The making of resin-bonded sand castings has made great strides in quality over its long history. Even so, there remain some process-related defects that are not fully understood and can cause quality issues. For instance, chemical binders in the sand can produce gas when heated by the molten metal and if not vented adequately, the gas may flow into the metal resulting in a gas porosity defect. This is most likely with cores that form thin interior features of castings that heat up quickly and have long venting paths.

The core gas model in FLOW-3D1 is designed to predict the possibility of such gas defects and is intended to help design core venting that would evacuate safely all the binder product gas
from the cores.
Two major types of binders are used in core making practice: resin-based organic binders and inorganic binders such as sodium silicate [1]. The organic binders are either thermosetting, or cured at room temperature with an aid of a catalyst. These are favored in many applications due to their complete degradation even at aluminum casting temperatures and for the ease of subsequent sand shake out. The core gas model is developed with these binders in mind, but can be extended to inorganic binders if appropriate data on their decomposition is available.