Numerical simulation on molten pool behavior of narrow gap gas tungsten arc welding

Numerical simulation on molten pool behavior of narrow gap gas tungsten arc welding

The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (2023)Cite this article


As a highly efficient thick plate welding resolution, narrow gap gas tungsten arc welding (NG-GTAW) is in the face of a series of problems like inter-layer defects like pores, lack of fusion, inclusion of impurity, and the sensitivity to poor sidewall fusion, which is hard to be repaired after the welding process. This study employs numerical simulation to investigate the molten pool behavior in NG-GTAW root welding. A 3D numerical model was established, where a body-fitted coordinate system was applied to simulate the electromagnetic force, and a bridge transition model was developed to investigate the wire–feed root welding. The simulated results were validated experimentally. Results show that the molten pool behavior is dominated by electromagnetic force when the welding current is relatively high, and the dynamic change of the vortex actually determines the molten pool morphology. For self-fusion welding, there are two symmetric inward vortices in the cross-section and one clockwise vortex in the longitudinal section. With the increasing welding current, the vortices in the cross-section gradually move to the arc center with a decreasing range, while the vortex in the longitudinal section moves backward. With the increasing traveling speed, the vortices in the cross-section move toward the surface of the molten pool with a decreasing range, and the horizontal component of liquid metal velocity changes in the longitudinal section. For wire–feed welding, the filling metal strengthens the downward velocity component; as a result, the vortex formation is blocked in the cross-section and is strengthened in the longitudinal section.

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