Publication Date:2013-07-24 Research Org.: Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) Sponsoring Org.: DOE/LANL OSTI Identifier: 1088904 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-25537 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Technical Report Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Engineering(42); Materials Science(36); Radiation Chemistry, Radiochemistry, & Nuclear Chemistry(38)
The plutonium foundry at Los Alamos National Laboratory casts products for various special nuclear applications. However, plutonium’s radioactivity, material properties, and security constraints complicate the ability to perform experimental analysis of mold behavior. The Manufacturing Engineering and Technologies (MET-2) group previously developed a graphite mold to vacuum cast small plutonium disks to be used by the Department of Homeland Security as point sources for radiation sensor testing.
A two-stage pouring basin consisting of a funnel and an angled cavity directs the liquid into a vertical runner. A stack of ten disk castings connect to the runner by horizontal gates. Volumetric flow rates were implemented to limit overflow into the funnel and minimize foundry returns. Models using Flow-3D computational fluid dynamics software are employed here to determine liquid Pu flow paths, optimal pour regimes, temperature changes, and pressure variations.
Hardcopy drawings provided necessary information to create 3D .stl models for import into Flow-3D (Figs. 1 and 2). The mesh was refined over several iterations to isolate the disk cavities, runner, angled cavity, funnel, and input pour. The final flow and mold-filling simulation utilizes a fine mesh with ~5.5 million total cells. For the temperature study, the mesh contained 1/8 as many cells to reduce computational time and set temperatures to 850 °C for the molten plutonium and 500 °C for the solid graphite mold components (Fig. 3).
Flow-3D solves mass continuity and Navier-Stokes momentum equations over the structured rectangular grid model using finite difference and finite volume numerical algorithms. The solver includes terms in the momentum equation for body and viscous accelerations and uses convective heat transfer.
Simulation settings enabled Flow-3D physics calculations for gravity at 980.665 cm/s 2 in the negative Z direction (top of mold to bottom); viscous, turbulent, incompressible flow using dynamically-computed Renormalized Group Model turbulence calculations and no-slip/partial slip wall shear, and; first order, full energy equation heat transfer.
Mesh boundaries were all set to symmetric boundary conditions except for the Zmin boundary set to outflow and the Zmax boundary set to a volume flow. Vacuum casting conditions and the high reactivity of remaining air molecules with Pu validate the assumption of an initially fluidless void.
The flow follows a unique three-dimensional path. The mold fills upwards with two to three disks receiving fluid in a staggered sequence. Figures 5-9 show how the fluid fills the cavity, and Figure 7 includes the color scale for pressure levels in these four figures. The narrow gate causes a high pressure region which forces the fluid to flow down the cavity centerline.
It proceeds to splash against the far wall and then wrap around the circumference back to the gate (Figs. 5 and 6). Flow in the angled region of the pouring basin cascades over the bottom ledge and attaches to the far wall of the runner, as seen in Figure 7.
This channeling becomes less pronounced as fluid volume levels increase. Finally, two similar but non-uniform depressed regions form about the centerline. These regions fill from their perimeter and bottom until completion (Fig. 8). Such a pattern is counter, for example, to a steady scenario in which a circle of molten Pu encompassing the entire bottom surface rises as a growing cylinder.
Cavity pressure becomes uniform when the cavity is full. Pressure levels build in the rising well section of the runner, where impurities were found to settle in actual casting. Early test simulations optimized the flow as three pours so that the fluid would never overflow to the funnel, the cavities would all fill completely, and small amounts of fluid would remain as foundry returns in the angled cavity.
These rates and durations were translated to the single 2.7s pour at 100 cm 3 per second used here. Figure 9 shows anomalous pressure fluctuations which occurred as the cavities became completely filled. Multiple simulations exhibited a rapid change in pressure from positive to negative and back within the newly-full disk and surrounding, already-full disks.
The time required to completely fill each cavity is plotted in Figure 10. Results show negligible temperature change within the molten Pu during mold filling and, as seen in Figure 11, at fill completion.
Non-uniform cavity filling could cause crystal microstructure irregularities during solidification. However, the small temperature changes seen – due to large differences in specific heat between Pu and graphite – over a relatively short time make such problems unlikely in this case.
In the actual casting, cooling required approximately ten minutes. This large difference in time scales further reduces the chance for temperature effects in such a superheated scenario. Pouring basin emptying decreases pressure at the gate which extends fill time of the top two cavities.
The bottom cavity takes longer to fill because fluid must first enter the runner and fill the well. Fill times continue linearly until the top two cavities. The anomalous pressure fluctuations may be due to physical attempts by the system to reach equilibrium, but they are more likely due to numerical errors in the Flow3D solver.
Unsuccessful tests were performed to remove them by halving fluid viscosity. The fine mesh reduced, but did not eliminate, the extent of the fluctuations. Future work is planned to study induction and heat transfer in the full Pu furnace system, including quantifying temporal lag of the cavity void temperature to the mold wall temperature during pre-heat and comparing heat flux levels between furnace components during cool-down.
Thanks to Doug Kautz for the opportunity to work with MET-2 and for assigning an interesting unclassified project. Additional thanks to Mike Bange for CFD guidance, insight of the project’s history, and draft review.
Analysis of behavior and hydraulic characteristics of flow over the dam spillway is a complicated task that takes lots of money and time in water engineering projects planning. To model those hydraulic characteristics, several methods such as physical and numerical methods can be used. Nowadays, by utilizing new methods in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and by the development of fast computers, the numerical methods have become accessible for use in the analysis of such sophisticated flows. The CFD softwares have the capability to analyze two- and three-dimensional flow fields. In this paper, the flow pattern at the guide wall of the Kamal-Saleh dam was modeled by Flow 3D. The results show that the current geometry of the left wall causes instability in the flow pattern and making secondary and vortex flow at beginning approach channel. This shape of guide wall reduced the performance of weir to remove the peak flood discharge.
댐 여수로 흐름의 거동 및 수리학적 특성 분석은 물 공학 프로젝트 계획에 많은 비용과 시간이 소요되는 복잡한 작업입니다. 이러한 수력학적 특성을 모델링하기 위해 물리적, 수치적 방법과 같은 여러 가지 방법을 사용할 수 있습니다. 요즘에는 전산유체역학(CFD)의 새로운 방법을 활용하고 빠른 컴퓨터의 개발로 이러한 정교한 흐름의 해석에 수치 방법을 사용할 수 있게 되었습니다. CFD 소프트웨어에는 2차원 및 3차원 유동장을 분석하는 기능이 있습니다. 본 논문에서는 Kamal-Saleh 댐 유도벽의 흐름 패턴을 Flow 3D로 모델링하였다. 결과는 왼쪽 벽의 현재 형상이 흐름 패턴의 불안정성을 유발하고 시작 접근 채널에서 2차 및 와류 흐름을 만드는 것을 보여줍니다. 이러한 형태의 안내벽은 첨두방류량을 제거하기 위해 둑의 성능을 저하시켰다.
Spillways are one of the main structures used in the dam projects. Design of the spillway in all types of dams, specifically earthen dams is important because the inability of the spillway to remove probable maximum flood (PMF) discharge may cause overflow of water which ultimately leads to destruction of the dam (Das and Saikia et al. 2009; E 2013 and Novak et al. 2007). So study on the hydraulic characteristics of this structure is important. Hydraulic properties of spillway including flow pattern at the entrance of the guide walls and along the chute. Moreover, estimating the values of velocity and pressure parameters of flow along the chute is very important (Chanson 2004; Chatila and Tabbara 2004). The purpose of the study on the flow pattern is the effect of wall geometry on the creation transverse waves, flow instability, rotating and reciprocating flow through the inlet of spillway and its chute (Parsaie and Haghiabi 2015a, b; Parsaie et al. 2015; Wang and Jiang 2010). The purpose of study on the values of velocity and pressure is to calculate the potential of the structure to occurrence of phenomena such as cavitation (Fattor and Bacchiega 2009; Ma et al. 2010). Sometimes, it can be seen that the spillway design parameters of pressure and velocity are very suitable, but geometry is considered not suitable for conducting walls causing unstable flow pattern over the spillway, rotating flows at the beginning of the spillway and its design reduced the flood discharge capacity (Fattor and Bacchiega 2009). Study on spillway is usually conducted using physical models (Su et al. 2009; Suprapto 2013; Wang and Chen 2009; Wang and Jiang 2010). But recently, with advances in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), study on hydraulic characterist–ics of this structure has been done with these techniques (Chatila and Tabbara 2004; Zhenwei et al. 2012). Using the CFD as a powerful technique for modeling the hydraulic structures can reduce the time and cost of experiments (Tabbara et al. 2005). In CFD field, the Navier–Stokes equation is solved by powerful numerical methods such as finite element method and finite volumes (Kim and Park 2005; Zhenwei et al. 2012). In order to obtain closed-form Navier–Stokes equations turbulence models, such k − ε and Re-Normalisation Group (RNG) models have been presented. To use the technique of computational fluid dynamics, software packages such as Fluent and Flow 3D, etc., are provided. Recently, these two software packages have been widely used in hydraulic engineering because the performance and their accuracy are very suitable (Gessler 2005; Kim 2007; Kim et al. 2012; Milési and Causse 2014; Montagna et al. 2011). In this paper, to assess the flow pattern at Kamal-Saleh guide wall, numerical method has been used. All the stages of numerical modeling were conducted in the Flow 3D software.
Materials and methods
Firstly, a three-dimensional model was constructed according to two-dimensional map that was prepared for designing the spillway. Then a small model was prepared with scale of 1:80 and entered into the Flow 3D software; all stages of the model construction was conducted in AutoCAD 3D. Flow 3D software numerically solved the Navier–Stokes equation by finite volume method. Below is a brief reference on the equations that used in the software. Figure 1 shows the 3D sketch of Kamal-Saleh spillway and Fig. 2 shows the uploading file of the Kamal-Saleh spillway in Flow 3D software.
Review of the governing equations in software Flow 3D
Continuity equation at three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates is given as Eq (1).
where u, v, z are velocity component in the x, y, z direction; Ax, Ay, Az cross-sectional area of the flow; ρ fluid density; PSOR the source term; vf is the volume fraction of the fluid and three-dimensional momentum equations given in Eq (2).
where P is the fluid pressure; Gx, Gy, Gz the acceleration created by body fluids; fx, fy, fz viscosity acceleration in three dimensions and vf is related to the volume of fluid, defined by Eq. (3). For modeling of free surface profile the VOF technique based on the volume fraction of the computational cells has been used. Since the volume fraction F represents the amount of fluid in each cell, it takes value between 0 and 1.
Flow 3D offers five types of turbulence models: Prantl mixing length, k − ε equation, RNG models, Large eddy simulation model. Turbulence models that have been proposed recently are based on Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. This approach involves statistical methods to extract an averaged equation related to the turbulence quantities.
Steps of solving a problem in Flow 3D software
(1) Preparing the 3D model of spillway by AutoCAD software. (2) Uploading the file of 3D model in Flow 3D software and defining the problem in the software and checking the final mesh. (3) Choosing the basic equations that should be solved. (4) Defining the characteristics of fluid. (5) Defining the boundary conditions; it is notable that this software has a wide range of boundary conditions. (6) Initializing the flow field. (7) Adjusting the output. (8) Adjusting the control parameters, choice of the calculation method and solution formula. (9) Start of calculation. Figure 1 shows the 3D model of the Kamal-Saleh spillway; in this figure, geometry of the left and right guide wall is shown.
Figure 2 shows the uploading of the 3D spillway dam in Flow 3D software. Moreover, in this figure the considered boundary condition in software is shown. At the entrance and end of spillway, the flow rate or fluid elevation and outflow was considered as BC. The bottom of spillway was considered as wall and left and right as symmetry.
Calibration of the Flow 3D for modeling the effect of geometry of guide wall on the flow pattern is included for comparing the results of Flow 3D with measured water surface profile. Calibration the Flow 3D software could be conducted in two ways: first, changing the value of upstream boundary conditions is continued until the results of water surface profile of the Flow 3D along the spillway successfully covered the measurement water surface profile; second is the assessment the mesh sensitivity. Analyzing the size of mesh is a trial-and-error process where the size of mesh is evaluated form the largest to the smallest. With fining the size of mesh the accuracy of model is increased; whereas, the cost of computation is increased. In this research, the value of upstream boundary condition was adjusted with measured data during the experimental studies on the scaled model and the mesh size was equal to 1 × 1 × 1 cm3.
Results and discussion
The behavior of water in spillway is strongly affected by the flow pattern at the entrance of the spillway, the flow pattern formation at the entrance is affected by the guide wall, and choice of an optimized form for the guide wall has a great effect on rising the ability of spillway for easy passing the PMF, so any nonuniformity in flow in the approach channel can cause reduction of spillway capacity, reduction in discharge coefficient of spillway, and even probability of cavitation. Optimizing the flow guiding walls (in terms of length, angle and radius) can cause the loss of turbulence and flow disturbances on spillway. For this purpose, initially geometry proposed for model for the discharge of spillway dam, Kamal-Saleh, 80, 100, and 120 (L/s) were surveyed. These discharges of flow were considered with regard to the flood return period, 5, 100 and 1000 years. Geometric properties of the conducting guidance wall are given in Table 1.Table 1 Characteristics and dimensions of the guidance walls tested
Results of the CFD simulation for passing the flow rate 80 (L/s) are shown in Fig. 3. Figure 3 shows the secondary flow and vortex at the left guide wall.
For giving more information about flow pattern at the left and right guide wall, Fig. 4 shows the flow pattern at the right side guide wall and Fig. 5 shows the flow pattern at the left side guide wall.
With regard to Figs. 4 and 5 and observing the streamlines, at discharge equal to 80 (L/s), the right wall has suitable performance but the left wall has no suitable performance and the left wall of the geometric design creates a secondary and circular flow, and vortex motion in the beginning of the entrance of spillway that creates cross waves at the beginning of spillway. By increasing the flow rate (Q = 100 L/s), at the inlet spillway secondary flows and vortex were removed, but the streamline is severely distorted. Results of the guide wall performances at the Q = 100 (L/s) are shown in Fig. 6.
Also more information about the performance of each guide wall can be derived from Figs. 7 and 8. These figures uphold that the secondary and vortex flows were removed, but the streamlines were fully diverted specifically near the left side guide wall.
As mentioned in the past, these secondary and vortex flows and diversion in streamline cause nonuniformity and create cross wave through the spillway. Figure 9 shows the cross waves at the crest of the spillway.
The performance of guide walls at the Q = 120 (L/s) also was assessed. The result of simulation is shown in Fig. 10. Figures 11 and 12 show a more clear view of the streamlines near to right and left side guide wall, respectively. As seen in Fig. 12, the left side wall still causes vortex flow and creation of and diversion in streamline.
The results of the affected left side guide wall shape on the cross wave creation are shown in Fig. 13. As seen from Fig. 3, the left side guide wall also causes cross wave at the spillway crest.
As can be seen clearly in Figs. 9 and 13, by moving from the left side to the right side of the spillway, the cross waves and the nonuniformity in flow is removed. By reviewing Figs. 9 and 13, it is found that the right side guide wall removes the cross waves and nonuniformity. With this point as aim, a geometry similar to the right side guide wall was considered instead of the left side guide wall. The result of simulation for Q = 120 (L/s) is shown in Fig. 14. As seen from this figure, the proposed geometry for the left side wall has suitable performance smoothly passing the flow through the approach channel and spillway.
More information about the proposed shape for the left guide wall is shown in Fig. 15. As seen from this figure, this shape has suitable performance for removing the cross waves and vortex flows.
Figure 16 shows the cross section of flow at the crest of spillway. As seen in this figure, the proposed shape for the left side guide wall is suitable for removing the cross waves and secondary flows.
Analysis of behavior and hydraulic properties of flow over the spillway dam is a complicated task which is cost and time intensive. Several techniques suitable to the purposes of study have been undertaken in this research. Physical modeling, usage of expert experience, usage of mathematical models on simulation flow in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional techniques, are some of the techniques utilized to study this phenomenon. The results of the modeling show that the CFD technique is a suitable tool for simulating the flow pattern in the guide wall. Using this tools helps the designer for developing the optimal shape for hydraulic structure which the flow pattern through them are important.
Chanson H (2004) 19—Design of weirs and spillways. In: Chanson H (ed) Hydraulics of open channel flow, 2nd edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, pp 391–430ChapterGoogle Scholar
Chatila J, Tabbara M (2004) Computational modeling of flow over an ogee spillway. Comput Struct 82:1805–1812ArticleGoogle Scholar
Das MM, Saikia MD (2009) Irrigation and water power engineering. PHI Learning, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
E, Department Of Army: U.S. Army Corps (2013) Hydraulic Design of Spillways. BiblioBazaar, CharlestonGoogle Scholar
Fattor C, Bacchiega J (2009) Design conditions for morning-glory spillways: application to potrerillos dam spillway. Adv Water Res Hydraul Eng Springer, Berlin, pp 2123–2128Google Scholar
Gessler D (2005) CFD modeling of spillway performance. Impacts Glob Clim Change. doi:10.1061/40792(173)398
Kim D-G (2007) Numerical analysis of free flow past a sluice gate. KSCE J Civ Eng 11:127–132ArticleGoogle Scholar
Kim D, Park J (2005) Analysis of flow structure over ogee-spillway in consideration of scale and roughness effects by using CFD model. KSCE J Civ Eng 9:161–169ArticleGoogle Scholar
Kim S, Yu K, Yoon B, Lim Y (2012) A numerical study on hydraulic characteristics in the ice Harbor-type fishway. KSCE J Civ Eng 16:265–272ArticleGoogle Scholar
Ma X-D, Dai G-Q, Yang Q, Li G-J, Zhao L (2010) Analysis of influence factors of cavity length in the spillway tunnel downstream of middle gate chamber outlet with sudden lateral enlargement and vertical drop aerator. J Hydrodyn Ser B 22:680–686ArticleGoogle Scholar
Milési G, Causse S (2014) 3D numerical modeling of a side-channel spillway. In: Gourbesville P, Cunge J, Caignaert G (eds) Advances in hydroinformatics. Springer, Singapore, pp 487–498ChapterGoogle Scholar
Montagna F, Bellotti G, Di Risio M (2011) 3D numerical modeling of landslide-generated tsunamis around a conical island. Nat Hazards 58:591–608ArticleGoogle Scholar
Novak P, Moffat AIB, Nalluri C, Narayanan R (2007) Hydraulic structures. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
Parsaie A, Haghiabi A (2015a) Computational modeling of pollution transmission in rivers. Appl Water Sci. doi:10.1007/s13201-015-0319-6
Parsaie A, Haghiabi A (2015b) The effect of predicting discharge coefficient by neural network on increasing the numerical modeling accuracy of flow over side weir. Water Res Manag 29:973–985ArticleGoogle Scholar
Parsaie A, Yonesi H, Najafian S (2015) Predictive modeling of discharge in compound open channel by support vector machine technique. Model Earth Syst Environ 1:1–6ArticleGoogle Scholar
Su P-L, Liao H-S, Qiu Y, Li CJ (2009) Experimental study on a new type of aerator in spillway with low Froude number and mild slope flow. J Hydrodyn Ser B 21:415–422ArticleGoogle Scholar
Suprapto M (2013) Increase spillway capacity using Labyrinth Weir. Procedia Eng 54:440–446ArticleGoogle Scholar
Tabbara M, Chatila J, Awwad R (2005) Computational simulation of flow over stepped spillways. Comput Struct 83:2215–2224ArticleGoogle Scholar
Wang J, Chen H (2009) Experimental study of elimination of vortices along guide wall of bank spillway. Adv Water Res Hydraul Eng Springer, Berlin, pp 2059–2063Google Scholar
Wang Y, Jiang C (2010) Investigation of the surface vortex in a spillway tunnel intake. Tsinghua Sci Technol 15:561–565ArticleGoogle Scholar
Zhenwei MU, Zhiyan Z, Tao Z (2012) Numerical simulation of 3-D flow field of spillway based on VOF method. Procedia Eng 28:808–812ArticleGoogle Scholar
This paper presents computational fluid dynamics simulations of the deposition flow during printing of multiple layers in material extrusionadditive manufacturing. The developed model predicts the morphology of the deposited layers and captures the layer deformations during the printing of viscoplastic materials. The physics is governed by the continuity and momentum equations with the Bingham constitutive model, formulated as a generalized Newtonian fluid. The cross-sectional shapes of the deposited layers are predicted, and the deformation of layers is studied for different constitutive parameters of the material. It is shown that the deformation of layers is due to the hydrostatic pressure of the printed material, as well as the extrusion pressure during the extrusion. The simulations show that a higher yield stress results in prints with less deformations, while a higher plastic viscosity leads to larger deformations in the deposited layers. Moreover, the influence of the printing speed, extrusion speed, layer height, and nozzle diameter on the deformation of the printed layers is investigated. Finally, the model provides a conservative estimate of the required increase in yield stress that a viscoplastic material demands after deposition in order to support the hydrostatic and extrusion pressure of the subsequently printed layers.
점성 플라스틱 재료, 재료 압출 적층 제조(MEX-AM), 다층 증착, 전산유체역학(CFD), 변형 제어 Viscoplastic Materials, Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing (MEX-AM), Multiple-Layers Deposition, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Deformation Control
Three-dimensional printing of viscoplastic materials has grown in popularity over the recent years, due to the success of Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing (MEX-AM) . Viscoplastic materials, such as ceramic pastes [2,3], hydrogels , thermosets , and concrete , behave like solids when the applied load is below their yield stress, and like a fluid when the applied load exceeds their yield stress . Viscoplastic materials are typically used in MEX-AM techniques such as Robocasting , and 3D concrete printing [9,10]. The differences between these technologies lie in the processing of the material before the extrusion and in the printing scale (from microscale to big area additive manufacturing). In these extrusion-based technologies, the structure is fabricated in a layer-by-layer approach onto a solid surface/support [11, 12]. During the process, the material is typically deposited on top of the previously printed layers that may be already solidified (wet-on-dry printing) or still deformable (wet-on-wet printing) . In wet-on-wet printing, control over the deformation of layers is important for the stability and geometrical accuracy of the prints. If the material is too liquid after the deposition, it cannot support the pressure of the subsequently deposited layers. On the other hand, the material flowability is a necessity during extrusion through the nozzle. Several experimental studies have been performed to analyze the physics of the extrusion and deposition of viscoplastic materials, as reviewed in Refs. [13–16]. The experimental measurements can be supplemented with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to gain a more complete picture of MEX-AM. A review of the CFD studies within the material processing and deposition in 3D concrete printing was presented by Roussel et al. . Wolfs et al.  predicted numerically the failure-deformation of a cylindrical structure due to the self-weight by calculating the stiffness and strength of the individual layers. It was found that the deformations can take place in all layers, however the most critical deformation occurs in the bottom layer. Comminal et al. [19,20] presented three-dimensional simulations of the material deposition in MEX-AM, where the fluid was approximated as Newtonian. Subsequently, the model was experimentally validated in Ref.  for polymer-based MEX-AM, and extended to simulate the deposition of multiple layers in Ref. , where the previously printed material was assumed solid. Xia et al.  simulated the influence of the viscoelastic effects on the shape of deposited layers in MEX-AM. A numerical model for simulating the deposition of a viscoplastic material was recently presented and experimentally validated in Refs.  and . These studies focused on predicting the cross-sectional shape of a single printed layer for different processing conditions (relative printing speed, and layer height). Despite these research efforts, a limited number of studies have focused on investigating the material deformations in wet-on-wet printing when multiple layers are deposited on top of each other. This paper presents CFD simulations of the extrusion-deposition flow of a viscoplastic material for several subsequent layers (viz. three- and five-layers). The material is continuously printed one layer over another on a fixed solid surface. The rheology of the viscoplastic material is approximated by the Bingham constitutive equation that is formulated using the Generalized Newtonian Fluid (GNF) model. The CFD model is used to predict the cross-sectional shapes of the layers and their deformations while printing the next layers on top. Moreover, the simulations are used to quantify the extrusion pressure applied by the deposited material on the substrate, and the previously printed layers. Numerically, it is investigated how the process parameters (i.e., the extrusion speed, printing speed, nozzle diameter, and layer height) and the material rheology affect the deformations of the deposited layers. Section 2 describes the methodology of the study. Section 3 presents and discusses the results. The study is summarized and concluded in Section 4.
 R.A. Buswell, W.R. Leal De Silva, S.Z. Jones, J. Dirrenberger, 3D printing using concrete extrusion: a roadmap for research, Cem. Concr. Res. 112 (2018) 37–49.  Z. Chen, Z. Li, J. Li, C. Liu, C. Lao, Y. Fu, C. Liu, Y. Li, P. Wang, Y. He, 3D printing of ceramics: a review, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 39 (4) (2019) 661–687.  A. Bellini, L. Shor, S.I. Guceri, New developments in fused deposition modeling of ceramics, Rapid Prototyp. J. 11 (4) (2005) 214–220.  S. Aktas, D.M. Kalyon, B.M. Marín-Santib´ anez, ˜ J. P´erez-Gonzalez, ´ Shear viscosity and wall slip behavior of a viscoplastic hydrogel, J. Rheol. 58 (2) (2014) 513–535.  J. Lindahl, A. Hassen, S. Romberg, B. Hedger, P. Hedger Jr., M. Walch, T. Deluca, W. Morrison, P. Kim, A. Roschli, D. Nuttall, Large-scale Additive Manufacturing with Reactive Polymers, Oak Ridge National Lab.(ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States), 2018.  V.N. Nerella, V. Mechtcherine, Studying the printability of fresh concrete for formwork-free Concrete onsite 3D Printing Technology (CONPrint3D), 3D Concr. Print. Technol. (2019) 333–347.  C. Tiu, J. Guo, P.H.T. Uhlherr, Yielding behaviour of viscoplastic materials, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 12 (5) (2006) 653–662.  B. Dietemann, F. Bosna, M. Lorenz, N. Travitzky, H. Kruggel-Emden, T. Kraft, C. Bierwisch, Modeling robocasting with smoothed particle hydrodynamics: printing gapspanning filaments, Addit. Manuf. 36 (2020), 101488.  B. Khoshnevis, R. Russell, H. Kwon, S. Bukkapatnam, Contour crafting – a layered fabrication, Spec. Issue IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag. 8 (3) (2001) 33–42.  D. Asprone, F. Auricchio, C. Menna, V. Mercuri, 3D printing of reinforced concrete elements: technology and design approach, Constr. Build. Mater. 165 (2018) 218–231.  J. Jiang, Y. Ma, Path planning strategies to optimize accuracy, quality, build time and material use in additive manufacturing: a review, Micromachines 11 (7) (2020) 633.  J. Jiang, A novel fabrication strategy for additive manufacturing processes, J. Clean. Prod. 272 (2020), 122916.  F. Bos, R. Wolfs, Z. Ahmed, T. Salet, Additive manufacturing of concrete in construction: potentials and challenges, Virtual Phys. Prototyp. 11 (3) (2016) 209–225.  P. Wu, J. Wang, X. Wang, A critical review of the use of 3-D printing in the construction industry, Autom. Constr. 68 (2016) 21–31.  T.D. Ngo, A. Kashani, G. Imbalzano, K.T. Nguyen, D. Hui, Additive manufacturing (3D printing): a review of materials, methods, applications and challenges, Compos. Part B: Eng. 143 (2018) 172–196.  M. Valente, A. Sibai, M. Sambucci, Extrusion-based additive manufacturing of concrete products: revolutionizing and remodeling the construction industry, J. Compos. Sci. 3 (3) (2019) 88.  N. Roussel, J. Spangenberg, J. Wallevik, R. Wolfs, Numerical simulations of concrete processing: from standard formative casting to additive manufacturing, Cem. Concr. Res. 135 (2020), 106075.  R.J.M. Wolfs, F.P. Bos, T.A.M. Salet, Early age mechanical behaviour of 3D printed concrete: numerical modelling and experimental testing, Cem. Concr. Res. 106 (2018) 103–116.  R. Comminal, M.P. Serdeczny, D.B. Pedersen, J. Spangenberg, Numerical modeling of the strand deposition flow in extrusion-based additive manufacturing, Addit. Manuf. 20 (2018) 68–76.  R. Comminal, M.P. Serdeczny, D.B. Pedersen, J. Spangenberg, Numerical modeling of the material deposition and contouring precision in fused deposition modeling, in Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, USA, 2018, pp. 1855–1864.  M.P. Serdeczny, R. Comminal, D.B. Pedersen, J. Spangenberg, Experimental validation of a numerical model for the strand shape in material extrusion additive manufacturing, Addit. Manuf. 24 (2018) 145–153.  M.P. Serdeczny, R. Comminal, D.B. Pedersen, J. Spangenberg, Numerical simulations of the mesostructure formation in material extrusion additive manufacturing, Addit. Manuf. 28 (2019) 419–429.  H. Xia, J. Lu, G. Tryggvason, A numerical study of the effect of viscoelastic stresses in fused filament fabrication, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 346 (2019) 242–259.  R. Comminal, W.R.L. da Silva, T.J. Andersen, H. Stang, J. Spangenberg, Influence of processing parameters on the layer geometry in 3D concrete printing: experiments and modelling, in: Proceedings of the Second RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication, vol. 28, 2020, pp. 852–862.  R. Comminal, W.R.L. da Silva, T.J. Andersen, H. Stang, J. Spangenberg, Modelling of 3D concrete printing based on computational fluid dynamics, Cem. Concr. Res. 38 (2020), 106256.  E.C. Bingham, An investigation of the laws of plastic flow, US Bur. Stand. Bull. 13 (1916) 309–352.  N. Casson, A flow equation for pigment-oil suspensions of the printing ink type, Rheol. Disperse Syst. (1959) 84–104.  W.H. Herschel, R. Bulkley, Konsistenzmessungen von Gummi-Benzollosungen, ¨ Kolloid Z. 39 (1926) 291–300.  “FLOW-3D | We solve The World’s Toughest CFD Problems,” FLOW SCIENCE. 〈https://www.flow3d.com/〉. (Accessed 27 June 2020).  S. Jacobsen, R. Cepuritis, Y. Peng, M.R. Geiker, J. Spangenberg, Visualizing and simulating flow conditions in concrete form filling using pigments, Constr. Build. Mater. 49 (2013) 328–342.  E.J. O’Donovan, R.I. Tanner, Numerical study of the Bingham squeeze film problem, J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech. 15 (1) (1984) 75–83.  C.W. Hirt, B.D. Nichols, Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries, J. Comput. Phys. 39 (1) (1981) 201–225.  R. Comminal, J. Spangenberg, J.H. Hattel, Cellwise conservative unsplit advection for the volume of fluid method, J. Comput. Phys. 283 (2015) 582–608.  A. Negar, S. Nazarian, N.A. Meisel, J.P. Duarte, Experimental prediction of material deformation in large-scale additive manufacturing of concrete, Addit. Manuf. 37 (2021), 101656.
측면 분기기(흡입구)의 상류 측에서 흐름 분리는 분기기 입구에서 와류를 일으키는 중요한 문제입니다. 이는 흐름의 유효 폭, 출력 용량 및 효율성을 감소시킵니다. 따라서 분리지대의 크기를 파악하고 크기를 줄이기 위한 방안을 제시하는 것이 필수적이다. 본 연구에서는 분리 구역의 치수를 줄이기 위한 방법으로 7가지 유형의 거칠기 요소를 분기구 입구에 설치하고 4가지 다른 배출(총 84번의 실험을 수행)과 함께 3개의 서로 다른 베드 반전 레벨을 조사했습니다. 또한 3D CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) 모델을 사용하여 분리 영역의 흐름 패턴과 치수를 평가했습니다. 결과는 거칠기 계수를 향상시키면 분리 영역 치수를 최대 38%까지 줄일 수 있는 반면, 드롭 구현 효과는 사용된 거칠기 계수를 기반으로 이 영역을 다르게 축소할 수 있음을 보여주었습니다. 두 가지 방법을 결합하면 분리 영역 치수를 최대 63%까지 줄일 수 있습니다.
Flow separation at the upstream side of lateral turnouts (intakes) is a critical issue causing eddy currents at the turnout entrance. It reduces the effective width of flow, turnout capacity and efficiency. Therefore, it is essential to identify the dimensions of the separation zone and propose remedies to reduce its dimensions. Installation of 7 types of roughening elements at the turnout entrance and 3 different bed invert levels, with 4 different discharges (making a total of 84 experiments) were examined in this study as a method to reduce the dimensions of the separation zone. Additionally, a 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model was utilized to evaluate the flow pattern and dimensions of the separation zone. Results showed that enhancing the roughness coefficient can reduce the separation zone dimensions up to 38% while the drop implementation effect can scale down this area differently based on the roughness coefficient used. Combining both methods can reduce the separation zone dimensions up to 63%.
Turnouts or intakes are amongst the oldest and most widely used hydraulic structures in irrigation networks. Turnouts are also used in water distribution, transmission networks, power generation facilities, and waste water treatment plants etc. The flows that enter a turnout have a strong momentum in the direction of the main waterway and that is why flow separation occurs inside the turnout. The horizontal vortex formed in the separation area is a suitable place for accumulation and deposition of sediments. The separation zone is a vulnerable area for sedimentation and for reduction of effective flow due to a contracted flow region in the lateral channel. Sedimentaion in the entrance of the intake can gradually be transfered into the lateral channel and decrease the capacity of the higher order channels over time (Jalili et al. 2011). On the other hand, the existence of coarse-grained materials causes erosion and destruction of the waterway side walls and bottom. In addition, sedimentation creates conditions for vegetation to take root and damage the waterway cover, which causes water to leak from its perimeter. Therefore, it is important to investigate the pattern of the flow separation area in turnouts and provide solutions to reduce the dimensions of this area.
The three-dimensional flow structure at turnouts is quite complex. In an experimental study by Neary & Odgaard (1993) in a 90-degree water turnout it was found that the secondary currents and separation zone varies from the bed to the water surface. They also found that at a 90-degree water turnout, the bed roughness and discharge ratio play a critical role in flow structure. They asserted that an explanation of sediment behavior at a diversion entrance requires a comprehensive understanding of 3D flow patterns around the lateral-channel entrance. In addition, they suggested that there is a strong similarity between flow in a channel bend and a diversion channel, and that this similarity can rationalize the use of bend flow models for estimation of 3D flow structures in diversion channels.
Some of the distinctive characteristics of dividing flow in a turnout include a zone of separation immediately near the entrance of the lateral turnout (separation zone), a contracted flow region in the branch channel (contracted flow), and a stagnation point near the downstream corner of the junction (stagnation zone). In the region downstream of the junction, along the continuous far wall, separation due to flow expansion may occur (Ramamurthy et al. 2007), that is, a separation zone. This can both reduce the turnout efficiency and the effective width of flow while increasing the sediment deposition in the turnout entrance (Jalili et al. 2011). Installation of submerged vanes in the turnout entrance is a method which is already applied to reduce the size of flow separation zones. The separation zone draws sediments and floating materials into themselves. This reduces effective cross-section area and reduces transmission capacity. These results have also been obtained in past studies, including by Ramamurthy et al. (2007) and in Jalili et al. (2011). Submerged vanes (Iowa vanes) are designed in order to modify the near-bed flow pattern and bed-sediment motion in the transverse direction of the river. The vanes are installed vertically on the channel bed, at an angle of attack which is usually oriented at 10–25 degrees to the local primary flow direction. Vane height is typically 0.2–0.5 times the local water depth during design flow conditions and vane length is 2–3 times its height (Odgaard & Wang 1991). They are vortex-generating devices that generate secondary circulation, thereby redistributing sediment within the channel cross section. Several factors affect the flow separation zone such as the ratio of lateral turnout discharge to main channel discharge, angle of lateral channel with respect to the main channel flow direction and size of applied submerged vanes. Nakato et al. (1990) found that sediment management using submerged vanes in the turnout entrance to Station 3 of the Council Bluffs plant, located on the Missouri River, is applicable and efficient. The results show submerged vanes are an appropriate solution for reduction of sediment deposition in a turnout entrance. The flow was treated as 3D and tests results were obtained for the flow characteristics of dividing flows in a 90-degree sharp-edged, junction. The main and lateral channel were rectangular with the same dimensions (Ramamurthy et al., 2007).
Keshavarzi & Habibi (2005) carried out experiments on intake with angles of 45, 67, 79 and 90 degrees in different discharge ratios and reported the optimum angle for inlet flow with the lowest flow separation area to be about 55 degrees. The predicted flow characteristics were validated using experimental data. The results indicated that the width and length of the separation zone increases with the increase in the discharge ratio Qr (ratio of outflow per unit width in the turnout to inflow per unit width in the main channel).
Abbasi et al. (2004) performed experiments to investigate the dimensions of the flow separation zone at a lateral turnout entrance. They demonstrated that the length and width of the separation zone decreases with the increasing ratio of lateral turn-out discharge. They also found that with a reducing angle of lateral turnout, the length of the separation zone scales up and width of separation zone reduces. Then they compared their observations with results of Kasthuri & Pundarikanthan (1987) who conducted some experiments in an open-channel junction formed by channels of equal width and an angle of lateral 90 degree turnout, which showed the dimensions of the separation zone in their experiments to be smaller than in previous studies. Kasthuri & Pundarikanthan (1987) studied vortex and flow separation dimensions at the entrance of a 90 degree channel. Results showed that increasing the diversion discharge ratio can reduce the length and width of the vortex area. They also showed that the length and width of the vortex area remain constant at diversion ratios greater than 0.7. Karami Moghaddam & Keshavarzi (2007) analyzed the flow characteristics in turnouts with angles of 55 and 90 degrees. They reported that the dimensions of the separation zone decrease by increasing the discharge ratio and reducing the turnout angle with respect to the main channel. Studies about flow separation zone can be found in Jalili et al. (2011), Nikbin & Borghei (2011), Seyedian et al. (2008).
Jamshidi et al. (2016) measured the dimensions of a flow separation zone in the presence of submerged vanes with five arrangements (parallel, stagger, compound, piney and butterflies). Results showed that the ratio of the width to the length of the separation zone (shape index) was between 0.2 and 0.28 for all arrangements.
Karami et al. (2017) developed a 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code which was calibrated by measured data. They used the model to evaluate flow pattern, diversion ratio of discharge, strength of the secondary flow, and dimensions of the vortex inside the channel in various dikes and submerged vane installation scenarios. Results showed that the diversion ratio of discharge in the diversion channel is dependent on the width of the flow separation area in the main channel. A dike, perpendicular to the flow, doubles the ratio of diverted discharge and reduces the suspended sediment load compared with the base-line situation by creating outer arch conditions. In addition, increasing the longitudinal distance between vanes increases the velocity gradient between the vanes and leads to a more severe erosion of the bed near the vanes.Figure 1VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE
Laboratory channel dimensions.
Al-Zubaidy & Hilo (2021) used the Navier–Stokes equation to study the flow of incompressible fluids. Using the CFD software ANSYS Fluent 19.2, 3D flow patterns were simulated at a diversion channel. Their results showed good agreement using the comparison between the experimental and numerical results when the k-omega turbulence viscous model was employed. Simulation of the flow pattern was then done at the lateral channel junction using a variety of geometry designs. These improvements included changing the intake’s inclination angle and chamfering and rounding the inner corner of the intake mouth instead of the sharp edge. Flow parameters at the diversion including velocity streamlines, bed shear stress, and separation zone dimensions were computed in their study. The findings demonstrated that changing the 90° lateral intake geometry can improve the flow pattern and bed shear stress at the intake junction. Consequently, sedimentation and erosion problems are reduced. According to the conclusions of their study, a branching angle of 30° to 45° is the best configuration for increasing branching channel discharge, lowering branching channel sediment concentration.
The review of the literature shows that most of the studies deal with turnout angle, discharge ratio and implementation of vanes as techniques to reduce the area of the separation zone. This study examines the effect of roughness coefficient and drop implementation at the entrance of a 90-degree lateral turnout on the dimensions of the separation zone. As far as the authors are aware, these two variables have never been studied as a remedy to decrease the separation zone dimensions whilst enhancing turnout efficiency. Additionally, a three-dimensional numerical model is applied to simulate the flow pattern around the turnout. The numerical results are verified against experimental data.
The experiments were conducted in a 90 degree dividing flow laboratory channel. The main channel is 15 m long, 0.5 m wide and 0.4 m high and the branch channel is 3 m long, 0.35 m wide and 0.4 m high, as shown in Figure 1. The tests were carried out at 9.65 m from the beginning of the flume and were far enough from the inlet, so we were sure that the flow was fully developed. According to Kirkgöz & Ardiçlioğlu (1997) the length of the developing region would be approximantly 65 and 72 times the flow depth. In this study, the depth is 9 cm, which makes this condition.
Both the main and lateral channel had a slope of 0.0003 with side walls of concrete. A 100 hp pump discharged the water into a stilling basin at the entrance of the main flume. The discharge was measured using an ultrasonic discharge meter around the discharge pipe. Eighty-four experiments in total were carried out at range of 0.1<Fr<0.4 (Froude numbers in main channel and upstream of turnout). The depth of water in the main channel in the experiments was 9 cm, in which case the effect of surface tension can be considered; according to research by Zolghadr & Shafai Bejestan (2020) and Zolghadr et al. (2021), when the water depth is more than 6 cm, the effect of surface tension is reduced and can be ignored given that the separation phenomenon occurs in the boundary layer, the height of the roughness creates disturbances in growth and development of the boundary layer and, as a result, separation growth is also faced with disruption and its dimensions grow less compared to smooth surfaces. Similar conditions occur in case of drop implementation. A disturbance occurs in the growth of the boundary layer and as a result the separation zone dimensions decrease. In order to investigate the effect of roughness coefficient and drop implementation on the separation zone dimensions, four different discharges (16, 18, 21, 23 l/s) in subcritical conditions, seven Manning (Strickler) roughness coefficients (0.009, 0.011, 0.017, 0.023, 0.028, 0.030, 0.032) as shown in Figure 2 and three invert elevation differences between the main channel and lateral turnout invert (0, 5 and 10 cm) at the entrance of the turnout were considered. The Manning roughness coefficient values were selected based on available and feasible values for real conditions, so that 0.009 is equivalent to galvanized sheet roughness and selected for the baseline tests. 0.011 is for concrete with neat surface, 0.017 and 0.023 are for unfinished and gunite concrete respectively. 0.030 and 0.032 values are for concrete on irregular excavated rock (Chow 1959). The roughness coefficients were created by gluing sediment particles on a thin galvanized sheet which was installed at the upstream side of the lateral turnout. The values of roughness coefficients were calculated based on the Manning-Strickler formula. For this purpose, some uniformly graded sediment samples were prepared and the Manning roughness coefficient of each sample was determined with respect to the median size (D50) value pasted into the Manning-Strickler formula. Some KMnO4 was sifted in the main channel upstream to visualize and measure the dimensions of the separation zone. Consequently, when KMnO4 approached the lateral turnout a photo of the separation zone was taken from a top view. All the experiments were recorded and several photos were taken during the experiment after stablishment of steady flow conditions. The photos were then imported to AutoCAD to measure the separation zone dimensions. Because all the shooting was done with a high-definition camera and it was possible to zoom in, the results are very accurate.Figure 2VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE
The velocity values were also recorded by a one-dimensional velocity meter at 15 cm distance from the turnout entrance and in transverse direction (perpendicular to the flow direction).
The water level was also measured by depth gauges with a accuracy of 0.1 mm, and velocity in one direction with a single-dimensional KENEK LP 1100 with an accuracy of ±0.02 m/s (0–1 m/s), ± 0.04 m/s (1–2 m/s), ± 0.08 m/s (2–4 m/s), ±0.10 m/s (4–5 m/s).
ListenA FLOW-3D numerical model was utilized as a solver of the Navier-Stokes equation to simulate the three-dimensional flow field at the entrance of the turnout. The governing equations included continuity momentum equations. The continuity equation, regardless of the density of the fluid in the form of Cartesian coordinates x, y, and z, is as follows:
(1)where u, v, and w represent the velocity components in the x, y, and z directions, respectively; Ax, Ay, and Az are the surface flow fractions in the x, y, and z directions, respectively; VF denotes flow volume fraction; r is the density of the fluid; t is time; and Rsor refers to the source of the mass. Equations (2)–(4) show momentum equations in x, y and z dimensions respectively :
(4)where Gx, Gy, and Gz are the accelerations caused by gravity in the x, y, and z directions, respectively; and fx, fy, and fz are the accelerations caused by viscosity in the x, y, and z directions, respectively.
The turbulence models used in this study were the renormalized group (RNG) models. Evaluation of the concordance of the mentioned models with experimental studies showed that the RNG model provides more accurate results.
Two blocks of mesh were used to simulate the main channels and lateral turnout. The meshes were denser in the vicinity of the entrance of the turnout in order to increase the accuracy of computations. Boundary conditions for the main mesh block included inflow for the channel entrance (volumetric flow rate), outflow for the channel exit, ‘wall’ for the bed and the right boundary and ‘symmetry’ for the top (free surface) and left boundaries (turnout). The side wall roughness coefficient was given to the software as the Manning number in surface roughness of any component. Considering the restrictions in the available processor, a main mesh block with appropriate mesh size was defined to simulate the main flow field in the channel, while the nested mesh-block technique was utilized to create a very dense solution field near the roughness plate in order to provide accurate results around the plates and near the entrance of the lateral turnout. This technique reduced the number of required mesh elements by up to 60% in comparison with the method in which the mesh size of the main solution field was decreased to the required extent.
The numerical outputs are verified against experimental data. The hydraulic characteristics of the experiment are shown in Table 1.Table 1
During the experiments, the dimensions of the separation zone were recorded with an HD camera. Some photos were imported to AutoCad software. Then, the separation zones dimensions were measured and compared in different scenarios.
At the beginning, the flow pattern in the separation zone for four different hydraulic conditions was studied for seven different Manning roughness coefficients from 0.009 to 0.032. To compare the obtained results, roughness of 0.009 was considered as the base line. The percentage of reduction in separation zone area in different roughness coefficients is shown in Figure 3. According to this figure, by increasing the roughness of the turnout side wall, the separation zone area ratio reduces (ratio of separation zone area to turnout area). In other words, in any desired Froud number, the highest dimensions of the separation zone area are related to the lowest roughness coefficients. In Figure 3, ‘A’ is the area of the separation zone and ‘Ai’ represents the total area of the turnout.Figure 3VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE
Effect of roughness on separation zone dimensions.
It should be mentioned that the separation zone dimensions change with depth, so that the area is larger at the surface than near the bed. This study measured the dimensions of this area at the surface. Figure 4 show exactly where the roughness elements were located.Figure 5VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE
Comparison of separation zone for n=0.023 and n=0.032.
Figure 5 shows images of the separation zone at n=0.023 and n=0.032 as examples, and show that the separation area at n=0.032 is smaller than that of n=0.023.
The difference between the effect of the two 0.032 and 0.030 roughnesses is minor. In other words, the dimensions of the separation zone decreased by increasing roughness up to 0.030 and then remained with negligable changes.
In the next step, the effect of intake invert relative to the main stream (drop) on the dimensions of the separation zone was investigated. To do this, three different invert levels were considered: (1) without drop; (2) a 5 cm drop between the main canal and intake canal; and (3) a 10 cm drop between the main canal and intake canal. The without drop mode was considered as the control state. Figure 6 shows the effect of drop implementation on separation zone dimensions. Tables 2 and 3 show the reduced percentage of separation zone areas in 5 and 10 cm drop compared to no drop conditions as the base line. It was found that the best results were obtained when a 10 cm drop was implemented.Table 2
Decrease percentage of separation zone area in 5 cm drop
Decrease percentage of separation zone area in 10 cm drop
Effect of drop implementation on separation zone dimensions.
The combined effect of drop and roughness is shown in Figure 7. According to this figure, by installing a drop structure at the entrance of the intake, the dimensions of the separation zone scales down in any desired roughness coefficient. Results indicated that by increasing the roughness coefficient or drop implementation individually, the separation zone area decreases up to 38 and 25% respectively. However, employing both techniques simultaneously can reduce the separation zone area up to 63% (Table 4). The reason for the reduction of the dimensions of the separation zone area by drop implementation can be attributed to the increase of discharge ratio. This reduces the dimensions of the separation zone area.Table 4
Reduction in percentage of combined effect of roughness and 10 cm drop
Combined effect of roughness and drop on separation zone dimensions.
This method increases the discharge ratio (ratio of turnout to main channel discharge). The results are compatible with the literature. Some other researchers reported that increasing the discharge ratio can scale down the separation zone dimensions (Karami Moghaddam & Keshavarzi 2007; Ramamurthy et al. 2007). However, these researchers employed other methods to enhance the discharge ratio. Drop implementation is simple and applicable in practice, since there is normally an elevation difference between the main and lateral canal in irrigation networks to ensure gravity flow occurance.
Table 4 depicts the decrease in percentage of the separation zone compared to base line conditions in different arrangements of the combined tests.Figure 8VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE
Velocity profiles for various roughness coefficients along turnout width.
A comparison between the proposed methods introduced in this paper and traditional methods such as installation of submerged vanes, and changing the inlet geometry (angle, radius) was performed. Figure 8 shows the comparison of the results. The comparison shows that the new techniques can be highly influential and still practical. In this research, with no change in structural geometry (enhancement of roughness coefficient) or minor changes with respect to drop implementation, the dimensions of the separation zone are decreased noticeably. The velocity values were also recorded by a one-dimensional velocity meter at 15 cm distance from the turnout entrance and in a transverse direction (perpendicular to the flow direction). The results are shown in Figure 9.Figure 9VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE
Effect of roughness on separation zone dimensions in numerical study.
This study examined the flow patterns around the entrance of a diversion channel due to various wall roughnesses in the diversion channel. Results indicated that increasing the discharge ratio in the main channel and diversion channel reduces the area of the separation zone in the diversion channel.Figure 10VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE
Comparision of the vortex area (software output) for three roughnesses (0.009, 0.023 and 0.032).A laboratory and numerical error rate of 0.2605 was calculated from the following formula,
where Uexp is the experimental result, Unum is the numerical result, and N is the number of data.
Figure 9 shows the effect of roughness on separation zone dimensions in numerical study. Figure 10 compares the vortex area (software output) for three roughnesses, 0.009, 0.023 and 0.032 and Figure 11 shows the flow lines (tecplot output) that indicate the effect of roughness on flow in the separation zone. Numerical analysis shows that by increasing the roughness coefficient, the dimensions of the separation zone area decrease, as shown in Figure 10 where the separation zone area at n=0.032 is less than the separation zone area at n=0.009.Figure 11VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE
Comparison of vortex area in 3D mode (tecplot output) with two roughnesses (a) 0.009 and (b) 0.032.Figure 12VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE
Velocity vector for flow condition Q1/422 l/s, near surface.
The velocities intensified moving midway toward the turnout showing that the effective area is scaled down. The velocity values were almost equal to zero near the side walls as expected. As shown in Figure 12 the approach vortex area velocity decreases. Experimental and numerical measured velocity at x=0.15 m of the diversion channel compared in Figure 13 shows that away from the separation zone area, the velocity increases. All longitudinal velocity contours near the vortex area are distinctly different between different roughnesses. The separation zone is larger at less roughness both in length and width.Figure 13VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE
This study introduces practical and feasible methods for enhancing turnout efficiency by reducing the separation zone dimensions. Increasing the roughness coefficient and implementation of inlet drop were considered as remedies for reduction of separation zone dimensions. A data set has been compiled that fully describes the complex, 3D flow conditions present in a 90 degree turnout channel for selected flow conditions. The aim of this numerical model was to compare the results of a laboratory model in the area of the separation zone and velocity. Results showed that enhancing roughness coefficient reduce the separation zone dimensions up to 38% while the drop implementation effect can scale down this area differently based on roughness coefficient used. Combining both methods can reduce the separation zone dimensions up to 63%. Further research is proposed to investigate the effect of roughness and drop implementation on sedimentation pattern at lateral turnouts. The dimensions of the separation zone decreases with the increase of the non-dimensional parameter, due to the reduction ratio of turnout discharge increasing in all the experiments.
This method increases the discharge ratio (ratio of turnout to main channel discharge). The results are compatible with the literature. Other researchers have reported that intensifying the discharge ratio can scale down the separation zone dimensions (Karami Moghaddam & Keshavarzi 2007; Ramamurthy et al. 2007). However, they employed other methods to enhance the discharge ratio. Employing both techniques simultaneously can decrease the separation zone dimensions up to 63%. A comparison between the new methods introduced in this paper and traditional methods such as installation of submerged vanes, and changing the inlet geometry (angle, radius) was performed. The comparison shows that the new techniques can be highly influential and still practical. The numerical and laboratory models are in good agreement and show that the method used in this study has been effective in reducing the separation area. This method is simple, economical and can prevent sediment deposition in the intake canal. Results show that CFD prediction of the fluid through the separation zone at the canal intake can be predicted reasonably well and the RNG model offers the best results in terms of predictability.
This paper presents computational fluid dynamics simulations of the deposition flow during printing of multiple layers in material extrusion additive manufacturing. The developed model predicts the morphology of the deposited layers and captures the layer deformations during the printing of viscoplastic materials. The physics is governed by the continuity and momentum equations with the Bingham constitutive model, formulated as a generalized Newtonian fluid. The cross-sectional shapes of the deposited layers are predicted, and the deformation of layers is studied for different constitutive parameters of the material. It is shown that the deformation of layers is due to the hydrostatic pressure of the printed material, as well as the extrusion pressure during the extrusion. The simulations show that a higher yield stress results in prints with less deformations, while a higher plastic viscosity leads to larger deformations in the deposited layers. Moreover, the influence of the printing speed, extrusion speed, layer height, and nozzle diameter on the deformation of the printed layers is investigated. Finally, the model provides a conservative estimate of the required increase in yield stress that a viscoplastic material demands after deposition in order to support the hydrostatic and extrusion pressure of the subsequently printed layers.
이 논문은 재료 압출 적층 제조에서 여러 레이어를 인쇄하는 동안 증착 흐름의 전산 유체 역학 시뮬레이션을 제공합니다. 개발된 모델은 증착된 레이어의 형태를 예측하고 점소성 재료를 인쇄하는 동안 레이어 변형을 캡처합니다.
물리학은 일반화된 뉴턴 유체로 공식화된 Bingham 구성 모델의 연속성 및 운동량 방정식에 의해 제어됩니다. 증착된 층의 단면 모양이 예측되고 재료의 다양한 구성 매개변수에 대해 층의 변형이 연구됩니다. 층의 변형은 인쇄물의 정수압과 압출시 압출압력으로 인한 것임을 알 수 있다.
시뮬레이션에 따르면 항복 응력이 높을수록 변형이 적은 인쇄물이 생성되는 반면 플라스틱 점도가 높을수록 증착된 레이어에서 변형이 커집니다. 또한 인쇄 속도, 압출 속도, 층 높이 및 노즐 직경이 인쇄된 층의 변형에 미치는 영향을 조사했습니다.
마지막으로, 이 모델은 후속 인쇄된 레이어의 정수압 및 압출 압력을 지원하기 위해 증착 후 점소성 재료가 요구하는 항복 응력의 필요한 증가에 대한 보수적인 추정치를 제공합니다.
이 연구에서는 비드 운동과 유체 흐름에 미치는 영향에 대한 자세한 분석을 제공하기 위해 연속 흐름 마이크로 채널 내부의 비드 자기 영동에 대한 수치 흐름 중심 연구를 보고합니다.
수치 모델은 Lagrangian 접근 방식을 포함하며 영구 자석에 의해 생성 된 자기장의 적용에 의해 혈액에서 비드 분리 및 유동 버퍼로의 수집을 예측합니다.
다음 시나리오가 모델링됩니다. (i) 운동량이 유체에서 점 입자로 처리되는 비드로 전달되는 단방향 커플 링, (ii) 비드가 점 입자로 처리되고 운동량이 다음으로부터 전달되는 양방향 결합 비드를 유체로 또는 그 반대로, (iii) 유체 변위에서 비드 체적의 영향을 고려한 양방향 커플 링.
결과는 세 가지 시나리오에서 비드 궤적에 약간의 차이가 있지만 특히 높은 자기력이 비드에 적용될 때 유동장에 상당한 변화가 있음을 나타냅니다.
따라서 높은 자기력을 사용할 때 비드 운동과 유동장의 체적 효과를 고려한 정확한 전체 유동 중심 모델을 해결해야 합니다. 그럼에도 불구하고 비드가 중간 또는 낮은 자기력을 받을 때 계산적으로 저렴한 모델을 안전하게 사용하여 자기 영동을 모델링 할 수 있습니다.
1.Keshipour, S. & Khalteh, N. K. Oxidation of ethylbenzene to styrene oxide in the presence of cellulose-supported Pd magnetic nanoparticles. Appl. Organometal. Chem.30, 653–656 (2016).CASArticleGoogle Scholar
2.Neamtu, M. et al. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, catalytic application and assessment of toxicity. Sci. Rep.8(1), 6278 (2018).ADSMathSciNetArticleGoogle Scholar
3.Gómez-Pastora, J., Bringas, E. & Ortiz, I. Recent progress and future challenges on the use of high performance magnetic nano-adsorbents in environmental applications. Chem. Eng. J.256, 187–204 (2014).ArticleGoogle Scholar
4.Gómez-Pastora, J., Bringas, E. & Ortiz, I. Design of novel adsorption processes for the removal of arsenic from polluted groundwater employing functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. Chem. Eng. Trans.47, 241–246 (2016).Google Scholar
5.Bagbi, Y., Sarswat, A., Mohan, D., Pandey, A. & Solanki, P. R. Lead and chromium adsorption from water using L-Cysteine functionalized magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. Sci. Rep.7(1), 7672 (2017).ADSArticleGoogle Scholar
6.Gómez-Pastora, J. et al. Review and perspectives on the use of magnetic nanophotocatalysts (MNPCs) in water treatment. Chem. Eng. J.310, 407–427 (2017).ArticleGoogle Scholar
7.Lee, H. Y. et al. A selective fluoroionophore based on BODIPY-functionalized magnetic silica nanoparticles: removal of Pb2+ from human blood. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.48, 1239–1243 (2009).CASArticleGoogle Scholar
8.Buzea, C., Pacheco, I. I. & Robbie, K. Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: sources and toxicity. Biointerphases2, MR17–MR71 (2007).ArticleGoogle Scholar
9.Roux, S. et al. Multifunctional nanoparticles: from the detection of biomolecules to the therapy. Int. J. Nanotechnol.7, 781–801 (2010).ADSCASArticleGoogle Scholar
10.Gómez-Pastora, J., Bringas, E., Lázaro-Díez, M., Ramos-Vivas, J. & Ortiz, I. In Drug Delivery Systems (Stroeve, P. & Mahmoudi, M. ed) 207–244 (World Scientific, 2017).
11.Selmi, M., Gazzah, M. H. & Belmabrouk, H. Optimization of microfluidic biosensor efficiency by means of fluid flow engineering. Sci. Rep.7(1), 5721 (2017).ADSArticleGoogle Scholar
12.Gómez-Pastora, J., González-Fernández, C., Fallanza, M., Bringas, E. & Ortiz, I. Flow patterns and mass transfer performance of miscible liquid-liquid flows in various microchannels: Numerical and experimental studies. Chem. Eng. J.344, 487–497 (2018).ArticleGoogle Scholar
14.Alorabi, A. Q. et al. On-chip polyelectrolyte coating onto magnetic droplets – towards continuous flow assembly of drug delivery capsules. Lab Chip17, 3785–3795 (2017).CASArticleGoogle Scholar
15.Gómez-Pastora, J. et al. Analysis of separators for magnetic beads recovery: from large systems to multifunctional microdevices. Sep. Purif. Technol.172, 16–31 (2017).ArticleGoogle Scholar
16.Tarn, M. D. & Pamme, N. On-chip magnetic particle-based immunoassays using multilaminar flow for clinical diagnosis. Methods Mol. Biol.1547, 69–83 (2017).CASArticleGoogle Scholar
17.Lv, C. et al. Integrated optofluidic-microfluidic twin channels: toward diverse application of lab-on-a-chip systems. Sci. Rep.6, 19801 (2016).ADSCASArticleGoogle Scholar
18.Gómez-Pastora, J. et al. Magnetic bead separation from flowing blood in a two-phase continuous-flow magnetophoretic microdevice: theoretical analysis through computational fluid dynamics simulation. J. Phys. Chem. C121, 7466–7477 (2017).ArticleGoogle Scholar
20.Khashan, S. A. & Furlani, E. P. Effects of particle–fluid coupling on particle transport and capture in a magnetophoretic microsystem. Microfluid. Nanofluid.12, 565–580 (2012).ArticleGoogle Scholar
21.Modak, N., Datta, A. & Ganguly, R. Cell separation in a microfluidic channel using magnetic microspheres. Microfluid. Nanofluid.6, 647–660 (2009).CASArticleGoogle Scholar
22.Furlani, E. P., Sahoo, Y., Ng, K. C., Wortman, J. C. & Monk, T. E. A model for predicting magnetic particle capture in a microfluidic bioseparator. Biomed. Microdevices9, 451–463 (2007).CASArticleGoogle Scholar
23.Furlani, E. P. & Sahoo, Y. Analytical model for the magnetic field and force in a magnetophoretic microsystem. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.39, 1724–1732 (2006).ADSCASArticleGoogle Scholar
24.Tarn, M. D. et al. The importance of particle type selection and temperature control for on-chip free-flow magnetophoresis. J. Magn. Magn. Mater.321, 4115–4122 (2009).ADSCASArticleGoogle Scholar
25.Fonnum, G., Johansson, C., Molteberg, A., Morup, S. & Aksnes, E. Characterisation of Dynabeads® by magnetization measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy. J. Magn. Magn. Mater.293, 41–47 (2005).ADSCASArticleGoogle Scholar
26.Xue, W., Moore, L. R., Nakano, N., Chalmers, J. J. & Zborowski, M. Single cell magnetometry by magnetophoresis vs. bulk cell suspension magnetometry by SQUID-MPMS – A comparison. J. Magn. Magn. Mater.474, 152–160 (2019).ADSCASArticleGoogle Scholar
27.Moore, L. R. et al. Continuous, intrinsic magnetic depletion of erythrocytes from whole blood with a quadrupole magnet and annular flow channel; pilot scale study. Biotechnol. Bioeng.115, 1521–1530 (2018).CASArticleGoogle Scholar
28.Furlani, E. P. & Xue, X. Field, force and transport analysis for magnetic particle-based gene delivery. Microfluid Nanofluid.13, 589–602 (2012).CASArticleGoogle Scholar
29.Furlani, E. P. & Xue, X. A model for predicting field-directed particle transport in the magnetofection process. Pharm. Res.29, 1366–1379 (2012).CASArticleGoogle Scholar
30.Furlani, E. P. Permanent Magnet and Electromechanical Devices; Materials, Analysis and Applications, (Academic Press, 2001).
31.Balachandar, S. & Eaton, J. K. Turbulent dispersed multiphase flow. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.42, 111–133 (2010).ADSArticleGoogle Scholar
32.Wakaba, L. & Balachandar, S. On the added mass force at finite Reynolds and acceleration number. Theor. Comput. Fluid. Dyn.21, 147–153 (2007).ArticleGoogle Scholar
33.White, F. M. Viscous Fluid Flow, (McGraw-Hill, 1974).
34.Rietema, K. & Van Den Akker, H. E. A. On the momentum equations in dispersed two-phase systems. Int. J. Multiphase Flow9, 21–36 (1983).ArticleGoogle Scholar
35.Furlani, E. P. & Ng, K. C. Analytical model of magnetic nanoparticle transport and capture in the microvasculature. Phys. Rev. E73, 1–10 (2006).ArticleGoogle Scholar
36.Eibl, R., Eibl, D., Pörtner, R., Catapano, G. & Czermak, P. Cell and Tissue Reaction Engineering, (Springer, 2009).
37.Gómez-Pastora, J. et al. Computational modeling and fluorescence microscopy characterization of a two-phase magnetophoretic microsystem for continuous-flow blood detoxification. Lab Chip18, 1593–1606 (2018).ArticleGoogle Scholar
38.Khashan, S. A. & Furlani, E. P. Scalability analysis of magnetic bead separation in a microchannel with an array of soft magnetic elements in a uniform magnetic field. Sep. Purif. Technol.125, 311–318 (2014).CASArticleGoogle Scholar
39.Hirt, C. W. & Sicilian, J. M. A porosity technique for the definition of obstacles in rectangular cell meshes. Proc. Fourth International Conf. Ship Hydro., National Academic of Science, Washington, DC., (1985).
40.Crank, J. Free and Moving Boundary Problems, (Oxford University Press, 1984).
41.Bruus, H. Theoretical Microfluidics, (Oxford University Press, 2008).
42.Liang, L. & Xuan, X. Diamagnetic particle focusing using ferromicrofluidics with a single magnet. Microfluid. Nanofluid.13, 637–643 (2012).
Edward P. Furlani is deceased.
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, ETSIIT, University of Cantabria, Avda. Los Castros s/n, 39005, Santander, SpainJenifer Gómez-Pastora, Eugenio Bringas & Inmaculada Ortiz
Flow Science, Inc, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 87505, USAIoannis H. Karampelas
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, New York, 14260, USAEdward P. Furlani
Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, New York, 14260, USAEdward P. Furlani
응고 모델은 열전달이 활성화되고(Physics → Heat Transfer → Fluid internal energy advection) 유체비열(Fluids → Fluid 1 → Thermal Properties → Specific heat)과 전도도(Fluids → Fluid 1 → Thermal Properties → Thermal Conductivity) 이 지정될 때 사용될 수 있다. 단지 유체 1만 상 변화를 겪을 수 있다.
응고모델을 활성화하기 위해 Fluids → Fluid 1 → Solidification Model 을 체크하고 물성 Fluids → Fluid 1 → Solidification Model 가지에서 Liquidus temperature, Solidus temperature, 그리고 Latent heat of fusion 를 지정한다. 가장 간단한 모델(Latent Heat Release Definition 에 펼쳐지는 메뉴에서 Linearly with constant 를 선택)에서, 잠열은 물체가 Liquidus 에서 Solidus 온도로 냉각될 때 선형적으로 방출된다. 고상에서의 상변화열을 포함하는, 잠열 방출의 더 자세한 모델을 위해 온도의 함수로 잠열방출을 정의하기 위해 Specific energy vs. temperature 또는 Solid fraction vs. temperature 선택을 사용한다. 이 지정에 대한 더 자세한 내용은 이론 매뉴얼의 Heat of Transformation 를 참조한다.
응고는 유체의 강직성 및 유동저항을 뜻한다. 이 강직성은 두 가지로 모델링 된다. 낮은 고상율에 대해 즉 Fluids → Fluid 1 → Solidification Model → Solidified Fluid 1 Properties → Coherent Solid Fraction 의 coherency 점 밑에서는 점도는 고상율의 함수이다. 간섭 고상율보다 큰 고상율에 대해서는 고상율의 함수에 비례하는 항력계수를 갖는 Darcy 형태의 항력이 이용된다. 이 항력은 모멘텀 방정식에 (bx,by,bz) 로써 추가된다- Momentum Equations 를 보라. 이 항력의 계산은 Solidification Drag Model 에서 기술된다. 항력계수는 사용자가 유동저항에 양을 조절할 수 있는 Coefficient of Solidification Drag 인자를 포함한다. 항력계수는 FLOW-3D 출력에서 기록된 속도에 상응하는 지역 상 평균 속도에 의해 곱해진다.
Fluid 1 Properties)을 지나면 항력은 무한대가 되고 계산격자 관련하여 유동이 있을 수 없다(단 예외로 Moving Solid Phase를 참조).
모든 유체가 완전히 응고하면 모사를 정지시키기 위해 General → Finish condition → Solidified fluid fraction 를 이용한다. General → Finish condition → Finish fraction 은 모사를 중지하기 위한 고상율 값을 정한다.
주조 시 mushy zone 은 액상과 고상이 혼합물로 존재하는 지역이다. 이 지역 혼합점도는 동축의 수지상 조직(과냉각된 액체 안에서 방사상으로 자라는 결정으로 된 구조) 이 액체 안에서 자유롭게 부유할 때 영향을 미친다.
일단 수지상 조직의 간섭성이 발생하여 고정된 고상 망이 형성되면 액상이 고정된 다공 수지상 구조를 통과해야 하므로 추가의 유동손실이 발생한다. 다른 방법으로는 간섭점을 지난 액/고상 혼합물은 다공물질을 통한 유동 대신에 고점도의 유체로 간주될 수 있다. 점성유체로 간주하는 접근은 예를 들면 연속 이중 롤 주조 과정같이 고상이 계속 이동 및 변형할 때 유용하다.
Solidification Drag Models in FLOW-3D, FLOW-3D 내 응고 항력모델
응고에 의한 항력계수를 정의하기 위해 사용자는 우선 열전달 및 응고모델을 활성화 해야 한다. 이들은 Model Setup → Physics 탭 에서 활성화될 수 있다. 수축모델 또한 응고모델 창에서 활성화될 수 있다.
일단 Solidification 모델이 활성화되면 항력의 공식이 지정될 필요가 있다. Solidification대화의 밑 좌측 모퉁이에서 Porous media drag-based 와 Viscosity-based 의 항력공식 중의 선택을 한다.
Viscosity-based 공식은 점성 유체로 취급하며 Viscosity 영역 내Flow model for solidified metal 입력 밑에서 지정되는 순수 고상 점성을 갖는 고상화된 유체로 간주된다. 이 접근법은 경직성의 항력모델(즉, 응고 금속이 롤러 사이로 압착될 때)을 사용할 수 없는 경우의 모사에 이용된다. 이 점성은 고상율에 따라 선형으로 변한다.고상율이0일 때 점도는 유체1의 점도이다.고상율이1이면 점도는 Solidification 패널에서 지정된 값과 같다.
Porous media drag-based 공식은 응고상태를 결정하기 위해 고상율을 사용한다. 고상율이 Critical Solid Fraction 이거나 초과하면 이때 항력은 무한대가 된다-즉, 액상/고상 혼합물은 고체같이 거동한다. 고상율이 Coherent Solid Fraction 보다 작으면 항력은 0이다. 이 두 값 사이에서 유동은 mushy 지역에 있고 이를 통한 유동은 마치 다공질 내에서의 유동같이 처리된다. 또한 모델은 고상율이 Coherent Solid Fraction 보다 작을 때 자동적으로 용융 금속의 점도를 조절한다. 이 상태에서 고상결정은 점도를 올리지만 결합하지는 않는다(즉, 간섭 없음). 일단 유체가 Coherent Solid Fraction 에 도달하면 항력방정식이 고려되고 점도는 간섭성에 도달하기 전의 값으로 일정하게 된다. 임계 및 간섭 고상율은 사용자가 정의하며 논문이나 책 등에서 찾을 수 있다. 이 식에서는 Coefficient of Solidification Drag 가 정의되어야 한다. 이는 Solidification 창 또는 Fluid 1 → Solidification Model→Solidified Fluid 1 Properties tree → Other 트리를열어 Model Setup →Fluids 탭에서 될 수 있다.
How to Calculate Permeability 투과성 계산법
밑에 주어진 Darcy법칙은 수지상 구조를 위한 다공매질내의 수학적 유동기술이다.[Poi87].
여기서 u 는 수지상 구조 내 유동의 속도이고 ∇P 는 지역 압력구배, 그리고 K 는 mushy 구역의 특정 투수성이다. 이 방정식은 단지 유동이 거의 정상 상태이고, 관성효과가 없으며 유체의 체적율이 일정하고 균일하며 액체-액체의 상호작용 힘이 없을 때 유효하다. 투수성을 정의하는데 이용될 수 있는 대 여섯 개의 모델이 있으나 FLOW-3D 는 밑에 보여주는 Blake-Kozeny 을 이용한다. 다른 모델들은 코드와 함께 제공되는 소스코드를 사용자 사양에 맞게 수정하여 추가할 수 있다.
C2 는 전형적으로 와 같은 비틀림
fs 는 고상율이고
λ1는 유동을 위한 특정 치수
이 응용에서 수지상 가지 간격(DAS)이 이용된다.
식 (11.19) 을 식(11.20) 에 적용하면 투수성을 위한 다음 식을 얻는다.
수지상 가지 간격(DAS)에 대한 일반적인 값들은 밑에 주어져 있다.
Range of Cooling Rates in Solidification Processes¶
COOLING RATE, K/s
DENDRITE ARM SPACING,
5000 to 200
small castings, continuous castings, die castings, strip castings, coarse powder atomization
200 to 5
fine powder atomization, melt spinning, spray deposition, electron beam or laser surface melting
5 to 0.05
Range of cooling rates in solidification processes [CF85]
How FLOW-3D Defines the Coefficient of Solidification Drag FLOW-3D 가 응고 항력계수를 결정하는법
FLOW-3D 는 액고상 변화를 모델링하기 위해 다공매질항력을 이용한다. 항력은 고상율의 함수이다. 사용자에게 두 수축모델이 이용 가능하다; 급속 수축 모델 과 완전 유동모델. 급속 수축 모델은 상변화와 연관된 체적변화를 고려하지 않으며 유체는 정지해 있다고 가정한다. 완전 유동모델은 상변화가 관련된 체적변화를 고려한다. 항력은 투수성에 역으로 비례하므로 다음과 같이 표현될 수 있다.
여기서, Fd 는 FLOW-3D 에서 사용된 항력계수이다. 이 항력계수는 지역 속도에 의해 곱해지고 모멘텀 방정식의 오른쪽에서 차감된다 (Momentum Equations 참조). 식 (11.22) 를 재정리하고 식 (11.21) 로부터의 투수성에 치환하면 다음을 얻는다.
Macro-Segregation during Alloy Solidification 합금응고시 거시적 편절
편절 모델은 대류와 확산에 의한 용질 이동에 따른 이원합금 요소에서의 변화를 모델링 하도록 되어 있다. 이 모델링은 Physics → Solidification 로 부터 될 수 있다.
Activate binary alloy segregation model 을 체크하고 편절 모델을 활성화한다.
여러 온도에서 평형에 있는2원합금 요소농도를 정의하는 상태도는 직선의 고상선 및 액상선을 가진다고 가정된다. 상태도는 입력데이터에 의해 구성되고 전처리 그림파일 prpplt 에 포함된다. Analyze → Existing 에서 이용 가능하다
Macro-Segregation Model (under Fluids → Fluid 1 → Solidification Model)에 관련된 일부 유체물성 트리가 밑에 보여진다. 상태도는 Reference Solute Concentration 에서의 the Solidus 와 Liquidus Temperatures 값들에 의해 정의된다. 추가로 Concentration Variables 밑의 Partition coefficient 도 정의되어야 한다. 그렇지 않으면 Pure Solvent Melting Temperature 가 정의될 수 있다. Partition coefficient 와 Pure Solvent Melting Temperature 둘 다가 지정되면 용매 용융 온도는 상태도로부터 재 정의된다.
Eutectic Temperature 또는 Eutectic Concentration 는 융해작용을 정의하기 위해 지정될 수 있다. 또 이 두 변수가 다 지정되면 Eutectic Concentration 은 상태도에서 재 정의된다.
Diffusion Coefficients 는 고상과 액상 사이의 용질의 확산계수 비율을 정의한다. 액체 내의 용질의 분자 확산계수는 Physics → Solidification 에서 specifying Solute diffusion coefficient 를 지정함으로써 정해진다. RMSEG 는 용질의 난류 확산계수 승수를 정의한다; 이는 입력파일에서 직접 지정된다.
용질 재 분배에 의한 농도변화가 중요하면 Physics → Density evaluation → Density evaluated as a function of other quantities를 정하고 용질농도의 선형함수로써 금속농도를 정의하기 위해 Fluids → Segregation model 밑의 Solutal Expansion Coefficient 를 용질 확장계수로 지정한다. 이 경우 Reference Solute Concentration 이 기준농도로 사용될 것이다. 추가로 Fluids → Fluid 1 → Density Properties → Volumetric Thermal Expansion 은 액체 내 열부력 효과를 참작하기 위해 지정될 수 있다(또한 Buoyant Flow참조).
초기 용질농도는 Meshing & Geometry → Initial → Global → Uniform alloy solute concentration 에서 지정될 수 있다. 불 균일한 초기 분포는 Alloy solute concentration 밑의 초기유체 구역 안에서 정의될 수 있다. 추가로 농도는 Initial Conditions: Region Values 에서 기술된 바와 같이 2차함수를 사용하는 부분을 편집하여 공간상의2차함수로 변화할 수 있다. 압력과속도 경계에서 용질 경계조건을 정하기 위해 Boundaries → Boundary face → Solute concentration 를 이용한다.
액상 및 고상 구성은 후처리에서 데이터 변환을 이용하여 그려질 수 있다. 용융 응고금속은 금속 내 용융의 질량 분율을 저장하는 SLDEUT 를 그림으로써 가시화될 수 있다.
액상 내 열구배가 크면 Physics → Heat Transfer → Second order monotonicity preserving 를 지정함으로써 더 나은 정확성을 위해 고차원 이류법을 사용한다.
mushy 지역에서의 유동손실은 수지상 가지 간격(DAS)의 함수인 Fluids → Fluid 1 → Solidification Model → Solidified Fluid 1 Properties → Coefficient of Solidification Drag 에 의해 조절된다. 후자는 이 모델에 의해 계산되지 않으므로 사용자는 Coefficient of Solidification Drag 를 지정해야 한다
표준 응고모델 과는 달리 상태도상의 용융점을 지나 고상선을 외삽하여 정의되므로 여기서 응고선의 값은 음수일 수 있다.