface
  • Subcomponent-specific surface roughness
  • Wind shear
  • Ground roughness effects
  • Manning’s roughness
  • Laminar & turbulent flow
  • Sediment transport and scour
  • Surface tension
  • Heat transfer
  • Wetting & drying

Turbulence Models

  • RNG model
  • Two-equation k-epsilon model
  • Two-equation k-omega model
  • Large eddy simulation

Advanced Physical Models

  • General Moving Object model with 6 DOF–prescribed and fully-coupled motion
  • Rotating/spinning objects
  • Collision model
  • Tethered moving objects (springs, ropes, breaking mooring lines)
  • Flexing membranes and walls
  • Porosity
  • Finite element based elastic-plastic deformation
  • Finite element based thermal stress evolution due to thermal changes in a solidifying fluid
  • Combusting solid components

Chemistry Models

  • Stiff equation solver for chemical rate equations
  • Stationary or advected species

Porous Media Models

  • Saturated and unsaturated flow
  • Variable porosity
  • Directional porosity
  • General flow losses (linear & quadratic)
  • Capillary pressure
  • Heat transfer in porous media
  • Van Genunchten model for unsaturated flow

Discrete Particle Models

  • Massless marker particles
  • Multi-species material particles of variable size and mass
  • Solid, fluid, gas particles
  • Void particles tracking collapsed void regions
  • Non-linear fluid-dynamic drag
  • Added mass effects
  • Monte-Carlo diffusion
  • Particle-fluid momentum coupling
  • Coefficient of restitution or sticky particles
  • Point or volumetric particle sources
  • Initial particle blocks
  • Heat transfer with fluid
  • Evaporation and condensation
  • Solidification and melting
  • Coulomb and dielectric forces
  • Probe particles

Two-Phase & Two-Component Models

  • Liquid/liquid & gas/liquid interfaces
  • Variable density mixtures
  • Compressible fluid with a dispersed incompressible component
  • Drift flux with dynamic droplet size
  • Two-component, vapor/non-condensable gases
  • Phase transformations for gas-liquid & liquid-solid
  • Adiabatic bubbles
  • Bubbles with phase change
  • Continuum fluid with discrete particles
  • Scalar transport
  • Homogeneous bubbles
  • Super-cooling
  • Two-field temperature

Coupling with Other Programs

  • Geometry input from Stereolithography (STL) files – binary or ASCII
  • Direct interfaces with EnSight®, FieldView® & Tecplot® visualization software
  • Finite element solution import/export via Exodus-II file format
  • PLOT3D output
  • Neutral file output
  • Extensive customization possibilities
  • Solid Properties Materials Database

Data Processing Options

  • State-of-the-art post-processing tool, FlowSight™
  • Batch post-processing
  • Report generation
  • Automatic or custom results analysis
  • High-quality OpenGL-based graphics
  • Color or B/W vector, contour, 3D surface & particle plots
  • Moving and stationary probes
  • Visualization of non-inertial reference frame motion
  • Measurement baffles
  • Arbitrary sampling volumes
  • Force & moment output
  • Animation output
  • PostScript, JPEG & Bitmap output
  • Streamlines
  • Flow tracers

User Conveniences

  • Active simulation control (based on measurement of probes)
  • Mesh generators
  • Mesh quality checking
  • Tabular time-dependent input using external files
  • Automatic time-step control for accuracy & stability
  • Automatic convergence control
  • Mentor help to optimize efficiency
  • Units on all variables
  • Custom units
  • Component transformations
  • Moving particle sources
  • Change simulation parameters while solver runs
  • Launch and manage multiple simulations
  • Automatic simulation termination based on user-defined criteria
  • Run simulation on remote servers using remote solving
  • Copy boundary conditions to other mesh blocks

Multi-Processor Computing

  • Shared memory computers
  • Distributed memory clusters

FlowSight

  • Particle visualization
  • Velocity vector fields
  • Streamlines & pathlines
  • Iso-surfaces
  • 2D, 3D and arbitrary clips
  • Volume render
  • Probe data
  • History data
  • Vortex cores
  • Link multiple results
  • Multiple data views
  • Non-inertial reference frame
  • Spline clip